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1.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353510

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are rare and potentially fatal adverse hypersen-sitivity reaction to some drugs, especially anticonvulsants.The syndrome affects not only the skin but also other organs, especially the liver. The incidence can vary from 1 to 5 cases per 10.000 patients exposed to anticonvul-sants. The recognition of the syndrome is of fundamental importance since the mortality rate is between 10 and 40%. Once the diagnosis is established, the triggering drug must be identified and discontinued. Corticosteroids are usually associated with therapy. Autoimmune sequelae have been reported, including vitiligo and rarely alopecia. Alopecia universalis is a variant of alopecia areata, characterized by hair loss throughout the body. We report a case of DRESS, associated with two autoimmune dermatological diseases: alopecia universalis and vitiligo. (AU)


RESUMO: A reação a drogas com eosinofilia e sintomas sistêmicos (DRESS) é uma rara e potencialmente fatal reação adversa de hipersensibilidade, decorrente de alguns medicamentos, principalmente os anticonvulsivantes. A síndrome não afeta apenas a pele, mas também outros órgãos, principalmente o fígado. A incidência pode variar de 1 a 5 casos por 10.000 pacientes expostos aos anticonvulsivantes. O reconhecimento da síndrome é de fundamental importân-cia devido a taxa de mortalidade entre 10-40%. Uma vez estabelecido o diagnóstico, deve-se identificar o medica-mento desencadeante e suspendê-lo. O corticosteróide geralmente é associado na terapia. Sequelas autoimunes foram relatadas, incluindo vitiligo e raramente alopecia. A alopecia universal é uma variante da alopecia areata, caracterizada pela perda de pelos em todo o corpo. Relatamos um caso de DRESS, associado a duas doenças au-toimunes dermatológicas: alopecia universal e vitiligo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Vitiligo , Drug Eruptions , Drug Hypersensitivity , Eosinophilia , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Anticonvulsants
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eMD5703, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249746

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Betalactams are the most frequent cause of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs mediated by a specific immune mechanism. Immediate reactions occur within 1 to 6 hours after betalactam administration, and are generally IgE-mediated. They clinically translate into urticaria, angioedema and anaphylaxis. Non-immediate or delayed reactions occur after 1 hour of administration. These are the most common reactions and are usually mediated by T cells. The most frequent type is the maculopapular or morbilliform exanthematous eruption. Most individuals who report allergies to penicillin and betalactams can tolerate this group of antibiotics. To make diagnosis, a detailed medical history is essential to verify whether it was an immediate or non-immediate reaction. Thereafter, in vivo and/or in vitro tests for investigation may be performed. The challenging test is considered the gold standard method for diagnosis of betalactam hypersensitivity. The first approach when suspecting a reaction to betalactam is to discontinue exposure to the drug, and the only specific treatment is desensitization, which has very precise indications. The misdiagnosis of penicillin allergy affects the health system, since the "penicillin allergy" label is associated with increased bacterial resistance, higher rate of therapeutic failure, prolonged hospitalizations, readmissions, and increased costs. Thus, it is essential to develop strategies to assist the prescription of antibiotics in patients identified with a label of "betalactam allergy" at hospitals, and to enhance education of patients and their caregivers, as well as of non-specialist physicians.


RESUMO Os beta-lactâmicos constituem a causa mais frequente de reações de hipersensibilidade a fármacos mediadas por mecanismo imunológico específico. As reações imediatas ocorrem em 1 até 6 horas após a administração do beta-lactâmico, sendo geralmente IgE-mediadas. Elas se traduzem clinicamente por urticária, angioedema e anafilaxia. As reações não imediatas ou tardias ocorrem após 1 hora da administração. São as reações mais comuns, sendo geralmente mediadas por células T. O tipo mais frequente é o exantema maculopapular ou morbiliforme. A maioria dos indivíduos que refere alergia aos beta-lactâmicos pode tolerar esse grupo de antibióticos. No diagnóstico, uma história clínica detalhada é fundamental para verificar se a reação foi do tipo imediato ou não imediato. A partir daí, podem ser realizados testes in vivo e/ou in vitro para investigação. O teste de provocação é considerado o método padrão-ouro no diagnóstico de hipersensibilidade aos beta-lactâmicos. A primeira conduta diante da suspeita de uma reação ao beta-lactâmico é suspender a exposição ao medicamento, e o único tratamento específico é a dessensibilização, que possui indicações bem precisas. O diagnóstico equivocado de alergia à penicilina afeta o sistema de saúde, pois o rótulo de "alergia à penicilina" está associado a aumento da resistência bacteriana, maior índice de falha terapêutica, hospitalizações prolongadas, readmissões e aumento dos custos. Assim, torna-se fundamental elaborar estratégias com o objetivo de auxiliar na prescrição de antibióticos em pacientes com rótulo de "alergia aos beta-lactâmicos" nos hospitais e melhorar a educação dos pacientes e seus responsáveis, além de médicos não especialistas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Anaphylaxis , Penicillins/adverse effects , beta-Lactams/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 642-661, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155771

ABSTRACT

Abstract This second joint document, written by experts from the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology (ASBAI) and Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) concerned with perioperative anaphylaxis, aims to review the pathophysiological reaction mechanisms, triggering agents (in adults and children), and the approach for diagnosis during and after an episode of anaphylaxis. As anaphylaxis assessment is extensive, the identification of medications, antiseptics and other substances used at each setting, the comprehensive data documentation, and the use of standardized nomenclature are key points for obtaining more consistent epidemiological information on perioperative anaphylaxis.


Resumo Este segundo documento, escrito por especialistas da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) interessados no tema anafilaxia perioperatória, tem por objetivo revisar os mecanismos fisiopatológicos, agentes desencadeantes (em adultos e crianças), assim como a abordagem diagnóstica durante e após o episódio. Por se tratar de uma avaliação abrangente, a identificação das medicações, antissépticos e outras substâncias usadas em cada região, registros detalhados, e nomenclatura padronizada são pontos fundamentais para a obtenção de dados epidemiológicos mais fidedignos sobre a anafilaxia perioperatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Perioperative Period , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Societies, Medical , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Mastocytosis/complications , Brazil , Preoperative Care , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Skin Tests/methods , Risk Factors , IgA Deficiency/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Allergy and Immunology , Symptom Assessment , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Anesthesiology , Angioedema/chemically induced , Terminology as Topic
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 534-548, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143957

ABSTRACT

Abstract Experts from the Brazilian Association of Allergy and Immunology (ASBAI) and the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA) interested in the issue of perioperative anaphylaxis, and aiming to strengthen the collaboration between the two societies, combined efforts to study the topic and to prepare a joint document to guide specialists in both areas. The purpose of the present series of two articles was to report the most recent evidence based on the collaborative assessment between both societies. This first article will consider the updated definitions, treatment and guidelines after a perioperative crisis. The following article will discuss the major etiologic agents, how to proceed with the investigation, and the appropriate tests.


Resumo Especialistas da Associação Brasileira de Alergia e Imunologia (ASBAI) e da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) interessados no tema anafilaxia perioperatória reuniram-se com o objetivo de intensificar a colaboração entre as duas sociedades no estudo desse tema e elaborar um documento conjunto que possa guiar os especialistas de ambas as áreas. O objetivo desta série de dois artigos foi mostrar as evidências mais recentes alicerçadas na visão colaborativa entre as sociedades. Este primeiro artigo versará sobre as definições mais atuais, formas de tratamento e as orientações após a crise no perioperatório. No próximo artigo serão discutidos os principais agentes causais e a condução da investigação com testes apropriados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Perioperative Period , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Societies, Medical , Vasodilator Agents/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques , Mastocytosis/complications , Brazil , Preoperative Care , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Skin Tests/methods , Risk Factors , IgA Deficiency/complications , Drug Hypersensitivity/physiopathology , Allergy and Immunology , Symptom Assessment , Anaphylaxis/physiopathology , Anesthesiology , Angioedema/chemically induced , Terminology as Topic
5.
Más Vita ; 2(2): 60-67, jun. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1290732

ABSTRACT

La práctica de la automedicación constituye riesgos para la salud, principalmente, para los adultos mayores debido a los cambios propios del envejecimiento que existe en esta etapa de la vida. Objetivo: Determinar el comportamiento de la automedicación en los adultos mayores del Consultorio Médico de Familia (CMF) # 15 del municipio de Jesús Menéndez, en el 1er semestre del año 2018. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo, de tipo descriptivo. La población fue de 359 adultos mayores, quedando constituida la muestra por 151 pacientes, utilizando para su obtención la fórmula del cálculo de muestra. Se utilizó la entrevista como técnica de obtención de datos estudiándose las siguientes variables: afecciones por el cual se automedican, grupos medicamentosos sin prescripción que más consumen, sexo de mayor incidencia. Resultados: Los dolores osteomioarticular es la principal afección por la cual consumen medicamentos sin la prescripción médica con un 66,2 %. El 100% de los gerontos consumen medicamentos tipo AINE sin prescripción de un galeno para el alivio de los dolores presentes; el sexo femenino es de mayor incidencia representada por el 53.6% Conclusiones: Se concluye que existe práctica de automedicación en este grupo poblacional siendo los dolores del sistema osteomioarticular la afección principal que los induce a consumir medicamentos sin prescripción médica. Se detectó que los fármacos de mayor consumo automedicado son los pertenecientes al grupo medicamentoso conocido como AINE y que el sexo femenino es de mayor incidencia en el consumo de medicamento automedicado(AU)


The practice of self-medication constitutes health risks, mainly, for older adults due to the changes typical of aging that exist at this stage of life. Objective: To determine the behavior of self-medication in the elderly of the Consultorio Medico de La Familia (CMF) # 15 of the municipality of Jesús Menéndez, in the 1st semester of 2018. Methodology: A pescriptive, quantitative study was carried out. The population was 359 older adults; the sample was constituted for 151 patients, using the sample calculation formula to obtain it. The interview was used as a technique to obtain data, studying the following variables: conditions for which they self-medicate, non-prescription drug groups that consume the most, sex with the highest incidence. Results: Osteomyoarticular pain is the main condition for which they consume medications without a prescription with 66.2%. The 100% of the gerontos consume NSAID type medications without prescription of a doctor for the relief of present pain; the female sex is of higher incidence represented by 53.6%. Conclusions: It is concluded that there is a practice of self-medication in this population group, being the pain of the osteomyoarticular system the main condition that induces them to consume drugs with out a prescription. It was detected that the drugs with the highest self-medicated consumption are those belonging to the drug group known as NSAIDs and that the female sex is of greater incidence in the consumption of self-medicated medication(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Self Medication , Aged , Drug Hypersensitivity , Family Practice , Acidity , Headache , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
6.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(1): 82-90, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088712

ABSTRACT

Abstract Local anesthetics are essential medications for the conduction of dermatological procedures. They stop the depolarization of nerve fibers and are divided into two main categories, the amide and ester types. Systemic toxicity with reflex on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems is their most feared adverse reactions, and the anaphylactic reaction is the most concerning one. Although potentially fatal, these events are extremely rare, so local anesthetics are considered safe for use in in-office procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Mepivacaine/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Drug Hypersensitivity
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): 47-51, 2020-02-00. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1095576

ABSTRACT

La amoxicilina es un antibiótico betalactámico comúnmente indicado en pediatría y es la causa más frecuente de alergia a medicamentos.Objetivos. Determinar la proporción de alergia confirmada a amoxicilina en niños con sospecha diagnóstica, atendidos en una sección de alergia pediátrica.Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo entre enero de 2009 y enero de 2017, en menores de 18 años con sospecha diagnóstica de alergia a amoxicilina. Se realizó el diagnóstico según interrogatorio y pruebas específicas.Resultados. Fueron incluidos 234 pacientes; se diagnosticó alergia a la amoxicilina en el 10,7 % (intervalo de confianza del 95 %: 7-15). Estos pacientes tenían mayor prevalencia de síntomas inmediatos (el 40 % vs. el 22 %, p = 0,048) y de exposición previa a betalactámicos (el 84 % vs. el 56 %, p = 0,007).Conclusión. La confirmación de alergia a la amoxicilina en niños derivados a especialistas fue del 10,7 %.


Amoxicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic commonly indicated in pediatrics and the most frequent cause of drug allergies.Objectives. To determine the proportion of confirmed amoxicillin allergy in children with diagnostic suspicion seen at the Division of Pediatric Allergy.Population and methods. This descriptive, retrospective study was done between January 2009 and January 2017 in children younger than 18 years with diagnostic suspicion of amoxicillin allergy. The diagnosis was based on questions and specific tests.Results. A total of 234 patients were included; amoxicillin allergy was diagnosed in 10.7 % (95 % confidence interval: 7-15). These patients had a higher prevalence of immediate symptoms (40 % vs. 22 %, p = 0.048) and prior exposure to beta-lactams (84 % vs. 56 %, p = 0.007).Conclusion. Amoxicillin allergy in children referred to specialists was confirmed in 10.7 %.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , beta-Lactams , Amoxicillin
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): S1-S11, 2020-02-00. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096405

ABSTRACT

Los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos son ampliamente recetados en niños. Constituyen la segunda causa de reacciones a medicamentos en pediatría después de los antibióticos betalactámicos; sin embargo, solo una parte de estas son reacciones de hipersensibilidad. La prevalencia de dichas reacciones a antiinflamatorios no esteroideos en niños es del 0,3 % y aumenta al 5 % en asmáticos.Los mecanismos fisiopatológicos involucrados (inhibición de la ciclooxigenasa, hipersensibilidad mediada por inmunoglobulina E, linfocitos T reactivos y/o afectación de la inmunidad innata) darán lugar a diferentes entidades clínicas con sintomatología dispar.La confusión con síntomas propios de procesos virales y la variabilidad clínica hacen del diagnóstico de certeza un verdadero desafío. Una historia clínica detallada, análisis de laboratorio, pruebas cutáneas y de provocación controlada permitirán definir estrategias para cada paciente en particular sin etiquetar como alérgico a un niño que no lo es ni exponer a riesgos innecesarios a quien está sensibilizado.


Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely prescribed in children. They are the second cause of drug ́s reactions in pediatrics after beta-lactam antibiotics, however only a part of them are hypersensitivity reactions. The prevalence of these reactions to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in children is 0.3 %, increasing to 5 % in asthmatics.The different physiopathological mechanisms involved (inhibition of cyclooxygenase, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity, reactive T lymphocytes and/or disturbance of innate immunity) will cause different clinical entities with diverse symptoms.The confusion between the common symptoms of a viral infection and a hypersensitivity reaction, and the variability of the clinical presentations make diagnosis a real challenge.A detailed clinical history, laboratory, skin and controlled provocation tests will provide strategies for each patient, without labeling a child who is not an allergic one, or taking unnecessary risks with those who are sensitized.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Skin Tests , Cross Reactions , Drug Hypersensitivity/prevention & control
10.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 8-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785457

ABSTRACT

There are geographical, regional, and ethnic differences in the phenotypes and endotypes of patients with drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) in different parts of the world. In Asia, aspects of drug hypersensitivity of regional importance include IgE-mediated allergies and T-cell-mediated reactions, including severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), to beta-lactam antibiotics, antituberculous drugs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and radiocontrast agents. Delabeling of low-risk penicillin allergy using direct oral provocation tests without skin tests have been found to be useful where the drug plausibility of the index reaction is low. Genetic risk associations of relevance to Asia include human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B*1502 with carbamazepine SCAR, and HLA-B*5801 with allopurinol SCAR in some Asian ethnic groups. There remains a lack of safe and accurate diagnostic tests for antituberculous drug allergy, other than relatively high-risk desensitization regimes to first-line antituberculous therapy. NSAID hypersensitivity is common among both adults and children in Asia, with regional differences in phenotype especially among adults. Low dose aspirin desensitization is an important therapeutic modality in individuals with cross-reactive NSAID hypersensitivity and coronary artery disease following percutaneous coronary intervention. Skin testing allows patients with radiocontrast media hypersensitivity to confirm the suspected agent and test for alternatives, especially when contrasted scans are needed for future monitoring of disease relapse or progression, especially cancers.


Subject(s)
Adult , Allopurinol , Anaphylaxis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Aspirin , Asthma , Carbamazepine , Child , Cicatrix , Contrast Media , Coronary Artery Disease , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Hypersensitivity , Ethnic Groups , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Penicillins , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Phenotype , Recurrence , Skin Tests
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785336

ABSTRACT

Influenza vaccine-associated anaphylaxis is a very rare allergic reaction to vaccines, but the most concerning and life-threatening adverse reaction. Although the safety of influenza vaccines has been well documented, occasional cases of anaphylaxis in vaccinated patients have been reported. In this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin E (IgE) response to whole influenza vaccines in a pediatric case of delayed-onset anaphylaxis after influenza vaccination. The patient showed elevated specific IgE levels against whole influenza vaccines, especially with split virion from egg-based manufacturing process. Specific IgE levels to influenza vaccines showed decreased over. We evaluated a causal relationship between influenza vaccine and anaphylaxis event by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Delayed-onset anaphylaxis after influenza vaccination can occur in children without predisposing allergic diseases. In addition, the results suggested that formulation and production system of influenza vaccines could affect the probability of severe allergic reaction to vaccines.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Child , Drug Hypersensitivity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Vaccination , Vaccines , Virion
12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5002, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056030

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The fixed drug eruption is a non-immediate hypersensitivity reaction to drug, characterized by recurrent erythematous or violaceous, rounded, well-defined border plaques, which always appear in the same location every time the culprit drug is administered. The usual practice is to avoid the drug involved and to use a structurally different drug. However, there are situations in which there is no safe and effective therapy. In such situations, desensitization is the only option. We describe the case of a patient who presented fixed eruption due to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, who underwent successful desensitization, but required a repeat procedure twice due to relapse after inadvertent full-dose reintroduction. In non-immediate hypersensitivity reaction to drug, the indication is controversial and there is no technical standardization. Furthermore, the time at which such tolerance is lost after discontinuing the drug involved is unknown. In severe non-immediate reactions of types II and III, desensitization is contraindicated. The patient underwent desensitisation to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim three times − the first with recurrence of lesions and the second and third without manifestations, all concluded successfully and with no premedication.


RESUMO A erupção fixa por drogas é uma reação de hipersensibilidade a medicamento não imediata, caracterizada por placas eritematosas ou violáceas, arredondadas, recorrentes, de bordas bem definidas e que aparecem sempre na mesma localização cada vez que o medicamento culpado é administrado. A prática habitual é evitar a droga envolvida e utilizar um medicamento estruturalmente diferente. Contudo, há situações em que não há terapêutica segura e eficaz. Em tais situações, a dessensibilização é a única opção. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente que apresentou erupção fixa por drogas por sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim, tendo sido submetido à dessensibilização com sucesso, mas necessitou repetição do procedimento duas vezes, por recidiva da reação após reintrodução inadvertida em dose plena. Em reação de hipersensibilidade a medicamento não imediata, a indicação é controversa e não há padronização técnica. Além disso, não se conhece o tempo durante o qual essa tolerância é perdida após a suspensão da droga envolvida. Nas reações não imediatas graves e dos tipos II e III, a dessensibilização está contraindicada. O paciente foi submetido a dessensibilização ao sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim por três vezes − a primeira com recorrência de lesões, e a segunda e terceira sem manifestações, sendo todas concluídas com sucesso e sem uso de pré-medicação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/adverse effects , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Eruptions/drug therapy , Sulfamethoxazole/adverse effects , Trimethoprim/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity/drug therapy
13.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(3): 382-385, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041340

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To report a case of a male adolescent with the diagnosis of ibuprofen-induced meningitis. We discuss themain causes of drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) and highlight the importance of early recognition of DIAM, sothat the offending drug can be withdrawn, and recurrences prevented. Only few DIAM cases have been reported in pediatric age. Case description: A healthy 15-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with headache, nausea, dizziness, fever, conjunctival hyperemia and blurred vision 30 minutes after ibuprofen-intake. During his stay, he developed emesis and neck stiffness. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis excluded infectious causes, and DIAM was considered. He totally recovered after drug withdrawal. Comments: DIAM is a rare entity, that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aseptic meningitis. The major causative agents are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, particularly ibuprofen. Suspicion is made by the chronologic link between drug intake and the beginning of symptoms, but infectious causes should always be ruled out.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descreve-se o caso de um adolescente do sexo masculino com diagnóstico de meningite asséptica por ibuprofeno. Discutem-se as causas de meningite asséptica induzida por medicamentos (MAIM) e a importância do reconhecimento precoce dessa situação, para que a medicação envolvida seja suspensa e as recorrências prevenidas. Poucos casos foram descritos em idade pediátrica. Descrição do caso: Adolescente de 15 anos, gênero masculino, saudável, procurou o serviço de urgência por cefaleia, náuseas, tonturas, febre, hiperemia conjuntival e visão desfocada 30 minutos após o uso de ibuprofeno. Durante a internação, iniciou vômitos e rigidez na nuca. A análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano excluiu causas infeciosas, e considerou-se como diagnóstico mais provável a MAIM. A recuperação foi total após a suspensão do medicamento. Comentários: A MAIM é rara, mas deve ser considerada no diagnóstico diferencial de meningite asséptica. A principal causa são os anti-inflamatórios não esteroides, principalmente o ibuprofeno. A suspeita clínica é evocada pela relação temporal entre o uso do medicamento e o início dos sintomas, mas as causas infeciosas devem ser sempre excluídas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Ibuprofen/adverse effects , Meningitis, Aseptic/chemically induced , Vomiting , Treatment Outcome , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Hypersensitivity , Fever , Headache , Meningitis, Aseptic/diagnosis
14.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 268-270, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039233

ABSTRACT

Abstract Abacavir can cause a multi-systemic hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) in 5-8% of the patients, which is related to HLA-B*57-01 allele. In Brazil, the HLA-B*57-01 screening test became available only in March 2018, several years after abacavir was in use. In this retrospective study we reviewed medical charts of all patients receiving an abacavir-containing regimen to evaluate the frequency of HSR in patients followed at a referral center in Salvador, Brazil. A total of 192 patients who received abacavir were identified, most male (67.1%), black or racially mixed (77.8%), and having diagnosis of a previous AIDS defining conditions (83.7%). Only one patient developed HSR (incidence: 0.52%). The main reasons for abacavir-containing antiretroviral therapy discontinuation were virological failure (28%), adverse effects to other components of the regimen (25%), and simplification of therapy (16%). The low incidence of HSR to abacavir does not support the use of HLA-B*57-01 screening test, in Salvador, Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Dideoxynucleosides/adverse effects , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Drug Hypersensitivity/etiology , Drug Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Retrospective Studies
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current status of managing adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) for computed tomography in referral hospitals in South Korea compared with hospitals in other countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This survey investigation involved 59 Korean and 15 overseas hospitals using guideline-based questionnaires consisting of 24 items in 7 main categories related to managing adverse reactions to ICM. RESULTS: Informed written consent with risk factor evaluation was appropriately performed in most of the Korean hospitals. There was considerable variability in assessing renal function across the hospitals; serum creatinine level was used as a reference in 76.4% of Korean hospitals. The Korean hospitals preferred a more stringent approach to determining normal renal function (p = 0.01), withholding metformin (p = 0.01), and fasting before ICM exposure (p < 0.001) compared with overseas hospitals. All the Korean hospitals had an emergency protocol and in-hospital system for adverse reactions to ICM. The Korean (87.7%) and overseas hospitals (100%) were similarly equipped with epinephrine (p = 0.332), but only 38.6% of Korean hospitals were equipped with a bronchodilator (p = 0.004). For patients with a previous hypersensitivity reaction to ICM, 62.3% of Korean hospitals pre-medicated with anti-histamine and corticosteroid according to the severity of the previous reaction, and changed the culprit ICM in 52.8%, while skin test was performed in 17%. CONCLUSION: In general, Korean referral hospitals were well-prepared regarding informed consent, protocol, and an in-hospital system for managing adverse reactions to ICM. Nevertheless, there was considerable variability in details and management, thus requiring standardization by reflecting current guidelines.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Contrast Media , Creatinine , Drug Hypersensitivity , Emergencies , Epinephrine , Fasting , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Informed Consent , Korea , Metformin , Referral and Consultation , Risk Factors , Skin Tests
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759731

ABSTRACT

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease. Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) is a rare cause of progressive cholestasis. Both syndromes are usually associated with the use of specific drugs. VBDS in patients with SJS is most commonly associated with drug hypersensitivity. To our knowledge, to date, the literature contains only a single report of toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with VBDS in Korea. We report a case of drug-induced SJS with acute onset of VBDS and present a review of the literature in this context. This case highlights the importance of awareness among clinicians regarding drug reactions, their severity, as well as diagnostic modalities and optimal management strategies in these cases.


Subject(s)
Bile Ducts , Bile , Cholestasis , Drug Hypersensitivity , Humans , Korea , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
18.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e30-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762879

ABSTRACT

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Incidence of drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) to PPIs has been rising, presumably because of their increased consumption. Most DHR are IgE-mediated, with half of the reactions being anaphylactic. We describe the case of a Caucasian 50-year-old female patient referred to our allergy department after 2 episodes of anaphylaxis. The allergy work-up distinguished PPI as a cause of delayed onset (14 hours) and immediate onset (45 minutes) IgE-mediated DHR.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Drug Hypersensitivity , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Incidence , Middle Aged , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Protons , Skin Tests
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762191

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to analyze the frequency of eosinophilia-associated diseases and to search for possible markers that may be useful for their differential diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 148 patients with peripheral blood eosinophil count of more than 500/µL who visited the Allergy Department of Chonnam National University Hospital for the first time from January to December 2016. Blood eosinophilia was categorized as mild (5,000/µL). RESULTS: Blood eosinophilia was mostly caused by allergic diseases (41.9%), parasitic infestation (23.6%), and drug allergy (19.6%). Eosinophil count was higher in patients with parasitic infestation (P<0.01), drug allergy (P<0.01), hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES, P<0.001), or eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, P<0.001) than in those with allergic diseases. The eosinophilic cationic protein level was higher in patients with HES than in those with allergic diseases (P<0.05) and parasitic infestation (P<0.05). The total IgE level was lower in patients with HES than in those with parasitic infestation (P<0.05) and EGPA (P<0.05). The vitamin B12 level was higher in patients with HES than in those with parasitic infestation (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in tryptase levels between the groups. The most common cause of mild eosinophilia was allergic diseases (59.8%), followed by parasitic infestation (22.7%) and drug allergy (13.4%). The common causes of moderate eosinophilia were drug allergy (37.8%), parasitic infestation (29.7%), and allergic diseases (10.8%). The common causes of severe eosinophilia were EGPA (28.6%), HES (21.4%), parasitic infestation (14.3%), and drug allergy (14.3%). CONCLUSION: Common causes of blood eosinophilia in patients who visit the allergy department are allergic diseases, parasitic infestation, and drug allergy. Several markers, including eosinophil count, total IgE, and vitamin B12, may be useful for the differential diagnosis of eosinophilia-associated diseases.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Hypersensitivity , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Medical Records , Parasitic Diseases , Retrospective Studies , Tryptases , Vitamin B 12
20.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e14-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750179

ABSTRACT

Hypersensitivity to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) or its active metabolite, calcitriol, is an exceedingly rare clinical phenomenon, with only 2 previously reported cases of suspected immediate hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions is inherently difficult due to the lack of any robust in vitro diagnostic assay, particularly in those patients for whom provocation testing confers an unacceptable risk. In these situations, diagnosis relies on reproducible clinical manifestations following administration of the culprit agent, resolution upon its withdrawal and exclusion of other potential differential diagnoses. Based on these criteria, we propose the first reported case of delayed hypersensitivity to cholecalciferol successfully managed with a desensitisation protocol to pure cholecalciferol.


Subject(s)
Calcitriol , Cholecalciferol , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Hypersensitivity, Delayed , Hypersensitivity, Immediate , In Vitro Techniques
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