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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 474-482, mar.-abr. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833963

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to identify the climate condition parameters that are associated with the occurrence of antimicrobial and macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk using a multivariate principal components analysis (PCA). A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected at dairy farms in Minas Gerais State in Brazil and analyzed for 35 analytes, comprising macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode spectrometry. Of the 132 samples, 34 (25.76%) bulk tank milk samples were positive for at least one analyte. PCA showed that antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk occurred less frequently on days with a higher average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index. In contrast, relative humidity was inversely associated with antimicrobial residues in raw milk. The PCA showed that daily milk production was also related to macrocyclic lactone residues, while rainfall showed an inverse association. Thus, some climate conditions, such as average temperature, maximum temperature and temperature-humidity index, can predict the moments with lower risk of occurrence of antimicrobial residues in bulk tank milk, in contrast to relative humidity. Furthermore, the risk of macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk was higher in months with less rainfall.(AU)


O presente trabalho objetivou identificar fatores climáticos associados à ocorrência de resíduos de antimicrobianos e lactonas macrocíclicas em amostras de leite de tanque por análise multivariada de componentes principais (ACP). Para o presente trabalho, 132 amostras de leite cru foram coletadas em fazendas leiteiras localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil) e analisadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e espectrometria de massas in tandem para detecção de 35 analitos, incluindo antimicrobianos e lactonas macrocíclicas. Das 132 amostras de leite analisadas, detectou-se pelo menos um analito em 34 (25,76%) amostras. A ACP demonstrou que a presença de resíduos de antimicrobianos no leite de tanque ocorreu menos frequentemente nos dias com maior temperatura média, temperatura máxima e índice de temperatura e umidade. Por outro lado, a umidade relativa foi inversamente associada à presença de resíduos antimicrobianos no leite. A ACP demonstrou associação entre a presença de resíduos de lactonas macrocíclicas no leite e a produção diária de leite, e a presença de resíduos de lactonas macrocíclicas ocorreu menos frequentemente nos meses com maiores índices pluviométricos. Dessa forma, conclui-se que alguns índices climáticos, como temperatura média, temperatura máxima e índice de temperatura e umidade, podem predizer períodos com maior risco de ocorrência de resíduos de antimicrobianos, em contraste com a umidade relativa. Além disso, o risco de resíduos de lactonas macrocíclicas no leite de tanque foi maior nos meses com menores índices pluviométricos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Anthelmintics/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents , Climate Change , Drug Residues/analysis , Lactones/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Cattle , Multivariate Analysis , Time Factors , Veterinary Drugs/analysis
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(2): 97-104, fev. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833981

ABSTRACT

A survey of veterinary drug residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was carried out through a broad scope analysis. Here, 132 raw milk samples were collected at 45 dairy farms in Minas Gerais from August 2009 to February 2010, and analyzed for 42 analytes, comprising pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Within all milk samples, at least one veterinary drug residue was identified in 40 milk samples (30.30%) by confirmatory tests, whereas 16 samples (12.12%) showed the presence of at least two residues. With regard to the Brazilian maximum residue levels, 11 milk samples (8.33%) were non-compliant according to Brazilian Legislation. The veterinary drugs detected in the non-compliant milk samples include penicillin V (one sample), abamectin (one sample) and cypermethrin (nine samples). Furthermore, the antibacterial screening methods failed to identify most of the positive samples that were detected by confirmatory tests, leading to a large discrepancy between the screening and confirmatory antimicrobial tests. Thus, the present study indicated that the veterinary drugs residues still represents a great concern for the milk production chain.(AU)


Avaliou-se a presença de 42 analitos, incluindo piretróides, lactonas macrocíclicas e antimicrobianos em 132 amostras de leite de tanque proveniente de 45 propriedades leiteiras localizadas no Estado de Minas Gerais. Para tal, utilizou-se a cromatografia líquida acoplada a espectrofotometria de massas tandem e cromatografia gasosa com detector com captura de elétrons. Dentre todas as amostras de leite, 40 (30,30%) amostras de leite de tanque apresentaram a presença de pelo menos um analito, enquanto 16 amostras (12,12%) de leite demonstraram a presença de pelo menos dois analitos. Considerando os limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira, 11 amostras de leite (8,33%) seriam consideradas como não conforme. Ademais, os testes de triagem para detecção de antimicrobianos no leite não conseguiram identificar a maioria das amostras positivas nos testes confirmatórios, levando a grande discrepância entre estes testes. Desta forma, os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os períodos de descarte do leite, especialmente para piretróides, não foram plenamente respeitados por todos os produtores de leite. Além disto, uma discrepância entre os resultados dos testes confirmatórios e os testes de triagem foi observada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Drug Residues/analysis , Lactones/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Pyrethrins/analysis , Anthelmintics , Cattle , Pesticides , Veterinary Drugs/analysis
3.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(2): 147-153, 2017. mapas, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-875118

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at identifying the commonly screened antibiotics during the dairy processing routine in raw-milk receiving points in plants inspected by the official services in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), from January 2014 to February 2015. Among the 36 participating industries, the most commonly screened antibiotics were beta lactams (100%) and tetracyclines (69%). The antibiotics screened at the milk receiving point were chosen because of the practicality and speed in performing the screening (67%), rather than specific knowledge on which antibiotics the milk suppliers used. (22%).(AU)


Este estudo teve por objetivo identificar os antibióticos comumente investigados durante a rotina de processamento do leite cru recebido em laticínios sob Inspeção Estadual no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), entre janeiro de 2014 e fevereiro de 2015. Entre as 36 indústrias participantes, os antibióticos mais comumente investigados foram beta-lactâmicos (100%) e tetraciclinas (69%). A seleção por quais antibióticos investigar no recebimento do leite foi influenciada pela praticidade e rapidez na execução da análise (67%), em detrimento do conhecimento específico sobre quais antibióticos eram utilizados pelos produtores de leite (22%).(AU)


Subject(s)
beta-Lactams/analysis , Drug Residues/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Tetracyclines/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Food Quality , Food Safety , Raw Foods/analysis
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(6): 1721-1726, nov.-dez. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827955

ABSTRACT

The present study attempted to identify climate conditions that are associated with the occurrence of pyrethroid residues using a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Minas Gerais State - Brazil and analyzed for seven analytes using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Of the 132 milk samples, pyrethroid residues were identified in 14 (10.6%) milk samples, of which 12 (9.1%) and two (1.5%) milk samples had the identification of cypermethrin and deltamethrin, respectively. From those samples, nine (6.8%) milk samples were regarded as non-compliant for cypermethrin with this analyte concentration above the maximum residue limits set by Brazilian legislation. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk demonstrated that the average temperature and the Temperature-Humidity Index were associated with pyrethroids residues in bulk milk tank, although the relative humidity was inversely correlated. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the pyrethrid residues associated with some climate conditions can predict the moments with higher risk of occurrence of pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk.(AU)


O presente trabalho objetivou identificar fatores climáticos associados à ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides em amostras de leite de tanque por análise multivariada de componentes principais (ACP). Para o presente trabalho, 132 amostras de leite cru foram coletadas em fazendas leiteiras localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil) e analisadas por sete analitos por cromatografia gasosa com detector por captura de eletróns para detecção de resíduos de piretroides. Das 132 amostras de leite analisadas, a presença de resíduos de piretroides foi detectada em 14 amostras (10,6%), e em 12 (9,1%) e duas (1,5%) foram detectados cipermetrina e deltametrina, respectivamente. Destas amostras, em nove (6,8%) a concentração de cipermetrina encontrada foi maior que a permitida pela legislação brasileira. A ACP demonstrou que a presença de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque ocorreu menos frequentemente nos dias com maior umidade relativa, embora a presença desses resíduos estivesse associada a maior temperatura média e a maior índice de temperatura e umidade. Dessa forma, conclui-se que alguns índices climáticos podem predizer períodos com maior risco de ocorrência de resíduos de piretroides no leite de tanque.(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Residues/analysis , Hot Temperature , Humidity , Milk/toxicity , Pesticides/analysis , Pyrethrins/analysis , Cattle
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 82: 1-9, 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1025970

ABSTRACT

Nitrofurans are antibacterials banned in livestock by different countries due to its relationship with the production of carcinogenic metabolites. Several studies have been conducted to find the best methodology to identify these residues. Te objectives of this review work were to show the risk of nitrofuran metabolites (furazolidone; nitrofurazone; nitrofurantoin, furaltadone and nifursol); to explain the application of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to determine the presence of these residues in foods of animal origin; and, finally, to report some methodologies that were recently used in different foods of animal origin.(AU)


Nitrofuranos são antibacterianos proibidos na criação de animais por diferentes países devido a sua relação com a produção de metabolitos carcinogênicos. Vários trabalhos de pesquisa têm sido desenvolvidos para encontrar a melhor metodologia que possa identificar esses resíduos. O presente trabalho de revisão teve como objetivos mostrar o risco dos metabolitos dos nitrofuranos (furazolidona, nitrofurazona, nitrofurantoina, furaltadona e nifursol); explicar a aplicação da cromatografia líquida e da espectrometria de massas para determinar a presença desses resíduos em alimentos de origem animal; e, finalmente, relatar algumas metodologias usadas recentemente em alimentos de origem animal.(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Residues/analysis , Foods of Animal Origin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Nitrofurans , Mass Spectrometry , Food Inspection , Chromatography, Liquid
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(2): 621-625, Jan.-Apr. 2014.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709307

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a presença de resíduos antimicrobianos (ceftiofur, estreptomicinas, quinolonas, tetraciclinas, tianfenicol e tilosina) e anti-helmínticos (benzimidazóis, aminobenzimidazóis, levamisol, avermectinas, tiabendazóis, moxidectina e triclabendazóis) em, respectivamente, 70 e 83 amostras de leite cru provenientes de quatro mesorregiões (Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, Central Mineira, Oeste de Minas e Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte) do estado de Minas Gerais. Este estudo demonstrou a presença de quinolonas (2,86por cento), estreptomicinas (2,86por cento) e tetraciclinas (11,43por cento) nas amostras de leite cru analisadas. Ademais, observou-se expressiva porcentagem de amostras de leite cru positivas para os anti-helmínticos amino- benzimidazóis (55,42por cento), levamisol (53,57por cento), avermectinas (60,24por cento), tiabendazóis (67.47por cento), moxidectina (73,49por cento) e triclabendazóis (45,78por cento), e em menor porcentagem os benzimidazóis (6,02por cento). Desta forma, os resultados do presente estudo indicam que os resíduos de antimicrobianos e anti-helmínticos no leite em Minas Gerais devem ser constantemente monitorados pelas autoridades competentes com intuito de oferecer aos consumidores um alimento sem riscos à saúde humana...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Anthelmintics/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Milk/adverse effects , Drug Residues/analysis , Food Contamination/analysis , Veterinary Public Health
7.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 17(3): 189-197, jul.-set.2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-758608

ABSTRACT

É crescente a preocupação de consumidores quanto à presença de resíduos químicos em alimentos de origem animal, principalmente antimicrobianos, hormônios e agrotóxicos. Com o uso massivo de fertilizantes e medicamentos veterinários, muitas vezes, estimulado pela indústria química, é cada vez mais comum a presença desses compostos em alimentos. Possíveis consequências prejudiciais à saúde humana podem surgir como resultado da exposição aguda e/ou crônica a resíduos de medicamentos veterinários. Esses resíduos normalmente são detectados em níveis abaixo do limite máximo permitido, favorecendo o aparecimento de tumores a longo prazo, embora as reações de hipersensibilidade em consumidores sensibilizados e a resistência a antibióticos possam ocorrer. A atuação de programas de monitoramento e vigilância, bem como das boas práticas agropecuárias, tornam-se fundamentais para a prevenção e controle de resíduos em alimentos. Este estudo atualiza informações referentes à indústria de medicamentos veterinários e revisa as principais causas de seus resíduos em produtos de origem animal, principais tipos de resíduos encontrados, incidências e aspectos regulatórios com ênfase nos riscos à saúde pública...


There is a growing concern by consumers about the presence of chemical residues in food from animal origin, mainly antimicrobial drugs, hormones and pesticides. With the massive use of fertilizers and veterinary drugs, often stimulated by the chemical industry, it is increasingly common to have the presence of these compounds in food. Possible harmful consequences to human health may arise as a result of acute and/or chronic exposure to veterinary drug residues. These residues are usually detected at levels below the maximum permitted levels, favoring the appearance of tumors in the long term, although hypersensitivity reactions in sensitized consumers and antimicrobial resistance may occur. The role of monitoring and surveillance programs, as well as of good agricultural practices, has become crucial for the prevention and control of residues in food. This study updates information relating to veterinary drug industry and reviews the main causes of such residues in products from animal origin, main types of residues found, their effects and the regulatory aspects, with emphasis to public health risks...


: Existe una creciente preocupación de los consumidores sobre la presencia de sustancias químicas en alimentos de origen animal, principalmente antimicrobianos, hormonas y plaguicidas. Con el uso masivo de fertilizantes y medicamentos veterinarios, a menudo, estimulados por la industria química, es cada vez más común la presencia de esos compuestos en alimentos. Las posibles consecuencias nocivas a la salud humana pueden surgir como resultado de la exposición aguda y/o crónica a residuos de medicamentos veterinarios. Esos residuos suelen ser detectados a niveles abajo del máximo permitido, lo que favorece la aparición de tumores a largo plazo, aunque se puede presentar reacciones de hipersensibilidad en los consumidores sensibles y resistencia a los antibióticos. El papel de los programas de control y vigilancia, así como de las buenas prácticas agrícolas, se han convertido fundamentales para la prevención y control de los residuos en alimentos. Este estudio actualiza informaciones relativas a la industria de medicamentos veterinarios y revisa las principales causas de sus residuos en productos de origen animal, principales tipos de residuos encontrados, incidencias y aspectos reglamentarios con énfasis en los riesgos a la salud pública...


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Supply/methods , Food Analysis/classification , Food Analysis/methods , Drug Residues/analysis , Drug Residues/adverse effects , Public Health
8.
Rev. colomb. cienc. pecu ; 21(1): 121-135, mar. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-559253

ABSTRACT

De acuerdo con los organismos mundiales de referencia, los residuos de fármacos en alimentos de origen animal son considerados como un factor de riesgo en la salud pública y como limitante en el desarrollo económico de cualquier país. Estas razones junto con el avance de metodologías analíticas cada vez más sensibles, han hecho que los requisitos de sanidad e inocuidad exigidos en los alimentos sean cada vez más estrictos, especialmente cuando el destino de los productos es la exportación. Colombia, en su continua intención por aumentar las ventas de sus productos en el exterior, se ha visto en la necesidad de reformar normas existentes, generar nuevas reglamentaciones, y renovar su capacidad tecnológica, con el fin de controlar los residuos de fármacos en alimentos de origen pecuario y de esta forma cumplir con las exigencias demandadas por los países con los que desea negociar. La presente revisión, expone aspectos importantes relacionados con esta clase de residuos: su regulación nacional e internacional, los principales efectos potenciales que tienen sobre la salud humana, la evaluación del riesgo, los métodos más comunes con los cuales pueden ser detectados y el estado actual de la investigación y el control de estos residuos en Colombia.


According to worldwide reference organizations, drugs residues in animal products are risk factors in public health and economic limit on any country. Besides, quality requirements demanded in exported food are higher with development of more sensible analytical methods. Promotion of native products to international markets is fundamental in Colombian policies; in deed it has been necessary reforming procedures, generating new regulations, and renewing technological capacity to control drug residues in food of animal origin in order to fulfill requirements demanded from interested countries. This review exposes several aspects related to drug residues on animal tissues: national and international regulations, effects on human health, analytical methods for detect them, risk assessment, control and current research in Colombia.


De acordo com os órgãos mundiais de referência, os resíduos de fármacos nos alimentos de origem animal são considerados como um fator de risco na saúde publica como limitante no desenvolvimento econômico de quaisquer pais. Estas razões junto com avanço das metodologias analíticas, tem feito que as exigências a sanidade e na inocuidade dos alimentos sejam mais severas, especialmente quando o destino dos produtos é a exportação. Colômbia, na sua procura por aumentar suas vendas no exterior, tem visto a necessidade de mudar as normas existentes, gerar novas regras e renovar sua tecnologia, com o propósito de controlar os resíduos de fármacos nos alimentos de origem animal e assim preencher com as exigências dos países consumidores dos seus produtos. Esta revisão apresenta aspectos relacionados com este tipo de resíduos: sua normatividade nacional e internacional, os efeitos potenciais que eles têm sobre a saúde humana, a avaliação do risco, os métodos mais freqüentes com que podem ser determinados e o estado atual das pesquisas no controle destes resíduos na Colômbia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Veterinary Drugs/analysis , Drug Residues/analysis , Drug Residues/metabolism
9.
Indian J Public Health ; 2008 Jan-Mar; 52(1): 33-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-109418

ABSTRACT

The concentration of Terramycin and Furazolidone residues in broiler meat following their subtherapeutic use in the ration of the birds were detected as 296 ng/g, 174 ng/g, 40 ng/g, 60 ng/g and 124 ng/ml in kidney, liver, thigh muscle, breast muscle and serum for Terramycin and 270 ng/g 160 ng/g and 88 ng/ml in kidney, liver and serum for Furazolidone. One week of withdrawal period from the antibiotic in feed/water was sufficient to render the meat free from residues.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/adverse effects , Animals , Drug Residues/analysis , Food Contamination/analysis , Furazolidone , Humans , India , Oxytetracycline/analysis , Poultry
10.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 29(1)jan.-jun. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-485914

ABSTRACT

A presença de resíduos de cloranfenicol no leite pode causar efeitos tóxicos na população exposta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a ocorrência de cloranfenicol em amostras de leite comercializadas no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foram analisadas 151 amostras de leite pasteurizado B e C de 61 marcas diferentes, comercializadas em 35 municípios. Os resíduos de cloranfenicol foram analisados por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). Foram detectados resíduos de cloranfenicol em quatro (2,6%) das amostras analisadas, sendo duas amostras de leite tipo B e duas do tipo C. Esses dados demonstram que esse antimicrobiano continua sendo utilizado em animais destinados ao consumo humano ou há presença de contaminantes ambientais. Portanto, há necessidade de programas de monitoramento de resíduos de medicamentos veterinários em alimentos para garantir sua qualidade e, conseqüentemente, proteção à saúde humana.A presença de resíduos de cloranfenicol no leite pode causar efeitos tóxicos na população exposta. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a ocorrência de cloranfenicol em amostras de leite comercializadas no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foram analisadas 151 amostras de leite pasteurizado B e C de 61 marcas diferentes, comercializadas em 35 municípios. Os resíduos de cloranfenicol foram analisados por ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA). Foram detectados resíduos de cloranfenicol em quatro (2,6%) das amostras analisadas, sendo duas amostras de leite tipo B e duas do tipo C. Esses dados demonstram que esse antimicrobiano continua sendo utilizado em animais destinados ao consumo humano ou há presença de contaminantes ambientais. Portanto, há necessidade de programas de monitoramento de resíduos de medicamentos veterinários em alimentos para garantir sua qualidade e, conseqüentemente, proteção à saúde humana.


The presence of chloramphenicol residues in milk can cause toxic effects on the exposed population. The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of chloramphenicol in milk samples commercialized in the state of Paraná, Brazil. 151 pasteurized milk samples, type B and C of 61 different marks, commercialized in 35 cities were analyzed. Chloramphenicol residues were examined by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Chloramphenicol residues were detected in four (2.6%) out of the milk samples analyzed, being two samples of type B and two of type C. These data show that either this antibiotic is still being used in animals destined to human consumption or there is environmental contamination. Thus, monitoring programs are needed to verify veterinary drug residues in food to certify its quality and, consequently, protection of human health.


Subject(s)
Chloramphenicol/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Milk/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Food Contamination/analysis , Drug Residues/analysis
11.
Hig. aliment ; 21(149): 57-61, mar. 2007.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-450938

ABSTRACT

Um ponto fundamental na qualidade do leite é a ausência de contaminantes, como, por exemplo, resíduos de antimicrobianos. A presença de resíduos de antibióticos no leite resulta da aplicação de diferentes substâncias antimicrobianas no efetivo leiteiro, para prevenção ou tratamento de doenças, com destaque para infecções da glândula mamária e as doenças do trato reprodutivo. As razões para se fazer o controle de resíduos de antibióticos no leite incluem a possibilidade desses resíduos causarem reações alérgicas nos consumidores e provocarem o surgimento de resistência bacteriana, além de ser também um problema econômico, interferindo nas culturas lácteas utilizadas na fabricação de derivados. Os limites máximos permitidos (LMP) para resíduos de drogas para uso veterinário em alimentos são determinados pelo Codex Alimentarius, da FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, as ONU), e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Para a detecção de antimicrobianos no leite, testes microbiológicos, rápidos e de grupos específicos são comumente aplicados, que se baseiam na inibição do crescimento bacteriano, em reações imunológicas ou enzimáticas e na separação, identificação e quantificação do antimicrobiano por meio de técnicas de cromatografia gasosa ou líquida. Foram utilizadas 20 propriedades produtoras e 30 amostras de leite pronto para consumo no Estado de São Paulo. Para a detecção dos resíduos de antibiótico foi utilizado o teste microbiológico comercial Delvotest® SP para betalactâmicos, cujo princípio é a inibição do crescimento microbiano.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Milk/chemistry , Drug Residues/analysis
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 24(1): 14-18, feb. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-443052

ABSTRACT

La presencia de antibacterianos y antiparasitarios residuales fue investigada en muestras de carne de peces silvestres de consumo humano pescados alrededor de un recinto de acuicultura en Cochamó (41° 29' S; 72° 19'W), X Región, Chile. Esta investigación demostró que peces silvestres, incluyendo róbalo (Elginops maclovinus), cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) y truchas de vida libre (Oncorhynchus mykiss), ingieren alimento artificial para salmón y que la carne de algunos ejemplares de estos peces contienen tetracicilina y quinolona en cantidades detectables. Estos resultados sugieren que el uso de antibacterianos en la acuicultura del salmón, como ha sido demostrado en otros países, tiene efectos ambientales que se proyectan más allá de los recintos de acuicultura. Se indica que dada la relevancia de estos hallazgos para la salud humana y animal, el ambiente requerirá de estudios más amplios y detallados para implementar futuras regulaciones del uso de antibacterianos en acuicultura.


The presence of residues of tetracycline, quinolones and antiparasitic drugs was investigated in wild fish captured around salmon aquaculture pens in Cochamó, Region X, Chile. Residues of both antibiotics were found in the meta of two species of wild fish that are consumed by humans, robalo (Elginops maclovinus) and cabrilla (Sebastes capensis) . These findings suggest that the antibiotic usage in salmon aquaculture in Chile has environmental implications that may affect human and animal health. More studies are needed in Chile to determine the relevance of these findings for human and animal health and the environment to regulate this use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Aquaculture/methods , Drug Residues/analysis , Fishes , Oxytetracycline/analysis , Quinolones/analysis , Animal Feed , Chile , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Fluoroquinolones/analysis , Gastrointestinal Contents , Oxolinic Acid/analysis , Salmon
13.
New Egyptian Journal of Medicine [The]. 2006; 34 (2): 80-87
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-79787

ABSTRACT

The effect of the technological steps during yoghurt manufacture and storage period up to 28 days from buffalo's milk was spiked with some veterinary residues namely ciprofloxacin, ivermectin and triclabendazole to study the behaviour of these residues. The resultant yoghurt was analyzed for titrable acidity [T.A.], total protein, total volatile fatty acids [T.V.F.A.], acetaldehyde content and colony count of lactic acid bacteria [L.A.B.], when fresh and throughout the storage period at 6 C +/- 2. The results revealed that the aforementioned drug residues concentrations were not affected during yoghurt manufacture and storage. In the presence of ciprofloxacin residues their was no effect on the yoghurt chemical parameters but the lactic acid bacterial count was decreased. On the other side the presence of ivermectine and triclabendazole affected the chemical quality parameters but not affected the lactic acid bacterial count Therefore, we recommend to monitor the veterinary drug residues in the dairy products to achieve a safe food


Subject(s)
Milk , Buffaloes , Drug Residues/analysis , Food Contamination , Veterinary Drugs
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91381

ABSTRACT

A Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis C953 tube test was evaluated for its ability in detecting the residue of selected anticoccidial drugs in poultry, specically sulfamethazine, furazolidone, and amprolium. Various concentrations of each drug were injected into chicken liver and kidney tissues and these tissues were tested to determine the drug detection limits for each drug. The detection limit was defined as the drug concentration at which 95% of the test results were interpreted as positive. The limits of detection in liver tissue were 0.35 microgram/ml for furazolidone, 0.70 microgram/ml for sulfamethazine and 7.80 microgram/ ml for amprolium. In kidney tissues, they were 0.30 microgram/ml for furazolidone, 0.54 microgram/ml for sulfamethazine, and 7.6 microgram/ml for amprolium. It was concluded that this tube test could be used to screen for the residue of these three drugs in poultry.


Subject(s)
Amprolium/analysis , Animals , Geobacillus stearothermophilus/drug effects , Coccidiostats/analysis , Drug Residues/analysis , Furazolidone/analysis , Kidney/chemistry , Liver/chemistry , Poultry , Sulfamethazine/analysis
15.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2005 Sep; 23(3): 275-81
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-855

ABSTRACT

This study investigated a small subset of the two community water-disinfection systems--hypochlorinators and tablet feeders-in rural Honduras. Levels of residual chlorine were assessed at three locations within the distribution system: the tank, the proximal house, and the distal house. The levels of residual chlorine were compared with the standard guidelines set by the Pan American Health Organization and the International Rural Water Association for potable water that require a minimum of 1.0 (tank), 0.5 (proximal house), and 0.2 (distal house) ppm for each location. The levels of residual chlorine were also compared across systems, e.g. hypochlorinators to tablet feeders. At the tank and proximal house, tablet feeders had significantly higher mean values for levels of residual chlorine (measured in ppm) than hypochlorinators (tank: 1.20 vs 0.67; proximal house: 0.44 vs 0.32, p < 0.001 for both) with no significant difference at the distal house (0.16 vs 0.16). At the tank and proximal house, tablet feeders were more likely to meet recommended standards than hypochlorinators (90.3% vs 13.3%, p < 0.0001 and 41.3% vs 23.7%, p < 0.0001) with a smaller difference seen at the distal house (30.6% vs 27.1%, p = 0.24). The apparent dichotomy in chlorine levels of tablet feeders (e.g. between tank/proximal house and distal house) is discussed. The results suggest that tablet feeders may be more effective than hypochlorinators in supplying clean water in rural, resource-poor settings and possibly serve as an alternative technology for water disinfection. Further research on techniques for empowering and building capacity within community water boards will help organize and introduce sustainable water systems in developing countries.


Subject(s)
Chlorine/isolation & purification , Drinking , Drug Residues/analysis , Fresh Water/chemistry , Honduras , Humans , Sanitation , Water Microbiology , Water Purification , Water Supply/standards
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-34308

ABSTRACT

Three ELISA test kits, the Randox ELISA beta-agonist test kit, Euro-Diagnostica test kit, and Ridascreen beta-agonist test kit, were evaluated for screening of meat and liver for beta-agonist residues in fortified and field-incurred samples. It was found that the Randox beta-agonist test kit was more suitable as a screening tool due to its accuracy, ease of use, and lower cost. The tests were able to detect beta-agonist residues at the minimum level of detection, as claimed by the suppliers. The performance of the method as assessed through recovery rates of beta-agonists in fortified samples was satisfactory with a low coefficient of variation (1-3%). Repeatability, as measured through the coefficient of correlation was also satisfactory. For field-incurred positive samples, the test kit showed a sensitivity of 100% and a low rate of false positives for goat and cow tissues. However, a high rate of apparent false positives was obtained for tissues of swine.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Agonists/analysis , Animals , Cattle , Drug Residues/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Food Contamination/analysis , Goats , Liver/chemistry , Malaysia , Meat Products/analysis , Swine , Veterinary Drugs/analysis
18.
Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences [AJVS]. 1995; 11 (1): 141-46
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-36106

ABSTRACT

The current study showed the presence of traces of Maduramicin residues in tissues of treated chickens, when the drug was added to the ration from one day old and through 42 days of age at level of 5 ro 10 ppm of feed. The highest values of residues were recorded in fat and skin and less in liver, kidneys and muscles. These residues disappeared two days after withdrawal of the dry when used in the recommended concentration in the ration and 3 days after withdrawal of the drug given in double recommended concentration. Meanwhile, these results demonstrated that there were no detectable Avoparcin residues in edible tissues of treated chickens. Moreover, Avoparcin simultaneously given with Maduramicin did not alter the residual amount of Maduramicin in tissues of chickens


Subject(s)
Drug Residues/analysis , Chickens
19.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 1994; 42 (1): 95-9
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-35892

ABSTRACT

Thirty Balady rabbits of both sexes [weighing 1.5 - 2 kg] were used for studying gentamicin and netilmicin residues. The effects of heat treatment and freezing on the presence of these residues were also studied. The drugs were injected i.m. [6 mg/kg b. wt.] daily for 7 successive days. Animals were slaughtered at different intervals, and samples from shoulder, thigh and back muscles, heart, liver and kidneys were examined microbiologically for detecting the residues. Parts from samples of the animals containing the highest amount of residues [slaughtered at 12 hours after treatment] were boiled for 45 minutes and tested for the presence of residues, while the rest of these samples were frozen and examined weekly for the presence of the tested drugs. It was achieved that traces of gentamicin or netilmicin residues could be detected in the muscle samples up to 24 hours post last injection [0.17, 0.13 ppm, respectively]. The residues also disappeared by boiling the samples for 45 minutes and by freezing for one week. The least amount of residues were detected in the heart [0.07 ppm]. Liver samples of both drugs contained higher levels of residues that disappeared after 48 hours following drug injection [0.3 ppm]. Kidney samples of both drugs showed the highest level of residues which disappeared after 4 days for gentamicin [0.75 ppm] and 5 days for netilmicin [0.9 ppm]. Moreover, boiling of kidney or liver samples for 45 minutes did not destroy the residues completely. Furthermore, freezing for 3 months also failed to destroy the residues in the kidneys. It is concluded that gentamicin and netilmicin were highly concentrated in the kidneys followed by the liver, while traces were present in the muscles which disappeared after 24 hours of injection and by boiling


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Male , Female , Urinary Tract Infections/therapy , Drug Residues/analysis
20.
Rev. costarric. cienc. méd ; 13(3/4): 1-6, set.-dic. 1992. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-130272

ABSTRACT

Se estudió durante el primer semestre de 1992, un total de 200 muestras de leche de ganado bovino. De éstas, un 25 por ciento correspondió a leche fluida pasteurizada vendida comercialmente, un 25 por ciento a leche fluida no pasteurizada expendida por vendedores ambulantes. Un 25 por ciento constituyeron muestras de la leche en polvo de uso institucional y un 25 por ciento a muestras de este tipo de leche comercializada en supermercados. Los sitios de muestreo se ubicaron en la provincia de San José, Costa Rica y fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente. La prueba utilizada para la determinación de la presencia de residuos de agentes antimicrobianos enla leche fue la inhibición de Bacillus Stearothermophilus var Calidolactis (ATCC 10149). Los resultados muestran que un 9 por ciento y un 2 por ciento de la leche cruda y pasteurizada respectivamente presentan residuos de sustancias inhibitorias. Asimismo, indican la ausencia de este tipo de contaminación en la leche en polvo. Se comparan los resultados obtenidos en este estudio con lo hallados por otros investigadores nacionales en 1987. Del mismo modo, se discute la legislación que sobre este tema existe en el país.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Residues/analysis , Milk , Breast-Milk Substitutes , Cattle , Costa Rica
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