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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(3): 681-692, set-dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399322

ABSTRACT

Com o avanço da medicina e o aumento do uso de antimicrobianos, a resistência microbiana vem se tornando um problema sério na saúde pública. Para que uma bactéria se torne resistente, são necessários vários fatores, entre eles, o uso indiscriminado e prolongado de antimicrobianos e as resistências intrínsecas e adquiridas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo do trabalho foi explorar os mecanismos de ação dos antimicrobianos, de resistência e a sua importância na saúde pública. Foram utilizadas para a presente pesquisa, as bases de dados Pubmed, Google acadêmico e Scielo. Segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde define-se resistência ao antibiótico quando o mesmo não produz mais efeito. A inserção cada vez mais frequente de antimicrobianos favorece a resistência, onde provocam uma pressão seletiva sobre os microrganismos, tornando-os resistentes a diversas drogas. O uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos é o principal fator de resistência microbiana, assim como o uso de antimicrobianos sem exame de cultura e teste de sensibilidade. Neste sentido, conclui-se que é de suma importância a atualização de protocolos que contenham os mecanismos de resistência bacteriana a fim de minimizar o uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, assim como capacitar os profissionais da saúde para este problema na saúde pública.


With the advance of medicine and the increase in the use of antimicrobials, microbial resistance has become a serious problem in public health. For a bacterium to become resistant, several factors are necessary, among them, the indiscriminate and prolonged use of antimicrobials and the intrinsic and acquired resistance. In this context, the objective of the work was to explore the mechanisms of action of antimicrobials, resistance and their importance in public health. Pubmed, Google academic and Scielo databases were used for this research. According to the World Health Organization, resistance to antibiotics is defined when it no longer has an effect. The increasingly frequent insertion of antimicrobials favors resistance, where they put selective pressure on microorganisms, making them resistant to various drugs. The indiscriminate use of antimicrobials is the main factor of microbial resistance, as well as the use of antimicrobials without culture examination and sensitivity test. In this sense, it is concluded that it is extremely important to update protocols that contain the mechanisms of bacterial resistance in order to minimize the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials, as well as to train health professionals for this problem in public health.


Con los avances de la medicina y el mayor uso de antimicrobianos, la resistencia microbiana se ha convertido en un grave problema de salud pública. Para que una bacteria se vuelva resistente son necesarios varios factores, entre ellos, el uso indiscriminado y prolongado de antimicrobianos y la resistencia intrínseca y adquirida. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue explorar los mecanismos de acción de los antimicrobianos, la resistencia y su importancia en la salud pública. Para esta investigación se utilizaron las bases de datos Pubmed, Google Scholar y Scielo. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, la resistencia a un antibiótico se define cuando deja de producir efecto. El uso cada vez más frecuente de antimicrobianos favorece la resistencia, ya que provocan una presión selectiva sobre los microorganismos, haciéndolos resistentes a varios fármacos. El uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos es el principal factor de resistencia microbiana, así como el uso de antimicrobianos sin pruebas de cultivo y sensibilidad. En este sentido, se concluye que es de suma importancia actualizar los protocolos que contienen los mecanismos de resistencia bacteriana para minimizar el uso indiscriminado de antimicrobianos, así como capacitar a los profesionales de la salud para este problema en la salud pública.


Subject(s)
Public Health , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Bacteria/drug effects , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Cell Wall/drug effects , Review , Biofilms/drug effects , Libraries, Digital , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(2): 77-83, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1378671

ABSTRACT

Introducción: el impacto de la resistencia antimicrobiana (RAM) generará un aumento de las muertes relacionadas de 10 millones anuales hacia 2050. El 70% de la dispensación de antimicrobianos (ATB) se utiliza en la agroveterinaria y no en salud humana. Es fundamental conocer la portación de RAM en trabajadores de cría de animales y en los animales, para acciones tempranas de salud pública. Métodos: bajo metodología PRISMA se realizó la búsqueda bibliográfica en distintas fuentes disponibles hasta octubre de 2020. Se priorizaron revisiones sistemáticas, metanálisis, ensayos clínicos y estudios observacionales para determinar la RAM en trabajadores de cría de cerdos. De 990 artículos identificados se incluyeron 8 estudios. Resultados: la tasa de colonización por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina (SAMR) en trabajadores fue mayor que la de la población general. La prevalencia de SAMR fue significativamente mayor en trabajadores en contacto directo con animales y los de granjas de cría intensiva con respecto a los de extensiva. En cerdos, la prevalencia de RAM en cría intensiva fue significativamente mayor que la de los de cría extensiva. También fue significativa la asociación entre el suministro de antibióticos en la cría intensiva y la presencia de RAM. Las granjas de más de 1250 cerdos presentaron mayor prevalencia de RAM (p < 0,001). El fenotipo de SAMR en cerdos, trabajadores y el ambiente fue el mismo. Conclusiones: existe evidencia de asociación entre la producción agrícola de cría intensiva y la RAM en cerdos y trabajadores. No se encontraron estudios de vigilancia epidemiológica en la Argentina en trabajadores de cría de animales. (AU)


Introduction: it is estimated that the impact of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) will generate an increase of 10 million deaths by 2050, being reflected to a greater extent in low-income countries. 70% of the annual use of antimicrobials is concentrated in agroveterinary but not in human health. Considering the presence of AMR in ranchers and agricultural workers is essential for early public health actions. Methods: using the PRISMA methodology, bibliography was searched in different sources until October 2020. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, clinical trials and observational studies were prioritized to determine AMR in pig workers. Eight studies of the 990 found have been included. Results: the rate of colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in farming workers was higher than the general population. MRSA prevalence was significantly higher in workers who reported direct contact with animals. And also in those workers of intensive farms compared to those of extensive farms. The same situation is observed in swines, in which the prevalence of AMR in intensive farming was significantly higher than in extensive farming. The association between the supply of antibiotics in intensive farming workers and the presence of AMR was also significant. Farms with more than 1,250 swines had a higher prevalence of AMR (p<0.001). The MRSA phenotype found in swine, agricultural workers, and the environment was the same. Conclusions: there is scientific evidence of an association between agricultural production in intensive livestock farming and AMR in swine and farming workers. There aren't Argentine studies of epidemiological surveillance in farming workers. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Farmers/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Swine , Public Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Observational Studies as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage
3.
Univ. salud ; 24(1): 85-94, ene.-abr. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361189

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La resistencia a los antimicrobianos (RAM) es un problema de salud pública que manifiesta la disminuida eficacia de estos agentes en la prevención y tratamiento de una proporción cada vez más amplia de patologías. Los actinomicetos son un grupo bacteriano importante de productores de metabolitos activos contra patógenos. Objetivo: Aislar actinomicetos del bosque tropical de Nariño, con potencial producción de metabolitos inhibitorios contra bacterias multidrogo-resistentes. Materiales y métodos: Se tomaron muestras de suelo de Bosque Tropical Húmedo de la Reserva Natural del Río Ñambí, se analizaron microbiológica y molecularmente. Se estimuló la producción in vitro de metabolitos secundarios y evaluó el efecto inhibitorio de estos extractos contra las bacterias multidrogo-resistentes Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 11 aislados presuntivos, se confirmó que cuatro de ellos correspondieron al género Streptomyces sp. Las pruebas de inhibición contra bacterias multidrogo-resistentes E. coli y S. aureus, permitieron verificar que el aislado P3772 fue el más eficiente en la inhibición de los patógenos. Conclusiones: Todos los actinomicetos evaluados presentan actividad antibacteriana contra al menos una de las bacterias patógenas estudiadas; destacando el aislado P3772, que inhibe a E. coli y S. aureus. Se espera caracterizar los compuestos vinculados a la actividad antibacteriana.


Introduction: Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a public health problem that reveals the diminished efficacy of these agents in the prevention and treatment of an increasingly larger number of pathologies. Actinomycetes are an important bacterial producer group of metabolites that are active against pathogens. Objective: To isolate actinomycetes from the tropical forest of Nariño (Colombia), which have the potential to produce inhibitory metabolites against multi-drug resistant bacteria. Materials and methods: Soil samples were taken from the Humid Tropical Forest of the Río Ńambí Natural Reserve and analyzed through microbiological and molecular assays. In vitro production of secondary metabolites was first stimulated, followed by the assessment of the inhibitory effect of these extracts against multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Results: 11 presumptive isolates were obtained, confirming that four of them corresponded to the Streptomyces sp. genus. The bacterial isolate P3772 was identified as the one with the highest inhibitory effect against multi-drug resistant E. coli and S. aureus. Conclusions: All the actinomycetes evaluated presented antibacterial activity. The isolate P3772 stands out, which inhibited both E. coli and S. aureus. The compounds associated with this antibacterial activity will be characterized in future studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents , Staphylococcus aureus , Actinobacteria , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents
4.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 17(44): 3067, 20220304. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1379772

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Infecção urinária é motivo comum de consulta na Atenção Primária, requerendo tratamento empírico. Para a seleção do antimicrobiano, é necessário conhecer o perfil de resistência dos uropatógenos na comunidade. Objetivo: Analisar o perfil de resistência antimicrobiana em uroculturas realizadas em pacientes da Atenção Primária à Saúde do Serviço de Saúde Comunitária do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, de julho de 2017 a junho de 2019. Métodos: Estudo transversal, observacional e descritivo com uroculturas de pacientes ambulatoriais das Unidades de Saúde do Serviço de Saúde Comunitária do Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, nas Zonas Norte e Nordeste de Porto Alegre, de julho de 2017 a junho de 2019. Os dados das uroculturas foram fornecidos pelo laboratório do Grupo Hospitalar e analisados por meio das proporções, por sexo, micro-organismo e resistência antimicrobiana. Resultados: Encontraram-se 2.000 uroculturas positivas no período, principalmente por Escherichia coli (75,50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7,80%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4,95%), Enterococcus specie (3,35%) e Proteus mirabilis (2,85%). Entre os antibióticos orais testados, a maior resistência foi para ampicilina (48,95%), seguida por sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima (25,85%), norfloxacino (18,05%), ciprofloxacino (18,00%), amoxicilina+clavulanato (11,05%) e nitrofurantoína (8,60%). Considerando-se apenas E. coli, as resistências foram 47,75% para ampicilina, 29,74% para sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima, 19,74% para norfloxacino e ciprofloxacino, 8,08% para amoxicilina+clavulanato e 1,99% para nitrofurantoína. Conclusões: O perfil de resistência antimicrobiana nas Zonas Norte e Nordeste de Porto Alegre sugere que sejam utilizados para tratamento empírico de infecção do trato urinário nessa localidade nitrofurantoína ou amoxicilina+clavulanato.


Introduction: Urinary tract infection is a common reason for consultation in primary care, requiring empirical treatment. For the selection of the antimicrobial, it is necessary to know the resistance profile of uropathogens in the community. Objective: To analyze the profile of antimicrobial resistance in urine cultures performed on primary health care patients from the Community Health Service of Grupo Hospitalar Conceição from July 2017 to June 2019. Methods: Cross-sectional, observational and descriptive study with urine cultures of outpatients from the Health Units from the Community Health Service of Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, in North and Northeast Porto Alegre, Brazil, from July 2017 to June 2019. The data on urine cultures were provided by the Grupo Hospitalar laboratory and analyzed through proportions, by sex, microorganism, and antimicrobial resistance. Results: Two thousand positive urine cultures were found in the period, mainly for Escherichia coli (75.50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.80%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4.95%), Enterococcus specie (3.35%) and Proteus mirabilis (2.85%). Among the oral antibiotics tested, the most frequent resistance was to ampicillin (48.95%), followed by trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (25.85%), norfloxacin (18.05%), ciprofloxacin (18.00%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (11.05%) and nitrofurantoin (8.60%). Considering only E. coli, resistance was 47.75% to ampicillin, 29.74% to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole, 19.74% to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin, 8.08% to amoxicillin-clavulanate and 1.99% to nitrofurantoin. Conclusions: The profile of antimicrobial resistance in the North and Northeast Zones of Porto Alegre suggests that nitrofurantoin or amoxicillin-clavulanate should be used for empirical treatment of urinary tract infection in this locality.


Introducción: La infección del tracto urinario es un motivo frecuente de consulta en atención primaria, requiriendo tratamiento empírico. Para la selección del antimicrobiano, es necesario conocer el perfil de resistencia de los uropatógenos en la comunidad. Objetivo: Analizar el perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana en urocultivos realizados en pacientes de atención primaria de salud de Serviço de Saúde Comunitária de Grupo Hospitalar Conceição de julio de 2017 a junio de 2019. Métodos: Estudio transversal, observacional y descriptivo con urocultivos de pacientes ambulatorios de las Unidades de Salud de Serviço de Saúde Comunitária de Grupo Hospitalar Conceição, en las Zonas Norte y Nordeste de Porto Alegre, de julio de 2017 a junio de 2019. Los datos de urocultivos fueron proporcionados por el laboratorio de Grupo Hospitalar y analizados a través de proporciones, por sexo, microorganismos y resistencia a los antimicrobianos. Resultados: En el período se encontraron 2.000 urocultivos positivos, principalmente por Escherichia coli (75,50%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (7,80%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (4,95%), Enterococcus especie (3,35%) y Proteus mirabilis (2,85%). Entre los antibióticos orales probados, la mayor resistencia fue para la ampicilina (48,95%), seguida de sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima (25,85%), norfloxacina (18,05%), ciprofloxacina (18,00%), amoxicilina+clavulanato (11,05%) y nitrofurantoína (8,60%). %). Considerando solo a E. coli, la resistencia fue del 47,75% para ampicilina, 29,74% para sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima, 19,74% para norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina, 8,08% para amoxicilina + clavulanato y 1,99% para nitrofurantoína. Conclusiones: El perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobianos en las regiones Norte y Nordeste de Porto Alegre sugiere que se utilizan para el tratamiento empírico de la infección del tracto urinario en esta localidad nitrofurantoína o amoxicilina+clavulanato.


Subject(s)
Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Community-Acquired Infections
5.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e191724, fev. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1380213

ABSTRACT

Due to the strong selective pressure resulting from the misuse of antibiotics, the natural process of bacterial resistance has been accelerated, leading to the increasingly constant appearance of multiresistant isolates. The high number of multi-resistant bacteria is a one health problem. Enterobacteriaceae are usually commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract. However, they can cause infections, and the most important resistance characteristic among them is the production of ß-lactamases. This study aimed to identify ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae of types of TEM, SHV, and the CTX-Mgroups. To isolate the enterobacteria, swabs were collected by swiping objects that had contact with the patients and professionals, and the water of the hospital environment. Ten collections were carried out, yielding 306 samples, from which 118 enterobacteria were identified: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Serratiaspp., and Citrobacter spp. Isolates. The genes TEM and CTX-M, for the production of ß-lactamases, were detected in 12.7% of the 118 enterobacterial isolates. It is very important to know the bacterial population circulating in the veterinary hospital environment and its resistance to antimicrobials so that professionals can take appropriate measures to minimize the risks of transmission, especially from cages and consultation tables. In addition, the correct control of the microbiological quality of the supply water, as well as environmental cleaning procedures, are essential to prevent the transmission of these microorganisms.(AU)


Devido à grande pressão seletiva decorrente do uso indevido de antibióticos, tem se acelerado o processo natural de resistência das bactérias, levando ao aparecimento cada vez mais constante de isolados multirresistentes. O elevado número de bactérias multirresistentes identificadas é um problema da saúde única. As enterobactérias são bactérias geralmente comensais do trato gastrointestinal, entretanto podem causar infecções, e a característica de resistência mais importante entre elas é a produção de ß-lactamases. Buscando caracterizar melhor os microrganismos circulantes e potencialmente causadores de infecções em ambiente hospitalar veterinário, este estudo objetivou identificar as enterobactérias produtoras de ESBL do tipo TEM, SHV e os cinco grupos de CTX-M presentes em isolados circulantes em hospital veterinário. Foi realizada coleta de suabes de arrasto de objetos que entram em contato com os pacientes e com os profissionais que ali trabalham, bem como de água, para a identificação das enterobactérias. Foram realizadas 10 coletas, obtendo-se 306 amostras, dessas, 118 enterobactérias foram identificadas: Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia e Citrobacter. Dentre as enterobactérias identificadas, alguns isolados possuíam genes para a produção de ß-lactamases, do tipo TEM e CTX-M. É de grande importância conhecer a população bacteriana circulante no ambiente hospitalar veterinário, e a sua resistência aos antimicrobianos, para que os profissionais possam tomar medidas apropriadas para minimizar os riscos de transmissão, principalmente a partir de gaiolas e mesas de atendimento. Além disso, o correto controle da qualidade microbiológica da água de abastecimento, bem como dos procedimentos de higienização do ambiente, são fundamentais para evitar a transmissão destes microrganismos.(AU)


Subject(s)
beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Cross Infection/diagnosis , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Animal
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 27(1): 299-314, jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356033

ABSTRACT

Resumo A resistência aos antimicrobianos é um problema mundial que põe em risco a segurança da saúde da população. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar e avaliar estratégias para prevenção e controle de resistência microbiana, bem como barreiras para sua implementação em serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS). Realizou-se uma síntese de evidências para políticas. As buscas de evidências foram realizadas entre novembro/dezembro de 2018, em 13 bases de dados. Um diálogo deliberativo foi realizado para validação dos resultados e levantamento de barreiras e facilitadores para implementação das estratégias. As 13 revisões sistemáticas incluídas mostraram que intervenções com foco em educação, uso de sistemas eletrônicos e biomarcadores reduziram o consumo e prescrição de antimicrobianos. É um obstáculo à implementação a expectativa de usuários/cuidadores em receber prescrição de antibióticos, e são facilitadores as ações educativas que envolvem profissionais de saúde. O uso racional de medicamentos se impõe na APS com vistas à prevenção da resistência dos microrganismos aos antibióticos. As intervenções identificadas neste estudo podem ser implementadas isoladamente ou em conjunto, conforme o contexto local.


Abstract Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem that puts the population's health at risk. This paper aims to identify and evaluate strategies for the prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance, and barriers to their implementation in Primary Health Care (PHC) services. We developed an evidence brief for policies. The search for evidence occurred in 13 databases from November to December 2018. A deliberative dialogue was performed to validate the results and we identified barriers and facilitators to implementing the strategies. The 13 systematic reviews included evidenced that the interventions focused on education, use of electronic systems and biomarkers reduced antimicrobial consumption and prescription. User/caregiver's expectation to receive antibiotic prescriptions was the main obstacle to implementing strategies, while education actions involving health professionals were facilitators. The rational use of medications in the PHC services is crucial to prevent antimicrobial resistance to antibiotics. The interventions identified in this study can be implemented alone or combined, according to local context.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Primary Health Care , Health Personnel , Policy
8.
Rev. Fac. Odontol. (B.Aires) ; 37(85): 77-85, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411867

ABSTRACT

La resistencia antimicrobiana es un problema de sa-lud pública mundial. Las infecciones por microorga-nismos resistentes pueden ser altamente transmisi-bles e incluso causar la muerte. Este hecho genera grandes costos para los pacientes y para los servi-cios de salud. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue de-terminar el efecto antimicrobiano in vitro de extractos etanólicos de Caesalpinia spinosa sobre el crecimien-to de Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus y Candida albicans. Se recolectaron y certificaron muestras de C. spinosa. Se obtuvieron extractos de hojas, vainas y semillas en concentraciones de 100%, 75%, 50% y 25%. Mediante Kirby - Bauer, se cargaron los discos con los extractos y se depositaron en el medio inoculado con cepas de E. faecalis, S. aureus y C. albicans; junto a un CP (antimicrobiano), y un CN (etanol). Las placas se incubaron a 370°C durante 24 horas, y posteriormente se midieron los halos de inhi-bición con un vernier digital. Destaca el valor del halo de extracto de vainas; superó al de Ampicilina 10mg, sobre el E. faecalis. El extracto de vainas presentó ma-yor diámetro de inhibición (19mm), el de semillas pre-sentó el más bajo (1mm). ANOVA arrojó diferencia es-tadísticamente significativa entre los datos obtenidos para todos los extractos. En conclusión, los extractos etanólicos de Caesalpinia spinosa tienen efecto anti-microbiano in vitro sobre Enterococcus faecalis, Sta-phylococcus aureus y Candida albicans. La actividad antimicrobiana del extracto es directamente propor-cional a su concentración. Los extractos de C. spinosa podrían ser utilizados como coadyuvantes en el trata-miento contra Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, que están relacionados con patologías orales (AU)


Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health problem. Infections with resistant microorganisms can be highly transmissible and even cause death. This fact generates great costs for patients and for health services. The objective of this work was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extracts of Caesalpinia spinosa on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Samples of C. spinosa were collected and certified. Leaf, pod and seed extracts were obtained at concentrations of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25%. Using Kirby-Bauer, the disks were loaded with the extracts and deposited in the medium inoculated with strains of E. faecalis, S. aureus and C. albicans; together with a CP (antimicrobial), and a CN (ethanol). The plates were incubated at 370°C for 24 hours, then the inhibition halos were measured with a digital vernier. The value of the pod extract halo stands out, surpassing that of Ampicillin 10mg, over E. faecalis. The pod extract presented the greatest diameter of inhibition (19mm), the seed extract presented the lowest (1mm). ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between the data obtained for all the extracts. In conclusion, the ethanolic extracts of Caesalpinia spinosa have an in vitro antimicrobial effect on Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activity of the extract is directly proportional to its concentration. C. spinosa extracts could be used as adjuvants in the treatment against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, which are related to oral pathologies (AU)


Subject(s)
Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Caesalpinia , In Vitro Techniques , Analysis of Variance , Culture Media , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231838, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153467

ABSTRACT

Abstract Use of antibiotics inevitably leads to antimicrobial resistance. Selection for resistance occurs primarily within the gut of humans and animals as well as in the environment through natural resistance and residual antibiotics in streams and soil. We evaluated antimicrobial resistance in Gram negative bacteria from a river system in a rural community in Bahia, Brazil. Water was collected from the Jiquiriçá and Brejões rivers and the piped water supply. Additionally, stools were collected from a random sample of residents, cows, pigs and horses near the river. The samples were screened for bacteria resistant to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and meropenem and identified biochemically at the genus and species levels. Microbial source tracking demonstrated that ruminant and human fecal contamination increased as the rivers neared the village center and decreased after the last residence. Antibiotic bacteria were identified from all samples (n = 32). No bacteria were resistant to carbapenems, but the majority of the enterobacteria were resistant to ciprofloxacin, even though this class of antibiotics is not commonly used in food animals in this region. Considering these facts, together with the pattern of human fecal contamination, a human source was considered most likely for these resistant isolates.


Resumo O uso de antibióticos inevitavelmente leva à resistência antimicrobiana. A seleção para resistência antimicrobiana ocorre principalmente no intestino de seres humanos e animais, bem como no meio ambiente, através da resistência natural e resíduos de antibióticos nos esgotos e no solo. Avaliamos a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias Gram-negativas de um sistema fluvial em uma comunidade rural da Bahia, Brasil. A água foi coletada nos rios Jiquiriçá e Brejões e no abastecimento de água encanada. Além disso, foram coletadas amostras randomizadas de fezes de moradores, vacas, porcos e cavalos próximos ao rio. As amostras foram triadas para bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, cefotaxima e meropenem e identificadas bioquimicamente nos níveis de gênero e espécie. O rastreamento de fontes microbianas demonstrou que a contaminação fecal de ruminantes e humanos aumentou à medida que os rios se aproximavam do centro da vila e diminuía após a última residência. Bactérias resistentes a antibióticos foram identificadas em todas as amostras (n = 32). Nenhuma bactéria demonstrou ser resistente aos carbapenêmicos testados, contudo, foi encontrado enterobactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina, ainda que essa classe de antibióticos não seja comumente usada na medicina veterinária dos animais dessa região. Considerando esses fatos, juntamente com o padrão de contaminação fecal avaliado, a fonte de contaminação humana foi considerada a mais provável na interação desses isolados resistentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rivers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Rural Population , Swine , Brazil , Cattle , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial
10.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 35: eAPE03751, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1364223

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Caracterizar os microrganismos e sua suscetibilidade antimicrobiana em uroculturas de idosos residentes de uma instituição de longa permanência. Métodos Estudo observacional transversal com 116 indivíduos de uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos de um município do sul da Bahia. O estudo foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e utilizou-se Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram realizadas coleta e análise laboratorial de urina tipo I e urocultura. Realizaram-se testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos conforme os critérios do European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Para o diagnóstico de infecção do trato urinário, foram utilizados os critérios de McGeer. A análise de dados se deu por estatística descritiva, com frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados A prevalência de infecção do trato urinário foi de 33,62%, com predominância no sexo feminino e idade acima de 80 anos. Os uropatógenos foram: 69,2% Escherichia coli, 20,6% Klebsiella pneumoniae e 5,1% Providencia stuartii e Acinetobacter baumannii. As cepas de E. coli apresentaram suscetibilidade para a maior parte dos antimicrobianos; já nas de K. pneumoniae, a suscetibilidade foi variável. P. stuartii e A. baumannii não apresentaram resistência a carbapenêmicos e aos betalactâmicos aztreonam e piperacilina associados a tazobactam. Conclusão As cepas mais prevalentes e o perfil de suscetibilidade seguiram padrão próximo ao hospitalar, o que implica a necessidade de a instituição promover melhores estratégias de controle de infecção e envolver a equipe de enfermagem no gerenciamento dos casos e na qualificação da prescrição antimicrobiana, para reduzir a resistência bacteriana e efeitos adversos nos idosos.


Resumen Objetivo Caracterizar los microorganismos y su susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en urocultivos de adultos mayores residentes en una institución de larga estadía. Métodos Estudio observacional transversal con 116 individuos de una institución de larga estadía para adultos mayores de un municipio del sur del estado de Bahia. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética de Investigación y se utilizó Consentimiento Informado. Se obtuvieron muestras de orina, con las cuales se realizó análisis de laboratorio tipo I y urocultivo. Se realizaron pruebas de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos según los criterios del European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Para el diagnóstico de infección del tracto urinario, se utilizaron los criterios de McGeer. El análisis de datos se obtuvo mediante estadística descriptiva, con frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados La prevalencia de infección del tracto urinario fue del 33,62 %, con predominancia del sexo femenino y edad superior a 80 años. Los uropatógenos fueron: 69,2 % Escherichia coli, 20,6 % Klebsiella pneumoniae y 5,1 % Providencia stuartii y Acinetobacter baumannii. Las cepas de E. coli presentaron susceptibilidad en la mayor parte de los antimicrobianos, en las de K. pneumoniae, la susceptibilidad fue variable. P. stuartii y A. baumannii no presentaron resistencia a carbapenémicos ni a los betalactámicos aztreonam y piperacilina asociados a tazobactam. Conclusión Las cepas más prevalentes y el perfil de susceptibilidad presentaron un patrón parecido al hospitalario, lo que implica la necesidad de que la institución promueva mejores estrategias de control de infecciones e involucre al equipo de enfermería en la gestión de los casos y en la cualificación de la prescripción antimicrobiana para reducir la resistencia bacteriana y los efectos adversos en los adultos mayores.


Resumo Objetivo Caracterizar os microrganismos e sua suscetibilidade antimicrobiana em uroculturas de idosos residentes de uma instituição de longa permanência. Métodos Estudo observacional transversal com 116 indivíduos de uma Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos de um município do sul da Bahia. O estudo foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa e utilizou-se Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. Foram realizadas coleta e análise laboratorial de urina tipo I e urocultura. Realizaram-se testes de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos conforme os critérios do European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Para o diagnóstico de infecção do trato urinário, foram utilizados os critérios de McGeer. A análise de dados se deu por estatística descritiva, com frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados A prevalência de infecção do trato urinário foi de 33,62%, com predominância no sexo feminino e idade acima de 80 anos. Os uropatógenos foram: 69,2% Escherichia coli, 20,6% Klebsiella pneumoniae e 5,1% Providencia stuartii e Acinetobacter baumannii. As cepas de E. coli apresentaram suscetibilidade para a maior parte dos antimicrobianos; já nas de K. pneumoniae, a suscetibilidade foi variável. P. stuartii e A. baumannii não apresentaram resistência a carbapenêmicos e aos betalactâmicos aztreonam e piperacilina associados a tazobactam. Conclusão As cepas mais prevalentes e o perfil de suscetibilidade seguiram padrão próximo ao hospitalar, o que implica a necessidade de a instituição promover melhores estratégias de controle de infecção e envolver a equipe de enfermagem no gerenciamento dos casos e na qualificação da prescrição antimicrobiana, para reduzir a resistência bacteriana e efeitos adversos nos idosos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Tract Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infection Control , Observational Studies as Topic , Homes for the Aged
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristics of pathogen infection and to establish a prediction model of infections in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction.@*METHODS@#The retrospective cohort study consisted of 1 596 patients undergoing tumor resection and free flap reconstruction for oral squamous cell carcinoma from January 2018 to December 2020. According to the postoperative infection, the patients were divided into the infected group (n=154) and non-infected group (n=1 442). The characteristics of pathogens were analyzed in the infected patients. The primary outcome variable was postoperative infection, and Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors of the infection. The prediction model was established and the discriminatory accuracy of the model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.@*RESULTS@#Totally 154 cases were infected in the 1 596 cases undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction, and the infection rate was 9.65%. The most frequent sites of infection were the surgical wound and respiratory tract. A total of 268 pathogens were isolated and cultured, including 240 strains of Gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 89.55%, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae; 23 strains of Gram-positive bacteria, accounting for 8.58%, mainly Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus; and 5 strains of fungi, accounting for 1.87%. The isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa had high resistant rate to imipenem and meropenem, and was sensitive to antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin. The isolated Staphylococcus aureus had high resistant rate to erythromycin and clindamycin, and was sensitive to vancomycin. According to the multivariate Logistic analysis, four independent variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of postoperative infection (P < 0.05): clinical N category≥1, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade ≥2, tracheotomy and length of hospital stay >13 d. The prediction model was established based on these factors and the expression of the risk prediction model was as follows: predicted probability value P=1/(1+e-a), a=-0.803+0.674×(clinical N category ≥1)+0.518×(the ASA grade ≥2)+0.918×(tracheotomy)+1.581×(length of hospital stay >13 d), Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2=10.647, P=0.223, the degree of fitting of the model was good. The area under the ROC curve was 0.818 and 95%CI of the model for predicting infection was 0.789-0.846.@*CONCLUSION@#Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction are prone to have a high incidence of postoperative infection and Gram-negative bacteria are the main pathogens causing an infection. The established prediction model is of good predictive effect. Rational antimicrobial use coupled with awareness of infection control measures is paramount to reduce the incidence of postoperative infection in the oral squamous cell carcinoma patients undergoing surgery with free flap reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/surgery , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Free Tissue Flaps , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/drug therapy
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928720

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical features, distribution of pathogenic bacteria, and drug resistance of bloodstream infection in children with acute leukemia.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of 93 blood culture-positive children with acute leukemia from January 2015 to December 2019 in Department of Pediatrics, The Second Hospital of Anhui Medical University were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#In these 93 cases, 78 cases were in the period of neutrophil deficiency. There were 54 Gram-negative bacteria (G-) (58.1%) found through blood culture, and the top 4 strains were Escherichia coli (15.1%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.5%), and Enterobacter cloacae (6.5%). There were 39 Gram-positive bacteria (G+) (41.9%) detected, and the top 4 strains were Staphylococcus epidermidis (10.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.5%), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (5.4%), and Staphylococcus human (5.4%). Among 74 strains of pathogenic bacteria from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children, there were 29 strains of G+ bacteria (39.2%) and 45 strains of G- bacteria (60.8%). While in 19 strains from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patients, G- bacteria accounted for 47.4% and G+ bacteria accounted for 52.6%. In 15 ALL children without neutropenia, G+ bacteria made up the majority of the strains (66.7%). In the 93 strains of pathogenic bacteria, 13 (13.9%) strains were multidrug-resistant. Among them, extended-spectrum β-lactamases accounted for 42.9%, carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Klebsiella pneumoniae 15.4%, and carbapenemase-resistant enzyme Enterobacter cloacae strains 33.3%, which were detected from G- bacteria. While, 13.3% of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci accounted for 13.3% detected from G+ bacteria, but linezolid, vancomycin, teicoplanin Staphylococcus and Enterococcus resistant were not found. The average procalcitonin (PCT) value of G- bacteria infection was (11.02±20.282) ng/ml, while in G+ infection it was (1.81±4.911) ng/ml, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The mean value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in G- infection was (76.33±69.946) mg/L, and that in G+ infection was (38.34±57.951) mg/L. The prognosis of active treatment was good, and only one case died of septic shock complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and gastrointestinal bleeding caused by carbapenemase-resistant enzyme enterobacteriaceae.@*CONCLUSION@#G- is the major bacteria in acute leukemia children with bloodstream infection, but the distribution of ALL and AML strains is different. G- bacteria dominates in ALL, while G+ bacteria and G- bacteria are equally distributed in AML. Non-agranulocytosis accompanied by bloodstream infections is dominant by G+ bacteria. The mean value of PCT and CRP are significantly higher in G- bacteria infection than in G+ bacteria.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteria , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928584

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the changes in the distribution and drug resistance profiles of pathogens causing bloodstream infection after chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.@*METHODS@#The medical data were collected from the children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between January 2015 and December 2020 and developed bloodstream infection after chemotherapy. The samples were divided into the first three years group and the next three years group according to the time of testing to investigate the differences in the distribution and drug resistance profiles of pathogens as time.@*RESULTS@#A total of 235 strains of pathogens were isolated, among which there were 159 Gram-negative strains (67.7%; mainly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), 61 Gram-positive strains (26.0%; mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis), and 15 strains of fungi (6.4%; mainly Candida albicans). There were no significant differences between the first three years group and the next three years group in the detection rate of Gram-negative bacteria (68.8% vs 66.9%, P>0.05) or Gram-positive bacteria (29.2% vs 23.7%, P>0.05). Compared with the first three years group, the next three years group had significant increases in the detection rate of Streptococcus mitis (5.8% vs 0.0%, P<0.05) and fungi (9.4% vs 2.1%, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the drug resistance rate of Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria between the two groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Enterobacteriaceae bacteria are the main pathogens of bloodstream infection after chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, while the detection rates of Streptococcus mitis and fungi tend to increase as time, which needs to be taken seriously in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Child , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/drug therapy
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1432-1445, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927791

ABSTRACT

Bacterial multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a global challenge in the fields of medicine and health, agriculture and fishery, ecology and environment. The cross-region spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among different species is one of the main cause of bacterial MDR. However, there is no effective strategies for addressing the intensifying bacterial MDR. The CRISPR-Cas system, consisting of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated proteins, can targetedly degrade exogenous nucleic acids, thus exhibiting high application potential in preventing and controlling bacterial MDR caused by ARGs. This review briefly introduced the working mechanism of CRISPR-Cas systems, followed by discussing recent advances in reducing ARGs by CRISPR-Cas systems delivered through mediators (e.g. plasmids, bacteriophages and nanoparticle). Moreover, the trends of this research field were envisioned, providing a new perspective on preventing and controlling MDR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteriophages/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Plasmids/genetics
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 954-961, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153438

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of present study is to characterize the resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from aquaculture excavated ponds and masonry tanks (6 samples) in southern Brazil. Samples were cultured in selective medium, 10 colonies were randomly selected from each sample, which were identified by MALDI-TOF and tested against 13 antimicrobials. The presence of resistance (tetL, tetM, tetS, ermB and msrC) and virulence (ace, esp, agg, cylA and gelE) genes were determined by PCR. A total of 79 enterococci were identified, and Entecococcus faecalis (44.3%) and E. casseliflavus (36.7%) were the most prevalent species isolated. Sixty-five strains (82.3%) were resistant to at least one of the antimicrobials tested, whereas 27 (34.2%) strains were multiresistant. The overall percentages of antimicrobial resistant isolates were: 58.2% to rifampicin, 40.5% to fluoroquinolones, 36.7% to erythromycin and 30.4% to tetracycline. The tetL and tetM genes were found in 57.7% of the tetracycline-resistant strains; and msrC in 31.01% of erythromycin-resistant strains. The most frequently detected virulence factors were ace and gelE genes. Although limited to a single farm, these data suggest that aquaculture may be a reservoir of resistant and virulent enterococci. This study is the first step towards enhancing our understandingof distribution, resistance and virulence profile in enterococci isolated from fish farming environments in the south Brazil.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo apresentado é caracterizar o perfil de resistência e virulência de enterococos isolados de viveiros escavados e tanques de alvenaria (6 amostras) de uma pisicultura no Sul do Brasil. As amostras foram cultivadas em meio seletivo, 10 colônias foram selecionadas aleatoriamente de cada amostra, que foram identificadas por MALDI-TOF e testadas contra 13 antimicrobianos. A presença de genes de resistência (tetL, tetM, tetS, ermB e msrC) e virulência (ace, esp, agg, cylA e gelE) foi determinada por PCR. Foram identificados 79 enterococos, sendo Entecococcus faecalis (44,3%) e E. casseliflavus (36,7%) as espécies mais frequentes isoladas. Sessenta e cinco cepas (82,3%) eram resistentes a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados, enquanto 27 (34,2%) eram multirresistentes. As porcentagens gerais de isolados resistentes a antimicrobianos foram: 58,2% para rifampicina, 40,5% para fluoroquinolonas, 36,7% para eritromicina e 30,4% para tetraciclina. Os genes tetL e tetM foram encontrados em 57,7% das cepas resistentes à tetraciclina; e msrC em 31,01% das cepas resistentes à eritromicina. Os fatores de virulência mais comumente detectados foram ace e gelE. Embora limitados a uma única fazenda, esses dados indicam que a aquicultura pode ser uma fonte de enterococos resistentes e virulentos. Este estudo é o primeiro passo para melhorar nosso entendimento da distribuição, resistência e perfil de virulência em enterococos isolados de ambientes de piscicultura no sul do Brasil.


Subject(s)
Animals , Enterococcus/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Agriculture
16.
Bol. malariol. salud ambient ; 61(4): 633-641, dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1395694

ABSTRACT

La resistencia de antibióticos puede llegar a causar una amplia morbilidad y complicaciones. Objetivo: Determinar el perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana de Escherichia Coli y de Staphylococcus Saprophyticus, en pacientes con infección urinaria hospitalizados en el servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Municipal Los Olivos. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de corte transversal. Se realizó en el servicio de Medicina Interna del Hospital Municipal los Olivos (HMLO). Participantes: historia clínica de pacientes hospitalizados con infección urinaria en el servicio de Medicina Interna. Intervenciones: Según los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se obtuvieron, 96 historias clínicas (HC) del año 2013. Se utilizó un instrumento de recolección validado. Se realizó el análisis descriptivo con software estadístico STATA versión 25. Resultados: De las 96 HC, la edad promedio fue 55,04 años, los agentes microbianos más frecuentes fueron: la Escherichia coli con 85,3%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 4.2% y Klebsiella pneumoniae 3,1%. La prevalencia de productores de betalactamasa espectro extendido (BLEE) fue 10,4%. Los antibióticos más resistentes fueron: trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol 89,6%, ampicilina 86%, piperacilina 84,6%, tetraciclina 79,2% y ciprofloxacino 70,8%. Los antibióticos más sensibles fueron: amikacina 100%, imipenem 100%, ertapenem 98%, meropenem 96% y piperacilina/tazobactam 96%. Conclusión: El uropatógeno más frecuente en pacientes con ITU hospitalizados fue la E. coli. Los antibióticos que presentaron resistencia a la E. coli fueron: trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, ampicilina, piperacilina, tetraciclina y ciprofloxacino, y para el S. Saprophyticus fueron: amoxicilina/ ácido clavulánico, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, ceftriaxona y ciprofloxacino(AU)


Resistance to antibiotics may actually cause extensive morbidity and complications. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, in patients with urinary infection hospitalized in the Internal Medicine service of the Los Olivos Municipal Hospital. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study. It was carried out in the Internal Medicine service of the Los Olivos Municipal Hospital (HMLO). Participants: clinical history of hospitalized patients with urinary infection in the Internal Medicine service. Interventions: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 96 clinical records (HC) from 2013 were obtained. A validated collection instrument was used. Descriptive analysis was performed with STATA version 25 statistical software. Results: Of the 96 CHs, the average age was 55.04 years, the most frequent microbial agents were: Escherichia Coli with 85.3%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus 4.2% and Klebsiella pneumoniae 3.1%. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers (ESBL) was 10.4%. The most resistant antibiotics were trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole 89.6 %, ampicillin 86 %, piperacillin 84.6 %, tetracycline 79.2 % and ciprofloxacin 70.8 %. The most sensitive antibiotics were: amikacin 100%, imipenem 100%, ertapenem 98%, meropenem 96% and piperacillin / tazobactam 96%. Conclusion: The most common uropathogen in hospitalized UTI patients was E. coli. The antibiotics that showed resistance to E. coli were: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin, and for S. saprophyticus they were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Staphylococcus saprophyticus/drug effects , Peru/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial/immunology , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Public , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use
17.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(5): 639-646, oct. 2021. mapas, ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388297

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: El estado de Veracruz se ubica en el sureste de México y presenta una alta prevalencia de tuberculosis (TBC) y drogo resistencia. Sin embargo, la composición de los genotipos circulantes es poco conocida. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la diversidad genética de la TBC en la jurisdicción sanitaria V del estado de Veracruz. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en aislados clínicos de pacientes con TBC residentes de la jurisdicción V. Se determinó la sensibilidad a medicamentos de primera línea. La genotipificación se realizó mediante espoligotipificación y MIRU-VNTR 15 loci. RESULTADOS: Entre los 74 aislados analizados se observó resistencia a un fármaco en 44 (59%) aislados. Linaje L4 (EuroAmericano) se presentó en 73 aislados. Se identificaron cinco sublinajes; H (40%), T (22%), LAM (16%), X (13%) y U (7%). El 32% de los aislados se agrupó mediante su espoligotipo y 40% en 10 complejos clonales. CONCLUSIONES: Es la primera descripción sobre la estructura genética de TBC en la región central de Veracruz. La diversidad de genotipos podría contribuir a su dispersión en la región. Esta información será útil para el desarrollo de intervenciones y reducir el impacto de TBC en la población.


BACKGROUND: The state of Veracruz is placed in southeastern Mexico and has a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) and drug resistance. Nevertheless, the composition of circulating genotypes in the central region of the state is partially known. AIM: To characterize the genetic diversity of TB in the sanitary jurisdiction V of the state of Veracruz. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among clinical isolates from patients with TB living in the jurisdiction V, in Jalapa Ver., Mexico. Sensitivity to first-line drugs was determined, and genotyping was performed by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR 15 loci. RESULTS: Among the 74 isolates analyzed, resistance to one drug was observed in 44 isolates. L4 (EuroAmerican) was the major lineage identified. Five sublineages were the most abundant; H (40%), T (22%), LAM (16%), X (13%) and U (7%). Only 32% of the isolates were clustered by spoligotype and 40% were placed in ten clonal complexes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of the genetic structure of TB in the central region of Veracruz. The diversity of genotypes could contribute to its dispersion. This information will be useful for the development of interventions to reduce the impact of TB in the population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Genetic Variation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bacterial Typing Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Genotype , Mexico , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects
18.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1085-1093, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345255

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed at isolating and characterizing Salmonella spp. from chicken cuts marketed in Francisco Beltrão, PR, and verify the resistance profile of the isolates against antimicrobials used in human therapy. Samples of chicken cuts (n=40) were purchased from supermarkets and submitted to microbiological analysis for the detection of Salmonella spp. The suspected colonies underwent biochemical testing for the identification of enterobacteria. Four colonies were selected from each sample positive for Salmonella spp., totaling 28 isolates that were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. Colonies that showed resistance to ceftriaxone were subjected to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Among the analyzed chicken samples, seven (17.5%) showed biochemical behavior characteristic of Salmonella spp. Among the 28 isolates, seventeen different resistance profiles were found, of which 46.42% (n=13) had a multi-resistance profile, and 21.4% (n=6) of the isolates had a phenotype for ESBL production. The strains of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken cuts found in this study showed a high level of resistance to antimicrobials of different classes and of last generations, these data serve as a warning, as they put the human treatment of salmonellosis at risk.(AU)


A pesquisa objetivou isolar e caracterizar Salmonella spp., a partir de cortes de frangos comercializados na cidade de Francisco Beltrão - PR, bem como verificar o perfil de resistência dos isolados em relação aos antimicrobianos utilizados na terapêutica humana. Amostras de cortes de frango (n=40) foram adquiridas em supermercados e submetidas à análise microbiológica para detecção de Salmonella spp. As colônias suspeitas foram submetidas a provas bioquímicas para identificação de enterobactérias. Quatro colônias foram selecionadas de cada amostra positiva para Salmonella spp., totalizando 28 isolados, que foram testadas quanto à sensibilidade a antimicrobianos. As colônias que apresentaram resistência à ceftriaxona foram submetidas à pesquisa de betalactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL). Das amostras de frango analisadas, sete (17,5%) apresentaram comportamento bioquímico característico de Salmonella spp. Entre os 28 isolados, foram encontrados 17 perfis diferentes de resistência, tendo 46,42% (n=13) apresentado perfil de multirresistência e 21,4% (n=6) apresentado fenótipo para produção de ESBL. As cepas de Salmonella spp. isoladas de cortes de frango, encontradas neste estudo, apresentaram alto índice de resistência a antimicrobianos de diferentes classes e de últimas gerações. Esses dados servem de alerta, uma vez que coloca em risco o tratamento da salmonelose humana.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Products/microbiology , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Salmonella Infections, Animal , Chickens/microbiology
19.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(3): 277-284, 20210930. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368681

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os perfis microbiológicos e de sensibilidade dos anos de 2017 e 2018 das Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) neonatal, pediátrica e adulto de um hospital público de Aracaju, Sergipe. Métodos: Mediante a coleta secundária dos dados coletados com a Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH). Resultados: Foram observados, neste estudo, alguns mecanismos de resistência, como: Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumonie produtora de b-lactamase de Espectro Estendido (ESBL), Enterobacter spp ESBL, P. aeruginosa ERC e Providencia stuartii ESBL, todas elas isoladas na UTI neonatal. Os antibióticos que demonstraram menores índices de sensibilidade na média geral para os microrganismos isolados foram: gentamicina, ampicilina e amoxicilina+ clavulanato. As drogas que apresentaram maiores índices de sensibilidade foram: colistina, polimixina B, amicacina, ciprofloxacino, imipenem, meropenem, linezolida, cefepima, piperacilina+tazobactam, vancomicina e teicoplanina. Conclusão: Diante disso, é imprescindível a conscientização dos profissionais de saúde juntamente com a comunidade, em relação à adequada prestação de serviços aos pacientes internados e quanto ao uso racional de antimicrobianos e, dessa maneira, contribuir para a redução das taxas de resistência bacteriana.


Objective: This study aimed to analyze the microbiological and sensitivity profiles of the years 2017 and 2018 of the neonatal, pediatric and adult Intensive Care Units (ICU) of a public hospital in Aracaju, Sergipe. Methods: Through the secondary collection of data collected with the Hospital Infection Control Commission (CCIH). Results: Some resistance mechanisms were observed in this study, such as: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumonie producer of Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL), Enterobacter spp ESBL, P. aeruginosa ERC and Providencia stuartii ESBL, all they were isolated in the neonatal ICU. The antibiotics that showed lower levels of sensitivity in the general average for the isolated microorganisms were: gentamicin, ampicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanate. The drugs that showed the highest levels of sensitivity were: colistin, polymyxin B, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, linezolid, cefepime, piperacillin + tazobactam, vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusion: Therefore, it is essential to raise the awareness of health professionals together with the community, regarding the adequate provision of services to hospitalized patients and regarding the rational use of antimicrobials and, in this way, contribute to the reduction of bacterial resistance rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Intensive Care Units , Cross Infection/prevention & control
20.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(3): 406-411, jul.-sep. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, INS-PERU | ID: biblio-1357387

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Helicobacter pylori a 5 antibióticos de referencia, en pacientes dispépticos del Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Cayetano Heredia y la Clínica Cayetano Heredia en Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se colectaron biopsias gástricas de 500 pacientes diagnosticados con dispepsia. A partir de estas biopsias, se aislaron y cultivaron 273 cepas de H. pylori para confirmar la infección mediante el diagnóstico histológico y por cultivo. Finalmente, se analizó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana mediante el método de microdilución en caldo y se evaluaron los perfiles de resistencia de cada antimicrobiano y los patrones de multirresistencia. Resultados: El diagnóstico de H. pylori por cultivo, comparado con la prueba histológica, reportó una sensibilidad del 83,8%, una especificidad del 89,9% y un área bajo la curva de 0,87 (IC95%: 0,84 a 0,90). La frecuencia de la infección en los servicios de gastroenterología del Hospital y la Clínica Cayetano Heredia fueron del 56,6% (237/419) y 44,4% (36/81), respectivamente. Según el Hospital/Clínica, se determinó la resistencia para amoxicilina (45,1%/29,6%), levofloxacino (71,8%/74,1%) y metronidazol (69,8%/63,0%). Los patrones de resistencia a múltiples antimicrobianos demostraron que las resistencias (dobles y triples) más frecuentes fueron con levofloxacino, metronidazol y amoxicilina. Conclusiones: La resistencia antimicrobiana de H. pylori ha aumentado con respecto a los años previos. Además, la resistencia múltiple de H. pylori presenta altas frecuencias en pacientes infectados. El método de microdilución en caldo podría ser implementado en los diferentes hospitales del Perú como una herramienta de vigilancia de la resistencia de H. pylori a los antimicrobianos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to 5 reference antibiotics, in a population of 500 dyspeptic patients from the Gastroenterology Service of the Cayetano Heredia Hospital (n = 419) and the Cayetano Heredia Clinic (n = 81) in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: Gastric biopsies were collected from 500 patients diagnosed with dyspepsia. From these biopsies, 273 H. pylori strains were isolated and cultured to confirm H. pylori infection by histological and culture diagnosis. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility was analyzed using the broth microdilution method, and the resistance profiles of each antimicrobial and multi-resistance patterns were evaluated by statistical analysis. Results: The diagnosis of H. pylori infection by culture, compared to histological testing, reported a sensitivity of 83.8%, a specificity of 89.9% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.90). The frequency of infection in the gastroenterology services of the Cayetano Heredia Hospital and Clinic was 56.6% (237/419) and 44.4% (36/81), respectively. An increase in antimicrobial resistance to Amoxicillin (45.1% / 29.6%), Levofloxacin (71.8%/ 74.1%) and Metronidazole (69.8% / 63.0%) was found in the Hospital and the Clinic, respectively. Multiple resistance patterns showed that the most frequent resistance (double and triple) was to Levofloxacin, Metronidazole and Amoxicillin. Conclusions: The antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori has increased compared to that reported in previous years. Furthermore, H. pylori multiple resistance presents high frequencies in infected patients. The broth microdilution method could be implemented in different hospitals in Peru as a surveillance tool for H. pylori antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Diagnosis
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