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1.
Medicina UPB ; 40(2): 33-40, 13 oct. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1342178

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: caracterizar desde el punto de vista microbiológico las infecciones periprotesicas (IP) de los pacientes sometidos a remplazo articular de rodilla o cadera, en la IPS universitaria Clínica León XIII, y evidenciar los patrones más comunes de resistencia a los antibióticos, en el periodo 2015-2018. Metodología: se recolectó información de 25 pacientes llevados a remplazo articular de rodilla o cadera en la IPS universitaria, sede Clínica León XIII, durante el periodo de 2015-2018, que desarrollaron IP. Se obtuvo información sobre características demográfica, clínicas y patrones de resistencia (según antibiograma), y sobre los criterios usados para diagnosticarla. Los datos se registraron, según la naturaleza y distribución de la variable, en medias o medianas para las variables cuantitativas, y en frecuencias para las cualitativas. Resultados: entre 2015 y 2018 se realizaron 541 remplazos articulares, la incidencia de infección periprotésica fue de 4.6% (25 pacientes), 22 casos (88%) con crecimiento microbiológico. El germen más frecuente fue el S. aureus, con patrón alto de resistencia para meticilina (SAMR), en el 44%. Seguido por K. pneumoniae, con un patrón de resistencia por producción de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) de 83%. Ninguno tuvo resistencia a los carbapenémicos. Conclusiones: los resultados son similares a los reportados en la literatura internacional. Sigue siendo el S. aureus el principal causante de la infección periprotésica, seguido de los gérmenes gram negativos.


Objective: to microbiologically characterize the periprosthetic infections (PI) of patients undergoing knee or hip joint replacement at IPS Universitaria Clínica León XXIIIin the period 2015-2018, and to demonstrate the most common antibiotic resistance patterns. Methodology: the information was collected from 25 patients undergoing knee or hip joint replacement at IPS Universitaria Clínica León XXIII during the period 2015-2018 who developed PI. Data was obtained on demographic, clinical characteristics, and antibiotic resistance patterns (according to antibiograms), as well as on the diagnostic criteria used to diagnose it. The data was recorded, according to the nature and distribution of the variable, in means or medians for the quantitative variables, and in frequencies for the qualitative variables.Results:between 2015-2018, 541 joint replacements were performed. There was an incidence of periprosthetic infection in 25 patients (4.6%), 22 of whom (88%) had micro-biological growth. The most frequent germ was S. aureus, which had a high resistance pattern for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in 44%, followed by K. pneumoniaewith a positive extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in 83%. None of them showed resistance to carbapenems.Conclusions: the results found are similar to those reported in the international lite-rature. This investigation evidenced that S. aureus continues to be the main cause of periprosthetic infection, followed by gram-negative germs.


Objetivo: caracterizar do ponto de vista microbiológico as infecções periprotéticas (IP) dos pacientes submetidos à artroplastia articular do joelho ou do quadril, na IPS universitário, Clínica León XIII, e demonstrar os padrões mais comuns de resistência aos antibióticos, em o período 2015-2018.Metodologia: foram coletadas informações de 25 pacientes encaminhados para prótese de joelho ou quadril no IPS universitário, sede da Clínica León XIII, no período 2015-2018, que desenvolveram IP. Foram obtidas informações sobre as características demográfi-cas, clínicas e padrões de resistência (de acordo com antibiograma) e sobre os critérios usados para diagnosticá-la. Os dados foram registrados, de acordo com a natureza e distribuição da variável, em médias ou medianas para as variáveis quantitativas e em frequências para as qualitativas.Resultados: entre 2015 e 2018, foram realizadas 541 substituições articulares, a incidência de infecção periprotética foi de 4,6% (25 pacientes), 22 casos (88%) com crescimento microbiológico. O germe mais frequente foi S. aureus, com alto padrão de resistência à meticilina (MRSA), em 44%. Seguido por K. pneumoniae, com padrão de resistência devido à produção de beta-lactamase de espectro estendido (ESBL) de 83%. Nenhum apresentou resistência aos carbapenêmicos.Conclusões: os resultados são semelhantes aos relatados na literatura internacional. S. aureus continua a ser a principal causa de infecção periprotética, seguido por germes gram-negativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prostheses and Implants , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Hip Joint , Infections , Joints , Knee , Anti-Bacterial Agents
2.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 29(106): 85-102, jul 2021. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348841

ABSTRACT

La resistencia a los antimicrobianos es un grave problema para la salud mundial. Es aún más crítico en los hospitales debido a la aparición de bacterias Gram negativas resistentes a múltiples fármacos, asociadas a una alta mortalidad. Las opciones de tratamiento en estos casos son escasas, en general de alto costo. La alta densidad de consumo de antibióticos y la transmisión cruzada en este entorno amplifican este problema.Hay más evidencia del impacto de las medidas de control de infecciones que de las intervenciones de comités de antimicrobianos para mitigarlo. Además, pocos países cuentan con programas sólidos de control de infecciones para enfrentar este problema. En la presente revisión se propone una serie de 12 pasos a adoptar para mitigar la prevalencia de resistencia antimicrobiana y reducir la incidencia de carbapenemasas en las instituciones de salud. Estas recomendaciones deben interpretase como un ̈bundle ̈o paquete de medidas, en el cual todas son importantes. Aquellas que involucran la prevención de infecciones y/o colonizaciones y su diseminación son las de mayor impacto demostrado hasta ahora. Es esencial que los programas de optimización de uso de antimicrobianos cuenten con el empoderamiento de la conducción de las instituciones donde se lleven a cabo, así como también que estén constituidos por un equipo multidisciplinario eficiente, sólidamente entrenado, con metas y métricas objetivas y auditorias periódicas. También es recomendable que se incluyan recomendaciones para los tratamientos en pacientes en cuidados de fin de vida.


Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global health problem. It is even more critical in hospitals due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria, associated with high mortality. The treatment options in these cases are scarce, generally high cost. The high density of antibiotic consumption and cross-transmission in this environment amplifies this problem.There is more evidence of the impact of Infection Control measures than of Antimicrobial Committee interventions to mitigate it. Furthermore, few countries have solid Infection Control programs to deal with this problem.This review proposes a series of 12 steps to adopt to mitigate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and reduce the incidence of carbapenemases in health institutions. These recommendations should be interpreted as a ̈Bundle ̈ or package of measures, in which all are important. Those that involve the prevention of infections and / or colonizations and their dissemination are the ones with the greatest impact demonstrated so far. It is essential that antimicrobial use optimization programs have the empowerment of the leadership of the institutions where they are carried out, as well as that they are constituted by an efficient multidisciplinary team, solidly trained, with objective goals and metrics and periodic audits. It is also recommended that recommendations be included for treatments in patients in end-of-life care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/therapy , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control
3.
Medisur ; 19(3): 477-491, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287329

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La introducción de los antibióticos en el siglo pasado ha sido uno de los ejemplos que brinda la historia de intervenciones médicas que cambiaron drásticamente la esperanza de vida de la población. La época dorada de los antibióticos, cuando la aparición de nuevas moléculas era lo habitual, ha dado paso a otra de sequía, en la que es raro el desarrollo de este grupo farmacológico debido al largo período de tiempo que requieren las investigaciones de nuevos fármacos, su elevado costo y al aumento de las exigencias regulatorias. Este progreso médico ganado en décadas pasadas, está amenazado por el aumento de la resistencia de las bacterias a los antibióticos; constituye un grave riesgo mundial por lo que requiere una mayor atención y la coherencia a nivel internacional, nacional y regional. La resistencia bacteriana tiene un gran impacto microbiológico, terapéutico, económico, epidemiológico y en la salud pública; cuesta dinero, medios de subsistencia, vidas humanas y amenaza con socavar la eficacia de los programas de atención a la salud. La presente revisión bibliográfica propone reflexionar sobre los aspectos más significativos del desarrollo de los antibióticos y su impacto en la sociedad.


ABSTRACT The introduction of antibiotics in the last century has been one of the examples that history provides of medical interventions that drastically changed the life expectancy of the population. The golden age of antibiotics, where the appearance of new molecules was what usual, has given way to another of drought, in which the development of this pharmacological group is rare due to the long period of time required for research into new drugs, their high cost and the increase in regulatory requirements. This medical progress gained in past decades is threatened by the increase in the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, constituting a serious global risk for which it requires greater attention and coherence at the international, national and regional levels. Bacterial resistance has a great microbiological, therapeutic, economic, epidemiological and public health impact; it costs money, livelihoods, human lives, and threatens to undermine the effectiveness of health care programs. This bibliographic review proposes to reflect on the most significant aspects of the development of antibiotics and their impact on society.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Health Policy/trends
4.
Femina ; 49(6): 373-378, 20210630. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290582

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: O presente estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana do patógeno mais comum causador da infecção do trato urinário (ITU) de gestantes que foram internadas em um hospital de ensino do município de São Paulo em determinado período. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo, transversal, quantitativo, realizado avaliando as uroculturas positivas e o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana dos agentes mais comuns encontrados em ITUs das gestantes de hospital e maternidade-escola do município de São Paulo de janeiro de 2019 até janeiro de 2020. Resultados: A partir da análise de uroculturas positivas e antibiograma de 149 gestantes admitidas com quadro de infecção urinária no referido hospital no intervalo de tempo analisado, constatou-se que 83,89% dos casos apresentaram como patógeno a bactéria Escherichia coli. No âmbito da resistência bacteriana, percebeu-se que o maior índice foi encontrado no que tange a cefalotina (65%), ampicilina (58%) e ampicilina/sulbactam (45%). Ademais, a partir das análises individuais, 20 pacientes, ou seja, aproximadamente 13,42% apresentaram cepas sensíveis a todas as medicações apontadas, e as demais apresentaram resistência a, pelo menos, uma delas. Conclusão: A partir da premissa de eficácia desempenhada pelo protocolo de medicação empírica estabelecido pela instituição no tocante ao tratamento de infecção do trato urinário em gestantes, a cefalotina certamente não deveria compor o rol de drogas ofertadas às pacientes. Isso se dá, pois a sensibilidade apresentada pela Escherichia coli, patógeno que mais comumente está associado aos quadros de ITU do serviço, a essa droga é muito baixa. Já a nitrofurantoína apresentou um satisfatório espectro de cobertura, sendo a resistência à droga inferior a 10%. Com isso, conclui-se que ela deve permanecer como droga inicial para as ITUs das gestantes que chegam a essa instituição.(AU)


Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of the most common pathogen that causes urinary tract infection (ITU) in pregnant women who were admitted to a Teaching Hospital in the city of São Paulo in a specific period. Methods: Retrospective, cross-sectional, quantitative study carried out evaluating positive urine cultures and the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of the most common agents found in ITU of pregnant women at Teaching Maternity hospital in the city of São Paulo from January 2019 to January 2020. Results: From the of positive urine culture and antibiogram of 149 pregnant women admitted with a urinary tract infection in the referred hospital in the analyzed period of time, it was found that 83.89% of the cases presented the bacterium Escherichia coli as a pathogen. In the scope of bacterial resistance, it was noticed that the highest index was found with respect to Cephalothin (65%), ampicillin (58%) and ampicillin/sulbactam (45%). Furthermore, from the individual analyzes, 20 patients, that is, approximately 13.42% had strains sensitive to all the medications indicated, with the others showing resistance to at least one of them. Conclusion: Based on the premise of efficacy performed by the empirical medication protocol established by the institution regarding the treatment of urinary tract infection in pregnant women, Cephalothin should certainly not be included in the list of drugs offered to patients. This happens because the sensitivity presented by Escherichia coli, the most commonly pathogen associated with the UTI pathogen of the service, to this drug is very low. Nitrofurantoin, on the other hand, presented a satisfactory coverage spectrum, with drug resistance below 10%. Thus, it is concluded that this should remain as an initial drug for ITUs of pregnant women who arrive at this institution.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Microbial/drug effects , Pregnancy Complications/microbiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Infectio ; 25(2): 84-88, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250072

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Klebsiella pneumoniae produce enzimas como Betalactamasas de Espectro Extendido (BLEE) y Carbapenemasas. Estas enzimas tienen implicancia en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), porque posibilitan la supervivencia de especies bacterianas a condiciones desfavorables y por ende, facilitan su permanencia en ambiente intrahospitalario. Existe evidencia de presencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae en UCI, en muestras procedentes de: pacientes, personal de salud, habitación, lavamanos y fórmulas nutricionales. Objetivo: Evaluar el perfil de resistencia de los aislamientos de Klebsiella pneumoniae en una UCI de Paraguay. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo observacional, transversal. Se recolectaron 200 muestras (124 fórmulas enterales, 40 ambiente y 36 pacientes). Variables analizadas: origen de muestra, presencia del germen, producción de enzimas y perfil de resistencia. Resultados: Se aisló Klebsiella pneumoniae en 14% de las muestras. Se identificó al germen en: 25% pacientes, 12,9% fórmulas enterales y 7,5% ambiente. Se observó producción de BLEE en 85,7% de las cepas, con perfiles de resistencia idénticos, y producción de carbapenemasas en 14,3% de las cepas, con perfiles de resistencia diferentes. Conclusión: la presencia y los perfiles de resistencia de Klebsiella pneumoniae en las tres clases de muestras estudiadas, sugieren transferencia de genes de resistencia y diseminación del germen en UCI.


Abstract Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae produces enzymes such as Extended Spectrum Betalactamases (ESBL) and Carbapenemases. These enzymes have implica tions in Intensive Care Units (ICU), because they enable the survival of bacterial species under unfavorable conditions and, therefore, facilitate their permanence in the hospital environment. There is evidence of the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the ICU, in samples from: patients, health staff, room, sink, and nutri tional formulas. Objective: To evaluate the resistance profile of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in an ICU in Paraguay. Material and methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study. 200 samples were collected (124 enteral formulas, 40 ambient and 36 patients). Variables analyzed: sample origin, presence of the germ, enzyme production and resistance profile. Results: Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated in 14% of the samples. The germ was identified in: 25% patients, 12.9% enteral formulas and 7.5% environment. Pro duction of ESBL was observed in 85.7% of the strains, with identical resistance profiles, and production of carbapenemases in 14.3% of the strains, with different resistance profiles. Conclusion: the presence and resistance profiles of Klebsiella pneumoniae in the three classes of samples studied, suggest transfer of resistance genes and disse mination of the germ in ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , beta-Lactamases , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Paraguay , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Bacteremia
6.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 10-14, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292684

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. Las infecciones del tracto urinario son causa de mayor morbilidad en la población adulta y afectan con frecuencia a la mujer. Al ser un problema prevalente, fue fundamental realizar estudios sobre perfiles de susceptibilidad locales para establecer medidas de vigilancia y control de uso de antibióticos. OBJETIVO. Determinar el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio descriptivo, transversal. La población fue de 437 urocultivos y una muestra de 176 positivos con su antibiograma, realizados en el laboratorio del Hospital Básico de Sangolquí entre enero de 2017 hasta abril de 2018. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: pacientes mayores de 15 años de edad de ambos sexos, ambulatorios y hospitalizados, que presentaron urocultivos positivos definidos por una cuenta mayor a 100 000 Unidades Formadoras de Colonia. RESULTADOS. Del 40,27% (176; 437) de urocultivos positivos, la bacteria aislada con frecuencia fue Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), con resistencia a ampicilina 77,97% (92; 118), trimetropim-sulfametoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacino 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacino 35,65 % (41; 115), ampicilina/sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) y con susceptibilidad a: fosfomicina, ceftriaxona, amikacina y nitrofurantoina. CONCLUSIÓN. Se determinó el perfil de farmacorresistencia microbiana en adultos con infección del tracto urinario; donde Escherichia coli. fue aislada con frecuencia, con susceptibilidad favorable para nitrofurantoína y fosfomicina.


INTRODUCTION. Urinary tract infections are the cause of greater morbidity in the adult population and it often affects women. As it is a prevalent problem, it was essential to carry out studies on local susceptibility profiles to establish surveillance measures and control of antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE. To determine the microbial drug resistance profile in adults with urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. The population was 437 urine cultures and a sample of 176 positive with their antibiogram, carried out in the laboratory of the Hospital Básico de Sangolquí between january 2017 and april 2018. Inclusion criteria were: patients older than 15 years of age of both sexes, ambulatory and hospitalized, who presented positive urine cultures defined by a count greater than 100 000 Colony Forming Units. RESULTS. Of the 40,27% (176; 437) of positive urine cultures, the bacterium frequently isolated was Escherichia coli. 69,31% (122; 176), with resistance to ampicillin 77,97% (92; 118), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 62,26% (66; 106), norfloxacin 37,50% (42; 112), ciprofloxacin 35,65% (41; 115), ampicillin / sulbactam 32,20% (38; 118) and with susceptibility to: fosfomycin, ceftriaxone, amikacin and nitrofurantoin. CONCLUSION. The microbial drug resistance profile was determined in adults with urinary tract infection; where Escherichia coli. was frequently isolated, with favorable susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Staphylococcus , Bacteriuria , Ampicillin Resistance , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli
7.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337689

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica es un patógeno transmitido por alimentos y agente etiológico de brotes alimentarios de gran impacto en la salud humana. El aumento de la resistencia bacteriana constituye una amenaza a la salud pública, la aparición de cepas de Salmonella con resistencia a múltiples antimicrobianos (MDR) fue descrita en humanos, alimentos y animales para consumo; por ello se considera muy importante conocer la situación epidemiológica local. El objetivo de este trabajo fue generar información sobre los serotipos circulantes, resistencia a los antibióticos y presencia de resistencia simultánea a múltiples fármacos en Salmonella provenientes de muestras clínicas humanas y muestras de alimentos en el periodo desde 2017 a 2019. Fueron analizadas un total de 668 cepas de Salmonella aisladas en los años 2017, 2018 y 2019 a partir de muestras clínicas humanas y de alimentos, en el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública y/o remitidas por Laboratorios de la Red de Enteropatógenos. Se observaron serotipos muy diversos con prevalencia del serovar Heidelberg en alimentos y Typhimurium en muestras de humanos. Se encontró que el 45,4% de las cepas fueron sensibles a todos los antibióticos (ATB), el 35,6% fueron resistentes de 1 a 6 ATB y el 19% con sensibilidad intermedia; observándose mayor resistencia a Tetraciclina, Ác. Nalidíxico, Ampicilina y Nitrofurantoína, en menor grado se evidenció resistencia a cefalosporinas (C3ªG) y a ciprofloxacina. El 16.9% de las cepas presentaron resistencia múltiple (3 o más antibióticos) con 37 fenotipos distintos. Las serovariedades que presentaron mayor resistencia a los antimicrobianos fueron Heidelberg, Schwarzengrund y Typhimurium


Salmonella enterica is a foodborne pathogen and etiological agent of food outbreaks with a great impact on human health. The increase in bacterial resistance constitutes a threat to public health. The appearance of Salmonella strains with resistance to multiple antimicrobials (MDR) has already been described in humans, food and animals for consumption; for this reason, it is considered very important to know the local epidemiological situation. The target of this work was to generate information on circulating serotypes, antibiotic resistance and the presence of simultaneous resistance to multiple drugs in Salmonella from human clinical samples and food samples in the period from 2017 to 2019. A total of 668 Salmonella strains isolated in the years 2017, 2018 and 2019 were analyzed from human and food clinical samples, at the Central Public Health Laboratory and / or sent by Laboratories of the Enteropathogens Network. Very diverse serotypes were observed with prevalence of Heidelberg serovar in food and Typhimurium in human samples .It was found that 45,4% of the strains were sensitive to all antibiotics (ATB), 35,6% were resistant from 1 to 6 ATB and 19% with intermediate sensitivity; observing greater resistance to Tetracycline, Ác. Nalidixic, Ampicillin and Nitrofurantoin, to a lesser degree resistance to cephalosporins (C3ªG) and ciprofloxacin was evidenced. The 16.9% the strains presented multiple resistance (3 or more antibiotics) with 37 different phenotypes. The serovars with the highest antimicrobial resistance were Heidelberg, Schwarzengrund and Typhimurium


Subject(s)
Animals , Salmonella , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Infective Agents , Serogroup
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 343-351, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1248926

ABSTRACT

The emergence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (LA-MRSA) and the potential role of pigs in the evolution of these strains has led to increased interest in research of these microorganisms. However, this has contributed to a lack of research in the isolation and characterization of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus strains (MSSA). In this study, the prevalence of S. aureus in pigs in the nursery and finishing stages were analyzed. The susceptibility profiles to antibiotics, tolerance to heavy metals, and biofilm production of the isolates were evaluated using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. A total of 1,250 colonies suggestive of Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 128 pigs, of which 63.6% (n = 795) belonged to this microbial genus. Sixty-seven colonies isolated from 34 animals (26.5%) were confirmed as S. aureus (8.4%). No strains resistant to copper, zinc, or methicillin were detected; however, all strains presented a resistance profile to at least three different classes of antimicrobials and 21 produced biofilms. These data are of concern, as they indicate the need for increased surveillance in the use of antimicrobials as well as reinforce the importance of studies on MSSA strains.(AU)


A emergência de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à meticilina associadas à pecuária (LA-MRSA) e o papel potencial dos suínos na evolução dessas cepas têm levado ao aumento do interesse na pesquisa desses microrganismos. No entanto, isso tem contribuído para a falta de estudos sobre o isolamento e a caracterização de cepas de S. aureus sensíveis à meticilina (MSSA). Neste estudo, foi analisada a prevalência de S. aureus em suínos nas fases de creche e terminação. Os perfis de suscetibilidade aos antibióticos, a tolerância a metais pesados e a produção de biofilme dos isolados foram avaliados por meio de técnicas fenotípicas e genotípicas. Um total de 1.250 colônias sugestivas de Staphylococcus spp. foi isolado de 128 suínos, das quais 63,6% (n = 795) pertenciam a esse gênero microbiano. Sessenta e sete colônias isoladas de 34 animais (26,5%) foram confirmadas como S. aureus (8,4%). Nenhuma cepa resistente ao cobre, ao zinco ou à meticilina foi detectada; entretanto, todas as cepas apresentaram perfil de resistência a pelo menos três classes diferentes de antimicrobianos e 21 produziam biofilme. Esses dados são preocupantes, pois indicam a necessidade de maior vigilância no uso de antimicrobianos, bem como reforçam a importância de estudos com cepas de MSSA.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Swine , Virulence Factors/analysis , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Biofilms
9.
Infectio ; 25(1): 39-44, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154400

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo. Describir el perfil microbiológico y de resistencia bacteriana de los aislamientos en adultos con infecciones adquiridas en comunidad en el Hospital Universitario San José de junio 2016 a diciembre 2019. Metodología. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, análisis retrospectivo de los aislamientos microbiológicos en adultos desde junio 2016 a diciembre 2019, basado en la data institucional. Se analizó la información con STATA15,0. Se obtuvo la aprobación del comité de ética del hospital. Resultados. Se incluyeron 5121 aislamientos microbiológicos, el 61% en el servicio de urgencias. El urocultivo fue la muestra más frecuente. Escherichia coli fue el germen más común tanto a nivel general como en urocultivos, hemocultivos y cultivos de líquido peritoneal. La resistencia a ampicilina y amp/sul fue elevada, hasta del 68% para E. coli. El 20% de los Staphylococcus aureus fueron resistentes a meticilina. Se observó una resistencia inusual a carbapenémicos por parte de Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Discusión. El perfil microbiológico concuerda con la literatura mundial y nacional, sin embargo, el HUSJ tiene un comportamiento microbiológico que debe ser estudiado a profundidad. Conclusión. Los porcentajes de resistencia a antibióticos de uso frecuente son elevados. Se requiere ajustes de las guías de manejo institucionales y nacionales.


Abstract Objetive. To describe the microbiological profile and resistance spectrum of the community acquired bacterial infection of the San Jose university hospital from june 2016 to december 2019 Methodology. A retrospective transverse descriptive study of microbial organisms found in adults in the institution from June 2016 to December 2019, the study is based in the hospital data. The analysis of the information was made with SATA 15.0. Results. 5121 samples were included, 61% from the emergency department. Urine culture was the most frequent sample taken. Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolated bacterial, in all samples, urine culture, blood culture, and peritoneal culture. Ampiciline r and ampiciline/sulbactam was high up to 68% of the E. Coli cultures. 20% of Staphylococcus aureus were methicillin resistant. Unusual carbapenemic resistance was found in the Pseudomona aeruginosa isolates.. Discussion. The data of the bacterial resistance spectrum Concord which was is found in the general medical literature, nevertheless the HUSJ, has a microbial behaviour that must be studied thoroughly. Conclusion. The antibiotic bacterial resistance to common used antibiotics is high. Adjustments are required in the instucional and national management guidelines


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Bacterial Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Sepsis , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents
10.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 21-27, 20210330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290915

ABSTRACT

A resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos é um problema de saúde pública que origina consequências clínicas e econômicas, reduzindo as chances de cura e, consequentemente, elevando os custos de tratamento e a taxa de mortalidade. Ainda que ocorra naturalmente, a pressão seletiva causada pelo uso indiscriminado de antibióticos acelera a resistência bacteriana, originando as chamadas bactérias multirresistentes, que apresentam novos mecanismos de resistência. A necessidade emergente de novos fármacos para combater essas bactérias abre a possibilidade de pesquisa de novos princípios ativos oriundos de plantas, também chamados de fitoterápicos. Em 2006, o Ministério da Saúde instituiu diretrizes quanto ao uso e o acesso dos usuários do SUS à esses medicamentos. Esta revisão bibliográfica tem como objetivo ressaltar a eficácia das plantas medicinais como alternativa terapêutica no tratamento de microrganismos multirresistentes, difundindo a importância das políticas públicas de saúde que embasam a implantação da fitoterapia. Após uma busca refinada, 36 artigos foram compilados. Os resultados obtidos poderão auxiliar no mapeamento da ação de plantas e de seus metabólitos. Todavia, o seu uso incorreto pode causar graves danos ao paciente, sendo necessário o acompanhamento de um profissional da saúde para orientar a maneira correta de utilização e garantir a eficácia do tratamento.


Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a public health problem that has clinical and economic consequences, reducing the chances of cure and, consequently, increasing treatment costs and the mortality rate. Although it occurs naturally, the selective pressure caused by the indiscriminate use of antibiotics accelerates bacterial resistance, giving rise to multi-resistant bacteria, which have new resistance mechanisms. The emerging need for new drugs to combat these bacteria opens up the possibility of researching new active ingredients from plants, also called phytotherapics. In 2006, the Ministry of Health instituted guidelines regarding the use and access of SUS users to these drugs. This bibliographic review aims to highlight the efficacy of medicinal plants as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of multi-resistant microorganisms, disseminating the importance of public health policies that support the implementation of phytotherapy. After a refined search, 36 articles were compiled. The results obtained may assist in mapping the action of plants and their metabolites. However, its incorrect use can cause serious damages, being necessary that a health professional accompany the patient to guide the correct way of use and guarantee the effectiveness of the treatment.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Infective Agents
11.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 53(1): 69-73, 20210330. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291554

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: A sepse está envolvida com as principais causas de morbidade e mortalidade em pacientes internados em unidades hospitalares. Esses pacientes são vulneráveis a esse tipo de infecção devido a vários fatores como tempo de internamento, procedimentos invasivos, infecções recorrentes e terapias prolongadas por uso de antibióticos. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo identificar o perfil microbiológico e de resistência nas hemoculturas positivas de pacientes internados no Pronto-Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco (Procape) no ano de 2017. Métodos: Foram analisadas hemoculturas do período de janeiro a dezembro de 2017. As amostras de hemoculturas foram processadas no equipamento de automação BACT/ALERT® 3D sistemas de detecção microbiana e depois identificada pelo Vitek 2 compact da Biomerieux®. Resultados: Do total de 3.323 amostras de hemoculturas enviadas ao Laboratório do Hospital, foi verificada a prevalência de positividade de 120 (3,62%), das quais houve a prevalência de K. pneumoniae 18 (15%), seguido de S. haemolyticus 17 (14,16%), logo após, S. epidermidis 16 (13,33%). Várias bactérias apresentaram perfil de multirresistência como E. cloacae, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase negativa. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram a presença de bactérias resistentes e multirresistentes, com diferentes perfis de resistência. É importante conhecer o perfil de resistência bacteriano, visando o tratamento adequado de pacientes com quadro de sepse, prevenindo infecções hospitalares.


Objective: Sepsis is involved with the main causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. These patients are vulnerable to this type of infection due to various factors such as length of stay, invasive procedures, recurrent infections, and antibiotic therapy prolonged. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the microbiological and resistance profile in positive blood cultures of patients admitted to the Cardiac Emergency of Pernambuco (Procape) in 2017. Methods: Blood cultures from January to December 2017 were analyzed. Blood cultures were processed on BactT/Alert® 3D automation equipment, microbial detection systems and then identified by Biomerieux® Vitek 2 compact. Results: From a total of 3,323 blood culture samples sent to the Hospital Laboratory, the prevalence of positivity of 120 (3.62%) samples was verified, of which there was the prevalence of K. pneumoniae 18 (15%), followed for S. haemolyticus 17 (14.16%), shortly after, S. epidermidis 16 (13.33%). Several bacteria showed multiresistance profile such as E. cloacae, A. baumannii, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the presence of resistant and multiresistant bacteria, with different resistance profiles. It is important to know bacterial resistance profile, aiming at the adequate treatment of patients with sepsis, preventing hospital infections.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Sepsis , Blood Culture
12.
Infectio ; 25(1): 16-21, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1154396

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los microorganismos capaces de producir carbapenemasas vienen incrementándose a nivel mundial y se han convertido en un problema de salud pública global. En Colombia actualmente la resistencia a carbapenémicos en las unidades de cuidado intensivo está aumentando y se desconoce su impacto en desenlaces clínicos. Objetivos: Determinar las características demográficas, clínicas, y los desenlaces de los pacientes adultos en estado crítico con infección por microorganismos productores de carbapenemasas en una unidad de cuidado intensivo polivalente de una institución de alta complejidad. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo, incluyendo pacientes con infección por bacterias resistentes a carbapenémicos, ingresados a la unidad de cuidado intensivo entre el 1 de Enero de 2014 y el 1 de Enero de 2018. Se excluyeron los pacientes colonizados. Se evaluaron complicaciones clínicas, estancia en UCI y hospitalaria, así como la mortalidad en UCI y hospitalaria. Resultados: Se incluyó 58 pacientes. La mortalidad global fue de 67,2%, de los cuales 55,17% murió durante su estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo y 12.06% en hospitalización. La mediana de estancia en la unidad de cuidado intensivo fue de 18 días (RIQ 4-28). La causa más frecuente de mortalidad fue choque séptico en 51% y las complicaciones más comunes fueron lesión renal aguda y delirium en un 55,2% y 43,1%, respectivamente. La mediana de estancia en la UCI fue de 18 días (RIQ 4-28). Conclusiones: Las infecciones por bacterias resistentes a carbapenémicos en pacientes críticamente enfermos se relacionan con altas tasas de mortalidad, complicaciones y estancia prolongada en UCI


Abstract Introduction: Microorganisms able to produce carbapenemases are spreading worldwide and have become a concerning global public-health problem. In Colombia, the Gram-negative resistance to carbapenems at intensive care units is currently increasing and its impact on clinical outcomes is not well known. Objectives: To determine the demographic, clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill adult patients with infection by carbapenemase producing bacteria in a polyvalent intensive care unit of a highly complex institution. Methods: Single-center retrospective, descriptive observational study including critically ill adult patients infected by carbapenemase-producing bacteria and transferred to a polyvalent intensive care unit from January 1th 2014 to January 1th 2018. Known colonized patients were excluded. Clinical complications, ICU and in-hospital days of stay were evaluated, as ICU and in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 58 patients were included. Overall mortality was 67.2%, of which 55.17% died during their stay in the intensive care unit and 12.06% in hospitalization. The median stay in the intensive care unit was 18 days (IQR 4-28). The most frequent cause of death was septic shock in 51% and the most common complications were acute renal injury and delirium in 55.2% and 43.1%, respectively. The median stay in the ICU was 18 days (RIQ 4-28). Conclusions: Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria in critically ill patients are associated with high mortality rates, complications and long stay in ICU.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Hospital Mortality , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Carbapenems , Cross Infection , Colombia , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Infections , Intensive Care Units
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06837, 2021. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1340349

ABSTRACT

The Psittaciformes are among the most popular pets due to their intelligence, ability, and ease of maintenance in small environments. However, the absence of adequate environmental stimuli generated by confinement can predispose these animals to characteristic stress conditions, leaving them susceptible to the triggering of various diseases, among which those of bacterial origin stand out. The objective of this study was to carry out a survey of enterobacteria and evaluate the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of bacteria isolated from parrots from a pet shop in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará. Ninety-six samples were collected from four pet shops (which were classified as A, B, C and D), eight samples of local swabs from budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus), were collected from each establishment eight from cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and eight from lovebirds (Agapornis sp.). Isolation of enterobacteria is under the methodology used by Lopes et al. (2015) with modifications. The method used to study bacterial resistance was the Kirby-Bauer method, following the standards stipulated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Sixty-eight enterobacteria strains from ten different species, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus, Pantoea agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Providencia stuartii, Hafnia alvei, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Enterobacter sakasakii and Citrobacter amalonaticus, were isolated. P. agglomerans was the bacterium with the highest frequency of isolates from pet shop parrots, making up 23.5% of the isolates; the second-most isolated strain was P. mirabilis with 17.7%. In this study, 79% of the isolated strains were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials tested. Tetracycline proved to be the most resistant antimicrobial (44%), followed by polymyxin B (38%) and nalidixic acid (25%). Among the 68 strains, 19% did not show resistance to any of the classes of antimicrobials tested. The condition of multidrug resistance - resistance to ≥3 classes of antimicrobials - was observed in 18% of the isolated strains.(AU)


Os psittaciformes estão entre os animais de estimação mais populares devido sua inteligência, habilidade, além da facilidade de manutenção da espécie em pequenos ambientes. Contudo, a ausência de estímulos ambientais adequados gerados pelo confinamento, podem predispor esses animais a quadros característicos de estresse, deixando-os susceptíveis ao desencadeamento de várias doenças dentre elas se destacam as de origem bacteriana. O objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar uma pesquisa de enterobactérias e avaliar o perfil de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de psitacídeos de pet shop da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram coletadas 96 amostras de quatro pet shops (os quais foram classificados em A, B, C e D), sendo coletados de cada estabelecimento oito amostras de suabes clocais oriundos de periquitos australianos (Melopsittacus undulatus), oito de calopsitas (Nymphicus hollandicus) e oito de agapornis (Agapornis sp.). O isolamento de enterobactérias está de acordo com a metodologia utilizada por Lopes et al. (2015) com modificações. O método utilizado para o estudo de resistência bacteriana foi o de Kirby-Bauer, seguindo os padrões estipulados pela Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Foi isolado um total de 68 cepas de enterobactérias, de dez espécies diferentes, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter diversus, Pantoea agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Providencia stuartii, Hafnia alvei, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Enterobacter sakasakii e Citrobacter amalonaticus. Pantoea agglomerans foi a bactéria com maior percentagem de frequência dos isolados de psitacídeos de pet shop, perfazendo um total de 23,5% dos isolados, a segunda cepa mais isolada foi Proteus mirabilis com 17,7%. Neste estudo 79% das cepas isoladas foram resistentes a pelo menos uma classe de antimicrobianos testados, tetraciclina demonstrou ser o antimicrobiano com maior resistência (44%), seguido da polimixina B (38%) e do ácido nalidíxico (25%). Dentre as 68 cepas isoladas, 19% não apresentaram resistência a qualquer uma das classes de antimicrobianos testadas. A condição de multirresistência, ou seja, resistência a ≥3 classes de antimicrobianos foi observado em 18% das cepas isoladas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Parrots/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Animals, Wild/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacterial Zoonoses
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1092-1106, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878616

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is a major global concern and challenge in the 21st century. Enterobacteriaceae are one of the important pathogens of hospital-acquired infections. With the increasing use of antibiotics in clinical practice, a variety of drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, especially multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have emerged, posing an increasingly serious threat to human health. Bacteria can acquire antibiotic resistance by mutation or horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes, and it is often possible to predict the corresponding resistance phenotype from known mechanism. However, recent findings suggest that genetic background and environmental factors could alter the expression of specific resistance genes and that a given genotype does not always generate the expected resistance phenotype. The genotype-phenotype segregation greatly hampers our ability to predict antibiotic resistance phenotype from a genetic perspective. In this review, we explore the genetic and environmental regulation of the expression of antibiotic resistance genes in a variety of Enterobacteriaceae, with the aim to provide scientific evidence for genetic prediction of antibiotic resistance phenotype and clinical guidance on drug use.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Cross Infection , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Humans
15.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(4): 1-10, 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1337645

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Education and awareness-raising are global health policy tools to modify public behavior towards antibiotic resistance. Considering the high frequency of antibiotic use and self-medication in Egypt, together with the lack of an awareness agenda, our objectives were to assess the knowledge and practices related to antibiotic use and resistance among patients attending dental clinics, and to evaluate the changes in knowledge following a specially designed one-on-one educational session. Material and Methods: A convenience sample of 310 dental patients participated in this study. A modified questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and practices related to antibiotic use and resistance. Second-year dental students were trained to administer the questionnaire and to use the educational materials they designed to raise awareness. Following the education session, patients completed another similar questionnaire to assess the changes in their knowledge. Results: Increasing awareness of antibiotic resistance can be an effective way to address the antibiotic resistance crisis. More than half of the participants (55.6%) did not know whether antibiotics treat diseases caused by bacterial or viral infections. The majority of participants (85.5%) had taken antibiotics during the last year, and (50.5%) of them had taken the same antibiotic more than once. Higher educational levels of the participants were significantly associated with a higher level of knowledge. Statistically significant increase in the percentages of correct answers to all questions were observed after the educational sessions. Conclusion: The one-on-one educational session is an effective approach to address the antibiotic resistance crisis (AU)


Objetivos: Educação e conscientização são ferramentas de política de saúde global para modificar o comportamento do público em relação à resistência aos antibióticos. Considerando a alta frequência de uso de antibióticos e automedicação no Egito, juntamente com a falta de uma agenda de conscientização, nossos objetivos foram avaliar o conhecimento e as práticas relacionadas ao uso de antibióticos e resistência entre pacientes atendidos em clínicas odontológicas, e avaliar as mudanças em conhecimento após uma sessão educacional especialmente projetada para este assunto. Material e Métodos: Uma amostra de 310 pacientes odontológicos participou deste estudo. Um questionário modificado foi usado para avaliar o conhecimento e as práticas relacionadas ao uso e resistência a antibióticos. Os alunos do segundo ano do curso de odontologia foram treinados para aplicar o questionário e usar os materiais educacionais que elaboraram para aumentar a conscientização. Após a sessão educacional, os pacientes responderam a outro questionário semelhante para avaliar as mudanças em seus conhecimentos. Resultados: Aumentar a conscientização sobre a resistência aos antibióticos pode ser uma forma eficaz de lidar com a crise de resistência aos antibióticos. Mais da metade dos participantes (55,6%) não sabia se os antibióticos tratam doenças causadas por infecções bacterianas ou virais. A maioria dos participantes (85,5%) havia tomado antibiótico no último ano e (50,5%) deles havia tomado o mesmo antibiótico mais de uma vez. O maior nível de escolaridade dos participantes foi significativamente associado a um maior nível de conhecimento. Aumentos estatisticamente significativos nas porcentagens de respostas corretas para todas as questões foram observados após a sessão educacional. Conclusão: A sessão educacional individual é uma abordagem eficaz para lidar com a crise de resistência aos antibióticos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Knowledge , Anti-Bacterial Agents
16.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(3): 1-6, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1281111

ABSTRACT

Objective: Antibiotic resistance is one of the most threatening public health problems of 20th century. Along with physicians, dental practitioners also routinely prescribe medications for oral and dental infections. However, previous studies have shown that dental surgeons often prescribe antibiotics where new evidence have suggested other treatment measures. Since students in their clinical year prescribe antibiotics under supervision, it is important to understand if they are aware of severity of antibiotic resistance and its impact. Hence, the study aimed to assess awareness of antibiotic use and resistance amongst dental students. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 3rd and 4th year dental students of 4 colleges of Pakistan. A validated questionnaire was adopted from WHO and PHE (Public Health England). It included true or false and Likert scale questions relating to knowledge and attitude of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. Results:Out of 396 responses, majority students were not aware of the terms superbugs (69.7%) and AMR (79%). 89.6% thought that humans can become resistant to antibiotics. 88.6% agreed that antibiotic resistance is a major threat. 61.4% thought they couldn't do much to stop antibiotic resistance. 87.6% agreed that doctors should only prescribe antibiotics when needed. Conclusion: Overall dental students were aware of antibiotic use and importance of antibiotic resistance although their knowledge associated with antibiotic resistance was not satisfactory. It is vital that students must be taught about mechanism of antibiotic resistance and good prescription practices. (AU)


Objetivo: A resistência antibiótica é um dos problemas de saúde pública mais ameaçadores do século 20. Assim como os médicos, os profissionais de odontologia também prescrevem rotineiramente medicamentos para infecções bucais e dentárias. No entanto, estudos prévios apontam que cirurgiões-dentistas prescrevem antibióticos para casos nos quais, as mais recentes evidências, indicam outros tipos de intervenção. Considerando que os estudantes prescrevem antibióticos durante estágios clínicos, sob supervisão, torna-se pertinente averiguar se os mesmos estão cientes da severidade da resistência antibiótica e as suas implicações. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o grau de conscientização quanto ao uso e a resistancia antibiótica entre os estudantes de odontologia. Material e Métodos: Pesquisa transversal foi conduzida entre os estudantes do 3o e 4o ano em 4 universidades do Paquistão. Foram utilizados questionários validados pela Organização mundial de Saúde e Saúde pública da Inglaterra. Estes incluíram perguntas de verdadeiro ou falso e escala relacionadas ao conhecimento e aplicação de antibióticos e resistência à estes. Resultados: Dentre as 396 respostas, a maioria dos estudantes não conhecia o termo superbactéria (69.7%) e AMR (79%). 89,6% pensaram que humanos podem se tornar resistentes à antibióticos. 88,6% concordaram que a resistência à antibióticos é uma grande ameaça. 61,4% pensaram que eles não havia muito o que eles pudessem fazer para combater a resistência antibiótica. 87.,6% concordaram que médicos devem prescrever antibióticos apenas quando estritamente necessário. Conclusão: No geral, estudantes de Odontologia estão cientes do uso de antibióticos e a importância da resistência antimicrobiana embora o seu conhecimento a cerca do assunto não seja satisfatório. É vital que os estudantes sejam orientados sobre os mecanismos de resistência antibiótica e as práticas adequadas de prescrição desses medicamentos (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Dental , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Knowledge
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200663, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278440

ABSTRACT

Abstract Our study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess., belonging to the Myrtaceae family and native to the Brazilian Atlantic forest. The volatile compounds in the essential oil were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-MS; 36 compounds accounted for 78.80% of the total oil content. The major compounds were β-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, globulol, and (δ-cadinene. We evaluated their antimicrobial potential of the essential oil and toxicity to Artemia salina. The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was evaluated against 12 microorganisms using the broth microdilution method. Our results showed moderate inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MIC, 250 and 125 μg.mL-1, respectively) and toxicity to A. salina (LC50, 125.64 μg.mL-1). Our results establish the biological activity of the essential oil obtained from E. pyriformis.


Subject(s)
Oils, Volatile , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Anti-Infective Agents
18.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 473-479, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342258

ABSTRACT

Background: The Sungbo Eredo Monument is an ancient public work with a system of defensive walls and ditches located in Eredo Local Council Development Area of Epe, Lagos State, southwest Nigeria. A huge section of the monument cuts through the Augustine University campus, forming two-sided vertical walls with a deep ridge in-between. The objective of this investigative study is to determine the microbial profile of soil samples from the monument in the University campus. Methodology: Soil samples were collected from the topsoil at a depth of 7.5cm from four randomly selected points along the edge of the monument. The samples were transported to the microbiology laboratory of the Department of Biological Sciences of Augustine University for analysis. Samples were cultured on Nutrient agar (NA) and incubated aerobically for 24-48 hours for bacteria isolation and on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar (SDA) for 72 hours for fungi isolation. Bacterial colonies on NA were preliminarily identified to genus level by Gram reaction and conventional biochemical test scheme for Gram-positive (catalase, coagulase, starch hydrolysis) and Gram-negative isolates (oxidase, urease test, indole, methyl red, Voges Proskauer and sugar fermentation tests). Fungi colonies on SDA were identified using conventional macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Antibiotic susceptibility test of the bacterial isolates to selected antibiotics was done using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: A total of twenty-three bacterial isolates in four genera; Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Cellobiococcus and Micrococcus and nine fungal isolates in three genera; Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Botrytis were identified from the cultures. The bacterial isolates were sensitive (>50% sensitivity) to only gentamicin and ofloxacin, with 65.2% and 78.3% sensitivity rates respectively, while they were largely resistant to all other antibiotics such as ceftriaxone, erythromycin, cefuroxime, cloxacillin, ceftazidime and augmentin, with resistance rates of 65.2%, 65.2%, 73.9%, 82.6%, 86.9%, 91.3% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this investigative study revealed the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (mainly Gram-positive) and fungi on the archaeological monument of Augustine University, adding to the existing data on microbial spectrum of archaeological monuments that could be useful for unraveling human cultural habits and microbe-related human diseases. However, further studies on molecular identification of these microbial spectrum will be required to ascertain their genetic relatedness and ancestral phylogeny, which will be useful for archaeologists in their study of the Sungbo-Eredo ancestral monument.


Subject(s)
Humans , Archaeology , Soil , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Nigeria
19.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 22(4): 515-525, 2021.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1342281

ABSTRACT

Background: Pig production in Uganda is highly constrained by rampant piglet mortalities with diarrhea being a key feature. The present study was conducted to determine possible involvement of Escherichia coli (E. coli) as agents of diarrhea in piglets and elucidate the factors for their spread and virulence, towards development of mitigation strategies in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study carried out from January to August 2020 on pre- and post-weaned piglets from households in Kayunga and Mityana districts of Central Uganda, selected by snowballing method to redundancy. Data about herd management and risk factors for colibacillosis were collected from selected farmers in the two districts. A total of 179 faecal samples were collected from randomly selected neonatal and pre-weaning piglets for bacteriological isolation of Escherichia coli. Virulence (enterotoxin and fimbrial) genes from the isolates were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results: From the 179 faecal samples, a total of 158 (88.3%) E. coli isolates were obtained. Virulence gene markers were detected in 18.4% (29/158) of the isolates. Among the investigated genes encoding for enterotoxin production, STb was the most prevalent (16/158, 10.13%), followed by STa (12/158, 7.59%), while gene for LT was not detected. The gene coding for F4 adhesin was the only one detected while F18 adhesin was not detected from the isolates. On multiple logistic regression analysis, only tertiary educational level (OR=0.141; 95% CI=0.30-0.666; p=0.013) and infrequent use of antibiotics (OR=0.231, 95% CI=0.062-0.859; p=0.029) among the farmers, were the two factors significantly protective of the piglets from diarrhoea. Conclusion: This study reports a high prevalence of enterotoxin gene markers among E. coli isolates in piglets and revealed the potential role of these bacteria in the aetiology of piglet diarrhoea and mortalities in Uganda. Additionally, this study identified risk factors that can be useful in formulating treatment and control strategies of infection caused by these bacteria. Further studies are needed to identify more adhesins these E. coli isolates employ for intestinal colonization, a step that will help inform vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Virulence Factors , Diarrhea , Escherichia coli , Uganda
20.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2307-2314, 01-11-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148392

ABSTRACT

The objective was to describe the infection profile of multidrug-resistant organisms of newborns (NB), admitted to the neonatal intermediate care unit and the intensive care unit. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study of epidemiological nature, composed of 931 medical records and/or Hospital Infection Control Committee notification records, during the period of June to September 2012. Eight hundred and seventy newborns (NB) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care units and to intermediate care, with a final sample of 45 NB presenting bloodstream infections (BSI) caused by multiresistant microorganisms. From the analyses, the following results were highlighted: gestational age < 37 weeks in 42 (93.3%); low weight at birth between < 750g to 1.499g. The profile for resistance to enterobacteriaceae was 100% for cefepime and ceftazidime concerning non-fermenting gram-negative bacteria, it was found that (100%) of P.aeruginosa was resistant to aztreonam, (100%) of S. maltophilia resistant to ceftazidime and to gentamycin, however, (1.1%) of S. aureus isolates were resistant to oxacillin and (12.5%) of S. haemolyticus demonstrated a confirmed resistance to vancomycin. These results are worrying and express the importance of correct monitoring, and the need for producing a propaedeutic protocol in consensus with the multiprofessional team through the Hospital Infection Control Committee and managers, which is then implemented and regularly assessed by the service.


Objetivou-se descrever a infecção por microorganismo multirresistente em recém-nascidos na unidade de cuidados intermediários neonatais e unidade de cuidados intensivos de referência. Tratou-se de estudo transversal de natureza epidemiológica, composto por 931 fichas e/ou prontuários de notificação da Comissão de Controle de Infecção Hospitalar (CCIH), no período junho a setembro de 2012. Foram 870 recém-nascidos (RN), admitidos nas unidades de terapia intensiva neonatal e de cuidados intermediários, como amostra final 45 RN apresentaram infecção de corrente sanguínea por microorganismo multirresistente. Dessas análises destacam-se os resultados: idade gestacional < 37 semanas em 42 (93,3%); baixo peso ao nascer entre < 750g a 1.499g. O perfil de resistência à enterobactérias foi de 100% para o cefepime e ceftazidime, e para as bactérias gram-negativas não fermentadoras, verificou-se que (100%) da P.aeruginosa era resistente ao aztreonam, (100%) de S.maltophilia resistente à ceftazidima e à gentamicina; Entretanto, (1,1%) dos isolados de S. aureus eram resistentes à oxacilina e (12,5%) de S. haemolyticus conferiu resistência à vancomicina. Esses resultados são preocupantes e demonstram a relevância do monitoramento, propondo a elaboração de protocolo propedêutico em consenso com a equipe multiprofissional, com a CCIH e gestores a ser implementado e avaliado, regularmente pelo serviço.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Microbial , Infant, Newborn , Child Health Services , Infections
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