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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252735, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355873

ABSTRACT

Abstract Growth of plants is severely reduced due to water stress by affecting photosynthesis including photosystem II (PSII) activity and electron transport. This study emphasised on comparative and priority targeted changes in PSII activity due to progressive drought in seven populations of Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) collected from Cholistan Desert and non-Cholistan regions. Tillers of equal growth of seven populations of P. antidotale grown in plastic pots filled with soil were subjected progressive drought by withholding water irrigation for three weeks. Progressive drought reduced the soil moisture content, leaf relative water content, photosynthetic pigments and fresh and dry biomass of shoots in all seven populations. Populations from Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had higher growth than those of other populations. Cholistani populations especially in Dingarh Grassland and Haiderwali had greater ability of osmotic adjustment as reflected by osmotic potential and greater accumulation of total soluble proteins. Maximum H2O2 under water stress was observed in populations from Muzaffargarh and Khanewal but these were intermediate in MDA content. Under water stress, populations from Muzaffargarh and Dingarh Fort had greater K+ accumulation in their leaves. During progressive drought, non-Cholistani populations showed complete leaf rolling after 23 days of drought, and these populations could not withstand with more water stress condition while Cholistani populations tolerated more water stress condition for 31 days. Moreover, progressive drought caused PSII damages after 19 days and it became severe after 23 days in non-Cholistani populations of P. antidotale than in Cholistani populations.


Resumo O crescimento das plantas é severamente reduzido devido ao estresse hídrico, afetando a fotossíntese, incluindo a atividade do fotossistema II (PSII) e o transporte de elétrons. Este estudo enfatizou as mudanças comparativas e prioritárias na atividade do PSII devido à seca progressiva em sete populações de Panicum antidotale (P. antidotale) coletadas no Deserto do Cholistão e regiões fora do Cholistão. Perfilhos de igual crescimento de sete populações de P. antidotale cultivadas em vasos de plástico cheios de solo foram submetidos à seca progressiva, retendo a irrigação com água por três semanas. A seca progressiva reduziu o teor de umidade do solo, teor de água relativo nas folhas, pigmentos fotossintéticos e biomassa fresca e seca dos brotos em todas as sete populações. Populações de Dingarh Fort, Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali tiveram maior crescimento do que as de outras populações. As populações de Cholistani, especialmente em Dingarh Grassland e Haiderwali, apresentaram maior capacidade de ajuste osmótico, refletido pelo potencial osmótico e maior acúmulo de proteínas solúveis totais. H2O2 máximo sob estresse hídrico foi observado em populações de Muzaffargarh e Khanewal, mas estas foram intermediárias no conteúdo de MDA. Sob estresse hídrico, as populações de Muzaffargarh e Dingarh Fort tiveram maior acúmulo de K+ em suas folhas. Durante a seca progressiva, as populações não cholistanesas mostraram rolagem completa das folhas após 23 dias de seca, e essas populações não conseguiram suportar mais condições de estresse hídrico, enquanto as populações cholistani toleraram mais condições de estresse hídrico por 31 dias. Além disso, a seca progressiva causou danos ao PSII após 19 dias e tornou-se severa após 23 dias em populações não cholistanesas de P. antidotale do que em populações cholistanesas.


Subject(s)
Panicum , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Desiccation , Droughts , Hydrogen Peroxide
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245379, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339405

ABSTRACT

Abstract Population growth is increasing rapidly around the world, in these consequences we need to produce more foods to full fill the demand of increased population. The world is facing global warming due to urbanizations and industrialization and in this concerns plants exposed continuously to abiotic stresses which is a major cause of crop hammering every year. Abiotic stresses consist of Drought, Salt, Heat, Cold, Oxidative and Metal toxicity which damage the crop yield continuously. Drought and salinity stress severally affected in similar manner to plant and the leading cause of reduction in crop yield. Plants respond to various stimuli under abiotic or biotic stress condition and express certain genes either structural or regulatory genes which maintain the plant integrity. The regulatory genes primarily the transcription factors that exert their activity by binding to certain cis DNA elements and consequently either up regulated or down regulate to target expression. These transcription factors are known as masters regulators because its single transcript regulate more than one gene, in this context the regulon word is fascinating more in compass of transcription factors. Progress has been made to better understand about effect of regulons (AREB/ABF, DREB, MYB, and NAC) under abiotic stresses and a number of regulons reported for stress responsive and used as a better transgenic tool of Arabidopsis and Rice.


Resumo O crescimento populacional está aumentando rapidamente em todo o mundo, e para combater suas consequências precisamos produzir mais alimentos para suprir a demanda do aumento populacional. O mundo está enfrentando o aquecimento global devido à urbanização e industrialização e, nesse caso, plantas expostas continuamente a estresses abióticos, que é uma das principais causas do martelamento das safras todos os anos. Estresses abióticos consistem em seca, sal, calor, frio, oxidação e toxicidade de metais que prejudicam o rendimento da colheita continuamente. A seca e o estresse salino são afetados de maneira diversa pela planta e são a principal causa de redução da produtividade das culturas. As plantas respondem a vários estímulos sob condições de estresse abiótico ou biótico e expressam certos genes estruturais ou regulatórios que mantêm a integridade da planta. Os genes reguladores são principalmente os fatores de transcrição que exercem sua atividade ligando-se a certos elementos cis do DNA e, consequentemente, são regulados para cima ou para baixo para a expressão alvo. Esses fatores de transcrição são conhecidos como reguladores mestres porque sua única transcrição regula mais de um gene; nesse contexto, a palavra regulon é mais fascinante no âmbito dos fatores de transcrição. Progresso foi feito para entender melhor sobre o efeito dos regulons (AREB / ABF, DREB, MYB e NAC) sob estresses abióticos e uma série de regulons relatados como responsivos ao estresse e usados ​​como uma melhor ferramenta transgênica de Arabidopsis e Rice.


Subject(s)
Regulon/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Droughts
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242708, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339382

ABSTRACT

Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


Resumo MicroRNAs (miRNAs) são genes essenciais não codificadores de proteínas. Em uma variedade de organismos, foi relatado que miRNAs desempenham papel essencial na regulação da expressão gênica em nível pós-transcricional. Eles participam da maioria dos processos responsivos ao estresse nas plantas. A seca é um estresse abiótico final que afeta a produção agrícola. Portanto, compreender as respostas ao estresse da seca é essencial para melhorar a produção de safras agrícolas. Ao longo da evolução, as plantas desenvolveram seus próprios sistemas de defesa para lidar com as adversidades do estresse ambiental. Entre os mecanismos de defesa está a regulação da expressão gênica por miRNAs. O estresse hídrico regula a expressão de alguns dos miRNAs funcionalmente conservados em diferentes plantas. As propriedades dadas dos miRNAs fornecem uma visão das alterações genéticas e aumentam a resistência à seca nas safras de cereais. A revisão atual apresenta um resumo dos mecanismos regulatórios nas plantas, bem como a resposta dos miRNAs ao estresse hídrico nas plantações de cereais. Algumas abordagens e diretrizes possíveis para a exploração das respostas do miRNA ao estresse da seca para melhorar as safras de cereais também são descritas.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs/genetics , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics , Crops, Agricultural/genetics , Crop Production
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236251, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249267

ABSTRACT

Abstract Water stress is one of the major factor restricting the growth and development of chickpea plants by inducing various morphological and physiological changes. Therefore, the present research activity was designed to improve the chickpea productivity under water stress conditions by modulating antioxidant enzyme system. Experimental treatments comprised of two chickpea genotypes i.e. Bhakhar 2011 (drought tolerant) and DUSHT (drought sensitive), two water stress levels i.e. water stress at flowering stage and water stress at flowering + pod formation + grain filling stage including well watered (control) and three exogenous application of nutrients i.e. KCl 200 ppm, MgCl2, 50 ppm and CaCl2, 10 mM including distilled water (control). Results indicated that water stress at various growth stages adversely affects the growth, yield and quality attributes of both chickpea cultivars. Exogenous application of nutrients improved the growth, yield and antioxidant enzyme activities of both chickpea genotypes even under water stress conditions. However, superior results were obtained with foliar spray of potassium chloride on Bhakhar 2011 under well-watered conditions. Similarly, foliar spray of potassium chloride on chickpea cultivar Bhakhar 2011 cultivated under stress at flowering + pod formation + grain filling stage produced significantly higher contents of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. These results suggests that the application of potassium chloride mitigates the adverse effects of water stress and enhanced tolerance in chickpea mainly due to higher antioxidant enzymes activity, demonstrating the protective measures of plant cells in stress conditions.


Resumo O estresse hídrico é um dos principais fatores que restringem o crescimento e o desenvolvimento das plantas de grão-de-bico, induzindo várias alterações morfológicas e fisiológicas. Portanto, a presente atividade de pesquisa foi projetada para melhorar a produtividade do grão-de-bico em condições de estresse hídrico, por meio da modulação do sistema de enzimas antioxidantes. Tratamentos experimentais compostos de dois genótipos de grão-de-bico, ou seja, Bhakhar 2011 (tolerante à seca) e DUSHT (sensível à seca), dois níveis de estresse hídrico, ou seja, estresse hídrico na fase de floração e estresse hídrico na floração + formação de vagens + estágio de enchimento de grãos incluindo bem irrigado (controle) e três aplicações exógenas de nutrientes, ou seja, KCl 200 ppm, MgCl2 50 ppm e CaCl2 10 mM, incluindo água destilada (controle). Os resultados indicaram que o estresse hídrico em vários estágios de crescimento afeta negativamente os atributos de crescimento, rendimento e qualidade de ambas as cultivares de grão-de-bico. A aplicação exógena de nutrientes melhorou o crescimento, o rendimento e as atividades das enzimas antioxidantes de ambos os genótipos de grão- de-bico, mesmo em condições de estresse hídrico. No entanto, resultados superiores foram obtidos com pulverização foliar de cloreto de potássio em Bhakhar 2011, em condições bem irrigadas. Da mesma forma, a pulverização foliar de cloreto de potássio na cultivar de grão-de-bico Bhakhar 2011 cultivada sob estresse na fase de floração + formação de vagens + enchimento de grãos produziu teores significativamente maiores de superóxido dismutase, peroxidase e catalase. Esses resultados sugerem que a aplicação de cloreto de potássio atenua os efeitos adversos do estresse hídrico e aumenta a tolerância no grão-de-bico, principalmente em razão de mais atividade de enzimas antioxidantes, demonstrando as medidas protetoras das células vegetais em condições de estresse.


Subject(s)
Cicer , Water , Nutrients , Dehydration , Droughts , Antioxidants
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e244331, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249255

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) on gas exchange and the activity of antioxidant enzymes of Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms seedlings under water deficit and its influence on the recovery potential of the seedlings. The experiment was conducted using four treatments, being daily irrigation or water restriction without and with 10 μM ABA. Seedlings under water deficit + ABA showed greater adjustment to drought, and when re-irrigated, they restored photosynthetic metabolism and water potential. ABA minimizes the reduction in the photosynthetic metabolism and water potential of the leaf, however, it does not increase the antioxidant activity of the O. arborea seedlings under water deficit. These results suggest that this species exhibits plasticity, which enables it to survive also in environments subjected to temporary water deficit regardless of the supplementation of ABA. We suggest that other doses of ABA be researched to expand the beneficial effect of ABA on this species.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do ácido abscísico (ABA) nas trocas gasosas e na atividade de enzimas antioxidantes de mudas de Ormosia arborea (Vell.) Harms sob deficiência hídrica e sua influência no potencial de recuperação das mudas. O experimento foi conduzido com quatro tratamentos, sendo eles irrigação diária ou restrição hídrica sem e com 10 μM ABA. As mudas sob déficit hídrico + ABA apresentaram maior ajuste à seca e ao serem re-irrigadas restabeleceram o metabolismo fotossintético e o potencial hídrico. O ABA minimizou a redução do metabolismo fotossintético e do potencial da água na folha, porém, não aumentou a atividade antioxidante de mudas de O. arborea sob déficit hídrico. Esses resultados sugerem que esta espécie apresenta plasticidade fisiológica, o que lhe permite sobreviver em ambientes sujeitos a déficit hídrico temporário, independente da suplementação de ABA. Sugerimos que outras doses de ABA sejam avaliadas para ampliar os efeitos benéficos do ABA sobre esta espécie.


Subject(s)
Water , Abscisic Acid , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Droughts , Antioxidants
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1061-1072, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153453

ABSTRACT

Abstract Silicon (Si) is an element that can improve the growth and development of rice plants in water-deficient environments because it is an enzymatic stimulant, signaling for production of antioxidant compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between water deficiency and the effect of Si on two rice cultivars whose seeds were treated with dietholate. The experimental design was fully randomized with three replicates, and treatments were organized in a 3x2x2x4 factorial arrangement: three water soil conditions (50% and 100% of soil water retention capacity (WRC) and complete submergence in a water blade of 5.0 cm); two cultivars (IRGA 424 RI and Guri INTA CL); two sources of Si (sodium metasilicate and potassium metasilicate); and four rates of Si (0; 4.0; 8.0 and 16 g L-1). Chlorophyll a and b, leaf area and shoot and root dry weight increased at higher rates of Si under the three soil water regimes. There was an increase in superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase enzyme activity in the cultivars at higher rates of Si, reducing lipid peroxidation caused by water deficiency. Therefore, Si did indeed attenuate water deficiency stress in rice plants emerging from seeds treated with dietholate.


Resumo O silício (Si) é um elemento que pode proporcionar melhor crescimento e desenvolvimento às plantas de arroz cultivadas em ambientes com deficiência hídrica, por ser um estimulador enzimático, promovendo sinalização para produção de compostos antioxidantes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a relação entre deficiência hídrica e o efeito do Si em duas cultivares de arroz tratadas com dietholate. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 3x2x2x4, sendo os fatores: três condições hídricas do solo (50%, 100% da capacidade de retenção de água no solo (CRA) e lâmina d'água de 5,0 cm), duas cultivares (IRGA 424 RI e Guri INTA CL), duas fontes de Si (metassilicato de sódio e metassilicato de potássio) e quatro doses de Si (0; 4,0; 8,0 e 16 g L-1). O índice de clorofila a e b, a área foliar e o teor de massa seca da parte aérea e raiz aumentaram com o aumento das doses de Si nas três condições hídricas do solo. Houve um aumento na atividade das enzimas superóxido dismutase e guaiacol peroxidase nas cultivares estudadas à medida que as doses de Si aumentaram, diminuindo a peroxidação de lipídios, causada pela restrição hídrica. Portanto, o Si atenua o estresse por déficit hídrico em plantas de arroz emergentes de sementes tratadas com dietholate.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Silicon , Droughts , Chlorophyll A , Antioxidants
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4329-4341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921509

ABSTRACT

Dehydration-responsive element binding proteins (DREBs) are an important class of transcription factors related to plant stress tolerance. Ammopiptanthus mongolicus is an evergreen broadleaf shrub endemic to desert areas of northwest China, and it has a very high tolerance to harsh environments. In order to reveal the functions and mechanisms of the AmDREB1F gene from this species in enduring abiotic stresses, we performed subcellular localization test, expression pattern analysis, and stress tolerance evaluation of transgenic Arabidopsis harboring this gene. The protein encoded by AmDREB1F was localized in the nucleus. In laboratory-cultured A. mongolicus seedlings, the expression of AmDREB1F was induced significantly by cold and drought but very slightly by salt and heat stresses, and undetectable upon ABA treatment. In leaves of naturally growing shrubs in the wild, the expression levels of the AmDREB1F gene were much higher during the late autumn, winter and early spring than in other seasons. Moreover, the expression was abundant in roots and immature pods rather than other organs of the shrubs. Constitutive expression of AmDREB1F in Arabidopsis induced the expression of several DREB-regulated stress-responsive genes and improved the tolerance of transgenic lines to drought, high salinity and low temperature as well as oxidative stress. The constitutive expression also caused growth retardation of the transgenics, which could be eliminated by the application of gibberellin 3. Stress-inducible expression of AmDREB1F also enhanced the tolerance of transgenic Arabidopsis to all of the four stresses mentioned above, without affecting its growth and development. These results suggest that AmDREB1F gene may play positive regulatory roles in response to abiotic stresses through the ABA-independent signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Droughts , Ectopic Gene Expression , Fabaceae/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Plants, Genetically Modified/genetics , Stress, Physiological/genetics
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2658-2667, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887831

ABSTRACT

Lipids are important components of living organisms that participate in and regulate a variety of life activities. Lipids in plants also play important physiological functions in response to a variety of abiotic stresses (e.g. salt stress, drought stress, temperature stress). However, most research on lipids focused on animal cells and medical fields, while the functions of lipids in plants were overlooked. With the rapid development of "omics" technologies and biotechnology, the lipidomics has received much attention in recent years because it can reveal the composition and function of lipids in a deep and comprehensive way. This review summarizes the recent advances in the functions and classification of lipids, the development of lipidomics technology, and the responses of plant lipids against drought stress, salt stress and temperature stress. In addition, challenges and prospects were proposed for future lipidomics research and further exploration of the physiological functions of lipids in plant stress resistance.


Subject(s)
Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Lipids , Plants , Stress, Physiological
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1155-1167, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878621

ABSTRACT

With the constant change of global climate, plants are often affected by multiple abiotic stresses such as heat stress, drought stress, cold stress and saline-alkali stress. Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are a class of transcription factors widely existing in plants to respond to a variety of abiotic stresses. In this article, we review and summarize the structure, signal regulation mechanism of HSFs and some research in plants like Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, rice and soybean, to provide reference for further elucidating the role of HSFs in the stress regulation network.


Subject(s)
Arabidopsis/metabolism , Droughts , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Heat Shock Transcription Factors/genetics , Plant Proteins/genetics , Stress, Physiological , Transcription Factors/metabolism
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879173

ABSTRACT

Six month old Cinnamomum cassia seedlings were used to simulate drought stress with polyethylene glycol(PEG 6000). The physiological indicators(osmotic substances, antioxidant enzymes, etc.) and chemical components of seedlings under different drought levels and the correlation between the two were studied. The results showed that the chlorophyll content and relative water content decreased gradually with the increase of PGE 6000(0, 5%, 10%, 15%) concentration and time(3, 5, 7 d), while the soluble protein content, soluble sugar content and catalase(CAT) activity increased, but the rising rate slowed down with the time. The activities of peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase(SOD), malondialdehyde(MDA) and proline content increased at first and then decreased. The content of coumarin, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid and dimethoxycinnamaldehyde decreased, while the content of cinnamyl alcohol continued to increase.Under drought stress, the fluorescence signals of reactive oxygen species and no contents in roots of C. cassia seedlings were significantly stronger than those of the control.Further correlation analysis showed that coumarin content, di-methoxycinnamaldehyde content and osmoregulation substance content were significantly negatively correlated(P<0.05), cinnamic acid content was significantly negatively correlated with POD and SOD activities(P<0.01).It was found that C. cassia seedlings showed a certain degree of drought tolerance under short-term or mild drought stress, but if the drought exceeded a certain degree, the physiological metabolism of the seedlings would be unbalanced.


Subject(s)
Catalase , Cinnamomum aromaticum , Droughts , Malondialdehyde , Seedlings , Stress, Physiological , Superoxide Dismutase
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(3): 631-640, July-Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132427

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is a fact that the regions that cultivate the most maize crop do not have fully adequate technologies to measure productivity losses caused by irregularities in water availability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological characteristics of maize hybrids tolerant (DKB 390) and sensitive (BRS 1030) to drought, at V5 growth stage and under water restriction, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in the induction of tolerance to drought by chitosan in contrasting maize genotypes. Plants were cultivated in pots at a greenhouse, and chitosan 100 ppm was applied by leaf spraying. The water restriction was imposed for 10 days and then leaf gaseous exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. The tolerant hybrid (DKB 390) showed higher photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation efficiency, electron transport rate, and non-photochemical quenching when chitosan was used. Plants from tolerant genotype treated with chitosan were more tolerant to water stress because there were more responsive to the biopolymer.


Resumo As regiões que cultivam milho como cultura principal ainda não possuem tecnologias adequadas para mensurar as perdas na produtividade decorrentes na disponibilidade irregular de água. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar as características fisiológicas de híbridos de milho tolerante (DKB 390) e sensível (BRS1030) à seca, no estádio de crescimento V5 e sob restrição hídrica, para compreender os mecanismos envolvidos na indução de tolerância à seca pela quitosana em genótipos contrastantes. As plantas foram cultivadas vasos na casa de vegetação e a quitosana 100 ppm foi aplicada por pulverização foliar. A restrição hídrica durou 10 dias e foram avaliadas as trocas gasosas e a fluorescência da clorofila. O híbrido tolerante (DKB 390) apresentou maior fotossíntese, condutância estomática, eficiência de carboxilação, taxa de transporte de elétrons e quenching não fotoquímico quando aplicada a quitosana. As plantas do genótipo tolerante tratadas com quitosana foram mais tolerantes ao déficit hídrico porque foram mais responsivas ao biopolímero.


Subject(s)
Zea mays , Chitosan , Photosynthesis , Stress, Physiological , Water , Plant Leaves , Droughts
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 1-11, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089295

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize the limnological, microystin and phytoplankton community of five tropical eutrophic reservoirs located in the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid region, used for domestic use at the time of extreme drought and reduction of water volume. The study was conducted in July and August 2015, and an integrated sample of the water column was collected at three points near the dam in each reservoir. Analysis of limnological parameters, identification and quantification of phytoplankton, with emphasis on cyanobacteria were performed, as well as detection of microcystin by means of immunoassay (ELISA). The reservoirs presented ~ 90% water volume reduction. High turbidity and concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as high cyanobacterial densities, revealed an increase in the eutrophic state for hypereutrophy. The total biovolume of phytoplankton and cyanobacterial density is high, plus an average increase in relation to previous studies of 350% and 150%, respectively. The density of cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration presented values ​​above acceptable levels for drinking water according to Brazilian legislation. A phytoplankton community was represented by 17 functional groups, including potentially toxic cyanobacteria species such as Planktothrix agardhii (S1), Microcystis aeruginosa (M), Anabaena planktonica e Anabaena spp. (H1), Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Sn). Our results confirm that conditions of extreme drought and reduction of the volume of the reservoirs influence the composition, biovolume of phytoplankton and water quality, but not the increase of total microcystin in the analysed, although above 1μg-1 registered a significant decrease of water quality in used for human consumption.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a comunidade limnológica, microistalina e fitoplanctônica de cinco reservatórios eutróficos tropicais localizados no semi-árido nordestino brasileiro, utilizados para uso doméstico no período de seca extrema e redução do volume de água. O estudo foi realizado em julho e agosto de 2015, e uma amostra integrada da coluna de água foi coletada em três pontos próximos à barragem em cada reservatório. Análises de parâmetros limnológicos, identificação e quantificação do fitoplâncton, com ênfase em cianobactérias, foram realizadas, assim como a detecção de microcistina por meio de imunoensaio (ELISA). Os reservatórios apresentaram ~ 90% de redução do volume de água. A alta turbidez e as concentrações de nitrogênio e fósforo, bem como as altas densidades de cianobactérias, revelaram um aumento no estado eutrófico da hipereutrofia. O biovolume total de fitoplâncton e densidade de cianobactérias é alto, além de um aumento médio em relação a estudos anteriores de 350% e 150%, respectivamente. A densidade de cianobactérias e a concentração de microcistina apresentaram valores acima dos níveis aceitáveis ​​para água de consumo, de acordo com a legislação brasileira. Uma comunidade fitoplanctônica foi representada por 17 grupos funcionais, incluindo espécies de cianobactérias potencialmente tóxicas, como Planktothrix agardhii (S1), Microcystis aeruginosa (M), Anabaena planktonica e Anabaena spp. (H1), Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Sn). Nossos resultados confirmam que condições de seca extrema e redução do volume dos reservatórios influenciam a composição, o biovolume de fitoplâncton e a qualidade da água, mas não o aumento do total de microcistina no analisado, embora acima de 1μg-1 tenha registrado uma diminuição significativa da qualidade da água usado para consumo humano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phytoplankton , Microcystins , Water Supply , Brazil , Water , Droughts
13.
Biol. Res ; 53: 23, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) genes are a class of plant specific transcription factors (TFs), which play important roles in plant development, growth and abiotic stress responses. The wheat ASRs have not been described in genome-wide yet. METHODS: We predicted the transmembrane regions and subcellular localization using the TMHMM server, and Plant-mPLoc server and CELLO v2.5, respectively. Then the phylogeny tree was built by MEGA7. The exon-intron structures, conserved motifs and TFs binding sites were analyzed by GSDS, MEME program and PlantRegMap, respectively. RESULTS: In wheat, 33ASR genes were identified through a genome-wide survey and classified into six groups. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the TaASR proteins in the same group tightly clustered together, compared with those from other species. Duplication analysis indicated that the TaASR gene family has expanded mainly through tandem and segmental duplication events. Similar gene structures and conserved protein motifs of TaASRs in wheat were identified in the same groups. ASR genes contained various TF binding cites associated with the stress responses in the promoter region. Gene expression was generally associated with the expected group-specific expression pattern in five tissues, including grain, leaf, root, spike and stem, indicating the broad conservation of ASR genes function during wheat evolution. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that several ASRs were up-regulated in response to NaCl and PEG stress. CONCLUSION: We identified ASR genes in wheat and found that gene duplication events are the main driving force for ASR gene evolution in wheat. The expression of wheat ASR genes was modulated in responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including drought/osmotic and salt stress. The results provided important information for further identifications of the functions of wheat ASR genes and candidate genes for high abiotic stress tolerant wheat breeding.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/genetics , Triticum/genetics , Abscisic Acid/analysis , Genome, Plant/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Droughts , Phylogeny , Transcription Factors/genetics , Triticum/classification , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 470-487, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001445

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Brazil, given its privileged hydrology, the unexplored economic use of water resources has many dimensions, such as hydroelectric power. This energy will face increasingly rigorous social and environmental impact assessments (40% of potential is located in the Amazon region). Hydropower inventory studies conducted over decades, with solutions such as ecological river flows, that flood smaller areas and reduce natural river flows modifications, are being reviewed. The river extension from dam to the point where the waters are returned after the powerhouse is known as the Reduced Flow Stretch (RFS). Even mega-projects, such as the 11.3 GW Belo Monte dam, are designed with deviating flows reaching an astounding 13,000 m 3/s (excavated material higher than Panama Canal). RFS requires to be carefully studied to achieve appropriate ecological flows, since RFS flows increased reduces the plant's electricity production to the same installed capacity. Balancing RFS requirements and hydroelectric power remains a challenge and, clearly, there is no consensus. Here, we performed an analysis of the main environmental impacts caused by RFS requirements, considering the multiple water use specific for each dam site. The natural variability of river flows provides diversity of habitats and maintains the richness and complexity of biological communities. Therefore, the present study has great ecological, social and economic relevance, since proper evaluation of the RFS requirements avoids potential destabilization of biological communities and even loss of biodiversity. This type of arrangement was more common in dams located in headwaters of rivers, as in the slopes of the Andes mountain range, and in regions like the Alps. There are many hydroelectric plants in South America and Europe that have this type of arrangement of engineering works. But the times are different and the environmental impacts have to be better evaluated. A final aspect also involves the maintenance of ecological flows downstream of dams. Regularization reservoirs need to keep downstream, even if they do not have a TVR, adequate flows that represent minimally the seasonality of the river, with floods and droughts, that propitiate the maintenance of the ecosystems downstream. There are cases such as the Sobradinho Plant in the São Francisco River that has been much questioned in this regard, especially when the climate is changing in the basin, with long periods of drought, and with increasing water use. So this is a very important and increasingly current issue.


Resumo No Brasil, dada a sua hidrologia privilegiada, o uso econômico dos recursos hídricos tem muitas dimensões, como a energia hidrelétrica, agricultura, abastecimento humano. A energia hidrelétrica tem enfrentado e enfrentará cada vez mais avaliações de impacto social e ambiental rigorosas (notadamente na região amazônica onde está localizado 40% do potencial). Os últimos estudos de inventário de para implantação de hidrelétricas por esse motivo tem sido feitos procurando soluções que minimizem a área de inundação e abandonando aquelas alternativas que propunham a modificação dos fluxos naturais dos rios, com a construção de reservatórios de regularização. Algumas dessas soluções de engenharia envolvem a proposição de um trecho de vazão reduzida, um trecho de rio que vai da barragem até o ponto em que as águas são devolvidas ao seu curso natural, após passar pelas turbinas, de forma a aproveitar a queda proporcionada pelo rio e pela barragem. Esse estirão fluvial é conhecido como trecho de fluxo ou vazão reduzida (TVR). Mesmo mega-projetos, como a represa de Belo Monte (11,3 GW), são projetados desta forma, com fluxos desviados por vales e canais laterais, escavados (nesse caso chegando a um surpreendente 13000 m3 (de material escavado superior ao do Canal do Panamá). Assim o TVR sofre um impacto severo e definitivo, local onde a vazão natural será diminuída e que precisa ser cuidadosamente estudado para se possa propor fluxos ecológicos adequados, uma vez que um aumento nos fluxos no TVR reduz a produção de eletricidade da planta para a mesma capacidade instalada. A forma de equilibrar os requisitos do TVR e a energia hidroelétrica continua a ser um desafio, e claramente não há consenso. Neste estudo, realizamos uma análise dos principais impactos ambientais causados pelos requisitos do TVR, considerando as múltiplas utilizações de água específicas para cada local da barragem. O estudo é relevante porque a variabilidade natural dos fluxos dos rios fornece diversidade de habitats e mantém a riqueza e a complexidade das comunidades biológicas. Se os requisitos do TVR não forem adequadamente avaliados, pode haver uma desestabilização de comunidades biológicas e até mesmo uma perda de biodiversidade. Esse tipo de arranjo era mais comum em barragens localizadas em cabeceiras de rios, como nas encostas da cordilheira dos Andes, e em regiões como os Alpes. Existem muitas hidrelétricas na América do Sul e na Europa que possuem esse tipo de arranjo de obras de engenharia. Mas os tempos são outros e os impactos ambientais tem que ser melhor avaliados. Um último aspecto também envolve a manutenção de fluxos ecológicos a jusante de barragens. Reservatórios de regularização precisam manter a jusante, mesmo que não tenham um TVR, fluxos adequados que representem minimamente a sazonalidade do rio, com cheias e estiagens, que propiciem a manutenção dos ecossistemas a jusante. Existem casos como o da Usina de Sobradinho no rio São Francisco que tem sido muito questionado nesse aspecto, notadamente quando o clima está mudando na bacia, com longos períodos de estiagem, e com crescimento dos conflitos de uso da água. Portanto esse é um tema importantíssimo e cada vez mais atual.


Subject(s)
Water Movements , Rivers , Environment , Brazil , Hydrology , Droughts , Floods
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 741-752, may./jun. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048643

ABSTRACT

Among the factors that may influence the germination process of seeds, water deficiency is considered the most important. The present study aims to evaluate the physiological response of peanut genotypes to water deficiency. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications in a 12 x 7 factorial scheme with 12 peanut genotypes and seven polyethylene glycol 6000 concentrations corresponding to osmotic potentials of 0.00; -0.10; -0.20; -0.40; -0.60; -0.80 and -1.00 MPa. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey's test at a 5% probability level and, when significant, to analysis of variance adjusted to a quadratic polynomial curve. The germination percentage, seed vigor evaluated by the speed germination index, mean germination time, root length and root dry matter of some genotypes were affected by the osmotic potentials. Among the genotypes, there is a differential response related to the water deficiency level. In relation to the physiological response of the seeds, the lineages 506, 599, and 870 and the cultivar IAC Tatu-ST have a higher tolerance of water deficit. The peanut genotypes begin to suffer the effects of water deficiency at the osmotic potential of -0.4 MPa


Entre os fatores externos que podem influenciar o processo germinativo das sementes, a deficiência hídrica é considerada o mais importante. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a resposta fisiológica de sementes de genótipos de amendoim submetidos à deficiência hídrica. O experimento foi conduzido em esquema fatorial 12 x 7, tendo como tratamentos sementes de 12 genótipos de amendoim submetidos a sete concentrações de polietilenoglicol 6000, nos potenciais osmóticos correspondentes a 0,00; -0,10; -0,20; -0,40; -0,60; -0,80; -1,00 MPa. Constatou-se que os genótipos são afetados pelos potenciais osmóticos e, entre os genótipos, há resposta diferenciada em relação ao nível de deficiência hídrica. Em relação à resposta fisiológica das sementes, as linhagens 506, 599, 870 e a cultivar IAC Tatu-ST possuem maiortolerância à deficiência hídrica. Todos os genótipos de amendoim começam a sofrerem os efeitos da deficiência hídrica a partir do potencial osmótico de -0,4 MPa para a maior parte das características avaliadas


Subject(s)
Arachis , Seeds , Germination , Dehydration , Droughts
16.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 39: 42-51, may. 2019. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1052010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is an important staple food crop in southwest China, where drought stress is one of the largest limiting factors that lead to decreased crop production. To reveal the molecular mechanism of common buckwheat in response to drought stress, we performed a comprehensive transcriptomics study to evaluate gene expression profiles of common buckwheat during PEG-mediated drought treatment. RESULTS: In total, 45 million clean reads were assembled into 53,404 unigenes with an average length of 749 bp and N50 length of 1296 bp. A total of 1329 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by comparing wellwatered and drought-treated plants, out of which 666 were upregulated and 663 were downregulated. Furthermore, we defined the functional characteristics of DEGs using GO and KEGG classifications. GO enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly overrepresented in four categories, namely, "oxidoreductase activity," "oxidation­reduction process," "xyloglucan:xyloglucosyl transferase activity," and "apoplast." Using KEGG pathway analysis, a large number of annotated genes were overrepresented in terms such as "plant hormone signal transduction," "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis," "photosynthesis," and "carbon metabolism." Conclusions: These results can be further exploited to investigate the molecular mechanism of common buckwheat in response to drought treatment and could supply with valuable molecular sources for abiotic-tolerant elite breeding programs in the future.


Subject(s)
Stress, Physiological/genetics , Fagopyrum/genetics , Transcription Factors , Transferases , Signal Transduction , Gene Expression , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Droughts , Chlorophyll Binding Proteins , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcriptome
17.
Rev. biol. trop ; 67(1): 83-93, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041896

ABSTRACT

Abstract The solubility equilibrium of calcite is influenced by physicochemical, climatic and biological factors. Annual cycles of exceptionally prolonged drought, in conjunction with naturally occurring diffuse organic pollution, generate the unique conditions for the precipitation of lithified carbonate structures (microbialites). The aim of this article is to analyze the possible implications of calcite precipitation produced in mats of Cladophora sp. in an Andean subtropical basin, considering it is the first time this phenomenon is described for the region. We collected samples from selected sites at the Lules River Basin, in four sampling dates between the years 2003 and 2004, within a monitoring work of 15 years. Samples were analyzed using an electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis. We found that Gomphonema sp. attached to Cladophora sp. contributes to precipitation of calcite and formation of microbialite like structures, in the studied area. This work presents an initial discussion of the discovery of microbialites-like structures attached to Cladophora sp. mats in a subtropical Andean stream and the environmental conditions that lead to their production, as well as the possible ecological implications of these microbialites.(AU)


Resumen La fase sólida de las sales de los cuerpos de agua juega un papel importante en la concentración de los elementos mayoritarios. El equilibrio de solubilidad de la calcita está influenciado por factores fisicoquímicos, climáticos y biológicos. Los ciclos anuales de sequía excepcionalmente prolongada, junto con la contaminación orgánica difusa de origen natural, generan condiciones únicas para la precipitación de estructuras de carbonato litificado (microbialitos). El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las posibles implicaciones de la precipitación de calcita producida en Cladophora sp. en una cuenca subtropical andina, considerando que es la primera vez que se describe este fenómeno para la región. Recolectamos muestras en sitios seleccionados en la Cuenca del Río Lules, en cuatro fechas de muestreo entre 2003 y 2004, en el marco de un trabajo de monitoreo de quince años. Usamos red Surber para realizar los muestreos. Las muestras de algas, una vez libres de macroinvertebrados, se secaron y pesaron. Analizamos utilizando microscopía electrónica y difracción de rayos X. Encontramos que Gomphonema sp. unido a Cladophora contribuye a la precipitación de calcita y la formación de estructuras similares a microbialitos, en el área estudiada. Este trabajo presenta una discusión inicial sobre el descubrimiento de estructuras similares a microbialitos unidas a filamentos de Cladophora sp. en una cuenca andina subtropical y las condiciones ambientales que conducen a su producción, así como las posibles implicaciones ecológicas de lo mencionado anteriormente.(AU)


Subject(s)
Lithium Carbonate/analysis , Diatoms/chemistry , Environmental Pollution , Droughts , Argentina , X-Ray Diffraction/instrumentation , Microscopy, Electron/instrumentation , Sampling Studies
18.
Rev. luna azul ; 48: 172-192, Enero 01, 2019. graf, tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119454

ABSTRACT

El análisis multivariado consiste en determinar si existen maneras más simples de representar un conjunto de datos complejo, además de explorar si las observaciones se concentran en grupos y si existe una interdependencia entre los elementos. Este tipo de técnicas se han utilizado ampliamente para analizar datos climatológicos. Es por ello que el objetivo de esta investigación fue caracterizar la ocurrencia de períodos de sequía por medio de series temporales del Índice Normalizado de Precipitación (SPI) para siete localidades agrícolas de Venezuela, mediante el uso de dos métodos multivariados. A través del SPI, se cuantificaron las condiciones de déficit o exceso de precipitación en las localidades agrícolas con una escala mensual del periodo 1980-2014. Para el análisis, se usó la combinación de dos métodos multivariados: el Análisis de Coordenadas Principales de las matrices de datos usando distancia Euclídea y el Análisis de Conglomerados. En las siete localidades se describieron dos o tres grupos de años de SPI. En el caso de las localidades que resultaron con tres grupos (CENIAP, El Cují y Yaritagua) estos se categorizaron en años húmedos, años intermedios y años con déficit hídrico significativo. En tanto que, en el caso de las localidades que resultaron con dos grupos (Turén, Quíbor, Mucuchíes y Bramón) se clasificaron en años húmedos y años asociados al déficit hídrico. La aplicación de estos métodos multivariados permitió identificar los patrones espaciales mensuales dominantes del SPI sobre las localidades estudiadas, además de estar relacionados con la ocurrencia de sequías locales de gran importancia desde el punto de vista agrícola.


Multivariate analysis consists in determining if there are simpler ways to represent a complex set of data, besides exploring if the observations are concentrated in groups and if there is interdependence between the elements. These types of techniques have been widely used to analyze climatological data. That is why the objective of this research was to characterize the occurrence of drought periods by means of time series of the Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) for seven agricultural locations in Venezuela, by using two multivariate methods. The conditions of deficit or excess of precipitation in the agricultural localities were quantified through the SPI with a monthly scale of the period 1980-2014. The combination of two multivariate methods was used for the analysis: Principal Coordinate Analysis of the data matrices using Euclidean distance and Cluster Analysis. Two or three groups of years of SPI were described in the seven locations. In the case of the locations that resulted with three groups (CENIAP, El Cují and Yaritagua), these were categorized in wet years, intermediate years and years with significant water deficit. Meanwhile, in the case of the locations that resulted with two groups (Turén, Quíbor, Mucuchíes and Bramón), they were classified into wet years and years associated with the water deficit. The application of these multivariate methods made it possible to identify the dominant monthly spatial patterns of the SPI on the studied locations, besides being related to the occurrence of local droughts of great importance from the agricultural point of view.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agriculture , Venezuela , Climate , Droughts
19.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 101-113, jan./fev. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048564

ABSTRACT

The aggravating threat for today's agriculture is provision of food security to ever-escalating population utilizing scarce resources. Water scarcity is restraining humans to produce more from drops of water in place of gallons. Root is present at soil-plant interface and is main water extractor for plant. Its growth pattern varies as soil moisture conditions fluctuates. Present pot study consisting of two factors i.e. organic substrates (Farm manure, Poultry Manure and Molasses) and different water stress levels {50, 75, 100 and 125% of available water contents (AWCs)} using maize as test crop to assess their impact on different growth parameters (especially root growth). The experiment was conducted using completely randomized design CRD under factorial arrangement. Root length (44.5 cm), root fresh & dry biomass (71.1 g and 24.3 g, respectively), root diameter (1.73 mm), root volume (0.24 cm3) and root length density (7.4 x 10-3 cm cm-3) were observed in farm manure treated pots at 75% AWC that was statistically indistinguishable from all other treatments at same water level and 100% water availability but eloquently greater than plants of all treatments at 50% and 125% available water contents. Shoot length, dry and fresh weights were observed greater in plants having 100% available moistures. They were statistically at par with 75% water treated plants. Comparing treatments for all the parameters in multivariate cluster analysis it was concluded that 75% available water contents produce almost similar to 100% along with the benefit of water security.


A ameaça agravante para a agricultura atual é a provisão de segurança alimentar para populações cada vez maiores, utilizando recursos escassos. A escassez de água está restringindo os seres humanos a produzir mais a partir de gotas de água no lugar de galões. A raiz está presente na interface solo-planta e é o principal extrator de água para a planta. Seu padrão de crescimento varia conforme as condições de umidade do solo flutuam. O presente estudo em vaso é constituído por dois fatores, ou seja, substratos orgânicos (esterco bovino, esterco de aves e melaço) e diferentes níveis de stress hídrico {50, 75, 100 e 125% do teor de água disponível (AWCs)} utilizando milho como cultura de teste para avaliar o seu impacto em diferentes parâmetros de crescimento (especialmente crescimento de raiz). O experimento foi conduzido utilizando delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial. Raiz radicular (44,5 cm), biomassa seca e fresca da raiz (71,1 ge 24,3 g, respectivamente), diâmetro radicular (1,73 mm), volume radicular (0,24 cm3) e densidade radicular (7,4 x 10-3 cm cm-3) foram observados em vasos tratados com esterco de fazenda a 75% AWC que foi estatisticamente indistinguível de todos os outros tratamentos no mesmo nível de água e 100% de disponibilidade de água, mas eloqüentemente maior que plantas de todos os tratamentos a 50% e 125% de conteúdo de água disponível. O comprimento do rebento, peso seco e fresco foram maiores nas plantas com 100% de umidade disponível. Eles foram estatisticamente equivalentes a 75% de plantas tratadas com água. Comparando os tratamentos para todos os parâmetros na análise multivariada de clusters, concluiu-se que 75% do conteúdo de água disponível produz quase o mesmo que 100%, juntamente com o benefício da segurança hídrica.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Zea mays , Dehydration , Droughts , Soil , Water Insecurity , Food Supply
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(1): 115-125, jan./fev. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048565

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of some new facilitators on the vegetative and morphological traits of Thymus kotschyanus, nine treatments were tested in the experimental rangeland field at the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran. Treatments included control, potassium silicate nanoparticles (PSN) with two levels of 500 and 1000 mg/lit, superabsorbent hydrogel (SH) with two levels of 10 and 30 g/kg, animal manure (AM) with two levels of 100, 200 g/kg, and effective microorganisms (EM) with two levels of 1 and 2%. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of mean comparisons of treatments for Thymus kotschyanus characteristics showed that the highest amount of studied traits were observed in the treated SH 30 g/kg. These traits include plant height (19.44 cm), basal area (4.66 cm), canopy cover (99.11%), number of secondary branches (9.44) and depth of rooting (16.49 cm), aerial parts volume (26.77 cm3), root volume (17.66 cm3), aerial parts fresh weight (14.40 g), aerial parts dry weight (7.18 g), root fresh weight (3.98 g), and root dry weight (2.07 g). In general, the impact of treatments on Thymus growth traits were ranked as follows: SH 30 g/kg, PSN 1000 mg/lit, AM 200 g/kg, SH 10 g/kg, PSN 500 mg/lit, AM 100 g/kg, EM 2%, and EM 1%. In addition,the lowest plant traits were found in control. Overall, it is recommended extending the cultivation of this native medicinal plant by considering ecological conditions in each region. In addition, to promote the establishment and facilitate the growth of planted species, it is recommended using the facilitators utilized in the present work.


Para estudar os efeitos de alguns novos facilitadores sobre as características vegetativas e morfológicas de Thymus kotschyanus L., nove tratamentos foram testados no campo experimental de pastagens na Universidade de Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Irã. Os tratamentos incluíram controle, nanopartículas de silicato de potássio (PSN) com dois níveis de 500 e 1000 mg/L, hidrogel superabsorvente (SH) com dois níveis de 10 e 30 g/kg, esterco animal (AM) com dois níveis de 100 e 200 g/kg e microorganismos efetivos (EM) com dois níveis de 1 e 2%. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância unidirecional (ANOVA). Os resultados das comparações médias dos tratamentos para as características de Thymus kotschyanus L. mostraram que a maior quantidade das características estudadas foi observada no tratamento com SH 30 g/kg. Essas características incluem altura de plantas (19,44 cm), área basal (4,66 cm), cobertura de dossel (99,11%), número de ramos secundários (9,44) e profundidade de enraizamento (16,49 cm), volume de partes aéreas (26,77 cm3), volume de raiz (17,66 cm3), peso fresco de partes aéreas (14,40 g), peso seco de partes aéreas (7,18 g), peso fresco de raiz (3,98 g) e peso seco de raiz (2,07 g). Em geral, o impacto dos tratamentos nas características de crescimento de Thymus foi classificado da seguinte forma: SH 30 g/kg, PSN 1000 mg/L, AM 200 g/kg, SH 10 g/kg, PSN 500 mg/L, AM 100 g/kg, EM 2% e EM 1%. Além disso, as características mais baixas da planta foram encontradas no controle. Em geral, recomenda-se estender o cultivo desta plantamedicinal nativa considerando as condições ecológicas em cada região. Além disso, para promover o estabelecimento e facilitar o crescimento de espécies plantadas, recomenda-se utilizar os facilitadores utilizados no presente trabalho.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Thymus Plant , Nanostructures , Droughts , Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate , Manure
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