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1.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(2)mayo.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), CUMED | ID: biblio-1094622

ABSTRACT

Con respecto al artículo publicado en la revista Vaccimonitor, volumen 28 número 1 del año 2019, donde se presentan los resultados del estudio toxicológico realizado a la vacuna antimeningocóccica VA-MENGOC-BC® después de 24 y 36 meses de almacenada de 4 a 8°C, quisiera emitir un grupo de consideraciones sobre algunos de los parámetros evaluados en los estudios toxicológicos para vacunas, con el objetivo de optimizar los resultados. En este sentido, podríamos contribuir a un mejor diseño de los estudios toxicológicos preclínicos, para alcanzar un valor predictivo más cercano a lo esperado en los ensayos clínicos. Por otra parte, estas consideraciones pudieran tenerse en cuenta para el análisis de los aspectos éticos, bienestar animal y determinación del punto final humanitario. Los estudios toxicológicos preclínicos de las vacunas se convirtieron en obligatorios desde la última década del pasado siglo XX, donde se han propuesto y diseñado diferentes estudios para cumplir con estos requisitos. Podemos mencionar, por ejemplo, los estudios de seguridad farmacológica, dosis única, tolerancia local y dosis repetida, entre otros.1 En cada uno de ellos existen parámetros a evaluar que se repiten, como son la observación clínica de los animales, peso corporal, consumo de agua y alimentos, así como la respuesta local y sistémica. Sin embargo, la información que pudiéramos obtener de estos parámetros, desde las pruebas de concepto hasta los propios estudios toxicológicos, no es explotada al máximo. Hoy en día, las guías emitidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), en mi opinión, son una de las más completas, porque recogen gran parte de las regulaciones y guías emitidas por otras entidades como la FDA (del inglés: Food and Drug Administration), EMA (del inglés: European Medicine Agency), OECD (del inglés: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), ICH (del inglés: International Committee of Harmonization), entre otras. Contemplan un amplio número de parámetros a investigar en los estudios toxicológicos, que abarcan desde ensayos in vitro hasta in vivo.1 Sobre estos últimos, cada vez más, y para bien, son tenidos en cuenta los aspectos del bienestar animal y el principio de las 3Rs (Reemplazo, Reducción, Refinamiento).1,2 En este sentido, consideramos que se pueden introducir elementos que pudieran potenciar las respuestas de algunos de los parámetros investigados. En nuestro caso los realizamos para brindar nuevos elementos a la seguridad de un producto con años de aplicación, tanto en niños...(AU)


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods
2.
Blood Research ; : 165-174, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-763080

ABSTRACT

Drug resistance in cancer, especially in leukemia, creates a dilemma in treatment planning. Consequently, studies related to the mechanisms underlying drug resistance, the molecular pathways involved in this phenomenon, and alternate therapies have attracted the attention of researchers. Among a variety of therapeutic modalities, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of special interest due to their potential clinical use. Therapies involving MSCs are showing increasing promise in cancer treatment and anticancer drug screening applications; however, results have been inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of MSC populations. Most recently, the effect of MSCs on different types of cancer, such as hematologic malignancies, their mechanisms, sources of MSCs, and its advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. There are many proposed mechanisms describing the effects of MSCs in hematologic malignancies; however, the most commonly-accepted mechanism is that MSCs induce tumor cell cycle arrest. This review explains the anti-tumorigenic effects of MSCs through the suppression of tumor cell proliferation in hematological malignancies, especially in acute myeloid leukemia.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Proliferation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Resistance , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Population Characteristics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739531

ABSTRACT

Scratching is a main behavioral response accompanied by acute and chronic itch conditions, and has been quantified as an objective correlate to assess itch in studies using laboratory animals. Scratching has been counted mostly by human annotators, which is a time-consuming and laborious process. It has been attempted to develop automated scoring methods using various strategies, but they often require specialized equipment, costly software, or implantation of device which may disturb animal behaviors. To complement limitations of those methods, we have adapted machine learning-based strategy to develop a novel automated and real-time method detecting mouse scratching from experimental movies captured using monochrome cameras such as a webcam. Scratching is identified by characteristic changes in pixels, body position, and body size by frame as well as the size of body. To build a training model, a novel two-step J48 decision tree-inducing algorithm along with a C4.5 post-pruning algorithm was applied to three 30-min video recordings in which a mouse exhibits scratching following an intradermal injection of a pruritogen, and the resultant frames were then used for the next round of training. The trained method exhibited, on average, a sensitivity and specificity of 95.19% and 92.96%, respectively, in a performance test with five new recordings. This result suggests that it can be used as a non-invasive, automated and objective tool to measure mouse scratching from video recordings captured in general experimental settings, permitting rapid and accurate analysis of scratching for preclinical studies and high throughput drug screening.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Behavior, Animal , Body Size , Complement System Proteins , Decision Trees , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Injections, Intradermal , Machine Learning , Methods , Mice , Pruritus , Research Design , Sensitivity and Specificity , Video Recording
4.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-739393

ABSTRACT

Reslizumab and mepolizumab are recently approved monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of severe (uncontrolled) eosinophilic asthma. Both are effective in neutralizing the function of interleukin-5 (IL-5). This study is the first to compare the binding affinity and in vitro potency of both antibodies in head-to-head assays. Two assays assessed binding affinity (using the equilibrium dissociation constant [K(D)]) of each drug for human IL-5. In the Biacore surface plasmon resonance assay, the association constant (k(on)) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 3.93 × 10⁶ and 1.83 × 10⁵, respectively. The dissociation constant (k(off)) values were 4.29 × 10⁻⁴ and 2.14 × 10⁻⁴, respectively. Calculated K(D) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 109 and 1,170 pM, respectively, representing an approximately 11-fold stronger binding affinity with reslizumab. In the Kinetic Exclusion Assay, the k(on) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 3.17 × 10⁶ and 1.32 × 10⁵, respectively. The k(off) values were 1.36 × 10⁻⁵ and 1.48 × 10⁻⁵, respectively. Measured K(D) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 4.3 and 112 pM, respectively, representing an approximately 26-fold stronger binding affinity for reslizumab. A human-IL-5-dependent cell proliferation assay was developed to assess in vitro potency, based on a human cell line selected for enhanced surface expression of IL-5 receptor-alpha and consistent proliferation response to IL-5. The concentration at which 50% inhibition occurred (IC₅₀) was determined for both antibodies. Reslizumab and mepolizumab inhibited IL-5-dependent cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of approximately 91.1 and 286.5 pM, respectively, representing on average 3.1-fold higher potency with reslizumab. In conclusion, comparative assays show that reslizumab has higher affinity binding for and in vitro potency against human IL-5 compared with mepolizumab. However, these results do not take into consideration the different methods of administration of reslizumab and mepolizumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibody Affinity , Asthma , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Eosinophils , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-5 , Surface Plasmon Resonance
5.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 18(3/4): 35-46, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1050038

ABSTRACT

Background ­ Diabetes Mellitus a metabolic disorder affects the secretion of insulin from pancreas leading to hyperglycemia, if uncontrolled leads to complications triggered by free radical formed after oxidative stress. Homeopathic medicine Cephalandra Indica has shown antidiabetic activity in various potencies performed on preclinical studies on diabetic rat model. The present review highlights the pharmacological profile of homeopathic preparations Cephalandra Indica on preclinical studies and calculating the probable human equivalent dosage from preclinical studies for the pilot studies. Method ­ Articles published between January 1988 and December 2018 was included in review. Databases like PubMed ­ Medline, Google scholar were used for collecting the articles. Keywords like 'Homeopathy' or 'Homoeopathy', 'Invitro', 'Invivo' and 'Cephalandra Indica' were used. SABEH criteria were implemented for assessing methodology quality of articles. Results ­ Seven full text articles were included in review which had six Invivo studies and one Invitro study. This review article provided the scientific validation of high diluted homeopathic medicines pharmacological activity of Cephalandra Indica and probable mechanism of action confirmed through preclinical studies. Conversion of dosage from animal model to human dosage for pilot studies has been hypothetically proposed. Conclusion ­ Homeopathic medicine Cephalandra Indica has a therapeutic and safety profile with no toxicity observed in preclinical studies. The proposed hypothesis of conversion of dosage needs to be validated for further studies. (au)


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Homeopathy , Bryonia
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-776867

ABSTRACT

In the market of botanical dietary supplements, Cimicifuga heracleifolia (CH) has always been considered as an adulterated species of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), a conventional American herb with promising benefits to counteract troubles arising from the menopause. However, the detailed comparison of their therapeutic effects is lacking. In present study, the pharmacological and metabolomics studies were comparatively conducted between CH and CR in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Specifically, estrogen-like, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-osteoporosis effects were evaluated through measuring serum biochemical parameters, histopathological examination and micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) scanning. At the same time, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based serum metabolomics method was employed to profile the metabolite compositional changes. As a result, both CR and CH displayed anti-osteoporosis and anti-hyperlipemia on menopause syndrome. Meanwhile, their potentials in improving the OVX-induced metabolic disorders were discovered. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that CH is therapeutically similar to CR in relieving menopausal symptoms and CH could be considered as a promising alternative to CR instead of an adulterant in the market of botanical dietary supplements.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cimicifuga , Chemistry , Classification , Dietary Supplements , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Menopause , Blood , Metabolomics , Osteoporosis , Blood , Drug Therapy , Ovariectomy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Blood , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-764730

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of multiple addiction risks with life satisfaction, depression, and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. METHODS: This study was descriptive correlational. Data were collected in 800 adults (405 males, 395 females) aged 20 to 69 years recruited using the proportional allocation in a city on April 2017. The structured questionnaire consisted of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for adults, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, the Drug Screening Inventory, the Korean version of the Satisfaction with the Life Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Scale for Suicidal Ideation. RESULTS: Adults with multiple addiction risks had a low level of life satisfaction (p=.003) and high levels of depression and suicidal ideation (p<.001) compared to other participants. Multiple addiction risks were associated with low life satisfaction (β=.12), high depression (β=.21), and suicidal ideation (β=.20). Significant factors of life satisfaction were low suicidal ideation, a simple functioning job, high level of education, and unemployment status. CONCLUSION: Multiple addiction risks are associated with life satisfaction, depression, and suicidal ideation. The comprehensive mental health assessment for multiple addictions should precede the development of preventive multidimensional interventions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Behavior, Addictive , Depression , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Education , Gambling , Humans , Internet , Male , Mental Health , Personal Satisfaction , Suicidal Ideation , Unemployment
8.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-773400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the activities of biapenem against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.@*METHODS@#Biapenem/clavulanate (BP/CL) was evaluated for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates, and the H37RV strain. BP/CL activity against the H37Rv strain was assessed in liquid cultures, in macrophages, and in mice..@*RESULTS@#BP/CL exhibited activity against MDR and XDR Mtb isolates in liquid cultures. BP/CL treatment significantly reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Mtb within macrophages compared with control untreated infected macrophages. Notably, BP/CL synergized in pairwise combinations with protionamide, aminosalicylate, and capreomycin to achieve a fractional inhibitory concentration for each pairing of 0.375 in vitro. In a mouse tuberculosis infection model, the efficacy of a cocktail of levofloxacin + pyrazinamide + protionamide + aminosalicylate against Mtb increased when the cocktail was combined with BP/CL, achieving efficacy similar to that of the positive control treatment (isoniazid + rifampin + pyrazinamide) after 2 months of treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#BP/CL may provide a new option to clinically treat MDR tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Cell Line , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Macrophages , Mice , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Thienamycins , Pharmacology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Drug Therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-773396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the protective effect of NANOG against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -induced cell damage in the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs).@*METHODS@#NANOG was expressed from a lentiviral vector, pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen. NANOG hHF-MSCs and vector hHF-MSCs were treated with 400 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 2 h, the cell survival rate, cell morphology, ROS production, apoptosis and expression of AKT, ERK, and p21 were determined and compared.@*RESULTS@#Our results showed that NANOG could activate AKT and upregulate the expression of p-AKT, but not p-ERK. When treated with 400 μmol/L H2O2, NANOG hHF-MSCs showed higher cell survival rate, lower ROS production and apoptosis, higher expression of p-AKT, higher ratio of p-AKT/AKT.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that NANOG could protect hHF-MSCs against cell damage caused by H2O2 through activating AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hair Follicle , Cell Biology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Lentivirus , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolism , Nanog Homeobox Protein , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
10.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-773394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and increase the levels of cholesterol auto-oxidation products such as 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC). Thus, it is imperative to identify agents that can prevent 7β-OHC-induced side-effects.@*METHODS@#We evaluated the potential protective effects of Carpobrotus edulis ethanol-water extract (EWe) on murine oligodendrocytes (158N) cultured in the absence or presence of 7β-OHC (20 μg/mL, 24 h). The cells were incubated with EWe (20-200 µg/mL) 2 h before 7β-OHC treatment. Mitochondrial activity and cell growth were evaluated with the MTT assay. Photometric methods were used to analyze antioxidant enzyme [catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] activities and the generation of lipid and protein oxidation products [malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated diene (CD), and carbonylated proteins (CPs)].@*RESULTS@#Treatment with 7β-OHC induced cell death and oxidative stress (reflected by alteration in CAT and SOD activities). Overproduction of lipid peroxidation products (MDA and CDs) and CPs was also reported. The cytotoxic effects associated with 7β-OHC were attenuated by 160 μg/mL of EWe of C. edulis. Cell death induced by 7β-OHC treatment was ameliorated, GPx and CAT activities were restored to normal, and MDA, CD, and CP levels were reduced following C. edulis extract treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#These data demonstrate the protective activities of C. edulis EWe against 7β-OHC-induced disequilibrium in the redox status of 158N cells, indicative of the potential role of this plant extract in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Aizoaceae , Animals , Cell Line , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hydroxycholesterols , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotection , Oligodendroglia , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-761807

ABSTRACT

A heart simulator, UT-Heart, is a finite element model of the human heart that can reproduce all the fundamental activities of the working heart, including propagation of excitation, contraction, and relaxation and generation of blood pressure and blood flow, based on the molecular aspects of the cardiac electrophysiology and excitation-contraction coupling. In this paper, we present a brief review of the practical use of UT-Heart. As an example, we focus on its application for predicting the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and evaluating the proarrhythmic risk of drugs. Patient-specific, multiscale heart simulation successfully predicted the response to CRT by reproducing the complex pathophysiology of the heart. A proarrhythmic risk assessment system combining in vitro channel assays and in silico simulation of cardiac electrophysiology using UT-Heart successfully predicted druginduced arrhythmogenic risk. The assessment system was found to be reliable and efficient. We also developed a comprehensive hazard map on the various combinations of ion channel inhibitors. This in silico electrocardiogram database (now freely available at http://ut-heart.com/) can facilitate proarrhythmic risk assessment without the need to perform computationally expensive heart simulation. Based on these results, we conclude that the heart simulator, UT-Heart, could be a useful tool in clinical medicine and drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiac Electrophysiology , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Cardiotoxicity , Clinical Medicine , Computer Simulation , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Electrocardiography , Heart , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels , Models, Cardiovascular , Relaxation , Risk Assessment
12.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 449-458, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-959255

ABSTRACT

Objective: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies. The following search terms were used: "amantadine AND depress*"; "amantadine AND mood"; "amantadine AND animal models AND antidepres*"; and "amantadine AND (forced swim, learned helplessness, reserpine, chronic mild stress, anhedonia, sucrose preference)." Results: Amantadine had antidepressant-like effects in animal models and appeared to potentiate the antidepressant effects of other antidepressants. These preclinical findings have received some support from the results of small open-label clinical trials, suggesting that amantadine can reduce depressive symptomatology and potentiate the antidepressant effects of monoaminergic drugs. In addition to its glutamatergic and dopaminergic effects, the potential antidepressant-like effects of amantadine have been linked to molecular and cellular actions, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor), activation of σ1 receptors, decreased corticosterone levels, and decreased inflammatory response to stress. Conclusion: Amantadine is an interesting candidate as new antidepressant drug for the treatment of depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Amantadine/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Biogenic Monoamines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 690-702, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-949376

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity of Erbitux as well as its biosimilar APZ001 antibody (APZ001) in pre-clinical animal models including mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Methods: We performed analysis of normal behavior activity, autonomic and non-autonomic nervous functions, nervous-muscle functions, nervous excitability and sensorimotor functions on CD-1 mice. Subsequently, we studied that effects of APZ001 and Erbitux on respiratory system, cardiovascular system and kidney in Cynomolgus monkey models and performed local tolerance experiments on New Zealand rabbits. Results: The comparisons between APZ001 and Erbitux showed no significant differences in mice autonomic nervous system, nervous muscle functions, non-autonomic nervous functions, nervous excitability and sensorimotor functions between treated and untreated group (p>0.05). APZ001 and Erbitux showed negative effect on CD-1 mice in the present of pentobarbital sodium anesthesia (p>0.05). Single administrations of high, medium or low doses of APZ001 did not lead to monkey urine volume alterations (p>0.05). In human tissues, APZ001 and Erbitux showed positive signals in endocardium, lung type II alveolar epithelial cell and surrounding vessels, but showed negative results in kidney and liver tissues. No hemolysis phenomenon and serious side-effects in vessels and muscles were observed in rabbits when administrated with APZ001 and Erbitux respectively. Conclusion: The safety comparisons between APZ001 antibody and Erbitux showed that these two antibodies showed highly similarities in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkey animal models in consideration of pharmaceutical effects, indicating APZ001 might be a suitable substitute for Erbitux.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/toxicity , Cetuximab/toxicity , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/toxicity , Reference Values , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Biosimilar Pharmaceuticals/administration & dosage , Cetuximab/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney Function Tests , Macaca fascicularis , Nervous System/drug effects
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(2): 296-302, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-889227

ABSTRACT

Abstract The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract and fractions of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., popularly known as Santa-Maria herb, against microorganisms of clinical interest by the microdilution technique, and also to show the chromatographic profile of the phenolic compounds in the species. The Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of cardiotonic, anthraquinone, alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids. The analysis by HPLC-DAD revealed the presence of rutin in the crude extract (12.5 ± 0.20 mg/g), ethyl acetate (16.5 ± 0.37 mg/g) and n-butanol (8.85 ± 0.11 mg/g), whereas quercetin and chrysin were quantified in chloroform fraction (1.95 ± 0.04 and 1.04 ± 0.01 mg/g), respectively. The most promising results were obtained with the ethyl acetate fraction, which inhibited a greater number of microorganisms and presented the lowest values of MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis (MIC = 0.42 mg/mL), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC = 34.37 mg/mL), Paenibacillus apiarus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL) and Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus (MIC = 4.29 mg/mL). Considering mycobacterial inhibition, the best results were obtained by chloroform fraction against M. tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, and M. avium (MIC ranging from 156.25 to 625 µg/mL). This study proves, in part, that the popular use of C. ambrosioides L. can be an effective and sustainable alternative for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by various infectious agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Chenopodium ambrosioides/chemistry , Phenols/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenols/chemistry , Phenols/isolation & purification , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 117-124, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-886260

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To observe the efficacy of phosphocreatine pre-administration (PCr-PA) on X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), the second mitochondia-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra of rats with focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI). Methods: A total of 60 healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=20): group A (the sham operation group), group B <intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg (10 mg/ml) of saline before preparing the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) model>, and group C <intraperitoneally injected with 20 mg/kg (10 mg/ml) of PCr immediately before preparing the IR model>. After 24 h for reperfusion, the neurological function was evaluated and the tissue was sampled to detect expression of XIAP, Smac and caspase-3 positive cells in the ischemic penumbra so as to observe the apoptosis. Results: Compared with group B, neurological deficit scores, numbers of apoptotic cells, expression of Smac,caspase-9 and the numbers of Caspase-3 positive cells were decreased while expression of XIAP were increased in the ischemic penumbra of group C. Conclusions: Phosphocreatine pre-administration may elicit neuroprotective effects in the brain by increasing expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, reducing expression of second mitochondia-derived activator of caspase, and inhibiting the apoptosis in the ischemic penumbra.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Phosphocreatine/pharmacology , Cardiotonic Agents/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein/metabolism , Random Allocation , Brain Ischemia/prevention & control , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Caspase 3/metabolism
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 273-282, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-691070

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All. (Ruscaceae), one of the Ashtawarga plants, is widely used for treatment of various ailments. The present study was undertaken to determine the phenolic composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of several extracts (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol, and aqueous) from the rhizomes of the plant.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Coarsely powdered dry rhizome was successively extracted with different solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethanol and water). The phenolic compositions, in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and total condensed tannin content (TTC), were evaluated with the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, aluminum chloride colorimetric assay and vanillin spectrophotometric assay, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of each extract. A protein denaturation model and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay were used to evaluate in vitro anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, respectively. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was carried out to demonstrate various phytoconstituents in each extract. Correlation studies were also performed between phenolic composition (TPC, TFC and TTC) and different biological activities.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Ethanol extract showed maximum TPC (0.126 mg/g, gallic acid equivalent in dry sample), TFC (0.094 mg/g, rutin equivalent in dry sample) and TTC (29.32 mg/g, catechin equivalent in dry sample), as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Chloroform extract exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity against the human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. GC/MS analysis revealed the presence of 90 different phytoconstituents among the extracts. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities had a positive correlation with TPC, TFC and TTC. However, the anticancer activity showed a negative correlation with TPC, TFC and TTC.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>From the present study, it can be concluded that P. verticillatum possessed remarkable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities, which could be due to different secondary metabolites of the plant. Phenolic compounds are likely responsible for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, flavonoids and other compounds might contribute to the anticancer potential of the plant.</p>


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Antioxidants , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Phenols , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Polygonatum , Chemistry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-716596

ABSTRACT

The phosphorylation of JNK is known to induce insulin resistance in insulin target tissues. The inhibition of JNK-JIP1 interaction, which interferes JNK phosphorylation, becomes a potential target for drug development of type 2 diabetes. To discover the inhibitors of JNK-JIP1 interaction, we screened out 30 candidates from 4320 compound library with In Cell Interaction Trap method. The candidates were further confirmed and narrowed down to five compounds using the FRET method in a model cell. Among those five compounds, Acebutolol showed notable inhibition of JNK phosphorylation and elevation of glucose uptake in diabetic models of adipocyte and liver cell. Structural computation showed that the binding affinity of Acebutolol on the JNK-JIP1 interaction site was comparable to the known inhibitor, BI-78D3. Our results suggest that Acebutolol, an FDA-approved beta blocker for hypertension therapy, could have a new repurposed effect on type 2 diabetes elevating glucose uptake process by inhibiting JNK-JIP1 interaction.


Subject(s)
Acebutolol , Adipocytes , Cell Communication , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Glucose , Hypertension , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Liver , Methods , Phosphorylation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-716083

ABSTRACT

The establishment of protocols to differentiate kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells provides potential applications of kidney organoids in regenerative medicine. Modeling of renal diseases, drug screening, nephrotoxicity testing of compounds, and regenerative therapy are attractive applications. Although much progress still remains to be made in the development of kidney organoids, recent advances in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated system 9 (Cas9) genome editing and three-dimensional bioprinting technologies have contributed to the application of kidney organoids in clinical fields. In this section, we review recent advances in the applications of kidney organoids to kidney disease modelling, drug screening, nephrotoxicity testing, and regenerative therapy.


Subject(s)
Bioprinting , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Genome , Humans , Kidney Diseases , Kidney , Organoids , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Regenerative Medicine , Transplantation
19.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-740143

ABSTRACT

Cannabis or marijuana is the most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol in the world, and usage is generally recognized as having few serious adverse effects. However, usage is restricted in South Korea. The report of ischemic stroke associated with cannabis is rare in literature. We present a case of a 47-year-old female patient with no underlying disease presenting with acute ischemic stroke after smoking cannabis in South Korea. The result for synthetic cannabinoid metabolites (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) screening was positive. Absence of other vascular risk factors and drug screening results suggest a causal role of cannabis in this ischemic stroke case. The patient eventually progressed to brain death. The underlying mechanism, clinical manifestation, and imaging findings of cannabis-related stroke will be reviewed.


Subject(s)
Brain Death , Cannabis , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): e17174, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-951914

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Ayahuasca is a beverage with psychoactive properties used in religious and ceremonial rituals by some religious groups. The main active components of ayahuasca are dimethyltryptamine and the harmala alkaloids with ß-carboline structure acting as monoamine oxidase A inhibitors. This combination produces a pronounced activation of serotonergic pathways and presents potential interaction with other psychotropics. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible interactions between ayahuasca and agents employed in general anesthesia. The pharmacological interactions between ayahuasca and morphine or propofol were evaluated in mice using doses of 12, 120 and 1200 mg/kg (0.1 to 10 times the average dose consumed by humans in religious rituals). Ayahuasca alone showed an antinociceptive effect in the writhing and formalin tests, and intensified the analgesic effect of morphine in the hot plate test. Concerning the pharmacological interactions between ayahuasca and propofol, the results were opposite; ayahuasca intensified the depressant effect of propofol in the rotarod test, but decreased the sleeping time induced by propofol. These set of results showed the occurrence of some interactions between ayahuasca and the drugs morphine and propofol, possibly by both pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics mechanisms


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Drug Interactions , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Morphine/analysis , Beverages/adverse effects , Propofol/analysis , Banisteriopsis/adverse effects , Psychotria/adverse effects , Analgesics/adverse effects
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