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1.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 36(2): 21-25, dic.2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1117893

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT) es una complicación potencialmente letal provocada por la liberación masiva de ácidos nucleicos, potasio y fosfato hacia la circulación sistémica lo cual se asocia a graves trastornos del metabolismo hidroelectrolítico. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de historias clínicas con el objetivo de describir las características clínicas de los pacientes con sospecha de SLT que ingresaron al Servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López durante el lapso 2017-2018. El 50% de los pacientes tenían una edad comprendida entre 51 y 70 años, siendo el 65% de sexo femenino. Los canceres más frecuentemente encontrados fueron el cáncer de mama (29%), cáncer gástrico (15%) y el linfoma no Hodgkin (12%). Todos los pacientes presentaron al menos tres de las manifestaciones clínicas asociadas al SLT entre las cuales se encuentran náuseas, vómitos, anorexia, debilidad, calambres, hiperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hipotensión, convulsiones y deshidratación. El 46% de los pacientes presentaron hiperpotasemia, mientras que 36% mostraron hipocalcemia y 18% hiperfosfatemia. El 76% de los pacientes cursaron con una creatinina > 1,4 mg/dl. El diagnóstico definitivo de SLT no fue posible realizarlo en ninguno de los pacientes incluidos en este estudio debido a la falta de estudios paraclínicos necesarios para satisfacer los criterios según los lineamientos internacionales(AU)


Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal complication due to massive release of nucleic acids, potassium and phosphate into the systemic circulation which is associated with severe hydroelectrolitic metabolic disorders. A retrospective review of clinical charts was performed in order to describe clinical characteristics of patients with possible TLS that were admitted to the Servicio de Medicina Interna of the Hospital General Universitario Dr. Luis Gómez López during the period 2017-2018. The results show that 50% of patients were between 51 and 70 years old and 65% were female. Breast cancer (29%), stomach cancer (15%) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (12%) were more frequent in patients with possible TLS. All patients showed at least three of the clinical features commonly associated with TLS such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, weakness, cramps, hyperreflexia, oliguria, anuria, hematuria, hypotension, convulsion and dehydration. 46% of patients had hyperkalemia, 36% hypocalcemia and 18% hyperphosphatemia. Creatinine levels > 1,4 mg/dl were seen in 76% of patients. Definitive diagnosis of TLS was not possible in any of the patients included in this study due to the lack of laboratory studies required according to international guidelines(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Phosphates , Potassium , Radiotherapy , Breast Neoplasms , Nucleic Acids , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/physiopathology , Drug Therapy , Drug Prescriptions , Critical Care , Hematology , Internal Medicine , Medical Oncology
2.
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 9(2): 211, ago. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103439

ABSTRACT

En años recientes los venezolanos hemos enfrentado problemas de diversa índole con relación a la situación de salud. Entre ellos, problemas en la prescripción y la obtención de medicamentos. En esta publicación se tratarán aspectos importantes para la correcta prescripción y obtención de medicamentos, lo cual, a su vez, debería ser el colofón de la atención médica de primera que siempre ha caracterizado a nuestro país y que hoy, lamentablemente, ha devenido en una situación muy dolorosa. La prescripción y obtención de medicamentos puede verse dificultada por diversos inconvenientes, entre los cuales podemos considerar aquellos que tienen relación con el medicamento propiamente dicho, con el prescriptor y el cliente, con las regulaciones vigentes en nuestro país y con la disponibilidad en los centros autorizados para su venta. Como consecuencia de una prescripción inadecuada y un consumo inapropiado de medicamentos pueden surgir problemas muy serios, entre los cuales habría que destacar, en el campo de los antiinfecciosos, la resistencia bacteriana. Y en el campo de fármacos destinados al tratamiento del dolor, la ansiedad y el insomnio, la posibilidad de adicciones diversas. La prescripción adecuada de medicamentos conlleva la necesidad de conocer, a la par de los efectos beneficiosos y terapéuticos de los mismos, la posibilidad de efectos adversos e interacciones. Todos los prescriptores sanitarios deben conocer los fundamentos de la Farmacovigilancia, la cual permitirá conocer el verdadero balance riesgo-beneficio de los fármacos, por lo cual hacemos una breve mención de la misma al final de esta presentación(AU)


In recent years, Venezuelans have faced various kinds of problems related to the health situation. Among them, problems in prescription and acquisition of medicines. This publication will discuss important aspects for the correct prescription and obtention of medicines, which, in turn, should be the culmination of the excellent medical care that has always characterized our country but that today, unfortunately, has become a very disgraced and sad situation. Prescription and acquisition of medicines can be hindered by various inconveniences, among which we can consider those that are related to the product itself, to the prescriber and the client, to the regulations in force in our country and to the availability in authorized centers for sale. As a result of an inadequate prescription and consumption of medications, very serious problems can arise, among which, in the field of anti-infectives, bacterial resistance should be highlighted. In the field of drugs for the treatment of pain, anxiety and insomnia, the possibility of diverse addictions. Proper prescription of medicaments entails the need to know, along with their beneficial and therapeutic effects, the possibility of adverse effects and interactions. All health prescribers must know the basics of Pharmacovigilance, which allow to know the true risk-benefit balance of drugs, so we make a brief mention of it at the end of this presentation.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/standards , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Right to Health , Pharmacology, Clinical , Sanitary Specifications , Pharmacovigilance
4.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811269

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to understand the nationwide patterns of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction in adult patients.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed dental records from the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort (NHIS–NSC) database on 503,725 tooth extractions performed in adults (≥19 years) during 2011–2015. Patient sex, age, household income, systemic disease (diabetes mellitus and hypertension), type of dental institution, region of dental institution, year of prescription, and type of tooth extraction procedure were considered. The antibiotic prescription rate and broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription frequency were analyzed using chi-squared tests. Factors affecting the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.RESULTS: The rate of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction was 81.85%. Penicillin was most commonly prescribed (45.25%), followed by penicillin with beta-lactamase inhibitors (18.76%), metronidazole (12.29%), and second- to fourth-generation cephalosporins (11.52%). The proportion of broad-spectrum antibiotics used among all prescribed antibiotics was 45.88%.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study demonstrate that the rate of antibiotic prescription after tooth extraction is higher in Korea than in other countries. Furthermore, broad-spectrum antibiotics are used more frequently, which may indicate unnecessary drug prescription, an important contributor to antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents , beta-Lactamase Inhibitors , Cephalosporins , Cohort Studies , Dental Records , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Family Characteristics , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Metronidazole , National Health Programs , Penicillins , Prescriptions , Tooth Extraction , Tooth
5.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between full Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system adoption and drug use in healthcare organizations (HCOs) to explore whether EMR system features such as electronic prescribing, medicines reconciliation, and decision support, might be related to drug use by using the relevant nation-wide data.METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional. Survey data of the level of adoption of EMR systems were collected for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development benchmarking information and communication technologies (ICT) study between November 2013 and January 2014, in Korea. Survey respondents were hospital chief information officers and medical practitioners in primary care clinics. From the national health insurance administrative dataset, two outcomes, the rate of antibiotic prescription and polypharmacy with ≥6 drugs, were extracted.RESULTS: We found that full EMR adoption showed a 16.1% lower antibiotic drug prescription than partial adoption including paper-based medical charts in the hospital only (p = 0.041). Between EMR adoption status and polypharmacy prescription, only those clinics which fully adopted EMR showed significant associations with higher polypharmacy prescriptions (36.9%, p = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that there might be some confounding effects present and sophisticated ICT may provide some benefits to the quality of care even with some mixed results. Although a negative relationship between full EMR system adoption and antibiotic drug use was only significant in hospitals, EMR system functions searching drugs or listing specific patients might facilitate antibiotic drug use reduction. Positive relationships between full EMR system adoption and polypharmacy rate in general hospitals and clinics, but not hospitals, require further research.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Benchmarking , Dataset , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Prescriptions , Electronic Health Records , Electronic Prescribing , Health Care Evaluation Mechanisms , Hospitals, General , Humans , Korea , National Health Programs , Polypharmacy , Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Quality of Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
rev. cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 11(1): e798, Dic. 19, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1118234

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Frente a una moción parlamentaria que pretende modificar el código sanitario para permitir a los enfermeros tener la facultad legal de prescribir fármacos y dispositivos sanitarios surge la inquietud de analizar la representación social que los enfermeros de atención primaria de salud otorgan a la temática. Objetivo: Describir los componentes figurativos (campo de representación), simbólico (información) y afectivo (actitudinal) del cuidar mediante la prescripción enfermera, que tienen los profesionales de enfermería de la red de atención primaria de salud. Materiales y Métodos: Investigación descriptiva con enfoque cualitativo y diseño de teoría fundamentada, realizada en ocho enfermeras de la red de atención primaria de salud a través de entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: En la representación social de la prescripción enfermera surgen cinco categorías: gestionar el cuidado, beneficios sociales de la prescripción, restricción en la prescripción, formación profesional del enfermero en prescripción y valor atribuido a la prescripción. Discusión: Las enfermeras de atención primaria, entienden el fenómeno de la prescripción como una indicación de enfermería que se encuentra influenciada por factores asociados a la formación farmacológica de pregrado y la experiencia laboral, similar a lo reportado en algunos estudios en Iberoamérica. Conclusiones: Las enfermeras consideran que la prescripción es un elemento positivo para la entrega de cuidados y que contribuye a la resolutividad en la atención de salud, sin embargo, para llevarla a cabo se requiere de una formación adecuada y de un respaldo legal claro.


Introduction: Considering that a parliamentary motion seeks to modify the health code to allow nurses to have the legal power to prescribe drugs and health devices, it is necessary to analyze the social representation that primary healthcare nurses give to prescription. Objective: To describe the figurative (representation field), symbolic (information) and affective (attitudinal) nursing components by means of nurse prescription used by primary health care nursing professionals. Materials and Methods: A descriptive qualitative research with a grounded theory research design was conducted with eight nurses from the primary healthcare network through a semi-structured interview. Results: Five categories were created based on the social representation of nurse prescription: care management, social benefits of prescription, prescription restriction, professional nurse training in prescription, and value attributed to the prescription. Discussion: Primary care nurses perceive the prescription phenomenon as a nursing indication that is influenced by factors associated with undergraduate pharmacology training and work experience, similar to that reported in some studies in Ibero-America. Conclusions: Nurses consider that nurse prescription is a positive element for care delivery, contributing to the resolutive capacity of healthcare. However, adequate training and clear legal support are required to do so.


Introdução: Frente a uma moção parlamentar que objetiva emendar o código sanitário para permitir que os enfermeiros tenham a faculdade legal de prescrever fármacos e dispositivos sanitários surge a inquietude de analisar a opinião dos enfermeiros de atendimento primário em saúde sobre a sua representação social a respeito dessa questão. Objetivo: Descrever os componentes figurativo (campo de representação), simbólico (informação) e afetivo (atitudinal) do cuidar mediante a prescrição de enfermagem que os profissionais da rede de enfermagem detêm na rede de atendimento primário em saúde. Materiais e Métodos: Pesquisa descritiva com abordagem qualitativa e desenho de teoria fundamentada, realizada com oito enfermeiras da rede de atendimento primário em saúde através de uma entrevista semiestruturada. Resultados: Na representação social da prescrição de enfermagem surgem cinco categorias: administrar o cuidado, os benefícios sociais da prescrição, restrições na prescrição, formação profissional em prescrição do enfermeiro e valor atribuído à prescrição. Discussão: As enfermeiras de atendimento primário compreendem o fenómeno da prescrição como uma indicação de enfermagem influencia por fatores associados à formação farmacológica de pré-graduação e a experiência de trabalho, semelhante àquela relatada em vários estudos na Ibero-América. Conclusões: As enfermeiras consideram que a prescrição é um elemento positivo para a entrega de cuidados e que contribui com a resolutividade no atendimento em saúde, no entanto, para cumprir essa tarefa é preciso contar com uma formação adequada e um fundamento legal claro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Chile , Nurses, Male
7.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 325-330, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1040031

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids have been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, the evidence suggests a level of superiority of corticosteroids, so they should be preferred over the former. Objective To know the prescription profile of two second generation antihistamines (cetirizine and levocetirizine) and two nasal corticosteroids (mometasone and furoateciclesonide) in a cohort of patients with allergic rhinitis, and to compare the clinical outcomes obtained. Methods A cohort study was carried including patients with allergic rhinitis treated with cetirizine, levocetirizine, mometasone furoate or ciclesonide. The improvement was evaluated with the total nasal symptoms score (TNSS). This scale yields results between 0 and 12. Zero indicates absence of symptoms. Results A total of 314 patients completed 12 weeks of follow-up. Seventy-five percent were treated with antihistamines, 20% with corticosteroids, and 5% with a combination of the above. The TNSS median for corticosteroid was 2.5 points; for antihistamines, its was 5 points, and for combination, it was 4 points. We found differences between corticosteroids and antihistamines. Conclusion The prescription percentage of second generation oral antihistamines is higher than that of intranasal corticosteroids. However, patients with allergic rhinitis treated with the second option obtained better control of symptoms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Drug Prescriptions , Administration, Intranasal , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cetirizine/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Colombia , Mometasone Furoate/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. med. Rosario ; 85(2): 64-71, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1053150

ABSTRACT

El aumento de la resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos se ha vuelto un problema global de salud. Entre otros factores, incide la actitud del médico a la hora de indicar tratamiento antibacteriano y en qué medida se basa en la evidencia. Para conocer cómo efectúa sus indicaciones en la práctica diaria se analizaron las respuestas a un cuestionario anónimo formulado a 100 médicos. Se encontraron diferencias en el modo de prescripción entre los facultativos, inclusive tratar con antibióticos sin haber realizado estudio etiológico, así como distinta respuesta de clínicos y cirujanos. Esto pone en evidencia la necesidad de que cada institución de salud disponga de un protocolo para la administración de estos medicamentos (AU)


Recently there has been a dramatic global increase in bacterial resistance. Phisician´s attitude affects the indication of antibacterial treatment. In order to know how they make their indications in daily practice we analyzed the answers to an anonymous questionnaire to 100 MD. Differences were found in the way of prescribing among physicians. Some of them administered antibiotics without having carried out etiological studies. There was also different response from clinicians and surgeons. This highlights the need for each health institution to have a protocol for the administration of these drugs (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 18(2): 55-64, May-Ago 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1116985

ABSTRACT

Introdución: las necesidades y condiciones socioeconómicas en México han cambiado, así como el modelo de salud ha modificado las competencias de los profesionales de salud. Enfermería asume la prescripción de medicamentos como una nueva competencia. Cabe señalar que esta ya se realizaba, sólo que sin sustento legal. Objetivo: conocer la percepción y el nivel de conocimientos farmacológicos de los alumnos de licenciatura en enfermería para prescribir medicamentos. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal, la unidad de análisis fueron alumnos de licenciatura de enfermeria que cursaban farmacología, la muestra fue de 160 estudiantes. Se utilizó un cuestionario web, que contemplaba 6 módulos correspondíentes a las unidades del programa de la asignatura y para conocer la percepción de la prescripción se aplicó una entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: el promedio general de conocimientos farmacológicos de los alumnos fue insuficiente. Ellos perciben que no están del todo cualificados, para prescribir medicamentos de acuerdo con la normatividad vigente; principalmente por la falta de conocimientos farmacológicos. Conclusiones: la prescripción de medicamentos, es un proceso que se encuentra en evolución en el país. Una vez que se consolide, tendrá un impacto en el sistema de salud, al igual que, en la calidad de los cuidados que brinde enfermería.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Prescriptions , Pharmacology , Knowledge , Nurses
10.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 227-237, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1002219

ABSTRACT

The knowledge on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is essential to reduce the gap between evidence and practice. Objective: To describe a simulation training strategy for emergency healthcare professionals and provide preliminary data on knowledge acquisition, learners' confidence and prescription of medications after training. Methods: The training was part of the implementation of two myocardial infarction systems of care. It comprehended lectures and simulation-based learning using high and low-fidelity mannequins and actors. It was tested in two phases: the first one in Belo Horizonte and the second one in Montes Claros, both in the state of Minas Gerais. A test was applied before and after training to assess knowledge acquisition. Confidence to perform thrombolysis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients was assessed using a questionnaire, and the impact on medication prescription analyzed STEMI patients admitted to hospitals in Montes Claros. Results: In the first phase, 156 professionals answered both tests: 70% of them improved their results and the median number of right answers increased (6, interquartile range [IQR] 5-7; vs 7 ([IQR] 6-9; p < 0.05). In the second phase, 242 professionals answered both tests: 58% of the physicians and 83% of the nurses obtained better test scores. Participants referred a positive impact on their clinical practice, 95% reported feeling very secure when perform fibrinolysis after the training, and there was also an impact on medication prescription. Conclusions: There was an impact on the learners' knowledge acquisition and confidence using our two-phase training model, with evidence of impact on performance


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Drug Prescriptions , Heparin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Statistical Analysis , Telemedicine/methods , Patient-Centered Care/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services , Myocardial Infarction
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(3): 227-237, may.-june. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1005940

ABSTRACT

Background: The knowledge on the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is essential to reduce the gap between evidence and practice. Objective: To describe a simulation training strategy for emergency healthcare professionals and provide preliminary data on knowledge acquisition, learners' confidence and prescription of medications after training. Methods: The training was part of the implementation of two myocardial infarction systems of care. It comprehended lectures and simulation-based learning using high and low-fidelity mannequins and actors. It was tested in two phases: the first one in Belo Horizonte and the second one in Montes Claros, both in the state of Minas Gerais. A test was applied before and after training to assess knowledge acquisition. Confidence to perform thrombolysis in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients was assessed using a questionnaire, and the impact on medication prescription analyzed STEMI patients admitted to hospitals in Montes Claros. Results: In the first phase, 156 professionals answered both tests: 70% of them improved their results and the median number of right answers increased (6, interquartile range [IQR] 5-7; vs 7 ([IQR] 6-9; p < 0.05). In the second phase, 242 professionals answered both tests: 58% of the physicians and 83% of the nurses obtained better test scores. Participants referred a positive impact on their clinical practice, 95% reported feeling very secure when perform fibrinolysis after the training, and there was also an impact on medication prescription. Conclusions: There was an impact on the learners' knowledge acquisition and confidence using our two-phase training model , with evidence of impact on performance


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality Indicators, Health Care , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Drug Prescriptions , Heparin/therapeutic use , Myocardial Reperfusion/methods , Statistical Analysis , Telemedicine/methods , Patient-Centered Care/methods , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Myocardial Infarction
13.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4186, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-997897

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyse economic burden of selected analgesic drugs prescription by dentists in Slovakia over a 24-month period. Material and Methods: In this economic burden study, the data were provided from the largest public health insurance company in Slovakia. It was analysed 23,256 prescriptions of selected analgesic drugs (Acetylsalicylic Acid, Diclofenac, Nimesulide, Tramadol and Metamizole Sodium) by dentists in Slovakia. Results: The highest analgesics prescription by dentists was found in Diclofenac in 2016 with 11.2% prescription increase in 2017. The significant decrease of analgesic drug prescription by dentists in 2017 was observed in Tramadol (-29.9%). The economic burden of selected analgesic drugs by patients were €33,926 in 2017 with 21.3% significant decrease of average percentage differences (APD) in Tramadol and 84.6% significant increase of APD in Metamizole sodium in 2017. Patients participated 65.5% share in payment of selected analgesic drugs and Health Insurance Company participated only 34.5% share in payment of selected analgesic drugs in 2017. It was found increase of percentage analgesic drugs prescription in Diclofenac and Nimesulide and decrease of percentage drug prescription in Metamizole sodium from 1/2016 to 12/2017. Conclusion: Economic burden on analgesic drugs prescribed by dentist was low per Slovak inhabitant in calculated. Diclofenac was most frequent prescribed analgesic drug with the highest economic burden. We recommend prescribing cheaper analgesic drugs with a lower economic burden and with the same effect.


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions/economics , Health Care Costs , Slovakia , Costs and Cost Analysis/economics , Dentists , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Analgesics/therapeutic use
14.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4430, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-997963

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate antibiotic prescribing practices of dentists working in a major teaching hospital in Sudan, and to assess the need for establishing education programmes to enhance dentists' awareness of antibiotic use. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out by distributing an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to a convenience sample of dental practitioners at major teaching hospital in Khartoum/Sudan. The questionnaire investigated knowledge and attitudes of participants in relation to antibiotic prescribing in dental practice. Results: One hundred out of 135 dental practitioners working at the hospital participated in the survey with 48 males and 52 females. Most of the participants (N=44) did not specify their preferable drug reference, while 32 participants specified British National Formulary, and the practice was significantly associated with a higher professional rank (p<0.001). Metronidazole was the most frequently cited antibiotic for dentofacial infections (N=73) and Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (N=56), while amoxicillin was the most frequently cited antibiotic for dento-alveolar infections and infective endocarditis prophylaxis (N=88 and N=47, respectively). Conclusion: Undergraduate, as well as postgraduate courses,, are required in Sudan to provide up-to-date orientation on antibiotic use, and to increase awareness of dentists about antibiotic prescribing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Prescriptions , Sudan , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dentists , Focal Infection, Dental/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Chi-Square Distribution , Health Education , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4348, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-998004

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate self-medication for toothache and its associated factors in children and adolescents. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 252 children/adolescents aged 6-16 years. A questionnaire was applied with questions related to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; experience of, and self-medication for, toothache; as well as aspects related to the condition. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses (Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test) were performed, with a 5% significance level. Results: The prevalence of toothache was 41.7%. In 96 cases analyzed, there was prevalence of 69.8% of self-medication for toothache. There were no statistically significant associations between self-medication for toothache and variables related to the children/adolescents (gender and age), their parents or guardians (age and schooling), socioeconomic characteristics (family income and number of people in the household) and aspects related to toothache (fever, crying and school absenteeism) (p>0.05). The most commonly used drug was paracetamol (60.7%), whose choice was based to its previous use by the study population for conditions not related to toothache (47.8%). Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of self-medication for toothache in the study population. No independent variable was associated with self-medication practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Drug Prescriptions , Self Medication , Toothache/etiology , Child , Adolescent , Absenteeism , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Statistics, Nonparametric
16.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4460, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-998244

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the prescribing patterns of the general dental practitioners in Kerman province in Iran. Material and Methods: In this cross sectional study 1200 prescriptions, which were prescribed by general dentists in Kerman province during one-year period, were evaluated. Each prescription was assessed for the number of drugs per prescription, drug (category, name, route of administration, frequency) and duration of treatment. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies, mean and standard deviation. The Chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test were used. The statistical tests were performed at the significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.59. Antibiotics, Analgesics, corticosteroids and antiseptics were the most common drug category prescribed drugs by general dentists. Oral route was the commonest route of drug prescription (84.1%). Amoxicillin capsule (60.5%) was the commonest drug prescribed by general practitioners followed by ibuprofen derivatives (55.4%). Spelling errors was found in 62.7% of prescriptions. The mean score of prescriptions for logical prescription pattern was 7.36 ± 1.32 out of 9. Conclusion: Dental prescribing patterns should be considered as a potential area for improvement in the treatment process and patient safety. It is suggested to emphasis more on principles of prescription at university and retraining courses for dentists.


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions , Toothache/etiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dentists , Iran , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Analysis of Variance
17.
Arq. odontol ; 55: 1-11, jan.-dez. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1052019

ABSTRACT

Objetivo:O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a conduta para as prescrições de antimicrobianos pelos cirurgiões-dentistas (CDs) da rede pública, de um município de médio porte do interior do estado de São Paulo. Métodos: todos CDs da rede pública do município de Piracicaba, São Paulo, foram convidados a participar (n = 79). A coleta de dados foi realizada em 2015, por meio de uma entrevista, questionário estruturado, como entrevista, nas unidades de saúde. O questionário continha questões sobre as características dos CDs, condições clínicas e sistêmicas que levariam ou não a prescrição de antibiótico, droga de escolha e forma de prescrição. Foi realizada a análise descritiva, utilizando o programa SPSS® (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) versão 20.0 para Microsoft Windows.Resultados: no total, 74 CDs aceitaram participar da pesquisa, e 68,9% (n = 51) relataram prescrever antimicrobianos para abscesso localizado, alveolite seca, pulpite aguda. Situações sistêmicas que necessitam de profilaxia antibiótica eram desconhecidas pelos CDs, sendo que 56,8% (n = 42) não sabiam a conduta correta com a prescrição em casos de pacientes que fazem uso de bisfosfonatos e 35,0% (n = 26) após a quimioterapia. A droga de escolha de 97,3% dos CDs foi a amoxicilina. Conclusão: os resultados obtidos pelos relatos das condutas terapêuticas permitiram concluir que houve um excesso de prescrição de antibióticos, inclusive para situções clínicas que não havia necessidade, sendo o mais receitado a amoxicilina. Deve-se pensar no desenvolvimento de estratégias públicas de educação permanente, voltadas para os profissionais de odontologia, para o controle da resistência bacteriana. (AU)


Aim: This study sought to comprehend the conduct of antimicrobial prescriptions by dental surgeons (DSs) of the public network of a mid-sized municipality in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. Methods: All DSs of the public network of Piracicaba, São Paulo, were invited to participate (n = 79). Data collection was performed in 2015, through an interview, structured questionnaire, as an interview, in the health units. The questionnaire contained questions about the characteristics of DSs, clinical and systemic conditions that would or would not lead to antibiotic prescription, drug of choice, and prescription form. The descriptive analysis was performed using the SPSS ® software (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) version 20.0 for Microsoft Windows. Results: A total of 74 DSs chose to participate in the study, and 68.9% (n = 51) reported prescribing antimicrobials for localized abscesses, dry alveolitis, and acute pulpitis. Systemic conditions requiring antibiotic prophylaxis were unknown by the DSs, and 56.8% (n = 42) did not know the correct conduct to be taken with the prescription in cases of patients taking bisphosphonates and 35.0% (n = 26) after chemotherapy. The drug of choice for 97.3% of the DSs was amoxicillin. Conclusion:The results from the reports of the therapeutic procedures led to the conclusion that there was an excess of antibiotic prescriptions, even for clinical situations that were not necessary, with amoxicillin being the most commonly prescribed. The development of public strategies of permanent education, aimed at dental professionals, to control bacterial resistance should be considered. (AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Prescriptions , Health Centers , Public Health , Dentists , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 10(4): 12-16, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BDENF | ID: biblio-1051708

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: identificar e analisar os fatores de risco relacionados aos erros de medicação presentes nas prescrições de medicamentos. Método: estudo transversal de abordagem quantitativa realizado com prescrições de medicamentos em Clínica Médica. Os dados foram coletados em formulário estruturado por tópicos: informações relacionadas à prescrição e informações relacionadas ao paciente. Resultados: as prescrições foram classificadas em: manuscrita, legível (49,40%), cujos dados estavam "totalmente legíveis" (86,35%), "Legíveis em parte" (41,13%) ou "Não legíveis" (4,06%). 54,61% das prescrições continham o nome do medicamento totalmente legível enquanto que as classificações "Legível em parte" e "Não legível" apresentaram os respectivos percentuais de 41,33% e 4,06%. Em 99,26% dos registros houve o uso de siglas e/ou abreviaturas. Conclusão: os fatores de risco relacionados ao erro de medicação referem-se também com a qualidade técnica da prescrição. Dados ilegíveis e incompletos comprometem a administração do medicamento e, consequentemente, a observância dos princípios de segurança do paciente. (AU)


Objective: To identify and analyze risk factors related to medication errors present in drug prescriptions. Method: cross-sectional study of quantitative approach performed with medication prescriptions in a medical clinic. Data were collected in a form structured by topics: prescription-related information and patient-related information. Results: 86.35% of prescriptions were handwritten; 49.40% were readable and 43.37% poorly readable; 54.61% of the prescriptions contained the name of the fully readable drug. 99.26% of the records used acronyms and / or abbreviations. Regarding the data of the medication were identified: record of pharmaceutical presentation (90.04%), dose (90.77%), route of administration (96.31%), dilution (83.39%), interval between doses (95.57%) Conclusion: Risk factors related to medication error also refer to the technical quality of the prescription. Unreadable and incomplete data compromise drug administration and, consequently, compliance with patient safety principles. (AU)


Objetivo: identificar y analizar los factores de riesgo relacionados con los errores de medicación presentes en las recetas de medicamentos. Método: estudio transversal de enfoque cuantitativo realizado con prescripción de medicamentos en una clínica médica. Los datos se recopilaron en una forma estructurada por temas: información relacionada con la prescripción e información relacionada con el paciente. Resultados: 86.35% de las recetas fueron escritas a mano; 49.40% eran legibles y 43.37% pobremente legibles; El 54,61% de las recetas contenían el nombre del medicamento completamente legible. El 99.26% de los registros usa acrónimos y / o abreviaturas. En cuanto a los datos de la medicación se identificaron: registro de presentación farmacéutica (90.04%), dosis (90.77%), vía de administración (96.31%), dilución (83.39%), intervalo entre dosis (95.57%) Conclusión: los factores de riesgo relacionados con el error de medicación también se refieren a la calidad técnicade la prescripción. Los datos incompletos e ilegibles comprometen la administración de medicamentos y, en consecuencia, el cumplimiento de los principios de seguridad del paciente. (AU)


Subject(s)
Medication Errors , Drug Prescriptions , Nursing , Drug Therapy , Patient Safety
20.
Rev. ABENO ; 19(1): 66-72, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas), BBO | ID: biblio-1022616

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar diferentes estratégias para o aprimoramento de graduandos de Odontologia sobre normas de prescrição medicamentosa. Foram avaliados 72 estudantes, os quais foram divididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos (n=24): Grupo 1 ­ em cada etapa de avaliação foi apresentado um vídeo explicativo sobre normas de prescrição com duração de 15 minutos; Grupo 2 ­ o mesmo vídeo foi disponibilizado em uma plataforma virtual (com acesso ilimitado); Grupo 3 ­ controle: os estudantes não tiveram atividades adicionais sobre o tema. Foram realizadas 4 avaliações e os voluntários receberam um caso clínico diferente em cada avaliação, realizando uma prescrição para a situação clínica proposta. Para cada prescrição realizada foi atribuída uma pontuação considerando diferentes itens: identificação do profissional e do paciente, concentração, dose e quantidade do medicamento, instruções, dentre outros. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística, com nível de significância de 5%. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na avaliação basal entre os grupos (p>0,05). Após o uso das diferentes estratégias foram observados melhores resultados para G1 quando comparados a G2 e G3 (p<0,05). Concluiuse que o uso do vídeo presencial foi o que proporcionou melhores resultados em relação às normas de prescrição de medicamentos (AU).


The aim of this study was to evaluate different teaching strategies to improve the knowledge of dental students about prescribing standards. We evaluated 72 students who were randomly separated into 3 groups (n = 24): Group 1 - at each evaluation stage, an explanatory video about prescription rules was presented; Group 2 - the same video was made available on a virtual platform (with unlimited access); Group 3 - control: the students did not have additional activities on the subject. During the study period 4 evaluations were performed, and all participants received a different clinical case to carry out a prescription for the proposed clinical situation. For each prescription performed, a score was given to different items: identification of professional and patient, concentration, dosage and quantity of the medicine, instructions, among others. The results were submitted to statistical analysis and the level of significance was set at 5%. No significant differences were observed at baseline between groups (p> 0.05). However, after using the strategies better results were observed for G1 when compared with G2 and G3 (p<0.05). It could be concluded that among the strategies used, the use of video was the one that provided an improvement in knowledge of dental students in relation to prescribing standards (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/standards , Audiovisual Aids , Students, Dental , Education, Dental , Brazil , Statistics, Nonparametric
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