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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180473, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990445


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Candidiasis is the most frequent opportunistic mycosis in humans and can cause mortality, particularly in immunodeficient patients. One major concern is the increasing number of infections caused by drug-resistant Candidas trains, as these cannot be efficiently treated with standard therapeutics. The most common mechanism of fluconazole resistance in Candida is mutation of ERG11, a gene involved in the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a compound essential for cell integrity and membrane function. METHODS: Based on this knowledge, we investigated polymorphisms in the ERG11 gene of 3 Candida species isolated from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In addition, we correlated the genetic data with the fluconazole susceptibility profile of the Candida isolates. RESULTS: A total of 80 Candida albicans, 8 Candida tropicalis and 6 Candida glabrata isolates were obtained from the saliva of diabetic, kidney transplant and immunocompetent patients. Isolates were considered susceptible to fluconazole if the minimum inhibitory concentration was lower than 8 μg/mL. The amino acid mutations F105L, D116E, K119N, S137L, and K128T were observed in C. albicans isolates, and T224C and G263A were found in C. tropicalis isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high number of polymorphisms observed, the mutations occurred in regions that are not predicted to interfere with ergosterol synthesis, and therefore are not related to fluconazole resistance.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Polymorphism, Genetic/drug effects , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Kidney Transplantation , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Reference Values , Saliva/microbiology , Candida/isolation & purification , DNA, Fungal/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Immunocompetence , Middle Aged , Mutation/drug effects
Clin. biomed. res ; 39(4): 341-345, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087506


O gênero Candida possui várias espécies conhecidas e que podem tornar-se patogênicas em determinadas situações. Candida blankii é uma espécie emergente que, na última década, foi identificada como um agente de doenças sistêmicas. Ainda não existe um protocolo de tratamento específico, apesar de que n os poucos casos registrados na literatura a terapia adotada foi efetiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão bibliográfica para coletar informações relevantes sobre este patógeno como um possível agente etiológico em infecções sistêmicas, bem como sua epidemiologia e os aspectos de sua patogenicidade. (AU)

The genus Candida has several known species and may become pathogenic in certain situations. Candida blankii is an emerging species that in the past decade has been identified as an agent of systemic diseases. There is no specific treatment protocol yet, although in the few cases reported in the literature the therapy adopted was effective. The objective of this study was to conduct a literature review to collect relevant information about this pathogen as a possible etiological agent in systemic infections, as well as its epidemiology and aspects of pathogenicity. (AU)

Humans , Candida/classification , Candida/drug effects , Candida/pathogenicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(3): 192-199, Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777368


The azoles are the class of medications most commonly used to fight infections caused by Candida sp. Typically, resistance can be attributed to mutations in ERG11 gene (CYP51) which encodes the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, the primary target for the activity of azoles. The objective of this study was to identify mutations in the coding region of theERG11 gene in clinical isolates of Candidaspecies known to be resistant to azoles. We identified three new synonymous mutations in the ERG11 gene in the isolates of Candida glabrata (C108G, C423T and A1581G) and two new nonsynonymous mutations in the isolates of Candida krusei - A497C (Y166S) and G1570A (G524R). The functional consequence of these nonsynonymous mutations was predicted using evolutionary conservation scores. The G524R mutation did not have effect on 14α-demethylase functionality, while the Y166S mutation was found to affect the enzyme. This observation suggests a possible link between the mutation and dose-dependent sensitivity to voriconazole in the clinical isolate of C. krusei. Although the presence of the Y166S in phenotype of reduced azole sensitivity observed in isolate C. kruseidemands investigation, it might contribute to the search of new therapeutic agents against resistant Candida isolates.

Humans , Candida/drug effects , Candida/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Point Mutation/drug effects , /genetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Azoles/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/genetics , Candida/classification , Candida/isolation & purification , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Genes, Fungal , Haplotypes/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phylogeny , Voriconazole/pharmacology
Journal of Contemporary Medical Sciences. 2016; 1 (4): 23-26
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176290


Objective: To detect the genes that play a role in resistance to cyclohximide by some pathogenic fungi

Methods: Isolates of dermatophytic fungi [Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp.] were isolated from patients with fungal infection attending the AL-Diwaniya Teaching Hospital and identified based on the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. The effect of cycloheximide and ammonium hydroxide in isolation of these fungi in sabourauds dextrose agar were tested by the quantative transcrptive assay of gene expression [CYH1, CYH2, CDR1, CDR2 and ABC gene] using real-time PCR

Results: The result of this estimation revealed that the amplified DNA [PCR product] were 463 bp for CYH1; 265 bp for CDR1 ; 160 bp for CDR2; 359 bp for CYH2 in the pathogenic fungi C. albicans, T. rubrum, M. canis and A. niger

Conclusion: The tested pathogens had resistance genes to cycloheximide such as [CHY1, CHY2, CDR1, CDR2 and HKG]

Humans , Male , Female , Fungi , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Trichophyton , Microsporum , Candida albicans , Aspergillus , Antifungal Agents
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(8): 998-1005, Dec. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-660646


To cope with oxidative stress, Candida albicans possesses several enzymes involved in a number of biological processes, including superoxide dismutases (Sods) and glutaredoxins (Grxs). The resistance of C. albicans to reactive oxygen species is thought to act as a virulence factor. Genes such as SOD1 and GRX2, which encode for a Sod and Grx, respectively, in C. albicans are widely recognised to be important for pathogenesis. We generated a double mutant, Δgrx2/sod1, for both genes. This strain is very defective in hyphae formation and is susceptible to killing by neutrophils. When exposed to two compounds that generate reactive oxygen species, the double null mutant was susceptible to menadione and resistant to diamide. The reintegration of the SOD1 gene in the null mutant led to recovery in resistance to menadione, whereas reintegration of the GRX2 gene made the null mutant sensitive to diamide. Despite having two different roles in the responses to oxidative stress generated by chemical compounds, GRX2 and SOD1 are important for C. albicans pathogenesis because the double mutant Δgrx2/sod1 was very susceptible to neutrophil killing and was defective in hyphae formation in addition to having a lower virulence in an animal model of systemic infection.

Animals , Female , Mice , Candida albicans/drug effects , Candidiasis/microbiology , Diamide/pharmacology , Glutaredoxins/physiology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/physiology , /pharmacology , Candida albicans/enzymology , Candida albicans/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Genotype , Glutaredoxins/genetics , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Phenotype , Superoxide Dismutase/genetics , Virulence
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(12): 1203-1214, Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-568995


The incidence of superficial or deep-seated infections due to Candida glabrata has increased markedly, probably because of the low intrinsic susceptibility of this microorganism to azole antifungals and its relatively high propensity to acquire azole resistance. To determine changes in the C. glabrata proteome associated with petite mutations, cytosolic extracts from an azole-resistant petite mutant of C. glabrata induced by exposure to ethidium bromide, and from its azole-susceptible parent isolate were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteins of interest were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting or sequence tagging using a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Tryptic peptides from a total of 160 Coomassie-positive spots were analyzed for each strain. Sixty-five different proteins were identified in the cytosolic extracts of the parent strain and 58 in the petite mutant. Among the proteins identified, 10 were higher in the mutant strain, whereas 23 were lower compared to the parent strain. The results revealed a significant decrease in the enzymes associated with the metabolic rate of mutant cells such as aconitase, transaldolase, and pyruvate kinase, and changes in the levels of specific heat shock proteins. Moreover, transketolase, aconitase and catalase activity measurements decreased significantly in the ethidium bromide-induced petite mutant. These data may be useful for designing experiments to obtain a better understanding of the nuclear response to impairment of mitochondrial function associated with this mutation in C. glabrata.

Candida glabrata/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/analysis , Mutation/genetics , Proteome/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Azoles/pharmacology , Candida glabrata/drug effects , Candida glabrata/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal , Proteome/genetics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 81(3): 571-587, Sept. 2009.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-523982


Several epidemiological changes have occurred in the pattern of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases during the past 25 years. Social and demographic changes possibly related to this phenomenon include a rapid population growth, the increase in urban migration and movement across international borders by tourists and immigrants, alterations in the habitats of animals and arthropods that transmit disease, as well as the raise of patients with impaired host defense abilities. Continuous surveillance programs of emergent pathogens and antimicrobial resistance are warranted for detecting in real time new pathogens, as well as to characterize molecular mechanisms of resistance. In order to become more effective, surveillance programs of emergent pathogens should be organized as a multicenter laboratory network connected to the main public and private infection control centers. Microbiological data should be integrated to guide therapy, adapting therapy to local ecology and resistance patterns. This paper presents an overview of data generated by the Division of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of São Paulo, along with its participation in different surveillance programs of nosocomial and community acquired infectious diseases.

Várias alterações epidemiológicas ocorreram no perfil das doenças infecciosas hospitalares e comunitárias nos últimos 25 anos. Mudanças sociais e demográficas possivelmente relacionadas com esse fenômeno incluem o rápido crescimento populacional, o aumento da migração urbana e deslocamento através de fronteiras internacionais por turistas e imigrantes, alterações nos habitats de animais e artrópodes que transmitem doença assim como o aumento no número de pacientes com deficiências nas respostas de defesa. Os programas contínuos de vigilância de patógenos emergentes e resistência antimicrobiana são necessários para a detecção em tempo real de novos patógenos assim como para caracterizar mecanismos moleculares de resistência. Para serem mais efetivos, os programasde vigilância dos patógenos emergentes devem ser organizados em uma rede de laboratórios multicêntricos ligados aos principais centros de controle de infecções, públicos e privados. Os dados microbiológicos devem ser integrados a guias terapêuticos adaptando práticas terapêuticas à ecologia local eaos padrões de resistência. O artigo apresenta uma revisão dos dados gerados pela Disciplina de Infectologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, contemplando sua participação nos diferentes programas de vigilância de doenças infecciosas hospitalares e adquiridas na comunidade.

Humans , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Drug Resistance, Viral , Brazil , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Drug Resistance, Viral/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , HIV-1 , Hospitals, University , Population Surveillance
J Biosci ; 2005 Dec; 30(5): 639-46
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-111126


Two cadmium resistant mutants (Cd1 and Cd2) of Aspergillus niger, among the six isolated by mutagenization with N-methyl N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) at pH 6.4 were selected for the study. Analysis of lipid composition of the mutants and the wildtype indicated that total lipid as well as individual lipids of the cadmium resistant mutants were changed as compared with that of the wildtype. The increased activities of metal-lothionein and reduced activities of D-xylose isomerase and L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase in cell free extract of the cadmium resistant mutants suggested that mutants could allow high concentration of cadmium salt as compared with that of the wildtype. The respiratory activity and intracellular as well as extracellular Cd2+ concentration of the mutants reflected the high tolerance of the Cd mutants to cadmium ion.

Aldose-Ketose Isomerases/analysis , Aspergillus niger/chemistry , Cadmium/analysis , DNA Mutational Analysis , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Lipids/chemistry , Metallothionein/analysis , Methylnitronitrosoguanidine/toxicity , Mutagenesis/genetics , Mycelium/chemistry , Oxygen Consumption/genetics , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase/analysis , Survival Analysis
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 37(2): 69-72, Apr.-June 2005. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-634490


The model ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus microcarpus isolate 441 was transformed by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA1100 and AGL-1. The selection marker was the Shble gene of Streptoallotecius hidustanus, conferring resistance to phleomycin, under the control of the gpd gene promoter and terminator of Schizophyllum commune. Transformation resulted in phleomycin resistant clones which were confirmed by PCR to contain the resistance cassette. A. tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer would allow the development of RNA interference technology in P. microcarpus.

El hongo ectomicorrícico modelo Pisolithus microcarpus aislamiento 441 fue transformado utilizando Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 1100 y AGL-1. El marcador de selección fue el gen Shble de Streptoallotecius hidustanus, el cual confiere resistencia a fleomicina, bajo el control del promotor y terminador del gen gpd de Schizophyllum commune. La transformación resultó en clones resistentes a fleomicina comprobándose por PCR la presencia del transgen. La transferencia génica mediada por Agrobacterium podría permitir el desarrollo de la tecnología de interferencia por ARN en P. microcarpus.

Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Basidiomycota/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Transformation, Genetic , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/physiology , Basidiomycota/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Genes, Synthetic , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Phleomycins/pharmacology , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Selection, Genetic , Schizophyllum/genetics