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1.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 22: e44129, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1149527

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo analisar fatores associados à adesão medicamentosa entre trabalhadores de universidade pública que referiram uso de medicação contínua. Métodos estudo transversal, desenvolvido junto a 629 trabalhadores de instituição pública de ensino superior. Dados coletados mediante entrevistas com formulários adaptados do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro e analisados pelo teste qui-quadrado. Resultados verificou-se que 331 (52,6%) dos participantes utilizavam medicação contínua, destes, 175 (52,9%) apresentaram padrão de adesão parcialmente satisfatória e 156 (47,1%) totalmente satisfatória. Trabalhadores com problema crônico de coluna, depressão, fraqueza/cansaço, dispneia e dor no peito apresentaram significativamente menor adesão ao tratamento medicamentoso (p≤0,050). Características sociodemográficas e laborais, polifarmácia e tipo de medicamento não se mostraram associados à adesão medicamentosa (p>0,050). Conclusão observou-se adesão satisfatória entre os trabalhadores pesquisados em relação ao tratamento medicamentoso, estando a presença de alguns sintomas e as doenças crônicas específicas associados à adesão medicamentosa parcialmente satisfatória.


ABSTRACT Objective to analyze factors associated with medication adherence among public university workers who reported use of continuous medication. Methods cross-sectional study carried out with 629 workers from a public university. Data were collected through interviews using forms adapted from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and analyzed using the chi-square test. Results three hundred thirty-one (52.6%) participants were users of continuous medication, of these, 175 (52.9%) had a partially satisfactory adherence pattern and 156 (47.1%) a totally satisfactory pattern. Workers with chronic back problems, depression, weakness/tiredness, dyspnea, and chest pain had significantly less adherence to drug treatment (p≤0.050). Sociodemographic and labor characteristics, polypharmacy, and type of medication were not associated with medication adherence (p>0.050). Conclusion satisfactory drug adherence was observed among the participants in relation to drug treatment, and the presence of some symptoms and specific chronic diseases was associated with partially satisfactory drug adherence.


Subject(s)
Drug Administration Schedule , Risk Factors , Patient Compliance , Medication Adherence , Occupational Groups
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 605-612, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155767

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Preoperative use of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) is extensively adopted to modulate the effects of analgesia. However, the relationship between FA and sedation agents remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of FA on the median Effective Concentration (EC50) of propofol. Methods Ninety-six patients (ASA I or II, aged 18-65 years) were randomly assigned into one of four groups in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Group A (control group) received 10 mL of Intralipid, and groups B, C and D received 0.5 mg.kg−1, 0.75 mg.kg−1 and 1 mg.kg−1 of FA, respectively, 10 minutes before induction. The depth of anesthesia was measured by the Bispectral Index (BIS). The "up-and-down" method was used to calculate the EC50 of propofol. During the equilibration period, if BIS ≤ 50 (or BIS > 50), the next patient would receive a 0.5 µg.mL−1-lower (or -higher) propofol Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) concentration. The hemodynamic data were recorded at baseline, 10 minutes after FA administration, after induction, after intubation and 15 minutes after intubation. Results The EC50 of propofol was lower in Group C (2.32 µg.mL−1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.85-2.75) and D (2.39 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 1.91-2.67) than in Group A (2.96 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 2.55-3.33) (p = 0.023, p = 0.048, respectively). There were no significant differences in the EC50 between Group B (2.53 µg.mL−1, 95% CI 2.33-2.71) and Group A (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in Heart Rate (HR) among groups A, B and C. The HR was significantly lower in Group D than in Group A after intubation (66 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 10 bpm, p < 0.01) and 15 minutes after intubation (61 ± 4 vs. 70 ± 8 bpm, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences among the four groups in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) at any time point. The MAP of the four groups was significantly lower after induction, after intubation, and 15 minutes after intubation than at baseline (p < 0.05). Conclusion High-dose FA (0.75 mg.kg−1 or 1 mg.kg−1) reduces the EC50 of propofol, and 1 mg.kg−1 FA reduces the HR for adequate anesthesia in unstimulated patients. Although this result should be investigated in cases of surgical stimulation, we suggest that FA pre-administration may reduce the propofol requirement when the depth of anesthesia is measured by BIS.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A administração pré‐operatória de Flurbiprofeno Axetil (FA) é amplamente usada para a modulação da analgesia. No entanto, a relação entre FA e fármacos sedativos permanece obscura. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi investigar os efeitos de diferentes doses de FA na Concentração Efetiva mediana (CE50) do propofol. Métodos Noventa e seis pacientes (ASA I ou II, com idades de 18-65 anos) foram alocados aleatoriamente em quatro grupos na proporção de 1:1:1:1. Dez minutos antes da indução, o Grupo A (grupo controle) recebeu 10 mL de Intralipid, enquanto os grupos B, C e D receberam FA na dose de 0,5 mg.kg‐1; 0,75 mg.kg‐1 e 1 mg.kg‐1, respectivamente. A profundidade da anestesia foi medida pelo Índice Bispectral (BIS). O método up‐and‐down foi usado para calcular a CE50 do propofol. Durante o período de equilíbrio, se o valor do BIS fosse ≤ 50 ou BIS > 50, o próximo paciente tinha a infusão de propofol ajustada para uma concentração alvo‐controlada 0,5 µg.mL‐1 inferior ou superior, respectivamente. Os dados hemodinâmicos foram registrados no início do estudo, 10 minutos após a administração de FA, após a indução, após a intubação e 15 minutos após a intubação. Resultados A CE50 do propofol foi menor no Grupo C (2,32 µg.mL‐1, Intervalo de Confiança de 95% [95% IC] 1,85-2,75) e D (2,39 µg.mL‐1, 95% IC 1,91-2,67) do que no Grupo A (2,96 µg.mL‐1; 95% IC 2,55-3,33) (p = 0,023, p = 0,048, respectivamente). Não houve diferenças significantes na CE50 entre o Grupo B (2,53 µg.mL‐1, 95% IC 2,33-2,71) e o Grupo A (p > 0,05). Não houve diferenças significantes na Frequência Cardíaca (FC) entre os grupos A, B e C. A FC foi significantemente menor no grupo D do que no grupo A após a intubação (66 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 10 bpm, p < 0,01) e 15 minutos após a intubação (61 ± 4 vs. 70 ± 8 bpm, p < 0,01). Não houve diferenças significantes entre os quatro grupos na Pressão Arterial Média (PAM) em qualquer momento. A PAM dos quatro grupos foi significantemente menor após a indução, após a intubação e 15 minutos após a intubação do que na linha de base (p < 0,05). Conclusão FA em altas doses (0,75 mg.kg‐1 ou 1 mg.kg‐1) reduz a CE50 do propofol, e 1 mg.kg‐1 de FA reduz a FC durante níveis adequados de anestesia em pacientes não estimulados. Embora esse resultado deva ser investigado na presença de estimulação cirúrgica, sugerimos que a pré‐administração de FA pode reduzir a necessidade de propofol durante anestesia cuja profundidade seja monitorada pelo BIS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Propofol/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Flurbiprofen/analogs & derivatives , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Anesthesia , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Phospholipids/administration & dosage , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Soybean Oil/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Confidence Intervals , Flurbiprofen/administration & dosage , Elective Surgical Procedures , Electroencephalography/drug effects , Emulsions/administration & dosage , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Heart Rate/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid , Middle Aged
4.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 684-690, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144266

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El primer año de vida es un periodo de riesgo de deficiencia de vitamina D (VD). La administración de 400 UI diarias de VD no tiene una adherencia del 100%, en cambio dosis únicas de 100.000 UI de VD oral son seguras en recién nacidos. OBJETIVO: Comparar el efecto de la suplementación oral de VD en dosis única de 100.000 UI al mes de edad vs dosis diarias de 400 UI sobre las concentraciones séricas de VD, a los 6 meses de vida. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Ensayo clínico aleatorizado, sin enmascaramiento. Se incluyeron 84 lactantes sanos de 1 mes de vida, asignados al azar al grupo de estudio (GE) que recibió una dosis única de VD de 100.000 UI oral o al grupo control (GC), que recibió dosis diarias de VD de 400 UI oral del 1er al 6to mes de vida. A los 6 meses de edad se determinó la concentración sérica de VD. RESULTADOS: 65 lactantes terminaron el estudio, 36 en GE y 29 en GC. No se encontró deficiencia de VD. La insuficiencia de VD fue de 5,5% y 6,8% en el GE y GC, respectivamente. La concentración sérica de VD a los 6 meses de vida, fue de 38,8 ± 5,2 ng/ml y 39,7 ± 6,3 ng/ml para GE y GC, respectivamente (NS). CONCLUSIONES: La suplementación con 100.000 UI de VD única al mes de edad logra concentraciones séricas de VD a los 6 meses de vida, similares a dosis diarias de 400 UI de VD, del 1er al 6to mes.


INTRODUCTION: Infants are a group at risk of vitamin D (VD) deficiency. The administration of 400 IU of VD per day during the first year of life does not achieve 100% adherence. A single dose of 100,000 IU of oral VD is safe in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of oral administration of VD between a single dose of 100,000 IU at one month of age vs daily doses of 400 IU on serum concentrations of VD, at 6 months of age. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: Randomized clinical trial, without masking. 84 healthy infants were included at 1 month of age, randomized to the study group (SG) receiving a single oral dose of 100,000 IU or to the control group (CG), who received daily oral doses of VD of 400 IU from the 1st to the 6th month of life. At 6 months of life, the serum concentration of VD was determined. RESULTS: 65 infants completed the study, 36 in SG and 29 in CG. No VD deficiency was found. VD insufficient was 5.5% and 6.8% in the SG and CG, respectively. The serum concentration of VD at six months of age was 38.8 ± 5.2 ng/ml and 39.7 ± 6.3 ng/ml for the SG and CG, respectively (NS). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of 100,000 IU of VD at one month age achieves serum concentrations of VD at 6 months of life similar to the administration of daily doses of 400 IU of VD from the 1st to the 6th month.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamin D Deficiency/diagnosis , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Biomarkers/blood , Nutritional Status , Administration, Oral , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
5.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 36(3): 215-222, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138555

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La prevención de la tuberculosis activa en los grupos de riesgo es clave para el control y eliminación de la tuberculosis. El tratamiento de la infección tuberculosa latente (TITL) con rifapentina e isoniazida en dosis semanales por 12 semanas es más corto que con otros esquemas, tiene menor hepatotoxicidad, mejor adherencia y es costo-efectivo. El OBJETIVO del estudio es evaluar la factibilidad de implementar este esquema a nivel programático en Chile. MÉTODOS: Se hizo una intervención piloto en territorios seleccionados entre mayo de 2018 y marzo de 2019. En esos territorios se reemplazó el esquema normado de TITL con isoniazida 6 meses por el esquema rifapentina-isoniazida 12 semanas. Además, se amplió la población objetivo, incluyendo a contactos mayores de 14 años. El tratamiento consistió en la administración conjunta de isoniazida y rifapentina por vía oral con frecuencia semanal, por 12 semanas, de forma supervisada por personal de salud. RESULTADOS: Ingresaron 238 pacientes al piloto, de los cuales 53% fueron mujeres y 54,2% fueron mayores de 14 años. Del total de pacientes, 203 (85,3%) completaron el tratamiento, 22 (9,2%) lo abandonaron, 8 (3,4%) presentaron reacciones adversas y 5 tuvieron otros motivos de egreso. CONCLUSIÓN: Tanto el TITL con rifapentinaisoniazida por 3 meses en dosis semanales supervisadas, como la incorporación de contactos adultos a TITL, son factibles de implementar a nivel programático en Chile.


INTRODUCTION: Prevention of active tuberculosis in risk groups is crucial in tuberculosis control and elimination. Treatment of latent tuberculosis (TITL) with rifapentine and isoniazid in weekly doses for 12 weeks is shorter than other pharmacological treatments, with less liver toxicity, better patient compliance and it is cost-effective. The OBJECTIVE of this study is to evaluate the feasibility to implement this treatment at a programmatic level in Chile. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in selected territories between May 2018 and March 2019. Within these territories, the regulated treatment with isoniazid 6 months was replaced by the 12 weeks treatment with weekly rifapentine-isoniazide. Additionally, the target population was expanded to include contacts over 14 years old, currently not included in the national guidelines. Treatment consisted in oral administration of rifapentine and isoniazide together once a week for 12 weeks, under supervision of trained health workers. RESULTS: From 238 patients entered to the protocol, 53% of them were women and 54.2% were older than 14 years-old. Out of the total number of patients, 203 (85.3%) completed treatment, 22 (9.2%) abandoned, 8 (3.4%) had adverse drug reactions, and 5 ended treatment for different causes. CONCLUSION: Both TITL with rifapentine-isoniazide in 12 supervised weekly doses, and the inclusion of adult contacts in TITL, are feasible to implement at a programmatic level in Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Rifampin/analogs & derivatives , Latent Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Chile , Pilot Projects , Administration, Oral , Patient Compliance , Directly Observed Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , National Health Programs
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(4): 553-560, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138670

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las infecciones graves son la principal causa de ingreso a cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El panel FilmArray BCID permite identificar rápidamente a microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias. OBJETIVO: evaluar la eficacia de la identificación rápida de microorganismos asociado a un Programa de Uso Racional de Antibióticos (URA) en reducir los tiempos de terapias antibióticas, en un hospital pediátrico. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo, que incluyó 100 pacientes, en su primer episo dio de bacteriemia, divididos en 2 grupos de 50 cada uno: Intervención (FilmArray BCID y programa URA) y Controles históricos pareados para la misma especie del microrganismo identificado (microbiología convencional). Las variables evaluadas fueron los tiempos de identificación microbiana, latencia de la terapia dirigida y de desescalar antibióticos. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron comparables en características demográficas, foco de infección y etiología de bacteriemia. El tiempo promedio de identificación de microorganismos fue de 23 h (IC 95% 12,4-26,7) en el grupo intervención, y 70,5 h (IC 95% 65,2-78,6) en el control (p < 0,05), mientras que la latencia de inicio de terapia dirigida fue de 27,9 h (IC 95% 22,3-32,8) y 71,9 h (IC 95% 63,2-77,8) respectivamente (p < 0,05). El tiempo de desescalar o suspender antibióticos fue de 6,4 h (IC 95% 2,76-9,49) y 22 h (IC 95% 6,74-35,6) en los grupos mencionados (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIÓN: El panel FilmArray BCID articulado a un programa URA, contribuye a la identificación de los microorganismos causantes de bacteriemias en menor tiempo que los métodos convencionales, siendo una herramienta que optimiza las terapias antibióti cas en niños críticamente enfermos.


INTRODUCTION: Severe infections are the leading cause of admission to pediatric intensive care. The FilmArray BCID panel quickly identifies microorganisms that cause bacteremia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if the rapid identification of the microorganisms that cause bacteremia, along with a Rational Use of Antibio tics (RUA) Program, allows optimizing the time of antibiotic therapy in a pediatric hospital. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study which included 100 patients presenting their first episode of bacteremia, divided into 2 groups of 50 each. The first one was Intervention (FilmArray BCID and RUA program) and the second one was Historical Controls (conventional automated ID/AST). The variables evaluated were the time required for microbial identification, duration of appropriate therapy, and antibiotic de-escalation. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, focus of infection, and etiology of bacteremia. The average time of microorganisms' identification of the control group was 70.5 hours (IC 95% 65.2-78.6) and 23.0 hours (IC 95% 12.4 -26.7) in the intervention one (p < 0.05). The average time of targeted therapy onset was shorter in the intervention group (27.9 h [IC 95% 22.3-32.8]) than that of the control one (71.9 h [IC 95% 63.2-77.8]) (p < 0.05). Finally, the time to de-escalate or discontinue antibiotics in the intervention group and the control one was 6.4 hours (IC 95% 2.76-9.49) hours and 22.0 hours (IC 95% 6.74-35.6 h) respectively (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The FilmArray panel along with the RUA Program allows the identification of the microorganisms causing bacteremia faster than conventional methods, which positions it as a tool that optimizes antibiotic therapy of critical patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Molecular Typing/methods , Blood Culture/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Drug Administration Schedule , Retrospective Studies , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 311-317, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137208

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Tranexamic acid was studied in four different dosage regimens and their efficacy was compared for perioperative blood loss reduction, blood transfusion requirements and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) complication. Methods: Two hundred patients undergoing major orthopedic procedures were divided into five groups containing 40 patients each: Placebo, low dose (bolus 10 mg kg-1), low dose + maintenance (bolus 10 mg kg-1 + maintenance 1 mg kg-1 hr-1), high dose (bolus 30 mg kg-1) and high dose + maintenance (bolus 30 mg kg-1 + maintenance 3 mg kg-1 hr-1). Surgical blood loss was measured intraoperatively and drains collection in the first 24 hours postoperatively. Blood transfusion was done when hematocrit falls less than 25%. DVT screening was done in the postoperative period. Results: The intraoperative blood loss was 440 ± 207.54 mL in the placebo group, 412.5 ± 208.21 mL in the low dose group, 290 ± 149.6 ml in the low dose plus maintenance group, 332.5 ± 162.33 mL in the high dose group and 240.7 ± 88.15 mL in the high dose maintenance group (p < 0.001). The reduction in postoperative blood loss in the drain for first 24 hours was 80 ± 44.44 mL in the placebo group, 89.88 ± 44.87 mL in the low dose group, 56.7 ± 29.12 mL in the low dose plus maintenance group, 77.9 ± 35.74 mL in the high dose group and 46.7 ± 19.9 mL in the high dose maintenance group (p < 0.001). DVT was not encountered in any patient. Conclusion: Tranexamic acid was most effective in reducing surgical blood loss and blood transfusion requirements in a low dose + maintenance group.


Resumo Justificativa: O ácido tranexâmico foi avaliado em quatro esquemas com diferentes posologias, comparando-se a eficácia de cada esquema quanto a redução na perda sanguínea perioperatória, necessidade de transfusão sanguínea e ocorrência de Trombose Venosa Profunda (TVP). Método: Duzentos pacientes submetidos a procedimentos ortopédicos de grande porte foram divididos em cinco grupos de 40 pacientes de acordo com o esquema de administração de ácido tranexâmico: grupo placebo, grupo baixa dose (bolus de 10 mg.kg-1, grupo baixa dose e manutenção (bolus de 10 mg.kg-1 + manutenção de 1 mg.kg-1.h-1), grupo alta dose (bolus de 30 mg.kg-1), e grupo alta dose e manutenção (bolus de 30 mg.kg-1 + manutenção de 3 mg.kg-1.h-1). A perda sanguínea cirúrgica foi medida no intraoperatório. Além disso, nas primeiras 24 horas pós-operatórias, foi medido o volume de sangue coletado no dreno. Era realizada transfusão de sangue se o valor do hematócrito fosse inferior a 25%. Foi realizada avaliação quanto à ocorrência de TVP no pós-operatório. Resultados: A perda sanguínea intraoperatória foi de 440 ± 207,54 mL no grupo placebo, 412,5 ± 208,21 mL no grupo baixa dose, 290 ± 149,6 mL no grupo baixa dose e manutenção, 332,5 ± 162,33 mL no grupo alta dose, e 240,7 ± 88,15 mL no grupo alta dose e manutenção (p < 0,001). A redução na perda sanguínea pós-operatória pelo dreno nas primeiras 24 horas foi de 80 ± 44,44 mL no grupo placebo; 89,88 ± 44,87 mL no grupo baixa dose, 56,7 ± 29,12 mL no grupo baixa dose e dose de manutenção, 77,9 ± 35,74 mL no grupo alta dose e 46,7 ± 19,9 mL no grupo alta dose e manutenção (p < 0,001). TVP não foi observada em nenhum paciente. Conclusão: O ácido tranexâmico administrado em baixa dose combinado à manutenção foi mais eficaz em reduzir a perda sanguínea cirúrgica e a necessidade de transfusão de sangue.


Subject(s)
Tranexamic Acid/administration & dosage , Blood Loss, Surgical/prevention & control , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Antifibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , Drug Administration Schedule , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Middle Aged
8.
Medwave ; 20(8): e8024, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128871

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La degeneración macular asociada a la edad es la principal causa de ceguera en personas mayores en el mundo. El tratamiento más eficaz consiste en inyecciones intravítreas de fármacos anti factor del crecimiento vascular endotelial (anti-VEGF). Sin embargo, no existe consenso sobre su frecuencia de administración, siendo pro re nata y treat and extend los protocolos más utilizados, pero existe controversia sobre su efectividad. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una búsqueda en Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante el cribado de múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, analizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un meta análisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron dos estudios primarios, ambos observacionales. Concluimos que no es posible establecer con claridad si el protocolo treat and extend en comparación a pro re nata es superior en términos de ganancia visual, disminución del grosor de la retina, número de inyecciones ni en el desarrollo de efectos adversos serios a los 12 meses, debido a que la certeza de la evidencia existente es muy baja.


INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in older people in the world. One of the most effective treat-ments consists of injection intravitreal of anti-endothelial vascular growth factor (anti-VEGF) drugs. However, there is no con-sensus on their frequency of administration, being the treat and extend and the pro re nata the most commonly used regimens, but there is still controversy regarding their effectiveness. METHODS: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified two systematic reviews that together included two primary studies, both observational studies. We concluded that we are uncertain whether the treat and extend regimen is superior in terms of visual gain, decrease in retinal thickness, number of injections and serious adverse effects at 12 months in comparison with the pro re nata regimen, because the certainty of the existing evidence has been assessed as very low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors , Macular Degeneration/drug therapy , Drug Administration Schedule , Visual Acuity/drug effects , Databases, Factual , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Intravitreal Injections , Macular Degeneration/pathology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827079

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a new Chinese medicine (CM)-based drug and to evaluate its safety and effect for suppressing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in COVID-19 patients.@*METHODS@#A putative ARDS-suppressing drug Keguan-1 was first developed and then evaluated by a randomized, controlled two-arm trial. The two arms of the trial consist of a control therapy (alpha interferon inhalation, 50 µg twice daily; and lopinavir/ritonavir, 400 and 100 mg twice daily, respectively) and a testing therapy (control therapy plus Keguan-1 19.4 g twice daily) by random number table at 1:1 ratio with 24 cases each group. After 2-week treatment, adverse events, time to fever resolution, ARDS development, and lung injury on newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients were assessed.@*RESULTS@#An analysis of the data from the first 30 participants showed that the control arm and the testing arm did not exhibit any significant differences in terms of adverse events. Based on this result, the study was expanded to include a total of 48 participants (24 cases each arm). The results show that compared with the control arm, the testing arm exhibited a significant improvement in time to fever resolution (P=0.035), and a significant reduction in the development of ARDS (P=0.048).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Keguan-1-based integrative therapy was safe and superior to the standard therapy in suppressing the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. (Trial registration No. NCT04251871 at www.clinicaltrials.gov ).


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Adult , China , Coronavirus Infections , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Integrative Medicine , Interferon-alpha , Lopinavir , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Mortality , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
11.
Psicol. rev. (Belo Horizonte) ; 25(3): 1343-1352, set.-dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1340525

ABSTRACT

Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir a conexão entre psicanálise e psiquiatria, com base na questão: qual medicação para o autista? Empregouse como metodologia a revisão narrativa. As evidências científicas demonstram que não há uma medicação específica para o autismo, mas sintomas específicos que perturbem a funcionalidade da vida diária, tais como insônia, agressividade, agitação, entre outros, podem ser medicados. O que o analista almeja não é mudar a forma de funcionamento autístico, mas permitir a possibilidade da construção de um universo singular, de soluções que nenhum manual diagnóstico pode antecipar. Nesse sentido, a psiquiatria e seu arsenal terapêutico, por meio do ato de medicar, entram no lugar de parceiro do analista, possibilitando que o sujeito não seja reduzido a ser um simples objeto de diagnóstico, em nome de uma suposta "normalidade". A medicação pode contribuir de forma pontual, descontínua ou, por vezes, contínua, possibilitando o percurso do tratamento analítico.


This article aims to discuss the connection between psychoanalysis and psychiatry based on the question: what is the medication for the autist? Narrative review was used as methodology. Scientific evidence shows that there is no specific medication for autism, but certain symptoms which disrupt the functionality of daily life, such as insomnia, aggressiveness, agitation, among others, can be medicated. What the analyst aims at is not to change the form of autistic functioning, but to allow the possibility of building a unique universe, solutions that no diagnostic manual can anticipate. In this sense, psychiatry and its therapeutic arsenal, via the act of medicating, take the place of the analyst’s partner, allowing the subject not to be reduced to being a simple object of diagnosis, in the name of a supposed "normality". Medication can contribute in a punctual, discontinuous or, at times, continuous manner, enabling the course of analytical treatment.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo discutir la conexión entre el psicoanálisis y la psiquiatría, desde la pregunta: ¿Cuál medicamento para el autista? La revisión narrativa fue utilizada como metodología. La evidencia científica muestra que no existe un medicamento específico para el autismo, pero los síntomas específicos que interrumpen la funcionalidad de la vida diaria, como el insomnio, la agresión, la agitación, entre otros, pueden ser medicados. El objetivo del analista no es cambiar la forma del funcionamiento autista, sino permitir la posibilidad de construir un universo único, soluciones que ningún manual de diagnóstico puede anticipar. En este sentido, la psiquiatría y su arsenal terapéutico, a través del acto de medicar, toman el lugar de pareja del analista, permitiendo que el sujeto no se reduzca a ser un simple objeto de diagnóstico, en nombre de una supuesta "normalidad". La medicación puede contribuir de manera puntual, discontinua o, a veces, continua, permitiendo el curso del tratamiento analítico.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Antipsychotic Agents , Drug Administration Schedule , Autism Spectrum Disorder
12.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 494-502, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041352

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the preoperative use of antibiotics in children and adolescents requiring appendectomy. Data source: Integrative review was performed in the MEDLINE, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and Cochrane databases and the PubMed portal, with no time limit. The keywords used were: appendicitis, child, adolescent and antibacterial with Boolean AND. The articles included were published in Portuguese, English or Spanish and whose participants were under 18 years of age. Review articles and guidelines were excluded. The studies were classified according to their level of evidence and 24 papers were selected. Data collection and analysis: Seven randomized clinical trial studies (level of evidence II), eight cohorts (level III), seven retrospective observational studies (level V) and two historical documentary analysis (level IV) were selected. The studies addressed antibiotics used in acute appendicitis in both uncomplicated and complicated cases. Antibiotics initiated in the preoperative period showed a decrease in the rates of surgical wound infections. First-line (empiric) regimens were tested for sensitivity to microorganisms in peritoneal material cultures, however the results were controversial. Broad-spectrum antibiotics have been suggested in some studies because they have good coverage, but in others they have not been recommended because of the risk of developing bacterial resistance. Shorter administration time and earlier change to the oral route reduced hospitalization time. Conclusions: There are several clinical protocols with different antibiotics. However, there is no standardization concerning the type of antibiotic drug, time of use, or route.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o uso de antibióticos em crianças e adolescentes no perioperatório de apendicectomia. Fonte de dados: Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa, nas bases de dados MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) e Cochrane e no portal PubMed, sem limite de tempo. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: apendicite, criança, adolescente e antibacterianos com booleano AND. Os artigos incluídos foram publicados nos idiomas português, inglês ou espanhol e cujos participantes tivessem idade inferior a 18 anos. Os artigos de revisão e diretrizes foram excluídos. A qualidade da evidência foi analisada, e foram selecionados 24 artigos. Síntese dos dados: Sobre os estudos selecionados, sete foram ensaios clínicos randomizados (nível de evidência II), oito coortes (nível III), sete observacionais retrospectivos (nível V) e duas análises documentais históricas (nível IV). Os estudos abordaram antibióticos usados na apendicite aguda em suas formas não complicada e complicada. Os antibióticos iniciados no pré-operatório evidenciaram diminuição nas taxas de infecção da ferida cirúrgica. Os esquemas de primeira linha (empíricos) foram testados em relação à sensibilidade dos microrganismos nas culturas de material peritoneal, no entanto os resultados foram controversos. Sugeriram-se antibióticos de amplo espectro em alguns estudos por apresentar boa cobertura, no entanto em outros eles não foram recomendados, pelo risco de desenvolver resistência bacteriana. O menor tempo de administração e a mudança mais precoce para a via oral reduziram o tempo de internação. Conclusões: Existe um grande número de protocolos clínicos com antibióticos diversos, no entanto não existe padronização em relação ao tipo de antibiótico, tempo de uso nem via.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Preoperative Care/methods , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Administration Schedule , Treatment Outcome
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 537-545, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057471

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objective: Remifentanil is used to attenuate maternal hemodynamic response to intubation and surgical stress during Induction-Delivery period of cesarean section. The goal was to compare the effects of two remifentanil dosing regimens on oxidative stress level, in correlation with its hemodynamic and neonatal effects. Methods: Fifty-one patients, 17 per group, enrolled for elective cesarean section were randomly divided by computer-generated codes into three parallel groups: (A) patients received a 1 µg.kg-1 remifentanil bolus immediately before induction, followed by 0.15 µg.kg-1.min-1 infusion, that was stopped after skin incision; (B) patients received a 1 µg.kg-1 remifentanil bolus immediately before induction; (C) (control), patients did not receive remifentanil until delivery. Maternal venous blood samples were taken at basal time, at extraction and 30 minutes after the end of operation for spectrophotometrical determination of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products concentration. The same was conducted for umbilical venous sample. Results: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate remained significantly lower in group A compared to B and C during entire Induction-Delivery period (p < 0.001, p = 0.02 after intubation; p = 0.006, p = 0.03 after skin incision; p = 0.029, p = 0.04 after extraction; respectively). Malondialdehyde concentration was lower at time of extraction in maternal blood in group A compared to B and C (p = 0.026). All neonatal Apgar scores were ≥ 8 and umbilical acid-base values within normal range. Conclusions: The remifentanil dosing regimen applied in group A significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and maternal hemodynamic response during entire I-D period, without compromising neonatal outcome.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: O remifentanil é usado para atenuar a resposta hemodinâmica materna à intubação e ao estresse cirúrgico durante o intervalo indução-parto cesariana. O objetivo foi comparar os efeitos de dois regimes posológicos de remifentanil sobre o nível de estresse oxidativo, em correlação com seus efeitos na hemodinâmica materna e no neonato. Métodos: Mediante códigos gerados por computador, 51 pacientes (17 por grupo) programadas para cesariana eletiva foram randomicamente divididas em três grupos paralelos (A, B e C). No Grupo A, as pacientes receberam remifentanil em bolus de 1 µg.kg-1 imediatamente antes da indução, seguido por infusão de 0,15 µg.kg-1.min-1 que foi interrompida após a incisão da pele; no Grupo B, as pacientes receberam remifentanil em bolus de 1 µg.kg-1 imediatamente antes da indução; no Grupo C (controle), as pacientes não receberam remifentanil até o parto. Amostras de sangue venoso materno foram colhidas no momento basal, na extração do feto e 30 minutos após o término da operação para determinar espectrofotometricamente as concentrações do malondialdeído e dos produtos proteicos de oxidação avançada. O mesmo foi feito para a coleta das amostras de sangue venoso umbilical. Resultados: A pressão arterial sistólica e a frequência cardíaca permaneceram significativamente menores no Grupo A, comparado aos grupos B e C, durante todo o intervalo indução-parto (p < 0,001, p = 0,02 após a intubação; p = 0,006, p = 0,03 após a incisão da pele; p = 0,029, p = 0,04 após a extração do feto, respectivamente). No momento da extração do feto, a concentração do malondialdeído foi menor no sangue materno do Grupo A, comparado aos grupos B e C (p = 0,026). Todos os escores de Apgar neonatais foram ≥ 8 e os valores da avaliação ácido-base do cordão umbilical estavam dentro da faixa normal. Conclusões: O regime posológico de remifentanil aplicado ao Grupo A atenuou de modo significativo a peroxidação lipídica e a resposta hemodinâmica materna durante todo o intervalo indução-parto, sem comprometer o desfecho neonatal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Cesarean Section/methods , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Apgar Score , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , Remifentanil/pharmacology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hemodynamics/drug effects
14.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(6): 601-607, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055017

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Growth hormone therapy with daily injections of recombinant human growth hormone has been available since 1985, and is shown to be safe and effective treatment for short stature in children and for adult growth hormone deficiency. In an effort to produce a product that would improve patient adherence, there has been a strong effort from industry to create a long acting form of growth hormone to ease the burden of use. Technologies used to increase half-life include depot formulations, PEGylated formulations, pro-drug formulations, non-covalent albumin binding growth hormone and growth hormone fusion proteins. At present, two long acting formulations are on the market in China and South Korea, and several more promising agents are under clinical investigation at various stages of development throughout the world. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(6):601-7


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Growth Disorders/drug therapy , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Design , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Human Growth Hormone/pharmacokinetics , Human Growth Hormone/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(3): 253-264, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013782

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introduccion: Actualmente cerca de la mitad de las prescripciones de antimicrobianos son inadecuadas, lo que aumenta la resistencia bacteriana. Tanto cefalosporinas como fluoroquinolonas se asocian con este fenomeno: aumento de bacterias productoras de β-lactamasas e infecciones por Clostridioides difficile, por lo que las agencias reguladoras buscan racionalizar su uso. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de recomendaciones para el uso adecuado de antimicrobianos en la proporcion de prescripciones inadecuadas de ceftriaxona y fluoroquinolonas. Metodologia: Se desarrollo un estudio de antes y despues, prospectivo e intervencional, que comparo la calidad y la cantidad de uso de ceftriaxona y fluoroquinolonas antes y despues de la implementacion de recomendaciones de uso para tratamientos de enfermedades infecciosas adquiridas en la comunidad. Los parametros medidos fueron: proporcion de prescripciones inadecuadas y DDD. Los datos se analizaron por medio del test de χ2, correccion de Fisher y test de Student. Resultados: Se evaluaron 206 pacientes, observandose una disminucion de 35% en las prescripciones inadecuadas, una reduccion del consumo de ceftriaxona y levofloxacina y un aumento significativo de la utilizacion de ampicilina/sulbactam. Conclusiones: La implementacion de recomendaciones de uso basadas en evidencia cientifica y susceptibilidad local, permitieron disminuir la proporcion de prescripciones inadecuadas y reducir el consumo de ceftriaxona y fluoroquinolonas.


Background: Nowadays about half of antibiotic prescriptions are inadequate, increasing bacterial resistance. Both cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are associated with this phenomenon: increase of β-lactamase producing bacteria and Clostridioides difficile infections, which is why regulatory agencies seek to rationalize their use. Aim: To evaluate the effect of use recommendations on the proportion of inadequate prescriptions of ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolones. Methods: A prospective and interventional study was developed, comparing the quality and quantity of use of ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolones before and after the implementation of use recommendations for treatments of infectious diseases acquired at the community. The outcomes were: proportion of inadequate prescriptions and defined daily dose (DDD). Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test, Fisher's correction and Student's test. Results: A total of 206 patients were evaluated, a 35% decrease in inadequate prescriptions, a decline in the consumption of ceftriaxone and levofloxacin, and a significant increase in the use of ampicillin/ sulbactam was observed. Conclusions: The implementation of use recommendations based on scientific evidence and local susceptibility allowed to reduce the proportion of inadequate prescriptions and to reduce de consumption of ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Prescriptions/standards , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Fluoroquinolones/administration & dosage , Antimicrobial Stewardship/standards , Hospitals, University/standards , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Administration Schedule , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Drug Utilization/standards , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay
17.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(2): 90-96, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003534

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The present study assessed epidemiological and obstetrical data from pregnant women with syphilis at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM, in the Portuguese acronym), describing this disease during pregnancy and its vertical transmission for future healthcare actions. Methods: Records from pregnant women who had been admitted to the Obstetrics Department of the Hospital de Clínicas of the UFTM and were diagnosed with syphilis between 2007 and 2016 were reviewed. A standardized form was used to collect epidemiological, obstetric data and outcomes of congenital infection. The present research has been authorized by the Ethics Committee of the institution. Results: There were 268 women diagnosed with syphilis, with an average age of 23.6 years old. The majority of the patients were from Uberaba. Inadequate prenatal care was observed in 37.9% of the pregnant women. Only 34.2% of the patients completed the treatment according to the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, and 19.8% of the partners of the patients underwent adequate syphilis treatment; 37 (13.8%) couples (patients and partners) underwent correct treatment. Regarding the obstetric outcomes, 4 (1.5%) patients had a miscarriage and 8 (3.4%) had fetal losses (from the fetal loss group, 7 had no adequate treatment); 61 (25.9%) patients had premature births - this prematurity has been significantly correlated to inadequate or incomplete treatment in 49 (27.9%) patients, compared with 12 (13.0%) patients with premature births and adequate treatment (p = 0.006). The average live newborn weight was 2,840 g; 25.3% had a birth weight < 2,500 g; 74.2% had congenital syphilis, a data with heavy correlation to inadequate or incomplete prenatal care, prematurity, and low birth weight. Conclusion: Public awareness policies on adequate prenatal care, intensification of serological screening, and early treatment of syphilis are needed, considering the rise of cases diagnosed during gestation and its potentially preventable deleterious consequences related to congenital transmission.


Resumo Objetivo: O presente estudo avaliou dados epidemiológicos e obstétricos de gestantes com sífilis no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), objetivando o conhecimento desta infecção no ciclo gravídico e a transmissão vertical para futuras ações em saúde pública. Métodos: Foram revisados registros de gestantes admitidas no Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia do Hospital de Clínicas da UFTM, diagnosticadas com sífilis entre 2007 e 2016. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se um formulário padronizado enfocando aspectos epidemiológicos, obstétricos e infecção congênita. A presente pesquisa foi autorizada pelo Comitê de Ética da instituição. Resultados: Obteve-se 268 gestantes diagnosticadas com sífilis, com idade media de 23,6 anos, sendo a maioria de Uberaba. A assistência pré-natal foi inadequada em 37,9% dos casos. O tratamento para sífilis, de acordo com as diretrizes do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, foi realizado por 34,2% das gestantes e por 19,8% dos parceiros. Quanto aos desfechos obstétricos, observou-se que 4 (1,5%) pacientes evoluíram com abortamento e 8 (3,4%) com óbito fetal, das quais 7 não realizaram tratamento. Observou-se parto prematuro em 61 (25,9%) gestantes, e a prematuridade foi significativamente associada ao tratamento ausente/incompleto, com 49 (27,9%) casos, comparada a 12 (13,0%) casos nos quais o tratamento foi adequado (p = 0,006). Quanto aos recém-nascidos, o peso médio foi de 2.840 g, e 25,3% apresentaram peso < 2.500 g. Diagnosticou-se infecção congênita em 74,2%, dos casos, associada significativamente ao pré-natal inadequado, ao tratamento ausente/ incompleto, à prematuridade e ao baixo peso ao nascer. Conclusão: Políticas públicas de conscientização sobre pré-natal adequado, intensificação de rastreamento sorológico e tratamento precoce da sífilis são necessárias, haja vista a ascensão dos casos diagnosticados na gestação e suas consequências deletérias potencialmente evitáveis relacionadas à transmissão congênita.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Syphilis/epidemiology , Penicillin G Benzathine/administration & dosage , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Prenatal Diagnosis , Prognosis , Syphilis, Congenital/drug therapy , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Ceftriaxone/administration & dosage , Brazil/epidemiology , Drug Administration Schedule , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
18.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 41(2): 84-89, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003524

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To compare low doses of pethidine with dipyrone in labor analgesia. Methods In a randomized prospective study conducted by Universidade de Fortaleza, in the state of Ceará, Brazil, between May and December 2016, 200 full-term parturients, with very painful uterine contractions and exhibiting uterine cervix dilatation ≥ 5 cm, were selected to receive a single intravenous dose of either 0.25 mg/kg of pethidine (n = 100) or of 25 mg/kg of dipyrone (n = 100). Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test, the chi-square test and the likelihood ratio. Results There was a significant improvement in pain in 35% of the parturients. Both drugs presented a similar analgesic effect 1 hour after the intervention (p = 0.692). There was no analgesic effect during the evaluation of the second hour after the intervention with pethidine or dipyrone. There were no adverse effects, such as maternal drowsiness, nausea or vomiting, related to the drugs used. Conclusion Pethidine in low doses and dipyrone presented equivalent analgesia during labor. Public Registry of Clinical TrialsRBR-4hsyy4.


Resumo Objetivo Comparar doses baixas de petidina com dipirona na analgesia de parto. Métodos Em um estudo prospectivo randomizado realizado pela Universidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, entre maio e dezembro de 2016, 200 parturientes a termo, com contrações uterinas muito dolorosas e apresentando dilatação do colo uterino ≥ 5 cm, foram selecionadas para receber dose única intravenosa de 0,25 mg/kg de petidina (n = 100) ou 25 mg/kg de dipirona (n = 100). A dor foi avaliada pela escala visual analógica. Os dados foram analisados por meio dos testes t de Student, qui-quadrado e razão de verossimilhança. Resultados Houve melhora significativa da dor em 35% das parturientes. Ambas as drogas apresentaram efeito analgésico semelhante 1 hora após a intervenção (p = 0.692). Inexistiu efeito analgésico durante a avaliação da segunda hora após a intervenção com a petidina ou com a dipirona. Não houve efeitos adversos, como sonolência, náuseas ou vômitos maternos, relacionados aos medicamentos utilizados. Conclusão A petidina em doses baixas e a dipirona apresentaram analgesia equivalente durante o trabalho de parto. Registro público de testes clínicosRBR-4hsyy4.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Analgesia, Obstetrical/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Meperidine/administration & dosage , Apgar Score , Infusions, Intravenous , Drug Administration Schedule , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Labor Pain/drug therapy
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900704, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038112

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: The effects of resveratrol administration on calvarial bone defects with alloplastic graft material was investigated for osteoinductive reaction and bone development in rats. Methods: Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups consisting of 10 rats. Groups were as follows: control (defect) group, defect + graft group, and defect + graft + resveratrol group. A calvarial bone defect was created in all groups, alloplastic bone grafts were applied to the defect in the 2nd and 3rd group, resveratrol (5 mg/kg/day) was added to the drinking water of the animals following graft application for 28 days in the 3rd group. Results: Increase in osteoclasts and necrotic changes were observed histopathologically in the control group. In the 2nd group, reduction of inflammation, congestion of blood vessels, increased osteblastic activity, osteoinductive effect, progression of osteocyte development and increased collagen fibers in connective tissue were observed. In the 3rd group, osteoblasts seemed to secrete bone matrix and accelerate osteoinductive effect with increased osteopregenitor activity and positive osteopontin and osteonectin expressions. Conclusion: Resveratrol treatment was thought to be an alternative and supportive drug for implant application by inducing new bone formation in the calvaral defect region as a result of short-term treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Skull/surgery , Bone Regeneration/drug effects , Bone Transplantation/methods , Bone Substitutes/administration & dosage , Resveratrol/administration & dosage , Osteoblasts/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Skull/drug effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Osteonectin/administration & dosage , Osseointegration/drug effects , Bone Substitutes/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Osteopontin/administration & dosage
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