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1.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18655, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364423

ABSTRACT

Abstract Periodontitis is an oral disease associated with inflammation and pain with swollen and bleeding gums. In the present study, dental pastes containing NSAIDs, namely, diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared to treat periodontitis. Dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were prepared with/without mucoadhesive hydrocolloid polymers such as sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC), hydroxyl ethyl cellulose (HEC) and methyl cellulose (MC) by conventional trituration method. The pH, drug content, viscosity, tube spreadability and tube extrudability of these prepared dental pastes were measured. These dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) were characterized by FTIR analyses for drug-excipient compatibility. The in vitro drug releases from these dental pastes in 6.4 pH phosphate buffer solution displayed sustained release over longer period and the drug release rate was found to be decreased when the concentration of mucoadhesive polymer was increased. These dental pastes displayed good adhesion to the oral mucosa revealing more retention time in mouth when tested for ex vivo mucoadhesion using bovine cheek pouch. The stability study results reveal that the DC3 and NC3 dental paste formulations were found stable enough over a longer period in different storage conditions. The present study revealed that the prepared mucoadhesive dental pastes of diclofenac sodium and nimesulide (1 % w/w) had good adhesion with the oral mucosa to maintain consistent release of drugs over prolonged time.


Subject(s)
Toothpastes/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/analysis , Mouth , Mouth Mucosa/abnormalities , Periodontitis , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Diclofenac/adverse effects , Disease/classification , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Liberation , Gingiva/abnormalities , Inflammation/complications
2.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18809, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364420

ABSTRACT

Abstract Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic drug widely prescribed all over the world due to its clinical advantages. The currently available long acting marketed depot formulation of risperidone is a microsphere based preparation using poly-[lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA) as drug release barrier. It is however, a cold chain product due to thermal instability of PLGA at room temperature. After beginning the depot injection therapy it is administered every two weeks but associated with another drawback of about 3 weeks lag time due to which its tablets are also administered for three weeks so as to attain and maintain therapeutic drug concentration in the body. The present work attempts to develop a long acting depot delivery system of risperidone for once a month administration based on the combination of sucrose acetate isobutyrate and polycaprolactone dissolved in benzyl benzoate to provide an effective drug release barrier for one month without any lag time and which can be stored at room temperature precluding the requirement of cold supply chain. The developed depot formulation showed a sustained in vitro drug release profile with 88.95% cumulative drug release in 30 days with little burst release. The in vivo pharmacokinetic studies of the developed formulation conducted on rats showed attainment of mean peak plasma drug concentration of 459.7 ng/mL in 3 days with a mean residence time of 31.2 days, terminal half-life of 20.6 days, terminal elimination rate constant of 0.0336 per day, and a good in vitro- in vivo correlation.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Risperidone/agonists , Sucrose , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Liberation/drug effects
3.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18630, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364418

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present investigation was to design, optimize and characterize the gastro retentive floating levofloxacin tablets and perform in-vivo evaluation using radiographic imaging. The floating tablets were prepared by using polymers i.e hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC-K4M) and carbopol-940 individually and in combination by nonaquous granulation method. All the Formulations were evaluated for swelling index (S.I), floating behavior and in-vitro drug release kinetics. The compatibility study of levofloxacin with other polymers was investigated by FTIR, DSC, TGA and XRD. Results from FTIR and DSC revealed no chemical interaction amongst the formulation components. The optimized formulation (F11) showed floating lag time (FLT), total floating time (TFT) swelling index (S.I) of 60 sec, >16h and approximately 75 %, respectively. Moreover, F11 showed zero order levofloxacin release in simulated gastric fluid over the period of 6 h. X-ray studies showed that total buoyancy time was able to delay the gastric emptying of levofloxacin floating tablets in rabbits for more than 4 hours. In conclusion the optimized formulation (F11) can be used for the sustained delivery of levofloxacin for the treatment of peptic ulcer.


Subject(s)
Drug Liberation , Peptic Ulcer/classification , Tablets/pharmacology , X-Rays/adverse effects , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Drug Compounding/instrumentation , Process Optimization/analysis , Levofloxacin/analysis , Gastric Emptying/drug effects
4.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2021. 126 p. tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378785

ABSTRACT

Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease (NTD), is a set of diseases caused by obligatory parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. And it has cutaneous and visceral eishmaniasis as its main forms. Treatment includes pentavalent antimonials. These drugs have several disadvantages, such as the need for parenteral administration, use of high dosages, long duration of treatment, severe toxicity, resistance and variable efficacy. The candidate for hydroxymethylnitrofural drug (NFOH), a prodrug derived from nitrofural, showed high activity in cell cultures infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and less toxicity when compared to nitrofural. Due to its low solubility in water and reduced bioavailability, NFOH has failed the in vivo efficacy tests. Nanostructured drug delivery systems have the potential to overcome these challenges due to their evident advantages: greater therapeutic efficacy, less toxicity, modified drug release and increased gastrointestinal absorption of drugs with low water solubility. The objective of this project will be the preparation and evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of a nanostructured lipid carrier containing hydroxymethylnitrofural (NLC-NFOH). The NFOH showed the highest solubility in Miglyol® 840 among the tested liquid lipids. For solid lipids, Gelucire® 50/13 and Precirol® ATO5 proved to be more suitable for the solubilization of NFOH. The optimized NLC-NFOH consisted of these three lipids. These lipids were selected using a quick Technobis Crystal 16TM methodology, microscopy and DSC. Different lipid selection tools provided scientific knowledge relevant to the development of NLC. The NLC-NFOH had an average z of 198.6 ± 5.4 nm, a PDI of 0.11 ± 0.01 and a zeta potential of -13.7 ± 0.7 mV. This study allowed a design space development approach of the first NLC-NFOH with the potential to treat leishmaniasis orally. The development of a sensitive bioanalytical method using HPLC and evaluation of some analytical figures of merit for the validation allowed the quantification of NFOH and NF. The bioanalytical method for analysis of NFOH and NF use Zorbax SB-C18, 5µm, (4.6x250mm) HPLC column. The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile:water (20:80 v/v) with flow rate of 1.2 ml/min, at UV detection of 370 nm. The linearity of NFOH and NF was found in the range 0.0253.0 µg/ml with a correlation coefficient of r > 0.98. The precision was 2.44 to 13.77% for NFOH and 2.61 to 18.42%; the accuracy was 2.66 to 14.28% for NFOH and 2.09 to 19.06% for NF. The method showed to be suitable for effectively evaluation of NFOH is serum. NLC-NFOH (2.8 mg/kg) was administered to animals by gavage, and the blocking flow of the chylomicrons model was performed with an intraperitoneal injection of cycloheximide. The presence of NFOH in serum was evaluated with and without cycloheximide. The cytotoxicity assay of NLC-NFOH and blank-NLC showed more than 90% viable cells at the maximum concentration used (2560 µM). NFOH and NF were detected at 1h after the gavage of DMSO-NFOH or NLC-NFOH, without the pretreatment with cycloheximide. The concentration found for DMSO-NFOH and NLC-NFOH were 0.0316 and 0.0291 µg/mL, respectively. The NLC presented the NFOH absorption by the lymphatic system, demonstrated by blocking chylomicrons flow


A leishmaniose, uma doença tropical negligenciada (DTN), é um conjunto de doenças causadas por protozoários parasitas obrigatórios do gênero Leishmania. E tem como formas principais a leishmaniose cutânea e visceral. O tratamento inclui antimoniais pentavalentes. Esses fármacos apresentam várias desvantagens, como necessidade de administração parenteral, uso de altas dosagens, longa duração do tratamento, toxicidade grave, resistência e eficácia variável. O candidato ao fármaco hidroximetilnitrofural (NFOH), um pró-fármaco derivado do nitrofural, apresentou alta atividade em culturas de células infectadas pelo Trypanosoma cruzi e menor toxicidade quando comparado ao nitrofural. Devido à sua baixa solubilidade em água e biodisponibilidade reduzida, o NFOH falhou nos testes de eficácia in vivo. Os sistemas nanoestruturados de liberação de fármacos têm potencial para superar esses desafios devido às suas vantagens evidentes: maior eficácia terapêutica, menor toxicidade, liberação modificada do fármaco e aumento da absorção gastrointestinal de fármacos com baixa solubilidade em água. O objetivo deste projeto será a preparação e avaliação das características físico-químicas de um carreador lipídico nanoestruturado contendo hidroximetilnitrofural (NLC-NFOH). O NFOH apresentou a maior solubilidade no Miglyol® 840 entre os lipídios líquidos testados. Para lipídios sólidos, Gelucire® 50/13 e Precirol® ATO5 se mostraram mais adequados para a solubilização de NFOH. O NLC-NFOH otimizado consistiu desses três lipídios. Esses lipídios foram selecionados usando Technobis Crystal 16TM, microscopia e DSC. Diferentes ferramentas de seleção de lipídios forneceram conhecimento científico relevante para o desenvolvimento de NLC. O NLC-NFOH teve z-average de 198,6 ± 5,4 nm, PDI de 0,11 ± 0,01 e potencial zeta de -13,7 ± 0,7 mV. Este estudo permitiu o desenvolvimento por abordagem de Design Space do primeiro NLC-NFOH com potencial para tratar a leishmaniose por via oral. O desenvolvimento de um VIII método bioanalítico sensível utilizando HPLC e a avaliação de algumas figuras analíticas de mérito para a validação permitiram a quantificação de NFOH e NF em soro. O método bioanalítico para análise de NFOH e NF usou coluna de HPLC Zorbax SB-C18, 5 µm, (4,6 x 250 mm). A fase móvel foi constituída por acetonitrila: água (20:80 v / v) com vazão de 1,2 ml / min, com detecção no UV de 370 nm. A linearidade de NFOH e NF foi encontrada na faixa de 0,0253,0 µg / ml com um coeficiente de correlação de r> 0,98. A precisão foi de 2,44 a 13,77% para NFOH e 2,61 a 18,42%; a precisão foi de 2,66 a 14,28% para NFOH e 2,09 a 19,06% para NF. O método mostrou-se adequado para avaliação efetiva do NFOH no soro. NLC-NFOH (2,8 mg / kg) foi administrado aos animais por gavagem, e o modelo de bloqueio do fluxo de quilomícrons foi realizado com injeção intraperitoneal de cicloheximida. A presença de NFOH no soro foi avaliada com e sem cicloheximida. O ensaio de citotoxicidade de NLC-NFOH e brancoNLC mostrou mais de 90% de células viáveis na concentração máxima utilizada (2560 µM). NFOH e NF foram detectados 1h após a gavagem de DMSO-NFOH ou NLC-NFOH, sem o pré-tratamento com cicloheximida. As concentrações encontradas para DMSO-NFOH e NLC-NFOH foram 0,0316 e 0,0291 µg / mL, respectivamente. O NLC apresentou a absorção do NFOH pelo sistema linfático, demonstrada pelo bloqueio do fluxo dos quilomícrons


Subject(s)
Leishmaniasis/pathology , Chemistry, Physical/classification , Administration, Oral , Tropical Medicine/classification , In Vitro Techniques/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Cell Culture Techniques/instrumentation , Methodology as a Subject , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Absorption/drug effects , Lymphatic System
5.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18440, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249159

ABSTRACT

In this study, naftifine (a topical antifungal drug) loaded poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) nanofibrous mats were prepared using the single-needle electrospinning technique. The produced nanofibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GTA) vapor. The morphology and diameter of the electrospun nanofibers were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images showed the smoothness of the nanofibers and indicated that the fiber diameter increased with crosslinking and drug loading. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirmed the uniform production of the scaffolds, and elemental mapping via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed the uniform distribution of the drug within the nanofibers. An attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy study demonstrated that naftifine has sufficient secondary interactions with the polymer blend. The crosslinking treatment decreased the burst drug release effectively and the release mechanism followed Korsmeyer-Peppas Super Case-II transport. Overall, these findings suggest the potential use of naftifine-loaded PVA/SA nanofibers as a topical antifungal drug delivery system.


Subject(s)
Administration, Topical , Nanofibers/analysis , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission/instrumentation , Spectrum Analysis/instrumentation , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , Microscopy, Atomic Force/instrumentation , Alginates/adverse effects , Drug Liberation
6.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18414, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249155

ABSTRACT

Tolmetin sodium (TS) is a powerful non-steroidal mitigating drug for the treatment of rheumatoid joint inflammation, osteoarthritis, and adolescent rheumatoid joint pain. In addition to its gastrointestinal (GIT) problems, TS has a short biological half-life (1 hr). In a trial to overcome these side effects and control the rate of (TS) release, chitosan coated alginate microspheres are recommended. A Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to produce controlled release microspheres of TS in the sodium alginate and chitosan copolymers (Alg-Ch) by emulsification internal gelation methodology. The effect of critical formulation variables namely, drug to polymer ratio (D:P ratio), speed of rotation and span 80% on drug encapsulation efficiency (% EE), drug release at the end of 2 hours (Rel2) and drug release at the end of 8 hours (Rel8) were analyzed using response surface modeling. The parameters were assessed using the F test and mathematical models containing only the significant terms were generated for each parameter using multiple linear regression analysis. The produced microspheres were spherical in shape with extensive pores at D:P ratio 1:1 and small pores at a drug to polymer ratio (D:P ratio) 1:3. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) affirmed the steady character of TS in microspheres and revealed their crystalline form. All formulation variables examined exerted a significant influence on the drug release, whereas the speed emerged as a lone factor significantly influencing % EE. Increasing the D: P ratio decreases the release of the drug after two and 8 hours. The increase in speed results in an increase in drug release after two and eight hours. The drug release from the microspheres followed zero order kinetics. TS Alg-Ch microspheres exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory effect on incited rat paw edema after eight hours. These results revealed that the internal gelation technique is a promising method to control TS release and eradicate GIT side effects using Alg-Ch copolymers.


Subject(s)
Tolmetin/analysis , Chitosan/analysis , Alginates/analysis , Microspheres , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Arthralgia/pathology , Drug Liberation , Inflammation/pathology , Joints/pathology
7.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18973, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249174

ABSTRACT

A self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) composed of ethyl oleate, Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 600 was prepared as a new route to improve the efficacy of imatinib. The drug-loaded SNEDDS formed nanodroplets of ethyl oleate stabilized by Tween 80 and polyethylene glycol 600 with a diameter of 81.0±9.5 nm. The nanoemulsion-based delivery system was stable for at least two months, with entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of 16.4±0.1 and 48.3±0.2%, respectively. Imatinib-loaded SNEDDS was evaluated for the drug release profiles, and its effectiveness against MCF-7 cell line was investigated. IC50 values for the imatinib-loaded SNEDDS and an imatinib aqueous solution were 3.1 and 6.5 µg mL-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
In Vitro Techniques/methods , Efficacy/classification , Imatinib Mesylate/adverse effects , Polyethylene Glycols/analysis , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , MCF-7 Cells/classification , Drug Liberation/drug effects
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18540, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285516

ABSTRACT

Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT) is an active S (+) enantiomer of ketoprofen, and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. DT has a short biological half-life and the dosing interval is quite short when there is a need to maintain the desirable effect for longer time periods. Consequently, a controlled release DT tablet was designed for oral administration aiming to minimize the number of doses and the possible side effects. Calculations of the parameters for controlled release DT tablets were shown clearly. Controlled release matrix-type tablet formulations were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (low and high viscosity), Eudragit RS and Carbopol, and the effects of different polymers on DT release from the tablet formulations were investigated. The dissolution rate profiles were compared and analyzed kinetically. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was developed to predict drug release and a successful model was obtained. Subsequently, an optimum formulation was selected and evaluated in terms of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. Although the developed controlled release tablets did not have an initial dose, they were found to be as effective as commercially available tablets on the market. Dissolution and in vivo studies have shown that the prepared tablets were able to release DT for longer time periods, making the tablets more effective, convenient and more tolerable.


Subject(s)
Tablets/analysis , Tromethamine/adverse effects , Administration, Oral , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Ketoprofen/agonists , Dosage/adverse effects , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacokinetics
9.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18363, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132057

ABSTRACT

This paper reports on the development of nanoparticles aiming at the in vitro controlled release of simvastatin (SVT). The nanoparticles were prepared by the nanoprecipitation method with polymers Eudragit® FS30D (EDGFS) or Eudragit® NE30D (EDGNE). EDGFS+SVT nanoparticles showed mean size of 148.8 nm and entrapment efficiency of 76.4%, whereas EDGNE+SVT nanoparticles showed mean size of 105.0 nm and entrapment efficiency of 103.2%. Infrared absorption spectra demonstrated that SVT incorporated into the polymer matrix, especially EDGNE. Similarly, the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) curve presented no endothermic peak of fusion, indicating that the system is amorphous and the drug is not in the crystalline state. The maintenance of SVT in the amorphous state may favors its solubilization in the target release sites. In the in vitro dissolution assay, the SVT incorporated into the EDGFS+SVT nanoparticles showed a rapid initial release, which may be related to the pH of the dissolution medium used. Regarding the EDGNE+SVT nanoparticles, the in vitro release occurred in a bimodal behavior, i.e., an initial "burst" followed by a sustained delivery, with the kinetics of drug release following Baker-Lonsdale's mathematical model. All these features suggest the nanoparticulate system's potential to modulate SVT delivery and enhance its bioavailability.


Subject(s)
Simvastatin/pharmacology , Nanoparticles/analysis , Drug Liberation , In Vitro Techniques/classification , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Dissolution/adverse effects
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17509, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132046

ABSTRACT

Amphotericin B is a broad spectrum antifungal agent used to treat fungal infections. Organogel is a semisolid preparation in which the apolar phase gets immobilized within spaces of the three-dimensional structure. The current study aimed at the formulation and comparative evaluation of sorbitan monostearate organogels and pluronic lecithin organogels (PLO). Different compositions of span 60 based organogels were prepared by varying the concentrations of the span 60 and PLO gels were prepared by varying the concentration of Pluronic F 127. The developed organogels were subjected to various characteristics such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, and drug release studies. The optimized formulations were evaluated against Candida albicans and carried out ex vivo release study. The optimized formulation was selected from span 60 based organogels, and pluronic lecithin organogels were S1 and P1, respectively. The optimized formulation (S1) showed effective inhibition against Candida albicans. The skin irritation test was carried out on albino mice for optimized formulations and results showed that no irritation to the skin. Based on the results, organogels prepared by sorbitan monostearate showed better antifungal activity, and also all the formulations were found to be stable and safe throughout the study period.


Subject(s)
Skin , Candida albicans/classification , Amphotericin B/agonists , Growth and Development , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Viscosity , Drug Liberation , Mycoses/pathology
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(4): 344-356, 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283652

ABSTRACT

Many chronic diseases require repetitive injections as maintenance treatment. It is therefore important to investigate a possible alternative. A simulated subcutaneous implant prototype was fabricated as a polymer matrix covered by cylinder-shape tubing having a porous membrane. Sucrose, bovine serum albumin, and gelatin were selected as matrix excipients. Eight APIs with different physiochemical properties were used to investigate the releasing mechanism. Drug release was tested through an in vitrodissolution apparatus. Drug release of eight APIs followed zero-order kinetics with a minimum 12-hour duration. Release rates also showed linear correlations with the APIs' solubilities under physiological pH. For releasing mechanism studies, different combinations of matrix and membrane were investigated in detail. A 144-hour continuous zero-order release of caffeine was achieved as the best controlled simulated prototype. The results showed that drug release of our simulated prototype was primarily achieved by drug diffusion rather than dissolution.


Muchas enfermedades crónicas requieren inyecciones repetitivas como tratamiento de mantenimiento. Por lo tanto, es importante investigar una posible alternativa. Se fabricó un prototipo de implante subcutáneo simulado a partir de una matriz de polímero cubierta por un tubo en forma de cilindro que tiene una membrana porosa. La sacarosa, la albúmina de suero bovino y la gelatina se seleccionaron como excipientes matriciales. Se utilizaron ocho APIs con diferentes propiedades fisicoquímicas para investigar el mecanismo de liberación. La liberación del fármaco se probó a través de un aparato de disolución in vitro. La liberación del fármaco de las ocho APIs siguió una cinética de orden cero con una duración mínima de 12 horas. Las tasas de liberación también mostraron correlaciones lineales con las solubilidades de las APIs a pH fisiológico. Para los estudios de mecanismos de liberación, se investigaron en detalle diferentes combinaciones de matriz y membrana. El prototipo simulado con mejor control logró una liberación continua de cafeína de orden cero durante 144 horas. Los resultados mostraron que la liberación del fármaco del prototipo simulado ocurrió principalmente mediante la difusión del fármaco en lugar de la disolución.


Subject(s)
Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Drug Implants/metabolism , In Vitro Techniques , Pilot Projects , Simulation Exercise , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Subcutaneous Tissue , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drug Liberation , Freeze Drying
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878805

ABSTRACT

Based on the previous study of compound liquorice microemulsion, this paper aims to prepare the compound liquorice microemulsion gel and investigate its pharmacodynamics of chronic eczema. The type, dosage and adding method of gel matrix, and formula dosage of humectant were optimized by single factor method to obtain the formula and preparation technique of the gel. With glycyrrhizic acid, glycyrrhetin and oxymatrine used as evaluation indexes, the Franz diffusion cell method was adopted to monitor the in vitro release profile of the gel. Eczema model of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice was chosen to detect the ear swelling rate, degree of inflammatory cell infiltration of ear pieces, and pathological changes of ear pieces, so as to investigate the therapeutic effect of the microemulsion gel. The preparation process of the compound liquorice microemulsion gel was stable. The release of glycyrrhizin and oxymatrine was most consistent with the Hixcon-Crowell kinetic model, while the release of glycyrrhizic acid was most consistent with the Ritger-Peppas kinetic model. The pharmacodynamics studies proved that compound liquorice microemulsion gel could significantly reduce the ear swelling rate in mice, with good anti-inflammatory effect as well as the ability to resist the pathological changes of chronic eczema and inhibit the infiltration of dermal inflammatory cells. Therefore, the preparation process of compound liquorice microemulsion gel is feasible, with stable drug release and a significant therapeutic effect on chronic eczema.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Animals , Drug Liberation , Emulsions , Gels , Glycyrrhiza , Mice , Skin Absorption
13.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2019. 59 p. graf, tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008520

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos anos têm crescido cada vez mais o número de pesquisas envolvendo nanotecnologia para obtenção de medicamentos com liberação controlada, pois esses sistemas podem: proteger o fármaco de incompatibilidades tanto biológicas quanto físico-químicas assim como controlar a biodisponibilidade do fármaco. Embora com todas essas vantagens não existem métodos in vitro realmente capazes de prever com precisão a liberação dos fármacos por esses sistemas, por esse motivo, é muito importante o desenvolvimento de métodos de liberação in vitro para determinar a cinética de liberação desses sistemas.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e validar os métodos de eletroforese capilar (CE) e cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC) para determinar a eficiência de encapsulação do fármaco imatinibe em nanopartículaspreviamente elaboradas e caracterizadas, assim como estudar sua liberação in vitro por CE. As nanopartículas foramdesenvolvidas pelo método de nanoprecipitaçãoe caracterizadas quanto ao tamanho, potencial zeta, morfologia e eficiência de encapsulação. A eletroforese capilar é uma técnica alternativa muito promissora em relação ao HPLC devido ao seu baixo custo, menor tempo de corrida e menos poluente ao meio ambiente. Os métodos de quantificação por CE e HPLCforam desenvolvidose validadossegundo as diretrizes do ICH, Farmacopeia Americana e ANVISA, permitindo desenvolver um estudo de liberação.As nanoesferas desenvolvidas apresentaram diâmetro médio próximo a 150nm, com índice de polidispersão menor que 0,1 e aproximadamente 90% de eficiência de encapsulação. Ambos métodos se mostraram lineares com coeficientes de determinação superiores a 0,99, os métodos se mostraram precisos (%DPR< 2), exatos(101,0±4,2% e 98,0±2,5% para HPLC e CE, respectivamente)e seletivos.O método de CE permitiu desenvolver um método de estudo de liberação independente das membranas de diálise


In recent years, there has been a growing number of researches involving nanotechnology to obtain controlled release drugs, these systems can: protect the drug against biological and physico-chemical incompatibilities; controlling the bioavailability of the drug. Although with all these advantages there are no in vitro methods really capable of accurately predicting drugs release by such systems, therefore, the development of in vitro release methods to determine the release kinetics of such systems is very important. The objective of the present work was to develop and validate capillary electrophoresis (CE) and HPLC methods to determine the encapsulation efficiency of the imatinib drug in previously elaborated and characterized nanoparticles, as well as to study its release in vitro by CE method. The nanoparticles were synthesized using the nanoprecipitation method and characterized by size, zeta potential, morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Capillary electrophoresis is a very promising alternative to HPLC because of its low cost, less runtime and less polluting environment. The CE and HPLC methodswere developed and validated according ICH, American Pharmacopoeia and ANVISA guidelines.Developed nanospheres had an average diameter close to 150nm, with polydispersity index less than 0.1 and approximately 90% encapsulation efficiency. Both methods were linear with determination coefficients higher than 0.99, the methods were precise (%RSD < 2), accurate (101.0±4,2% and 98.0±2,5% for HPLC and CE, respectively) and selective. Capillary electrophoresis method allowed to develop a drug release study independent of dialysis membranes


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Drug Liberation , In Vitro Techniques , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Electrophoresis, Capillary/methods , Imatinib Mesylate/analysis
14.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17680, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039046

ABSTRACT

Resealed erythrocytes have been explored in various dimensions of drug delivery, owing to their high biocompatibility and inability to initiate immune response. The present research was designed to evaluate the drug delivery potential of erythrocytes by loading a hydrophobic anti-malarial drug, Artemether. Three different loading techniques were applied to achieve maximum optimized drug loading. A HPLC method was validated for drug quantification in erythrocytes. The relatively high loading was achieved using hypotonic treatment was 31.39% as compared to other two methods. These, drug loaded erythrocytes were characterized for membrane integrity via ESR showing higher ESR values for drug loaded cells as compared to normal cells. Moreover, microscopic evaluation was done to observe morphological changes in erythrocytes after successful loading which showed swollen cells with slight rough surface as compared to smooth surface of normal cells. Drug release was studied for 8 h which showed more than 80% release within 3-7 h from erythrocytes treated with different hypotonic methods. Overall, the study revealed a potential application of erythrocytes in delivery of hydrophobic drugs using hypotonic treatment as compared to other methods.


Subject(s)
Erythrocytes/classification , Drug Liberation , /administration & dosage , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
15.
Mem. Inst. Invest. Cienc. Salud (Impr.) ; 16(3): 13-21, dic. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-998224

ABSTRACT

El estudio tuvo como finalidad comparar los perfiles de disolución de tabletas de prednisona 20 mg comercializados en Perú. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo comparativo con diseño no experimental, que incluyó doce tabletas para cada formulación a evaluar (referente y multifuente), bajo condiciones similares de trabajo, en tres medios de disolución: buffer ácido clorhídrico pH 1,2; buffer acetato pH 4,5 y buffer fosfato pH 6,8. Los porcentajes temporales disueltos de prednisona fueron evaluados mediante el orden cinético cero, uno, Higuchi, raíz cúbica y Weibull para el modelo dependiente; mientras que el factor de similitud (f2), tiempo medio de disolución y eficiencia de disolución fueron utilizados para el modelo independiente. En el modelo dependiente, la liberación de prednisona; se ajustó a la cinética de función de Weibull; evaluada mediante el criterio de información de Akaike. En el modelo independiente, los valores de f2 en todos los medios de disolución cumplieron con el rango 50 - 100 establecida por la Food and Drug Adminstration, para indicar similitud in vitro entre los perfiles de disolución. Asimismo, se evidenció que no existe diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las formulaciones, respecto al tiempo medio de disolución y la eficiencia de disolución. Las tabletas de prednisona 20 mg referente y multifuente comercializados en Perú son similares, con base en pruebas de perfiles de disolución in vitro(AU)


The purpose of the study was to compare the dissolution profiles of prednisone 20 mg tablets marketed in Peru. A comparative quantitative study with a non-experimental design was carried out, which included twelve tablets for each formulation to be evaluated (referent and multi-source), under similar work conditions in three dissolution media: hydrochloric acid buffer pH 1.2, acetate buffer pH 4.5 and phosphate buffer pH 6.8. The dissolved temporal percentages of prednisone were evaluated by zero kinetic order and first kinetic order, Higuchi, cubic root and Weibull models for the dependent model; while the similarity factor (f2), mean dissolution time and dissolution efficiency were used for the independent model. In the dependent model, the release of prednisone was adjusted to the Weibull function kinetics, evaluated using the Akaike information criterion. In the independent model, the values of f2 in all the dissolution media fulfilled the range 50 - 100 established by the Food and Drug Administration, to indicate in vitro similarity between the dissolution profiles. Likewise, it was evidenced that there is no statistically significant difference between the formulations with respect to the mean dissolution time and the dissolution efficiency. The reference and multi-source prednisone 20 mg tablets marketed in Peru are similar based on in vitro dissolution profiles tests(AU)


Subject(s)
Prednisone/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , Glucocorticoids/pharmacokinetics , Peru , Tablets , In Vitro Techniques , Dissolution
16.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 38(4): 486-495, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-983958

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El diclofenaco sódico se clasifica como un antiinflamatorio no esteroide. Dado que es de venta libre, el paciente no tiene ningún seguimiento por parte de los equipos de salud, y como sus fuentes son múltiples, es necesario establecer la equivalencia entre ellas en estudios in vitro, que son los más prácticos y plantean un menor compromiso ético. Objetivos. Determinar la intercambiabilidad de diferentes marcas comerciales de diclofenaco sódico comparadas con el producto innovador mediante un estudio in vitro de tabletas comerciales de 50 mg, según los lineamientos del Sistema de Clasificación Biofarmacéutica (SCB). Materiales y métodos. Se desarrollaron pruebas físicas y químicas siguiendo las indicaciones de laedición 39 de la United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Para la cuantificación, se validó una metodología analítica según lo establecido en la mencionada farmacopea y la guía Q2 del International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). Los perfiles de disolución y sus análisis se rigieron por lo establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y las normas nacionales. Resultados. Todos los productos aprobaron las pruebas físicas. En cuanto a la disolución, la etapa ácida también fue superada por todas las marcas, pero una marca falló en la etapa alcalina. El análisis de similitud reveló que solo un producto fue equivalente al innovador y tres fueron supradisponibles, aunque dichas marcas también podrían considerarse equivalentes al producto innovador. Conclusiones. De las ocho marcas evaluadas, tres no cumplieron totalmente con la prueba de valoración del principio activo y del porcentaje de disolución; solo una marca fue intercambiable con el producto innovador y tres fueron supradisponibles comparadas con este, por lo cual no constituyen un riesgo para el paciente.


Introduction: Diclofenac sodium is classified as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. As diclofenac is an over-the-counter drug, its use among patients cannot be monitored by health teams in follow-up sessions. Given the multiple sources of diclofenac sodium, their interchangeability must be investigated, particularly in the form of in vitro studies, which are the most practical research type and entail minimal ethical commitment. Objectives: To determine the interchangeability of the different commercial brands of diclofenac sodium relative to the innovative product, this work carries out an in vitro study of eight commercial products of diclofenac sodium (50 mg) following the guidelines of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. Materials and methods: Physical and chemical tests were developed following the guidelines of the 39th edition of the United States Pharmacopoeia. An analytical methodology was validated for the quantification of diclofenac according to the current pharmacopoeia and the Q2 guideline ofthe International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). Dissolution profiles and their analyseswere governed by the regulations established by the World Health Organization and the national regulations. Results: All the products passed the physical tests. In the dissolution assays, the acid stage was overcome by all brands, but in the alkaline stage, one brand failed. The analysis of the similarities revealed that only one product was equivalent to the innovator and that three were supra-available, although these brands could also be considered equivalent to the innovator. Conclusions: Of the eight brands evaluated, three failed the test forthe active principle and the percentage of dissolution. Only one brand was found to be interchangeable with the innovator, and three were identified to besupra-availableand, thus, they do not present a risk for patients.


Subject(s)
Diclofenac , Interchange of Drugs , Bioequivalent Drugs , Dissolution , Drug Liberation
17.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(1): 54-59, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-906735

ABSTRACT

Stents farmacológicos foram desenvolvidos para reduzir a resposta proliferativa neointimal e consequentemente a reestenose, mais frequente limitação da intervenção coronária percutânea com balão e stents não faramcológicos. O desenvolvimento destes dispositivos baseia-se no maior entendimento da biologia da reestenose, na seleção de fármacos anti-proliferativos adequados para os diversos mecanismos envolvidos nesta complicação e no uso de plataformas/polímeros adequados para entrega do fármaco. Consequentemente o desempenho destes dispositivos depende da perfeita interação de todos estes elementos. As abordagens atuais para minimizar a reestenose são revisados neste capítulo. Embora a primeira geração dos stents farmacológicos tenha sido focada na eficácia em reduzir a reestenose, questões relacionadas à sua segurança surgiram, comprometendo seu uso mais disseminado. As novas gerações de stents farmacológicos com polímeros duráveis ou bioabsorvíveis conseguiu reduzir as taxas de nova intervenção e de trombose. Embora o modelo ideal de stent farmacológico ainda esteja em investigação, é certo que esta tecnologia já se estabeleceu como primeira linha na intervenção coronária percutânea contemporânea


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Polymers/therapeutic use , Sirolimus , Coronary Restenosis , Drug-Eluting Stents , Coronary Artery Disease , Stents , Drug Liberation/drug effects , Everolimus , Myocardial Revascularization/methods
18.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): e17459, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951930

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Linseed hydrogel (LSH) was evaluated by acute toxicity for its potential application in oral drug delivery design. White albino mice and rabbits were divided in four groups (I-IV) and different doses of LSH (1, 2 and 5 g/kg body weight) were given except to the control group (I) that was left untreated. Rabbits were monitored for eye irritation, acute dermal toxicity and primary dermal irritation, whereas, body weight, food and water consumption, hematology and clinical biochemistry, gross necropsy and histopathology of vital organs were scrutinized in mice. LSH was considered safe after eye irritation test as no adverse signs or symptoms were seen in the eye. In dermal toxicity and irritation study, skin of treated rabbits was found normal in color without any edema or erythema. After oral administration, there was no sign of any abnormalities in treated group animals (II-IV). The hematology and clinical biochemistry of treated group animals was comparable with the control group. Histopathology of vital organs has not shown any lesion or abnormalities. In the light of these outcomes, it can be concluded that LSH is not a hazardous biomaterial and could be incorporated as an excipient in oral and dermal preparations.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rabbits , Rats , Polysaccharides , Flax/classification , Hydrogel, Polyethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate/analysis , Drug Liberation , Administration, Oral , Toxicity Tests, Acute/methods , Hematology
19.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e17167, 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001565

ABSTRACT

Multiparticulate systems have biopharmaceutical advantages when compared to the monolithic systems, once they allow different patterns of drug release and can be used in different treatments. The aim of the present work was to develop a biphasic controlled release delivery system, using propranolol hydrochloride (PROP) that can be used for the treatment of circadian diseases. This system was obtained by the combination of cellulosic polymers hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and ethylcellulose (EC) in a 2² factorial experimental design, which allowed the optimization of the development stage. The pellets produced and used in biphasic formulations were evaluated for physical and chemical characteristics and presented acceptable results. The immediate fraction obtained showed the complete release in 30 min while the others kept the release of the drug for 24 h. This study showed that the combination of beads with different releasing characteristics allowed to obtain different release profiles, which can be modulated according to the pathological needs, especially with regard to circadian diseases that suffer alterations throughout the day.


Subject(s)
Research Design , Chronotherapy/instrumentation , Circadian Rhythm , Drug Liberation
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 54(4): e00130, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001570

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed at preparation of transdermal patches of tizanidine HCl, evaluation of the effect of polymers on in vitro release pattern of the drug, and the effect of permeation enhancers on the penetration of the drug through the rabbit skin. Various proportions of hydrophilic (HPMC) and hydrophobic (Eudragit L-100) polymers were used with PEG 400 as film-forming agent, and Span 20 or DMSO as permeation enhancer. The formulations were assessed for physicochemical characteristics and in vitro drug release studies using USP paddle over disc method in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) at 32.0±1°C. On the basis of in vitro studies and physicochemical evaluations, S03-A and S04-A were selected at Eudragit : HPMC ratios of 8 : 2 and 7 : 3, respectively, for further ex vivo analysis. The effects of different concentrations of Span 20 and DMSO were evaluated on excised rabbit skin using Franz diffusion cell. Cumulative drug permeation, flux, permeability coefficient, target flux, and enhancement ratio were calculated and compared with the control formulations. Kinetic models and Tukey's multiple comparison test were applied to evaluate the drug release patterns. Formulation SB03-PE containing Eudragit L-100:HPMC (7:3) with Span 20 (15% w/w) produced the highest enhancement in drug permeation, and followed zero order kinetic model with super case-II drug release mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Transdermal Patch/classification , Transdermal Patch/supply & distribution , In Vitro Techniques , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Drug Liberation/drug effects
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