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1.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 877-888, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922482

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the etiologic agent for the COVID-19 outbreak. Currently, effective treatment options remain very limited for this disease; therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-COVID-19 agents. In this study, we screened over 6,000 compounds that included approved drugs, drug candidates in clinical trials, and pharmacologically active compounds to identify leads that target the SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro). Together with main protease (M


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Repositioning , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Naphthoquinones/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3905-3914, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921475

ABSTRACT

Microfluidic chip technology integrates the sample preparation, reaction, separation and detection on a chip. It consists a network of microchannels, which controls the whole system through fluid. With the advantages of portability, high throughput, and the ability to simulate the microenvironment in vivo, it has a broad application prospect in the research of disease diagnosis, pathogenesis and drug screening. Pulmonary inflammatory disease is a common disease usually caused by bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Early pneumonia is often difficult to diagnose due to lack of obvious respiratory symptoms or the symptoms are mostly atypical, but the disease progresses rapidly. Recently, microfluidic chip technology has been increasingly used to the study of pulmonary inflammatory diseases. In particular, it has been used to develop a "lung-on-a-chip" model, which can reproduce the key structure, function and mechanical properties of human alveolar capillary interface (i.e., the basic functional unit of a living lung), and well simulate the alveoli in vitro. Compared with the cell and animal models, this multifunctional micro experimental platform has great advantages. This article summarizes the advances of using microfluidic chips for the research and diagnosis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases, with the aim to provide new ideas for researchers in this area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Lung , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques , Microfluidics
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878977

ABSTRACT

With the increasing incidence of hepatobiliary diseases, it is particularly important to understand the role of molecular, cellular and physiological factors in the clinical diagnosis and treatment with traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in the development of liver disease. Appropriate animal models can help us identify the possible mechanisms of relevant diseases. Danio rerio(zebrafish) model was traditionally used to study embryonic development, and has been gradually used in screening and evaluation of liver diseases and relevant drug in recent years. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly and the digestive organs of 5-day-old juvenile fish are all mature. At this stage, they may develop hepatobiliary diseases induced by developmental defects or compounds. Zebrafish liver is similar to human liver in cell composition, function, signal transduction, response to injury and cell process mediating liver disease. Furthermore, due to the high conservation of genes and proteins between humans and zebrafish, zebrafish becomes an alternative system for studying basic mechanisms of liver disease. Therefore, genetic screening could be performed to identify new genes involving specific disease processes, and chemical screening could be made for drugs in specific processes. This paper briefly introduced the experimental properties of zebrafish as model system, emphasized the study progress of zebrafish models for pathological mechanism of liver diseases, especially fatty liver, and drug screening and evaluation, so as to provide ideas and techniques for the future liver toxicity assessment of TCM.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Liver , Liver Diseases/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Zebrafish/genetics
4.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(4): 344-356, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283652

ABSTRACT

Many chronic diseases require repetitive injections as maintenance treatment. It is therefore important to investigate a possible alternative. A simulated subcutaneous implant prototype was fabricated as a polymer matrix covered by cylinder-shape tubing having a porous membrane. Sucrose, bovine serum albumin, and gelatin were selected as matrix excipients. Eight APIs with different physiochemical properties were used to investigate the releasing mechanism. Drug release was tested through an in vitrodissolution apparatus. Drug release of eight APIs followed zero-order kinetics with a minimum 12-hour duration. Release rates also showed linear correlations with the APIs' solubilities under physiological pH. For releasing mechanism studies, different combinations of matrix and membrane were investigated in detail. A 144-hour continuous zero-order release of caffeine was achieved as the best controlled simulated prototype. The results showed that drug release of our simulated prototype was primarily achieved by drug diffusion rather than dissolution.


Muchas enfermedades crónicas requieren inyecciones repetitivas como tratamiento de mantenimiento. Por lo tanto, es importante investigar una posible alternativa. Se fabricó un prototipo de implante subcutáneo simulado a partir de una matriz de polímero cubierta por un tubo en forma de cilindro que tiene una membrana porosa. La sacarosa, la albúmina de suero bovino y la gelatina se seleccionaron como excipientes matriciales. Se utilizaron ocho APIs con diferentes propiedades fisicoquímicas para investigar el mecanismo de liberación. La liberación del fármaco se probó a través de un aparato de disolución in vitro. La liberación del fármaco de las ocho APIs siguió una cinética de orden cero con una duración mínima de 12 horas. Las tasas de liberación también mostraron correlaciones lineales con las solubilidades de las APIs a pH fisiológico. Para los estudios de mecanismos de liberación, se investigaron en detalle diferentes combinaciones de matriz y membrana. El prototipo simulado con mejor control logró una liberación continua de cafeína de orden cero durante 144 horas. Los resultados mostraron que la liberación del fármaco del prototipo simulado ocurrió principalmente mediante la difusión del fármaco en lugar de la disolución.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Implants/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Pilot Projects , Simulation Technique , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Subcutaneous Tissue , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Liberation , Freeze Drying
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828747

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
6.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828583

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
7.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 723-739, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827018

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses occasionally cause epidemics and pandemics worldwide, such as the on-going outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we identified two potent inhibitors of human DHODH, S312 and S416, with favorable drug-likeness and pharmacokinetic profiles, which all showed broad-spectrum antiviral effects against various RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Zika virus, Ebola virus, and particularly against SARS-CoV-2. Notably, S416 is reported to be the most potent inhibitor so far with an EC of 17 nmol/L and an SI value of 10,505.88 in infected cells. Our results are the first to validate that DHODH is an attractive host target through high antiviral efficacy in vivo and low virus replication in DHODH knock-out cells. This work demonstrates that both S312/S416 and old drugs (Leflunomide/Teriflunomide) with dual actions of antiviral and immuno-regulation may have clinical potentials to cure SARS-CoV-2 or other RNA viruses circulating worldwide, no matter such viruses are mutated or not.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Physiology , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Crotonates , Pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Drug Therapy , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gene Knockout Techniques , Humans , Influenza A virus , Leflunomide , Pharmacology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Drug Therapy , Oseltamivir , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidoreductases , Metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Binding , Pyrimidines , RNA Viruses , Physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Toluidines , Pharmacology , Ubiquinone , Metabolism , Virus Replication
8.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 28(2)mayo.-ago. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094622

ABSTRACT

Con respecto al artículo publicado en la revista Vaccimonitor, volumen 28 número 1 del año 2019, donde se presentan los resultados del estudio toxicológico realizado a la vacuna antimeningocóccica VA-MENGOC-BC® después de 24 y 36 meses de almacenada de 4 a 8°C, quisiera emitir un grupo de consideraciones sobre algunos de los parámetros evaluados en los estudios toxicológicos para vacunas, con el objetivo de optimizar los resultados. En este sentido, podríamos contribuir a un mejor diseño de los estudios toxicológicos preclínicos, para alcanzar un valor predictivo más cercano a lo esperado en los ensayos clínicos. Por otra parte, estas consideraciones pudieran tenerse en cuenta para el análisis de los aspectos éticos, bienestar animal y determinación del punto final humanitario. Los estudios toxicológicos preclínicos de las vacunas se convirtieron en obligatorios desde la última década del pasado siglo XX, donde se han propuesto y diseñado diferentes estudios para cumplir con estos requisitos. Podemos mencionar, por ejemplo, los estudios de seguridad farmacológica, dosis única, tolerancia local y dosis repetida, entre otros.1 En cada uno de ellos existen parámetros a evaluar que se repiten, como son la observación clínica de los animales, peso corporal, consumo de agua y alimentos, así como la respuesta local y sistémica. Sin embargo, la información que pudiéramos obtener de estos parámetros, desde las pruebas de concepto hasta los propios estudios toxicológicos, no es explotada al máximo. Hoy en día, las guías emitidas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), en mi opinión, son una de las más completas, porque recogen gran parte de las regulaciones y guías emitidas por otras entidades como la FDA (del inglés: Food and Drug Administration), EMA (del inglés: European Medicine Agency), OECD (del inglés: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), ICH (del inglés: International Committee of Harmonization), entre otras. Contemplan un amplio número de parámetros a investigar en los estudios toxicológicos, que abarcan desde ensayos in vitro hasta in vivo.1 Sobre estos últimos, cada vez más, y para bien, son tenidos en cuenta los aspectos del bienestar animal y el principio de las 3Rs (Reemplazo, Reducción, Refinamiento).1,2 En este sentido, consideramos que se pueden introducir elementos que pudieran potenciar las respuestas de algunos de los parámetros investigados. En nuestro caso los realizamos para brindar nuevos elementos a la seguridad de un producto con años de aplicación, tanto en niños...(AU)


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods
9.
Int. j. high dilution res ; 18(3/4): 35-46, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS, HomeoIndex | ID: biblio-1050038

ABSTRACT

Background ­ Diabetes Mellitus a metabolic disorder affects the secretion of insulin from pancreas leading to hyperglycemia, if uncontrolled leads to complications triggered by free radical formed after oxidative stress. Homeopathic medicine Cephalandra Indica has shown antidiabetic activity in various potencies performed on preclinical studies on diabetic rat model. The present review highlights the pharmacological profile of homeopathic preparations Cephalandra Indica on preclinical studies and calculating the probable human equivalent dosage from preclinical studies for the pilot studies. Method ­ Articles published between January 1988 and December 2018 was included in review. Databases like PubMed ­ Medline, Google scholar were used for collecting the articles. Keywords like 'Homeopathy' or 'Homoeopathy', 'Invitro', 'Invivo' and 'Cephalandra Indica' were used. SABEH criteria were implemented for assessing methodology quality of articles. Results ­ Seven full text articles were included in review which had six Invivo studies and one Invitro study. This review article provided the scientific validation of high diluted homeopathic medicines pharmacological activity of Cephalandra Indica and probable mechanism of action confirmed through preclinical studies. Conversion of dosage from animal model to human dosage for pilot studies has been hypothetically proposed. Conclusion ­ Homeopathic medicine Cephalandra Indica has a therapeutic and safety profile with no toxicity observed in preclinical studies. The proposed hypothesis of conversion of dosage needs to be validated for further studies. (au)


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Homeopathy , Bryonia
10.
Blood Research ; : 165-174, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763080

ABSTRACT

Drug resistance in cancer, especially in leukemia, creates a dilemma in treatment planning. Consequently, studies related to the mechanisms underlying drug resistance, the molecular pathways involved in this phenomenon, and alternate therapies have attracted the attention of researchers. Among a variety of therapeutic modalities, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of special interest due to their potential clinical use. Therapies involving MSCs are showing increasing promise in cancer treatment and anticancer drug screening applications; however, results have been inconclusive, possibly due to the heterogeneity of MSC populations. Most recently, the effect of MSCs on different types of cancer, such as hematologic malignancies, their mechanisms, sources of MSCs, and its advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. There are many proposed mechanisms describing the effects of MSCs in hematologic malignancies; however, the most commonly-accepted mechanism is that MSCs induce tumor cell cycle arrest. This review explains the anti-tumorigenic effects of MSCs through the suppression of tumor cell proliferation in hematological malignancies, especially in acute myeloid leukemia.


Subject(s)
Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Cell Proliferation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Resistance , Hematologic Neoplasms , Leukemia , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Population Characteristics
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761807

ABSTRACT

A heart simulator, UT-Heart, is a finite element model of the human heart that can reproduce all the fundamental activities of the working heart, including propagation of excitation, contraction, and relaxation and generation of blood pressure and blood flow, based on the molecular aspects of the cardiac electrophysiology and excitation-contraction coupling. In this paper, we present a brief review of the practical use of UT-Heart. As an example, we focus on its application for predicting the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and evaluating the proarrhythmic risk of drugs. Patient-specific, multiscale heart simulation successfully predicted the response to CRT by reproducing the complex pathophysiology of the heart. A proarrhythmic risk assessment system combining in vitro channel assays and in silico simulation of cardiac electrophysiology using UT-Heart successfully predicted druginduced arrhythmogenic risk. The assessment system was found to be reliable and efficient. We also developed a comprehensive hazard map on the various combinations of ion channel inhibitors. This in silico electrocardiogram database (now freely available at http://ut-heart.com/) can facilitate proarrhythmic risk assessment without the need to perform computationally expensive heart simulation. Based on these results, we conclude that the heart simulator, UT-Heart, could be a useful tool in clinical medicine and drug discovery.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Cardiac Electrophysiology , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Cardiotoxicity , Clinical Medicine , Computer Simulation , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Electrocardiography , Heart , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels , Models, Cardiovascular , Relaxation , Risk Assessment
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764730

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of multiple addiction risks with life satisfaction, depression, and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. METHODS: This study was descriptive correlational. Data were collected in 800 adults (405 males, 395 females) aged 20 to 69 years recruited using the proportional allocation in a city on April 2017. The structured questionnaire consisted of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for adults, the Problem Gambling Severity Index, the Drug Screening Inventory, the Korean version of the Satisfaction with the Life Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Scale for Suicidal Ideation. RESULTS: Adults with multiple addiction risks had a low level of life satisfaction (p=.003) and high levels of depression and suicidal ideation (p<.001) compared to other participants. Multiple addiction risks were associated with low life satisfaction (β=.12), high depression (β=.21), and suicidal ideation (β=.20). Significant factors of life satisfaction were low suicidal ideation, a simple functioning job, high level of education, and unemployment status. CONCLUSION: Multiple addiction risks are associated with life satisfaction, depression, and suicidal ideation. The comprehensive mental health assessment for multiple addictions should precede the development of preventive multidimensional interventions.


Subject(s)
Adult , Behavior, Addictive , Depression , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Education , Gambling , Humans , Internet , Male , Mental Health , Personal Satisfaction , Suicidal Ideation , Unemployment
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739531

ABSTRACT

Scratching is a main behavioral response accompanied by acute and chronic itch conditions, and has been quantified as an objective correlate to assess itch in studies using laboratory animals. Scratching has been counted mostly by human annotators, which is a time-consuming and laborious process. It has been attempted to develop automated scoring methods using various strategies, but they often require specialized equipment, costly software, or implantation of device which may disturb animal behaviors. To complement limitations of those methods, we have adapted machine learning-based strategy to develop a novel automated and real-time method detecting mouse scratching from experimental movies captured using monochrome cameras such as a webcam. Scratching is identified by characteristic changes in pixels, body position, and body size by frame as well as the size of body. To build a training model, a novel two-step J48 decision tree-inducing algorithm along with a C4.5 post-pruning algorithm was applied to three 30-min video recordings in which a mouse exhibits scratching following an intradermal injection of a pruritogen, and the resultant frames were then used for the next round of training. The trained method exhibited, on average, a sensitivity and specificity of 95.19% and 92.96%, respectively, in a performance test with five new recordings. This result suggests that it can be used as a non-invasive, automated and objective tool to measure mouse scratching from video recordings captured in general experimental settings, permitting rapid and accurate analysis of scratching for preclinical studies and high throughput drug screening.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Behavior, Animal , Body Size , Complement System Proteins , Decision Trees , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Injections, Intradermal , Machine Learning , Methods , Mice , Pruritus , Research Design , Sensitivity and Specificity , Video Recording
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739393

ABSTRACT

Reslizumab and mepolizumab are recently approved monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of severe (uncontrolled) eosinophilic asthma. Both are effective in neutralizing the function of interleukin-5 (IL-5). This study is the first to compare the binding affinity and in vitro potency of both antibodies in head-to-head assays. Two assays assessed binding affinity (using the equilibrium dissociation constant [K(D)]) of each drug for human IL-5. In the Biacore surface plasmon resonance assay, the association constant (k(on)) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 3.93 × 10⁶ and 1.83 × 10⁵, respectively. The dissociation constant (k(off)) values were 4.29 × 10⁻⁴ and 2.14 × 10⁻⁴, respectively. Calculated K(D) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 109 and 1,170 pM, respectively, representing an approximately 11-fold stronger binding affinity with reslizumab. In the Kinetic Exclusion Assay, the k(on) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 3.17 × 10⁶ and 1.32 × 10⁵, respectively. The k(off) values were 1.36 × 10⁻⁵ and 1.48 × 10⁻⁵, respectively. Measured K(D) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 4.3 and 112 pM, respectively, representing an approximately 26-fold stronger binding affinity for reslizumab. A human-IL-5-dependent cell proliferation assay was developed to assess in vitro potency, based on a human cell line selected for enhanced surface expression of IL-5 receptor-alpha and consistent proliferation response to IL-5. The concentration at which 50% inhibition occurred (IC₅₀) was determined for both antibodies. Reslizumab and mepolizumab inhibited IL-5-dependent cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of approximately 91.1 and 286.5 pM, respectively, representing on average 3.1-fold higher potency with reslizumab. In conclusion, comparative assays show that reslizumab has higher affinity binding for and in vitro potency against human IL-5 compared with mepolizumab. However, these results do not take into consideration the different methods of administration of reslizumab and mepolizumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibody Affinity , Asthma , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Eosinophils , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-5 , Surface Plasmon Resonance
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776867

ABSTRACT

In the market of botanical dietary supplements, Cimicifuga heracleifolia (CH) has always been considered as an adulterated species of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR), a conventional American herb with promising benefits to counteract troubles arising from the menopause. However, the detailed comparison of their therapeutic effects is lacking. In present study, the pharmacological and metabolomics studies were comparatively conducted between CH and CR in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Specifically, estrogen-like, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-osteoporosis effects were evaluated through measuring serum biochemical parameters, histopathological examination and micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) scanning. At the same time, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based serum metabolomics method was employed to profile the metabolite compositional changes. As a result, both CR and CH displayed anti-osteoporosis and anti-hyperlipemia on menopause syndrome. Meanwhile, their potentials in improving the OVX-induced metabolic disorders were discovered. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that CH is therapeutically similar to CR in relieving menopausal symptoms and CH could be considered as a promising alternative to CR instead of an adulterant in the market of botanical dietary supplements.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cimicifuga , Chemistry , Classification , Dietary Supplements , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Female , Humans , Menopause , Blood , Metabolomics , Osteoporosis , Blood , Drug Therapy , Ovariectomy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Blood , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773400

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the activities of biapenem against multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.@*METHODS@#Biapenem/clavulanate (BP/CL) was evaluated for in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolates, and the H37RV strain. BP/CL activity against the H37Rv strain was assessed in liquid cultures, in macrophages, and in mice..@*RESULTS@#BP/CL exhibited activity against MDR and XDR Mtb isolates in liquid cultures. BP/CL treatment significantly reduced the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Mtb within macrophages compared with control untreated infected macrophages. Notably, BP/CL synergized in pairwise combinations with protionamide, aminosalicylate, and capreomycin to achieve a fractional inhibitory concentration for each pairing of 0.375 in vitro. In a mouse tuberculosis infection model, the efficacy of a cocktail of levofloxacin + pyrazinamide + protionamide + aminosalicylate against Mtb increased when the cocktail was combined with BP/CL, achieving efficacy similar to that of the positive control treatment (isoniazid + rifampin + pyrazinamide) after 2 months of treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#BP/CL may provide a new option to clinically treat MDR tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Cell Line , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Macrophages , Mice , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Thienamycins , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Drug Therapy
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the protective effect of NANOG against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) -induced cell damage in the human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHF-MSCs).@*METHODS@#NANOG was expressed from a lentiviral vector, pLVX-IRES-ZsGreen. NANOG hHF-MSCs and vector hHF-MSCs were treated with 400 μmol/L hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 2 h, the cell survival rate, cell morphology, ROS production, apoptosis and expression of AKT, ERK, and p21 were determined and compared.@*RESULTS@#Our results showed that NANOG could activate AKT and upregulate the expression of p-AKT, but not p-ERK. When treated with 400 μmol/L H2O2, NANOG hHF-MSCs showed higher cell survival rate, lower ROS production and apoptosis, higher expression of p-AKT, higher ratio of p-AKT/AKT.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results suggest that NANOG could protect hHF-MSCs against cell damage caused by H2O2 through activating AKT signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Cell Survival , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hair Follicle , Cell Biology , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Lentivirus , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Metabolism , Nanog Homeobox Protein , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Oxidative Stress , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, are associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, and increase the levels of cholesterol auto-oxidation products such as 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC). Thus, it is imperative to identify agents that can prevent 7β-OHC-induced side-effects.@*METHODS@#We evaluated the potential protective effects of Carpobrotus edulis ethanol-water extract (EWe) on murine oligodendrocytes (158N) cultured in the absence or presence of 7β-OHC (20 μg/mL, 24 h). The cells were incubated with EWe (20-200 µg/mL) 2 h before 7β-OHC treatment. Mitochondrial activity and cell growth were evaluated with the MTT assay. Photometric methods were used to analyze antioxidant enzyme [catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] activities and the generation of lipid and protein oxidation products [malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated diene (CD), and carbonylated proteins (CPs)].@*RESULTS@#Treatment with 7β-OHC induced cell death and oxidative stress (reflected by alteration in CAT and SOD activities). Overproduction of lipid peroxidation products (MDA and CDs) and CPs was also reported. The cytotoxic effects associated with 7β-OHC were attenuated by 160 μg/mL of EWe of C. edulis. Cell death induced by 7β-OHC treatment was ameliorated, GPx and CAT activities were restored to normal, and MDA, CD, and CP levels were reduced following C. edulis extract treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#These data demonstrate the protective activities of C. edulis EWe against 7β-OHC-induced disequilibrium in the redox status of 158N cells, indicative of the potential role of this plant extract in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Aizoaceae , Animals , Cell Line , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Hydroxycholesterols , Mice , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neuroprotection , Oligodendroglia , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses
19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 449-458, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959255

ABSTRACT

Objective: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression. Methods: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies. The following search terms were used: "amantadine AND depress*"; "amantadine AND mood"; "amantadine AND animal models AND antidepres*"; and "amantadine AND (forced swim, learned helplessness, reserpine, chronic mild stress, anhedonia, sucrose preference)." Results: Amantadine had antidepressant-like effects in animal models and appeared to potentiate the antidepressant effects of other antidepressants. These preclinical findings have received some support from the results of small open-label clinical trials, suggesting that amantadine can reduce depressive symptomatology and potentiate the antidepressant effects of monoaminergic drugs. In addition to its glutamatergic and dopaminergic effects, the potential antidepressant-like effects of amantadine have been linked to molecular and cellular actions, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor), activation of σ1 receptors, decreased corticosterone levels, and decreased inflammatory response to stress. Conclusion: Amantadine is an interesting candidate as new antidepressant drug for the treatment of depression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Amantadine/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Biogenic Monoamines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 601-608, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951599

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work describes the preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial, molluscicidal, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities from leaf (LECF) and stem bark alcoholic extracts (BECF) of the species Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as capixingui or tapixingui. BECF presented significant toxicity (LC50 = 89.6 μg/ml) in the Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) bioassay, whereas LECF did not show activity (LC50 > 1000 μg/ml). From DPPH method, the values of IC50 for the LECF and BECF were 61.2 μg/ml and 62.2 μg/ml, respectively, showing that C. floribundus has an expressive antioxidant activity. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by microdilution technique and only BECF was active against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39.6 μg/ml). The extracts did not present molluscicidal activity against snail Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Both extracts revealed the presence of several components with an inhibiting capacity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme on the bioautographic assay. C. floribundus showed to be a promising species considering that it exhibited good biological activity in the most assays performed.


Resumo Este trabalho descreve a avaliação preliminar das atividades citotóxica, antimicrobiana, moluscicida, antioxidante e anticolinesterásica de extratos alcoólicos das folhas (LECF) e das cascas do caule (BECF) da espécie Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae), popularmente conhecida como capixingui ou tapixingui. No bioensaio com Artemia salina Leach, 1819 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda), BECF apresentou toxicidade significante (LC50 = 89,6 µg/ml), enquanto que LECF não apresentou atividade (LC50 > 1000 µg/ml). A partir do método de DPPH, os valores de IC50 para o LECF e BECF foram 61,2 µg/ml e 62,2 µg/ml, respectivamente, evidenciando que C. floribundus tem uma atividade antioxidante expressiva. A susceptibilidade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pela técnica de microdiluição e apenas BECF foi ativo contra Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 39,6 mg/ml). Os extratos não apresentaram atividade moluscicida contra o caramujo Biomphalaria glabrata Say, 1818 (Gastropoda: Planorbidae). Ambos os extratos revelaram a presença de componentes com capacidade inibidora da enzima acetilcolinesterase no ensaio bioautográfico. C. floribundus mostrou ser uma espécie promissora considerando que exibiu boa atividade biológica na maioria dos ensaios testados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Artemia/drug effects , Biomphalaria/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Croton/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Stems/chemistry , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Phytochemicals/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
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