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1.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 26: e3091, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-978606

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the impact of an educational and motivational intervention for patients with a chronic kidney disease, undergoing hemodialysis treatment, on the control of fluid intake during interdialytic periods. Method: a quasi-experimental, non-randomized clinical trial with patients from a Nephrological Unit of the State of São Paulo. Participants were included in two groups: Control Group with 106 patients and Intervention Group with 86 patients, totaling 192 participants. The used intervention was an educational and motivational video to control liquid intake, based on the Bandura's Theory. The measure of control of water intake was the percentage of lost weight, also considered the variable outcome of the research. For the data analysis, descriptive analyses and regression analysis of the Inflated Beta Model were used. Results: patients who participated in the intervention had a decrease in the pattern of weight gain in interdialytic periods, with a 3.54 times more chance of reaching the goal of 100% of weight loss when compared to participants from the control group. Conclusion: the educational and motivational intervention was effective in reducing the percentage of weight loss in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBEC) under the opinion RBR-4XYTP6.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar o impacto de uma intervenção educativa e motivacional para pacientes com doença renal crônica em tratamento hemodialítico, no controle do consumo de líquidos, nos períodos interdialíticos. Método: estudo quase experimental do tipo ensaio clínico não randomizado, com pacientes de uma Unidade Nefrológica no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Os participantes foram inseridos em dois grupos: Grupo Controle com 106 pacientes e Grupo Intervenção com 86 pacientes, totalizando 192 participantes do estudo. A intervenção utilizada tratou-se de um vídeo educativo e motivacional para controle do consumo de líquidos, baseado na Teoria de Bandura. A medida de controle da ingestão hídrica foi o percentual de peso perdido, também considerado a variável desfecho da pesquisa. Para a análise dos dados foram utilizadas análises descritivas e análise de regressão do Modelo Beta Inflacionado. Resultados: os pacientes que participaram da intervenção apresentaram diminuição no padrão de ganho de peso nos períodos interdialíticos, com 3,54 vezes mais chance de atingir a meta de 100% de perda de peso, comparados aos participantes do grupo controle. Conclusão: a intervenção educativa e motivacional mostrou-se efetiva na diminuição do porcentual de perda de peso dos pacientes em hemodiálise. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (ReBEC), sob o parecer RBR-4XYTP6.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar el impacto de una intervención educativa y motivacional para pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica en tratamiento hemodialítico, en el control del consumo de líquidos, en los periodos interdialíticos. Método: estudio casi experimental del tipo ensayo clínico no aleatorio, con pacientes de una Unidad Nefrológica en el interior del Estado de São Paulo. Los participantes fueron inseridos en dos grupos: Grupo Control con 106 pacientes y Grupo Intervención con 86 pacientes, totalizando 192 participantes del estudio. La intervención utilizada se trató de un video educativo y motivacional para el control del consumo de líquidos, basado en la Teoría de Bandura. La medida de control de la ingestión hídrica fue el porcentaje de peso perdido, también considerado la variable de resultado de la investigación. Para el análisis de los datos fueron utilizados análisis descriptivos y análisis de regresión del Modelo Beta aumentado. Resultados: los pacientes que participaron de la intervención presentaron disminución en el patrón de ganancia de peso en los periodos interdialíticos, con 3,54 veces más chances de alcanzar la meta de 100% de pérdida de peso, comparados a los participantes del grupo de control. Conclusión: la intervención educativa y motivacional se mostró efectiva en la disminución del porcentaje de pérdida de peso de los pacientes en hemodiálisis. Registro Brasileño de Ensayos Clínicos (ReBEC), bajo el dictamen RBR-4XYTP6.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Renal Dialysis/methods , Drinking/physiology , Fluid Therapy/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/prevention & control , Health Education , Regression Analysis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology
2.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2016; 09 (19): 1
in English | IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) | ID: emr-187359

ABSTRACT

In recent time, dengue fever has recorded a substantial rise in Yemen. A total of 9,818 suspected cases of dengue fever have been reported in the country between January to April representing a rise of more than 38% when compared to the same corresponding period in 2015. A total of 25 related deaths have also been reported during the same period


Subject(s)
Humans , Drinking/physiology , Water Supply/standards , Dengue Virus
3.
Clinics ; 70(1): 41-45, 1/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-735865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe and correlate tongue force and grip strength measures and to verify the association of these measures with water swallowing in different age groups. METHOD: Tongue force was evaluated using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and grip strength using the Hand Grip in 90 normal individuals, who were divided into three groups: young (18-39 years old), adult (40-59 years old) and elderly (above 60 years old) individuals. The time and number of swallows required for the continuous ingestion of 200 ml of water were also measured. RESULTS: A reduction in tongue force and grip strength, as well as an increase in the time required to drink 200 ml of water, were observed with increasing participant age. There was no difference in the number of swallows among the three groups. A correlation was observed between reductions in tongue force and grip strength in the groups of young and elderly individuals. CONCLUSION: There were differences in the measures of tongue force in young, adult and elderly individuals. Greater variations within these differences were observed when repeated movements were performed; in addition, a decrease in strength was associated with an increase in age. The decrease in tongue force among the elderly was offset by the increase in time needed to swallow the liquid. There was an association between the measures of tongue force and grip strength in the different age groups. The results of this study can be applied clinically and may act as a basis for guidelines in healthy or vulnerable elderly populations. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Deglutition/physiology , Hand Strength/physiology , Tongue/physiology , Age Factors , Drinking/physiology , Muscle Strength/physiology , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
4.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 85(3): 371-385, jul.-set. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-687738

ABSTRACT

La litiasis del tracto urinario es una condición que, por lo general, se asocia a alteraciones metabólicas como hipercalciuria, hipocitraturia, hiperfosfaturia, hiperuricosuria, hiperoxaluria, cistinuria y defecto de acidificación urinaria, pero su etiología es multifactorial, e intervienen en su formación la predisposición genética y los factores ambientales, entre los que la dieta y la baja ingestión de líquidos contribuyen a la formación de los cálculos. En niños y adolescentes las causas genéticas y anatómicas son las principales. La hipercalciuria idiopática es la causa más frecuente en estos grupos etarios, aunque, como en el adulto, los factores ambientales (ingestión dietética de sal, proteínas, calcio y otros nutrientes) pueden ganar importancia para su incremento. Entre los factores locales de la orina que favorecen la formación del cálculo se encuentran, la disminución del volumen urinario, el pH urinario bajo, la tendencia al estancamiento y las infecciones. En esta revisión se analizan brevemente las distintas causas que pueden producir litiasis, valorando la importancia de la ingestión adecuada de líquidos en general, las modificaciones dietéticas que deben realizarse en cada tipo de enfermedad litiásica, las diferentes medidas terapéuticas que deben utilizarse en el cólico nefrítico producido por litiasis, en los casos asintomáticos con litiasis demostrada y en los casos en que la litiasis pueda provocar obstrucción al flujo urinario


Urinary tract litiasis is a condition that is generally associated to metabolic impairments such as hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperphosphaturia, hyperuricosuria, hyperoxaluria, cystinuria and urinary acidification defect. However the true etiology of the disease is multifactoral and its formation involves genetic predisposition and environmental factors among which diet and low fluid intake contribute to the formation of calculi. The genetic and anatomic causes are the main factors in children and adolescents. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is the most frequent cause in these age groups, although as it occurs in the adult, the environmental factors (diet salt, protein, calcium and other nutrient intake) may be important for the disease. Among the local factors of the urine that may favor the formation of calculi are low urinary volume, low urinary pH, urinary retention and infections. This review briefly analyzed the various causes of lithiasis and assessed the importance of adequate fluid intake, the changes in diet that can be made according to the type of lithiasis, the different therapeutic actions that should be taken in case of lithiasis-caused renal colic, asymptomatic cases with proven lithiasis and in those cases in which lithiasis may obstruct urinary flow


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Kidney Calculi , Kidney Calculi , Drinking Behavior/physiology , Drinking/physiology , Urolithiasis/genetics , Urolithiasis/urine
6.
J. Soc. Bras. Fonoaudiol ; 24(4): 401-408, 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-660601

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Realizar revisão integrativa de estudos sobre deglutição sequencial de líquidos, caracterizando o método e os principais achados em adultos e idosos. ESTRATÉGIA DE PESQUISA: Foi realizado levantamento na literatura internacional, publicada nos idiomas Inglês ou Português, utilizando-se base de dados PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, dos últimos 20 anos, cujos artigos estavam disponíveis na íntegra. Foram utilizadas as seguintes palavras, em combinações variadas: deglutição sequencial, deglutição, disfagia, copo e canudo. CRITÉRIOS DE SELEÇÃO: Foram incluídos artigos de pesquisa com abordagem metodológica referente à caracterização da deglutição sequencial de líquidos em sujeitos adultos e/ou idosos, independentemente de patologia envolvida. Excluíram-se os estudos que englobavam apenas a fase esofágica. ANÁLISE DOS DADOS: Foram considerados indicadores da pesquisa: objetivos, número e gênero dos participantes; faixa etária; quantidade de líquido ofertado; instrução para ingesta; utensílio e métodos utilizados; principais resultados. RESULTADOS: Dezoito estudos contemplaram os critérios propostos. Os artigos foram tabulados quanto à caracterização da amostra e à metodologia (volume ofertado, utensílio utilizado e tipos de exames). A maioria dos artigos envolveu apenas indivíduos saudáveis e sem queixas de deglutição. Houve diferentes tipos de instrução para deglutir todo o volume: maneira habitual; continuamente; o mais rápido possível. Os achados referentes às caracterizações da deglutição sequencial foram variados e descritos de acordo com objetivos de cada estudo. CONCLUSÃO: Constata-se grande variabilidade na metodologia empregada para caracterização da deglutição sequencial. Alguns achados não são comparáveis entre si, sendo que a deglutição sequencial ainda não faz parte da maioria dos protocolos de avaliação da deglutição. Não há consenso sobre a influência do utensílio.


PURPOSE: To perform an integrative review of studies on liquid sequential swallowing, by characterizing the methodology of the studies and the most important findings in young and elderly adults. RESEARCH STRATEGY: Review of the literature written in English and Portuguese on PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and MEDLINE databases, within the past twenty years, available fully, using the following uniterms: sequential swallowing, swallowing, dysphagia, cup, straw, in various combinations. SELECTION CRITERIA: Research articles with a methodological approach on the characterization of liquid sequential swallowing by young and/or elderly adults, regardless of health condition, excluding studies involving only the esophageal phase. DATA ANALYSIS: The following research indicators were applied: objectives, number and gender of participants; age group; amount of liquid offered; intake instruction; utensil used, methods and main findings. RESULTS: 18 studies met the established criteria. The articles were categorized according to the sample characterization and the methodology on volume intake, utensil used and types of exams. Most studies investigated only healthy individuals, with no swallowing complaints. Subjects were given different instructions as to the intake of all the volume: usual manner, continually, as rapidly as possible. The findings about the characterization of sequential swallowing were varied and described in accordance with the objectives of each study. CONCLUSION: It found great variability in the methodology employed to characterize the sequential swallowing. Some findings are not comparable, and sequential swallowing is not studied in most swallowing protocols, without consensus on the influence of the utensil.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Deglutition/physiology , Drinking/physiology , Larynx , Movement , Tongue
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-140086

ABSTRACT

Objective: We have undertaken a cross-sectional study to assess factors associated with dental pain that determine the expressed needs for dental care among 12-year-old school children in India. Materials and Methods: A total of 2 250 school children were surveyed after being drawn through stratified cluster random sampling. The simultaneous effects of sociodemographic characteristics, pain characteristics, and the impact of pain on the quality of life were studied in association with the expressed needs for dental treatment. Results: Among the studied school children, 71.4% suffered from dental pain, only 27.7% expressed need for dental healthcare. Socioeconomic status (SES) was a statistically significant determinant. Pain characteristics like the severity of pain and pain on eating hot and cold foods were significantly associated with expressed needs. Impact characteristics associated with expressed needs were embarrassment in showing teeth, brushing teeth, and difficulty in eating and drinking. Logistic regression analysis yielded a Nagelkerke R 2 value of 0.106. Conclusion: Important determinants of expressed needs for dental care among the studied population were SES, pain intensity, pain on thermal stimuli, impact characteristics like eating/drinking and embarrassment in showing teeth.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Attitude to Health , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Care/psychology , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Drinking/physiology , Eating/physiology , Educational Status , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Income , India/epidemiology , Male , Occupations , Pain Measurement , Quality of Life , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Self Concept , Sleep/physiology , Smiling , Social Class , Speech/physiology , Toothache/epidemiology , Toothache/psychology , Toothbrushing/statistics & numerical data , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data
8.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 48(1): 15-18, Jan.-Mar. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-583752

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for obesity; however, after surgery the patient may have difficulty in swallowing liquid and solid foods. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate liquid ingestion in patients who had undergone bariatric surgery. METHOD: We studied 43 volunteers with normal body mass index (BMI) (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m²), 55 subjects with class III obesity (BMI: >40.0 kg/m²), and 48 subjects with bariatric surgery for treatment of class III obesity. The method chosen for evaluation was the water swallowing test. The subjects drank in triplicate 50 mL of water while being precisely timed and the number of swallows were counted. RESULTS: There was no difference between subjects with normal BMI and subjects with class III obesity. During the first 2 months after bariatric surgery the patients showed an increase in the time needed to drink the entire volume, in the number of swallows, and in the inter-swallow interval, and a decrease in the volume swallowing capacity (volume/swallowing) and swallowing flow rate (volume swallowed/second). After 2 months, the results of the swallowing measurements moved in the direction of normal values. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery may cause more intense alterations of liquid bolus swallowing within 2 months after the procedure, which moved to normal values after this time.


CONTEXTO: Cirurgia bariátrica é tratamento efetivo para a obesidade. Após a operação o paciente pode ter dificuldade em ingerir alimentos líquidos e sólidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão de líquido em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia bariátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se 43 voluntários com índice de massa corporal (IMC) normal (18,9 - 24,5 kg/m²), 55 sujeitos com obesidade classe III (IMC: >40.6 kg/m²), e 48 sujeitos que haviam sido submetidos a cirurgia bariátrica para tratamento de obesidade classe III. Utilizou-se na avaliação o teste de deglutição de água. Os sujeitos ingeriram 50 mL de água enquanto o tempo de ingestão era medido e contado o número de deglutições. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os sujeitos com IMC normal e pacientes com obesidade classe III. No grupo de pacientes avaliados até 2 meses após a operação os pacientes tinham, em média, aumento do tempo para ingerir todo volume de água, no número de deglutições, e no intervalo entre deglutições, e diminuição do volume em cada deglutição e do fluxo de ingestão. Após 2 meses as medidas tiveram tendência a se aproximar dos valores encontrados nos sujeitos não operados. CONCLUSÃO: Cirurgia bariátrica pode provocar alterações na deglutição de líquidos nos primeiros 2 meses após o procedimento, tendendo a se aproximar dos valores normais após este período.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Drinking/physiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Deglutition/physiology , Time Factors
9.
Femina ; 39(3)mar. 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-604871

ABSTRACT

A constipação intestinal é queixa frequente no atendimento obstétrico, e está associada a dificuldades na defecação, seja pelo emprego de força e/ou diminuição de frequência na evacuação. Na gravidez, além dos fatores relacionados à dieta, como a baixa ingestão de fibras e água, outros contribuem para a piora deste sintoma, tais como: suplementação de ferro, redução na atividade física, motilidade reduzida do cólon e os efeitos hormonais sobre a motilidade gastrintestinal. Apesar de a anamnese detalhada permitir a identificação da constipação, alguns critérios específicos são propostos para auxiliar o reconhecimento deste sintoma. Entender a constipação no período gestacional é importante, pois é condição comum que leva a queixas nas consultas médicas resultando em altos custos para a saúde pública. O maior conhecimento dos fatores associados a este sintoma pode auxiliar no tratamento e delineamento de estratégias de conduta, visando melhorar a qualidade de vida das gestantes afetadas pela constipação.


Constipation is a frequent complaint in obstetric care, and is associated with difficulties in defecation, either by using force and/or decreased frequency in the evacuation. In pregnancy, in addition to dietary factors, such as low intake of fiber and water, iron supplementation, reduction in physical activity, reduced colonic motility and the hormonal effects on gastrintestinal motility also contribute to the worsening of this symptom. Although the detailed history of constipation can be identified, some specific criteria are proposed to assist the recognition of this symptom. Understanding constipation during pregnancy is important because it is a common condition that leads to complaints in medical consultations resulting in high costs to public health. Knowledge of the factors associated with this symptom may help to establish treatments and to manage strategies to improve the quality of life of pregnant women affected by constipation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Constipation/prevention & control , Constipation/therapy , Exercise/physiology , Iron/adverse effects , Dietary Fiber/therapeutic use , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Drinking/physiology , Gastrointestinal Motility , Pregnancy Complications , Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Quality of Life
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 47(4): 339-343, Oct.-Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-570519

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I), 27 aged 31-50 years (group II), and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III). We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time) and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05). The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001). There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.


CONTEXTO: O processo natural de envelhecimento altera a motilidade do esôfago. OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da idade na resposta da parte proximal do esôfago à deglutição de água. MÉTODO: Mediu-se a resposta do esôfago proximal à deglutição de 5 mL de água em 69 voluntários saudáveis, 20 com idades de 18 a 30 anos (grupo I), 27 com idades de 31 a 50 anos (grupo II) e 22 com idades de 51 a 74 anos (grupo III). Utilizamos o método manométrico com perfusão contínua. As contrações do esôfago proximal foram medidas 5 cm distal a um registro das contrações em faringe, localizado 1 cm acima do esfíncter superior do esôfago. Foram medidos o tempo entre o início da contração em faringe e o início da contração em esôfago proximal (tempo faringoesofágico), e a amplitude, duração e área sob a curva da contração proximal. RESULTADOS: O tempo faringoesofágico teve menor duração nos sujeitos do grupo I do que naqueles dos grupos II e III (P<0,05). A duração da contração em esôfago proximal foi maior nos sujeitos do grupo I do que naqueles dos grupos II e III (P<0,001). Não houve diferenças entre os grupos na amplitude e na área sob a curva das contrações, e não houve diferenças entre os grupos II e III em todas as medidas. CONCLUSÃO: Observou-se que a idade pode alterar a resposta do esôfago proximal à deglutição de água.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Aging/physiology , Deglutition/physiology , Esophagus/physiology , Age Factors , Analysis of Variance , Drinking/physiology , Esophagus/anatomy & histology , Manometry , Muscle Contraction/physiology , Peristalsis/physiology , Time Factors , Water/administration & dosage
11.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 37(4): 427-437, dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-582995

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a nutritional intervention focused on the improvement of clinical status and the prognosis of heart failure patients. Methods: A 12-mo randomized controlled study in 203 heart failure (HF) patients assigned to intervention (IG, n=84) or control group (CG, n=119). Patients in the IG received a sodium (2000 to 2400 mg/d) and fluid (<1500 ml/d) restricted diet. CG received general nutritional recommendations. Body composition, clinical status, hospitalization and time of survival were evaluated. Results: At the end of follow-up, urinary sodium excretion decreased 16,4 percent in the IG vs. an 8,8 percent increase in the CG (p<0,05). Extra cellular water decreased 1,4 percent in the IG vs. a 1¡2 percent increase in the CG (p=0,03). In addition, decrease percentage of fatigue was significant and higher in the IG that in the CG, and a significant increase in the ejection fraction for the IG vs. CG (49,6 percent vs. 5,0 percent, p=0,001), among systolic HF patients was found. Amount of hospitalizations and time of survival tended to be better in the IG. Conclusion: A nutritional intervention with restriction of sodium and fluid was proved to be beneficial since had positive effects in clinical status in HF patients.


Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de una intervención nutricional sobre el estado clínico y el pronóstico de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC). Métodos: Doscientos tres pacientes con IC fueron aleatorizados al grupo con intervención (GI, n=84) o al control (GC, n=119) y seguidos por 12 meses. El GI recibió una dieta con restricción de sodio (2000 a 2400 mg/d) y líquidos (<1500 ml/d) y el GC recomendaciones nutricionales generales. Se evaluó la composición corporal, el estado clínico, hospitalizaciones y sobrevida. Resultados: Al término del seguimiento, la excreción urinaria de sodio disminuyó 16,4 por ciento en el GI vs. un aumento de 8,8 por ciento en el GC (p<0,05). El agua extracellular disminuyó 1,4 por ciento en el GI vs. 1,2 por ciento de aumento en el GC (p=0,03). Asimismo, el porcentaje de reducción de fatiga fue significativo para el GI, no así para el GC; también se observó, entre los pacientes con IC sistólica, un aumento significativamente mayor en la fracción de expulsión para el GI vs. CG (49,6 por ciento vs. 5,0 por ciento, p=0,001). El número de hospitalizaciones y el tiempo de sobrevida tuvieron una tendencia a ser mejor en el GI. Conclusión: Una intervención nutricional con restricción de sodio y líquidos mostró tener un impacto favorable en el estado clínico de pacientes con IC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diet, Sodium-Restricted , Cardiovascular Diseases/diet therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Drinking/physiology
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2010. 150 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-616500

ABSTRACT

O sobrepeso e a obesidade na adolescência atingiram proporções epidêmicas na maior parte dos países industrializados bem como as alterações no metabolismo da glicose e dos triglicérides. As alterações no perfil do estado nutricional têm sido acompanhadas no aumento do consumo de bebidas açucaradas por adolescentesnos últimos anos. Algumas revisões sistemáticas recentes identificaram que o consumo de bebidas açucaradas associa-se ao ganho de peso entre a população em geral, inclusive em adolescentes e o efeito de tais bebidas vem sendo demonstrado não só na ocorrência do sobrepeso e obesidade, como também em associação com alterações metabólicas, hipertensão, esteatose e a ocorrência de diabetes tipo 2. Um efeito plausível do aumento no consumo de bebidas açucaradas seria a alteração nos triglicérides e no controle glicêmico, mas somente dois estudos seccionais, em adolescentes americanos, foram encontrados e ambos concluíram pelo efeito deletério do consumo de tais bebidas nesses parâmetros metabólicos. A presente tese teve como objetivo realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre consumode bebidas açucaradas e alterações metabólicas em adolescentes. E avaliar essa associação em uma amostra probabilística de escolares da cidade de Niterói, RJ, com 610 adolescentes de 12 a 19 anos. Na revisão foram resgatados apenas dois artigos. No primeiro encontrou-se que para cada porção adicional de bebidas açucaradas consumidas por dia, houve aumento de 7% nos valores de HOMA-IR, aumento de 2,25mg/dL nas concentrações de triglicérides, diminuição de 0,73mg/dLde HDL-C nas meninas e redução de 0,35mg/dL de HDL-C nos meninos (pvalor< 0,05)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adolescent , Adolescent Nutrition , Drinking/physiology , Metabolism , Obesity , Sugars , Overweight/metabolism
13.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 46(4): 304-310, out.-dez. 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-539626

ABSTRACT

Context: Drink tests constitute an inexpensive and non-invasive tool, which has been proposed to discriminate individuals with altered fluid intake, as dyspeptics. However, their use in everyday clinical practice is still limited as standardization still lacks. Objective: To perform a direct, paired comparison between the water and the nutrient drink test in normal volunteers. Methods: Thirty eight normal volunteers (19 males, 19 females, mean age 24.4 ± 0.4 years) underwent drink test with water and nutrient (Nutridrink) within 7-10 days. Both tests included a loading (consumption of 100 mL/min for water and 15 mL/min for Nutridrink for the longest possible period of time) and a recuperation phase (observation after cessation of fluid intake), being separated by the maximal saturation point. During phases, satiety, fullness, discomfort, bloating, belching, nausea, pain and burning sensation (epigastric and thoracic) were recorded using a 0-100 visual analogue scale score (VAS). For the purpose of configuration, four variables were considered: time (t), VAS score (V), VAS slope (S) for a given time period, and probability of participation (Q) at a given timepoint. Results: The loading phase lasted for 11.6 ± 1.7 min in water (total VAS: 879 ± 123, total VAS slope 72.6 ± 10.9 min-1) and 93.3 ± 18.4 min in Nutridrink test (total VAS: 1462 ± 411, total VAS slope 15.9 ± 3.2 min-1); P<0.001. The mean ingested volume recorded was 1155 ± 164 mL for water and 1399 ± 276 mL for nutrient; P = 0.076. Cessation of fluid intake was mainly attributed to fullness (76.3 percent) in water and satiety (69.2 percent) in Nutridrink test. Nausea was recorded only in Nutridrink test (15.4 percent). No volunteer reported substantial, persistent pain or burning sensation. The recuperation phase lasted 63.6 ± 7.8 min in water (total VAS: 278 ± 75, total VAS slope 3.97 ± 0.95 min-1) and 123.2 ± 17.5 min in Nutridrink test (total VAS: 841 ± 126, total VAS slope...


Contexto: Os testes de bebidas se constituem em meios baratos e não-invasivos propostos para distinguir diferenças de volume ingeridos por indivíduos, como os dispépticos, por exemplo. Entretanto, seu uso na prática clínica ainda é limitado pela falta de parâmetros lineares. Objetivos: Realizar comparação entre ingestão de água e solução de nutrientes em voluntários, utilizando-se o teste de bebidas e escala analógica visual. Métodos: Trinta e oito voluntários (19 homens, 19 mulheres, com média de idade: 24,4 ± 0,4 anos) submeteram-se a teste de bebidas com água e Nutridrink, em intervalo de 7 a 10 dias. Ambos os testes incluíram a fase de ingestão (consumo de 100 mL/min para água e 15 mL/min para o Nutridrink, pelo maior tempo possível), e pela fase de recuperação (observação após o término da ingestão), separados pelo máximo ponto de saturação. Durante as fases observou-se a saciedade, a plenitude, o desconforto, a eructação, os borborigmos, a náusea, a queimação epigástrica ou torácica e a dor, que foram anotadas utilizando-se um escore de escala analógica visual (EAV) variando entre 0-100. Para este propósito quatro variáveis foram consideradas: tempo (T), escore EAV (V), e curva EAV (S), para o período de tempo e a probabilidade de participação a um tempo determinado (Q). Resultados: O tempo de ingestão durou 11,6 ± 1,7 min para a água (total EAV: 879 ±123, total S: 72,6 ± 10,9 min-1) e 93,3 ± 18,4 min para o Nutridrink (total EAV: 1462 ± 411, total S: 15,9 ± 3,2 min-1); P<0.001. O volume médio ingerido foi de 1155 ± 164 mL para água e 1399 ± 276 mL para o nutriente; P = 0.076. A parada de ingestão do líquido foi atribuída à sensação de plenitude em 76,3 por cento para a água e a saciedade em 69,2 por cento para o Nutridrink. Náusea foi relatada em 15,4 por cento somente para o teste de nutriente. Nenhum voluntário reportou dor substancial persistente ou sensação de queimação. A fase de recuperação durou 63,6 ± 7,8 min para a água...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Beverages , Drinking/physiology , Water , Reference Values , Satiation , Time Factors
14.
Rev. argent. anestesiol ; 67(2): 119-129, abr.-jun. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-564858

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Tradicionalmente se ha promocionado un ayuno total preoperatorio de 8 a 12 horas con el único objetivo de disminuir el contenido gástrico y así evitar la aspiración pulmonar. Los conocimientos actuales de fisiología gástrica y de ayuno demuestran que una dieta prolongada facilita las condiciones para el vómito, pero además tiene un efecto deletéreo sobre el metabolismo del paciente. Material y métodos: Se realiza un análisis bibliográfico sobre el tema en libros, PubMed y Google Advanced Search (1848-2009), publicaciones en español e inglés, en el que se incluyen ensayos clínicos, revisiones bibliográficas, cartas, editoriales, guías prácticas, meta análisis y revisiones Cochrane. Resultados: La ingestión preoperatoria de agua reduce significativa mente el volumen y la acidez gástrica, y la de glúcidos disminuye significativa mente la resistencia a la insulina y el catabolismo muscular. El vaciado gástrico de sólidos se completa en 8 horas, de lácteos en 6, de leche materna en 4 y de líquidos claros con azúcares en 2 horas. Discusión: Los estudios de fisiología gástrica y del ayuno revelan que una dieta total de 8 horas favorece las condiciones que facilitan el vómito: elevado contenido y acidez gástricos. Además, genera procesos catabólicos que se expresan en insulinoresistencia, deshidratación e hipoglucemia. Conclusión: Las pautas de ayuno preoperatorio promovidas por la A.S.A desde 1999 demuestran ser eficaces para evitar la aspiración pulmonar del contenido gástrico, pero además tienen el beneficio de evitar el catabolismo y la deshidratación, y mejorar el estado clínico y la sensación de bienestar del paciente.


Introduction: Traditionally, a preoperative fasting of 8 to 12 hours was recommended, with the only purpose of reducing the gastric content to avoid pulmonary aspiration. Current information about gastric and fasting physiology shows that an extended fasting facilitates vomiting conditions and also has a deleterious effect on the patient's metabolism. Material and Methods: Bibliographic analysis on this subject is carried out in books, PubMed and Google Advanced Search, (1848 - 2009), in Spanish and English, including clinical trials, bibliographic revisions, letters, editorials, practical guidelines, meta analyses and Cochrane reviews. Results: Preoperative ingestion of water significantly reduces gastric volume and acidity. The preoperative glucide intake significantly diminishes insulin resistance and muscular catabolism. Gastric emptying of solids is completed in 8 hours, of milk products in 6 hours, of human milk in 4 hours and of clear liquids with sugar in 2 hours. Discussion: Studies on gastric and fasting physiology reveal that a total fasting of 8 hours favors the conditions that facilitate vomiting: high acidity and gastric contents. It also generates catabolic processes that are expressed in insulin resistance, dehydration and hypoglycemia. Conclusion: The preoperative guidelines recommended by A.S.A since 1999 have proven to be effective in avoiding pulmonary aspiration of the gastric content as well as catabolism and dehydration, improving clinical status and the patient's feeling of comfort.


Introdução: Tradicionalmente, tem sido proposto um jejum total pré-operatório de 8 a 12 horas com o único objetivo de diminuir o conteúdo gástrico e, deste modo, evitar a aspiração pulmonar. Os conhecimentos atuais sobre fisiologia gástrica e jejum provam que uma dieta prolongada não só facilita as condiçãoes para o vômito, mas também tem um efeito prejudicial sobre o metabolismo do paciente. Material e métodos: Foi feita uma análise bibliográfica sobre o tema em livros, PubMed e Google Advanced Search (1848-2009), publicações em espanhol e inglês, incluindo testes clínicos, revisões bibliográficas, cartas, editoriais, guias práticos, meta-análise e revisões Cochrane. Resultados: A ingestao pré-operatória de água reduz significativamente o volume e a acidez gástrica, e a ingestao de glicídios diminui fortemente a resistencia a insulina e o catabolismo muscular. O esvaziamento gástrico de sólidos é completado em 8 horas, de lácteos em 6, de leite materno em 4 e de líquidos claros com açúcares em 2 horas. Discussão: Os estudos de fisiologia gástrica e jejum revelam que uma dieta total de 8 horas favorece as condições de ocorrencia de vómito: elevado conteúdo e acidez gástricos. Por outro lado, gera processos catabólicos que se manifestam como insulino-resistencia, desidratação e hipoglicemia. Conclusão: As pautas de jejum pré-operatório propostas pela A.S.A desde 1999 são eficazes para evitar a aspiração pulmonar do conteúdo gástrico, e também têm o beneficio adicional de evitar o catabolismo e a desidratação, e melhorar o estado clínico e a sensação de bem-estar do paciente.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General/standards , Fasting/physiology , Fasting/metabolism , Preoperative Care , Gastrointestinal Contents , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Digestive System Physiological Phenomena , Drinking/physiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/prevention & control , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Gastric Emptying/physiology
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(6): 561-566, June 2009. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-512758

ABSTRACT

Ablation of the area postrema/caudal nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) complex increases sodium intake, but the effect of selective lesions of the caudal NTS is not known. We measured depletion-induced sodium intake in rats with electrolytic lesions of the commissural NTS that spared the area postrema. One day after the lesion, rats were depleted of sodium with furosemide (10 mg/kg body weight, sc) and then had access to water and a sodium-deficient diet for 24 h when 1.8 percent NaCl was offered. Water and saline intakes were measured for 2 h. Saline intake was higher in lesioned than in sham-lesioned rats (mean ± SEM: 20 ± 2 vs 11 ± 3 mL/2 h, P < 0.05, N = 6-7). Saline intake remained elevated in lesioned rats when the tests were repeated 6 and 14 days after the lesion, and water intake in these two tests was increased as well. Water intake seemed to be secondary to saline intake both in lesioned and in sham-lesioned rats. A second group of rats was offered 10 percent sucrose for 2 h/day before and 2, 7, and 15 days after lesion. Sucrose intake in lesioned rats was higher than in sham-lesioned rats only 7 days after lesioning. A possible explanation for the increased saline intake in rats with commissural NTS lesions could be a reduced gastrointestinal feedback inhibition. The commissural NTS is probably part of a pathway for inhibitory control of sodium intake that also involves the area postrema and the parabrachial nucleus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Appetite/physiology , Drinking/physiology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Solitary Nucleus/injuries , Furosemide/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/pharmacology
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 42(1): 105-113, Jan. 2009. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-505425

ABSTRACT

Besides other physiological functions, adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is also a neurotransmitter that acts on purinergic receptors. In spite of the presence of purinergic receptors in forebrain areas involved with fluid-electrolyte balance, the effect of ATP on water intake has not been investigated. Therefore, we studied the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) injections of ATP (100, 200 and 300 nmol/µL) alone or combined with DPCPX or PPADS (P1 and P2 purinergic antagonists, respectively, 25 nmol/µL) on water intake induced by water deprivation. In addition, the effect of icv ATP was also tested on water intake induced by intragastric load of 12 percent NaCl (2 mL/rat), acute treatment with the diuretic/natriuretic furosemide (20 mg/kg), icv angiotensin II (50 ng/µL) or icv carbachol (a cholinergic agonist, 4 nmol/µL), on sodium depletion-induced 1.8 percent NaCl intake, and on food intake induced by food deprivation. Male Holtzman rats (280-320 g, N = 7-11) had cannulas implanted into the lateral ventricle. Icv ATP (300 nmol/µL) reduced water intake induced by water deprivation (13.1 ± 1.9 vs saline: 19.0 ± 1.4 mL/2 h; P < 0.05), an effect blocked by pre-treatment with PPADS, but not DPCPX. Icv ATP also reduced water intake induced by NaCl intragastric load (5.6 ± 0.9 vs saline: 10.3 ± 1.4 mL/2 h; P < 0.05), acute furosemide treatment (0.5 ± 0.2 vs saline: 2.3 ± 0.6 mL/15 min; P < 0.05), and icv angiotensin II (2.2 ± 0.8 vs saline: 10.4 ± 2.0 mL/2 h; P < 0.05), without changing icv carbachol-induced water intake, sodium depletion-induced 1.8 percent NaCl intake and food deprivation-induced food intake. These data suggest that central ATP, acting on purinergic P2 receptors, reduces water intake induced by intracellular and extracellular dehydration.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adenosine Triphosphate/administration & dosage , Drinking/drug effects , Pyridoxal Phosphate/analogs & derivatives , Water Deprivation/physiology , Xanthines/administration & dosage , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Drinking/physiology , Eating/drug effects , Eating/physiology , Injections, Intraventricular , Pyridoxal Phosphate/administration & dosage , Pyridoxal Phosphate/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Purinergic P1/agonists , Receptors, Purinergic P1/antagonists & inhibitors , /agonists , /antagonists & inhibitors , Xanthines/pharmacology
17.
Radiol. bras ; 41(5): 309-312, set.-out. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-496934

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Utilizar a ultra-sonografia como método de avaliação do "tempo esofágico" e sua capacidade de discriminação entre as substâncias não-sólidas ingeridas (água e iogurte). MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 22 adultos jovens, sem queixa gástrica e esofágica, de ambos os sexos. Foi utilizado transdutor de ultra-som de 3,5 MHz, convexo, em modo B, colocado na região epigástrica. O intervalo de tempo esofágico foi determinado utilizando-se um cronômetro que foi acionado no momento da movimentação da glote (início da deglutição) e interrompido ao se visualizar a passagem do conteúdo deglutido no esôfago intra-abdominal. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de trânsito para a água foi de 6,64 ± 1,83 segundos e para o iogurte foi de 8,59 ± 2,70 segundos. A análise estatística comparativa pelo teste t pareado mostrou que as médias apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as substâncias. CONCLUSÃO: O novo método experimental de avaliar o "tempo esofágico" com ultra-som é capaz de propiciar diferenças significativas do tempo necessário para um determinado alimento (líquido ou pastoso) percorrer o esôfago, esclarecendo as suspeitas clínicas e possibilitando a indicação mais precisa de exames clínicos mais complexos.


OBJECTIVE: To utilize ultrasonography for evaluating the esophageal transit time as well as the esophagus capability of differentiating among non-solid substances ingested (water and yoghurt). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two young adults of both sexes with no gastric or esophageal complaint were evaluated, with a B-mode 3.5 MHz, convex transducer placed over the epigastric area. The esophageal transit time was determined by means of a chronometer activated when the deglutition was initiated (glottic movement), and stopped upon visualization of the bolus through the intra-abdominal esophagus. RESULTS: The mean esophageal transit time for water was 6.64 ± 1.83 sec, and 8.59 ± 2.70 sec for yoghurt. The comparative statistical analysis by a t-paired test has demonstrated statistically significant differences between the mean esophageal transit times for the two substances. CONCLUSION: This new experimental method for evaluating the esophageal transit time by ultrasonography demonstrates significant differences in the time required for a determined liquid or pasty food passing through the esophagus, elucidating clinical suspicions and allowing a more precise indication for further, more complex clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Esophagus/physiopathology , Esophagus , Drinking/physiology , Deglutition , Time Factors
18.
Clinics ; 63(4): 433-436, 2008. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-489650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlation and agreement between the intraocular pressure peaks detected during the water drinking test and the modified diurnal tension curve in untreated glaucomatous eyes. INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that the intraocular pressure peaks detected during the water drinking test predict the peaks observed during a 24-hour diurnal tension curve. A more feasible and practical test for assessing intraocular pressure peaks in glaucomatous eyes during office hours would be of great clinical utility. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving open angle glaucoma patients without anti-glaucoma medication submitted to the modified diurnal tension curve and water drinking test on the same day. The intraocular pressure peaks during the water drinking test and the modified diurnal tension curve were reported and compared. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the correlation and agreement between intraocular pressure peak measurements. RESULTS: The correlation between intraocular pressure peaks during the water drinking test and modified diurnal tension curve was significant and strong (Pearson's Correlation Coefficient r=0.780, p<0.0001). Limited agreement was observed between these measurements. Eighty-two percent of intraocular pressure peaks were higher during the water drinking test than the modified diurnal tension curve. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that the water drinking test may be used as tool to assess risk factors for glaucomatous patients. CONCLUSION: Intraocular pressure peaks detected during the water drinking test could be used in clinical practice to both estimate the peaks observed during the modified diurnal tension curve and assess the status of the eye's outflow facility.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Drinking/physiology , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Tonometry, Ocular/methods , Water/administration & dosage , Circadian Rhythm/physiology , Disease Progression , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/physiopathology , Prospective Studies
19.
GED gastroenterol. endosc. dig ; 26(6): 187-190, nov.-dez. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-583680

ABSTRACT

Racional: Alterações em motilidade do esôfago são observadas na pessoa obesa, bem como maior possibilidade na ocorrência de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico, situações que poderiam afetar a deglutição. Objetivo: Avaliar a dinâmica da deglutição em pessoas obesas. Métodos: Foram estudados 46 sujeitos (81 % mulheres) com índice de massa corporal (IMC) variando de 18,5 a 24,9kg/m2 (normal), 22 (36% mulheres) com IMC de 25,0 a 29,9kg/m2 (sobrepeso), 20 (72% mulheres) com IMC de 30,0 a 34,9kg/ m2 (obesidade I), 14 (67% mulheres) com IMC de 35,0 a 39,9kg/m2 (obesidade II) e 61 (79% mulheres) com IMC igual ou acima de 40kg/m2 (obesidade III). Todos os sujeitos não tinham disfagia ou qualquer dificuldade com a deglutição. As idades e alturas dos sujeitos nos diferentes grupos foram semelhantes. Foi utilizado o teste de ingestão de água. Todos os voluntários ingeriram sentados e em triplicata 50mL de água na temperatura de 4°C, enquanto o tempo de ingestão de todo volume era cronometrado e o número de deglutições, contado. Foram calculados: intervalo entre deglutições -o tempo total de ingestão dividido pelo número de deglutições; velocidade de ingestão -volume ingerido dividido pelo tempo de ingestão; volume por deglutição -volume ingerido dividido pelo número de deglutições. Resultados: Não houve diferença na deglutição entre os voluntários com IMC normal e os obesos. Aqueles com sobrepeso tiveram maior intervalo entre as deglutições e maior volume por deglutição, o que foi interpretado como consequente à menor proporção de mulheres nesse grupo. Conclusão: Não há diferenças na deglutição de pessoas obesas quando comparadas com pessoas com peso próximo ao ideal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Deglutition/physiology , Drinking/physiology , Obesity/complications , Body Mass Index , Overweight
20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 38(11): 1669-1675, Nov. 2005. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-414720

ABSTRACT

We determined if the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) exerts tonic control of basal and stimulated sodium and water intake. Male Wistar rats weighing 300-350 g were microinjected with phosphate buffer (PB-DRN, N = 11) or 1 æg/0.2 æl, in a single dose, ibotenic acid (IBO-DRN, N = 9 to 10) through a guide cannula into the DRN and were observed for 21 days in order to measure basal sodium appetite and water intake and in the following situations: furosemide-induced sodium depletion (20 mg/kg, sc, 24 h before the experiment) and a low dose of dietary captopril (1 mg/g chow). From the 6th day after ibotenic acid injection IBO-DRN rats showed an increase in sodium appetite (12.0 ± 2.3 to 22.3 ± 4.6 ml 0.3 M NaCl intake) whereas PB-DRN did not exceed 2 ml (P < 0.001). Water intake was comparable in both groups. In addition to a higher dipsogenic response, sodium-depleted IBO-DRN animals displayed an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake compared to PB-DRN (37.4 ± 3.8 vs 21.6 ± 3.9 ml 300 min after fluid offer, P < 0.001). Captopril added to chow caused an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake during the first 2 days (IBO-DRN, 33.8 ± 4.3 and 32.5 ± 3.4 ml on day 1 and day 2, respectively, vs 20.2 ± 2.8 ml on day 0, P < 0.001). These data support the view that DRN, probably via ascending serotonergic system, tonically modulates sodium appetite under basal and sodium depletion conditions and/or after an increase in peripheral or brain angiotensin II.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ibotenic Acid/toxicity , Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/toxicity , Appetite/drug effects , Drinking/drug effects , Raphe Nuclei/drug effects , Sodium, Dietary , Appetite/physiology , Buffers , Captopril/pharmacology , Furosemide/pharmacology , Drinking/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/pharmacology , Phosphates , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
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