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1.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 38(3): 406-411, jul.-sep. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | INS-PERU, LILACS, LIPECS, INS-PERU | ID: biblio-1357387

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de Helicobacter pylori a 5 antibióticos de referencia, en pacientes dispépticos del Servicio de Gastroenterología del Hospital Cayetano Heredia y la Clínica Cayetano Heredia en Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se colectaron biopsias gástricas de 500 pacientes diagnosticados con dispepsia. A partir de estas biopsias, se aislaron y cultivaron 273 cepas de H. pylori para confirmar la infección mediante el diagnóstico histológico y por cultivo. Finalmente, se analizó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana mediante el método de microdilución en caldo y se evaluaron los perfiles de resistencia de cada antimicrobiano y los patrones de multirresistencia. Resultados: El diagnóstico de H. pylori por cultivo, comparado con la prueba histológica, reportó una sensibilidad del 83,8%, una especificidad del 89,9% y un área bajo la curva de 0,87 (IC95%: 0,84 a 0,90). La frecuencia de la infección en los servicios de gastroenterología del Hospital y la Clínica Cayetano Heredia fueron del 56,6% (237/419) y 44,4% (36/81), respectivamente. Según el Hospital/Clínica, se determinó la resistencia para amoxicilina (45,1%/29,6%), levofloxacino (71,8%/74,1%) y metronidazol (69,8%/63,0%). Los patrones de resistencia a múltiples antimicrobianos demostraron que las resistencias (dobles y triples) más frecuentes fueron con levofloxacino, metronidazol y amoxicilina. Conclusiones: La resistencia antimicrobiana de H. pylori ha aumentado con respecto a los años previos. Además, la resistencia múltiple de H. pylori presenta altas frecuencias en pacientes infectados. El método de microdilución en caldo podría ser implementado en los diferentes hospitales del Perú como una herramienta de vigilancia de la resistencia de H. pylori a los antimicrobianos.


ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to 5 reference antibiotics, in a population of 500 dyspeptic patients from the Gastroenterology Service of the Cayetano Heredia Hospital (n = 419) and the Cayetano Heredia Clinic (n = 81) in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods: Gastric biopsies were collected from 500 patients diagnosed with dyspepsia. From these biopsies, 273 H. pylori strains were isolated and cultured to confirm H. pylori infection by histological and culture diagnosis. Finally, antimicrobial susceptibility was analyzed using the broth microdilution method, and the resistance profiles of each antimicrobial and multi-resistance patterns were evaluated by statistical analysis. Results: The diagnosis of H. pylori infection by culture, compared to histological testing, reported a sensitivity of 83.8%, a specificity of 89.9% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84 to 0.90). The frequency of infection in the gastroenterology services of the Cayetano Heredia Hospital and Clinic was 56.6% (237/419) and 44.4% (36/81), respectively. An increase in antimicrobial resistance to Amoxicillin (45.1% / 29.6%), Levofloxacin (71.8%/ 74.1%) and Metronidazole (69.8% / 63.0%) was found in the Hospital and the Clinic, respectively. Multiple resistance patterns showed that the most frequent resistance (double and triple) was to Levofloxacin, Metronidazole and Amoxicillin. Conclusions: The antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori has increased compared to that reported in previous years. Furthermore, H. pylori multiple resistance presents high frequencies in infected patients. The broth microdilution method could be implemented in different hospitals in Peru as a surveillance tool for H. pylori antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Helicobacter pylori , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Diagnosis
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 598-604, May-June 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278360

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to evaluate the antiparasitic resistance against horse nematodes in the South of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The results concerning the tests of anthelmintic efficacy on horses, stored in the database of the Parasitic Diseases Study Group (GEEP) - Veterinary Faculty, at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), were carried out in the laboratory from 2018 to 2019. Stool samples were received from farms with breeding of adult female and male Criollo horses naturally infected, located in municipalities in the country's southern region. The antiparasitic agents tested were Triclorfon + Fenbendazole, Closantel + Albendazole, Ivermectin + Praziquantel, Fenbendazole, Ivermectin, Doramectin, Mebendazole and Moxidectin. Techniques such as Gordon and Whitlock, Coproculture and Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test were performed. Of all the antiparasitic drugs tested, it was observed that only treatments with Ivermectin 2% showed desired values. The observed results indicate that resistance to macrocyclic lactones is usual in equine parasites in this Brazilian region, despite the results with isolated Ivermectin.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a resistência antiparasitária contra nematodeos de equinos no sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os resultados referentes aos testes de eficácia anti-helmíntica em cavalos, armazenados no banco de dados do Grupo de Estudos de Doenças Parasitárias (GEEP) - Faculdade de Veterinária, da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), foram realizados em laboratório, no período de 2018 a 2019. Amostras de fezes foram recebidas de fazendas com criação de cavalos Crioulos adultos fêmeas e machos naturalmente infectados, localizadas em municípios da região Sul do país. Os agentes antiparasitários testados foram triclorfon + fenbendazol, closantel + ivermectina + praziquantel, fenbendazol, ivermectina, doramectina, mebendazol e moxidectina. Técnicas como Gordon e Whitlock, coprocultura e teste de redução da contagem de ovos fecais foram realizadas. De todos os antiparasitários testados, observou-se que apenas os tratamentos com ivermectina 2% apresentaram os valores desejados. Os resultados indicam que a resistência às lactonas macrocíclicas é comum em parasitas equinos nessa região brasileira, apesar dos resultados com ivermectina isolada.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Macrolides/analysis , Horses/parasitology , Anthelmintics/analysis , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Brazil , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Antiparasitic Agents/analysis
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e509, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280334

ABSTRACT

La leptospirosis es una zoonosis con potencial epidémico y de difícil diagnóstico que requiere un manejo integral para orientar las medidas de prevención y control; sin embargo, una de las dificultades es la existencia de más de 300 serovares, la supervivencia de la bacteria en el ambiente por más de 180 días y la importancia del agua como vehículo de transmisión. Esto asociado con los efectos adversos de los antibióticos y su efecto sobre la multirresistencia generada por la mayoría de las bacterias, hace que se evalúen nuevas alternativas a partir de la biodiversidad. Por lo tanto, el objetivo de este artículo es abordar la leptospirosis y su diagnóstico enfatizando en el control convencional de la infección y las alternativas de tratamiento a partir del uso de plantas medicinales. Para esto se realizó una revisión exhaustiva de artículos en bases de datos. La información encontrada permitió establecer los aspectos relevantes de la enfermedad, su diagnóstico y tratamiento, tanto con antimicrobianos convencionales como frente a nuevas alternativas de origen natural. Se concluye que es importante realizar investigaciones orientadas hacia la búsqueda de principios activos que puedan contribuir al control de Leptospira spp., agente causal de la leptospirosis, una de las zoonosis más importantes por su impacto en salud humana, veterinaria y del ecosistema(AU)


Leptospirosis is a potentially epidemic zoonosis of difficult diagnosis which requires comprehensive management to indicate appropriate prevention and control measures. However, some of the difficulties are the existence of more than 300 serovars, survival of the bacteria in the environment for more than 180 days, and the role of water as a route of transmission. The above situation, alongside the adverse effects of antibiotics and their effect on the multi-drug resistance developed by most bacteria, lead to the search for new alternatives based on biodiversity. The purpose of the study was therefore to address leptospirosis and its diagnosis highlighting conventional control of the infection as well as treatment options based on the use of medicinal plants. To achieve this end, an exhaustive review was conducted of papers included in databases. The information obtained made it possible to determine the relevant aspects of the disease, its diagnosis and its treatment with conventional antimicrobials as well as new alternatives of a natural origin. Conclusions point to the importance of conducting research aimed at the search for active principles potentially contributing to control of Leptospira spp., the causative agent of leptospirosis, one of the most relevant zoonoses in terms of its impact on the health of humans, animals and the ecosystem(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Survivorship , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/drug therapy
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878979

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of drug resistance in Western medicine, the repeated administration of clinical first-line drugs becomes more severe. There are many factors leading to multidrug resistance(MDR), so it is very difficult to solve the problem. Since traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) has been used in the field of MDR in recent years, the research on the transporter-associated drug resistance and intervention of TCM has gradually become a hot spot. Therefore, in order to further explore the relationships among drug resistance, transporters, and TCM intervention, we review the relevant research progress in recent years and comb the achievements and limitations of this research at present. In the end, we put forward the research direction of changing body's ADME through the host's transporters and gastrointestinal flora, which provides new ideas for future research.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887903

ABSTRACT

Multi-drug resistance(MDR)refers to the loss of sensitivity of tumor cells to traditional chemotherapeutics agents under the mediation of various mechanisms,resulting in the reduction of chemotherapy efficacy.Current studies suggest that a variety of factors,including cell membrane transporter-mediated efflux of anti-tumor drugs,special microenvironment in tumor tissue,DNA self-repair and anti-apoptotic process,and epithelial-mesenchymal cell transformation,may contribute to the formation of MDR.Cell membrane transporter-mediated drug efflux refers to an increase in the amount of anti-tumor drug pumped out of the cell through the up-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter on tumor cell membrane,which reduces the concentration of the drug in the cell,thus forming MDR.An effective method to inhibit the efflux pump caused by overexpression of membrane transporters plays an important role in overcoming MDR.As a promising drug delivery system,multifunctional nanoparticles have demonstrated many advantages in antitumor therapy.Meanwhile,nanoparticles with tailored design are capable of overcoming MDR when combined with a variety of strategies.This paper described in detail the studies relevant to the use of multifunctional nano-sized drug delivery system combined with different strategies,such as co-delivery of agents,external responsiveness or target modification for intervention with efflux pump in order to reverse MDR.This paper provides reference for the development of nano-sized drug delivery system and the formulation of reversal strategy in the future.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Membrane , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Membrane Transport Proteins/therapeutic use , Multifunctional Nanoparticles , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1704-1709, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of ursane triterpenoids 3β,19α-dihydroxyursu-12-ene-23,28-dicarboxylic acid (Rotundioic acid, RA) on the sensitivity of adriamycin-resistant K562 cells (K562/ADM Cell) anti-tumor drug, and to explore the effect and mechanism of RA on the multidrug resistance of K562/ADM cells.@*METHODS@#CCK-8 method was used to detect the effect of RA on the sensitivity of K562 cells and K562/ADM cells to anti-tumor drug. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression level of mRNA and the protein in K562 and K562/ADM cells, and the effect of RA on the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp in K562/ADM cells was also detected; Western blot was used to detect the expression of p-JNK, p-p38 and p-ERK1/2 in K562/ADM cells.@*RESULTS@#RA could increased the sensitivity of K562/ADM cells to adriamycin(the reversal factor was 1.61 times), the difference showed statistically significantly (P<0.05); the resistance factor of K562/ADM to ADM was 41.76 times. The expression of MDR1 mRNA in K562 cells was extremely low, and the protein product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was almost not expressed; MDR1 mRNA and P-gp in K562/ADM cells were highly expressed; RA could down-regulate the expression levels of MDR1 and P-gp in K562/ADM cells. In addition, RA could upregulate the phosphorylation levels of p38 and ERK1/2 in K562/ADM cells, but it has no effect on the expression of p-JNK.@*CONCLUSION@#RA may participate in the regulation of MAPK signaling pathway by upregulating the expression levels of p-p38 and p-ERK1/2 in K562/ADM cells, and thus inhibit the transcription and translation levels of MDR1, and finally reverse the multidrug resistance of leukemia cells.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , K562 Cells
7.
Infectio ; 24(3): 149-154, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114858

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: los servicios de urgencias requieren de la toma de medidas eficaces y oportunas en el manejo de los pacientes, esto incluye el uso adecuado de antibióticos. La resistencia antimicrobiana dificulta la instauración de terapias empíricas adecuadas, por lo que su vigilancia toma un papel fundamental en los programas de optimización de uso de antimicrobianos. Objetivo: describir el perfil microbiológico y la resistencia antibiótica de los aislamientos urinarios obtenidos de pacientes adultos de los servicios de urgencias de 7 instituciones de tercer nivel de la ciudad de Manizales, durante el año 2018. Resultados: se recolectaron 1991 aislamientos urinarios, el microorganismo más frecuentemente aislado fue Escherichia coli con un 62%. Se encontraron altas tasas de resistencia a cefazolina, trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol, ciprofloxacina y ampicilina/sulbactam. La resistencia a nitrofurantoína y fosfomicina al igual que a carbapenémicos es baja para Escherichia coli. Los aislamientos urinarios de Pseudomonas aeruginosa muestran niveles de resistencia superiores al promedio nacional. Conclusiones: es importante individualizar el manejo antibiótico empírico, teniendo en cuenta la estratificación por severidad, la presencia de factores de riesgo para bacterias multidrogorresistentes, y la epidemiología local; los análisis de cada institución y los resultados de este trabajo, pueden ser utilizados para establecer conductas terapéuticas más precisas en los casos de infecciones del tracto urinario, mejorando los desenlaces de estos pacientes y los costos derivados de la atención en salud.


Abstract Introduction: patient management in emergency rooms require swift and effective clinical decisions; this includes choosing antibiotics correctly. Antimicrobial resistance impairs the adequate choice of empirical therapy, making the surveillance of utmost importance for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Objective: we aimed to describe the microbiological and antimicrobial resistance profile of urinary isolates obtained from adult patients of the emergency services of seven tertiary institutions in the city of Manizales, during the year 2018. Results: from a total of 1991 urinary tract isolates, 62% corresponded to Escherichia coli, the most common bacteria cultured from the emergency room. Susceptibility analysis revealed high resistance levels to cefazolin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin. Resistance to nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and carbapenems was low for Escherichia coli isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed antimicrobial resistance levels above national averages. Conclusions: empirical antibiotic therapy must be tailored on a patient by patient basis, taking into account the severity of the disease, risk factors for multi-drug resistance bacteria, the institutional and local epidemiology depicted in this work. By using these results, the adjustment of empirical antimicrobial regimens for urinary tract infections could improve clinical outcomes and reduce health care costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Therapeutics , Therapeutic Approaches , Risk Factors , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents
8.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e525, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149917

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En Colombia el control de la tuberculosis se ha visto amenazado por la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos y especialmente la tuberculosis multidrogorresistente. Objetivo: Determinar la resistencia global y perfiles de resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis a fármacos antituberculosos de primera línea y combinaciones. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, transversal, en el que se evaluaron 2 701 pacientes con tuberculosis en el Departamento del Atlántico (Colombia), durante los años 2011 a 2016. Se valoraron aspectos sociodemográficos, clínicos y condiciones de riesgo. Se realizó análisis de frecuencias relativas y absolutas, diferencia de proporciones ((2) y razón de prevalencias. Resultados: El 66,5 por ciento de los pacientes eran hombres, el 53 por ciento tenían entre 15 y 44 años de edad. El 47,34 por ciento con pérdida en el seguimiento y el 11,62 por ciento monorresistentes a isoniacida. La resistencia en casos nuevos fue 7,30 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 6,3-8,5), para este grupo la multidrogorresistencia fue de 1,1 por ciento; mientras que en los previamente tratados la resistencia fue de 18,27 por ciento (IC95 por ciento: 15,6- 22,4) y la multidrogorresistencia de 5,7 por ciento. Los factores asociados a resistencia fueron presencia de VIH/TB (RP= 2,6; p= 0,000), otros factores inmunosupresores (RP= 3,5; p= 0,009), contacto de paciente con tuberculosis multidrogorresistente (RP= 16; p= 0,000) y caso previamente tratado (RP= 2,24; p= 0,00). Conclusiones: Se evidencia un descenso en la resistencia global a rifampicina e isoniacida, así como en la prevalencia multidrogorresistente tanto en casos nuevos como en previamente tratados en la población estudiada; lo que genera una línea base para la toma de decisiones que permita continuar mejorando la vigilancia y control de la resistencia del M. tuberculosis a fármacos de primera línea, debido a los nuevos retos que este microorganismo representa para la salud pública(AU)


Introduction: Tuberculosis control in Colombia has been hampered by resistance to antituberculosis drugs and particularly by multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. Objective: Determine the overall resistance and resistance profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to first-line antituberculosis drugs and their combinations. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted of 2 701 tuberculosis patients from Atlántico Department in Colombia in the period 2011-2016. The evaluation included sociodemographic aspects, clinical characteristics and risk conditions. Data analysis was based on relative and absolute frequencies, proportion difference (x2) and prevalence ratio. Results: Of the total sample, 66.5 percent were men and 53 percent were aged 15-44 years. 47.34 percent were lost to follow-up and 11.62 percent were monoresistant to isoniazid. In new cases resistance was 7.30 percent (CI 95 percent: 6.3-8.5) and multi-drug resistance was 1.1 percent, whereas in previously treated cases resistance was 18.27 percent (CI 95 percent: 15.6-22.4) and multi-drug resistance was 5.7 percent. The factors associated to resistance were the presence of HIV/TB (AR= 2.6; p= 0.000), other immunosuppressive factors (AR= 3.5; p= 0.009), contact with multi-drug resistant tuberculosis patient (AR= 16; p= 0.000) and previously treated case (AR= 2.24; p= 0.00). Conclusions: A reduction is observed in overall resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid, as well as in the prevalence of multi-drug resistance, both in new cases and in previously treated cases, which creates a baseline for the taking of decisions aimed at the continuing improvement of the surveillance and control of M. tuberculosis resistance to first-line drugs, due to the new challenges posed by this microorganism to public health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
10.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(2): 172-180, mar.-abr. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249889

ABSTRACT

Resumen La Organización Mundial de la Salud estima que en 2050 la resistencia bacteriana ocasionará 10 millones de muertes. Como parte del Plan de Acción Mundial sobre la Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos propuso redes de laboratorios especializados, para conservar cepas y optimizar el uso de los antimicrobianos. En un estudio de 2019 se identificó que las principales bacterias del grupo ESKAPE (con alta resistencia a los antibióticos más usados) que causan infecciones en hospitales de México son Klebsiella spp. resistentes a múltiples fármacos (MDR) y productoras de betalactamasa de espectro extendido (BLEE), Enterobacter spp. BLEE, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MDR, Staphylococcus aureus meticilinorresistente y Enterococcus faecium resistente a vancomicina. Con la información de resistencia a los fármacos se recomiendan esquemas para tratar la infección causada por Helicobacter pylori, relacionado con el desarrollo de cáncer y cuya prevalencia en la población adulta de Latinoamérica se estima es de entre 60 y 70 %.


Abstract The World Health Organization estimates that bacterial resistance will cause 10 million deaths by 2050. As part of the Global Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance, it proposed networks of specialized laboratories in order to preserve strains and optimize the use of antimicrobials. In a 2019 study, the main bacteria of the ESKAPE group (which are highly-resistant to the most widely used antibiotics) that cause infections in Mexican hospitals were identified to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp., ESBL-producing Enterobacter spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. With information on drug resistance, regimens are recommended to treat infection caused by Helicobacter pylori, a pathogen related to the development of cancer and whose prevalence in the adult population of Latin America is estimated to range between 60 and 70%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Latin America/epidemiology
11.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 1(1): 15-23, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258716

ABSTRACT

Background: The growing incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has become a public health crisis. This work aims to evaluate the in-vitro activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), alone and in combination with the antimicrobials amikacin and ceftazidime, against MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from clinical cases in Zagazig University Hospitals. Methods: In a cross sectional study, MDR GNB were isolated from different clinical specimens and were tested to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bactericidal activity of AgNPs using broth microdilution method. The effect of combining subMIC levels of AgNPs (MIC/2 and MIC/4) with amikacin and ceftazidime, was also determined by broth microdilution. Results: A total of 63 MDR GNB was obtained during the study period (22 E. coli, 17 Klebsiella, 15 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 9 Acinetobacter isolates). AgNPs demonstrated a bactericidal effect on all tested isolates with an MBC/MIC ratio of less than 4. When combined with amikacin, a synergistic effect was demonstrated on all tested E.coli and Klebsiella isolates at AgNPs MIC/2 and on 45.4%, 40% and 77.8% of E.coli, P.aeruginosa and Acinetobacter isolates, respectively at MIC/4. In combination with ceftazidime, AgNPs exhibited a synergistic effect on 100% of E. coli and 88.2% Klebsiella at both MIC/2 and MIC/4 and on 40% of P. aeruginosa isolates at AgNPs MIC/4. Conclusions: AgNPs exert a bactericidal activity on MDR GNB as well as a synergistic effect when combined with amikacin and ceftazidime suggesting them as a new weapon in the war against MDR GNB


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple , Egypt , Enterobacteriaceae , Nanoparticles , Silver
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is one of the major public health problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of an efflux pump gene adeJ for the multidrug resistance of A. baumannii clinical isolates.METHODS: Two groups (MDRAB and SAB) of A. baumannii clinical isolates were studied. The SAB group consisted of strains that did not meet the criteria of MDRAB and were susceptible to more categories of antibiotics than MDRAB. Antimicrobial susceptibility results obtained by VITEKII system were used in data analysis and bacterial group allocation. We performed real-time reverse transcription PCR to determine relative expression of adeJ. We compared relative expression of adeJ in comparison groups by considering two viewpoints: i) MDRAB and SAB groups and ii) susceptible and non-susceptible groups for each antibiotic used in this study.RESULTS: The mean value of relative expression of adeJ of MDRAB and SAB groups was 1.4 and 0.92, respectively, and showed significant difference (P=0.002). The mean values of relative expression of adeJ of susceptible and non-susceptible groups to the antibiotics cefepime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, tigecycline, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, and gentamicin showed statistically significant differences.CONCLUSION: The overexpression of adeIJK might contribute to the multi-drug resistance in A. baumannii clinical isolates. Further, the overexpression of adeIJK might be one of the factors contributing to the resistance to numerous antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftazidime , Ciprofloxacin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Gentamicins , Imipenem , Piperacillin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Reverse Transcription , Statistics as Topic
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the effect of adriamycin (ADM), idelalisib or ADM and their combination on cell proliferation and intracellular concentration of ADM, and to explore the reversal effect of idelalisib on drug resistance to ADM.@*METHODS@#The K562 and K562/ADM cells were respectively treated with ADM and idelalisib at different concentrations. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC@*RESULTS@#The cell survival rates were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner when the cells were treated with different doses of ADM (0.001-10.000 mg/L ). The IC@*CONCLUSIONS@#Idelalisib exerts effect on inhibition of the proliferation in myeloid leukemia K562 and K562/ADM cells, which may partially reverse the drug resistance of K562/ADM cells to ADM. The mechanisms for the effect of idelalisib may be related to increasing the accumulation of ADM and inducing the cell apoptosis in the K562 and K562/ADM cells.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Cell Proliferation , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myeloid , Purines , Quinazolinones
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878785

ABSTRACT

To prepare peptide-modified chitosan tetramethylprazine nanoparticles(FGF-CS-TMP-NPS) and investigate its reversal effect on multidrug resistance in tumor cells. The pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs were prepared by ion crosslinking method, and their physicochemical properties were investigated. Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR)(MCF-7, MCF-7/ADR, K562 and K562/ADR) and drug-resistant related protein P-gp. MCF-7/ADR and K562/ADR were selected as cell models. The cytotoxicity of pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs, the multiple of cell resistance to adriamycin, the reversal resistance index of pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs to doxorubicin and the sensitization of pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs to doxorubicin were detected by MTT assay. After MCF-7/ADR and K562/ADR were treated with pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs, the expression changes of P-gp were detected by Western blot. The encapsulation efficiency and drug loading of pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs were 37.66%± 0.53% and 3.25%± 0.34% respectively in HPLC. The nanoparticles showed an average particle size of(150.50±9.3) nm, polymer dispersity index of(0.059±0.007) and Zeta potential of(19.30±2.02) mV as detected by laser particle size analyzer. The nanoparticles were spherical and well dispersed under transmission electron microscope. Western blot results showed that EGFR was positively expressed in MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells, while negatively expressed in K562 and K562/ADR cells. P-gp was highly expressed in MCF-7/ADR and K562/ADR, while negatively expressed in MCF-7 and K562. pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs had a weak effect on MCF-7/ADR and K562/ADR. The adriamycin resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells was 108.36 times, and that of K562/ADR cells was more than 100 times. When IC_(85) of pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs was used as the administration concentration, the reversion index of MCF-7/ADR and K562/ADR cells was 3.68 and 1.87, respectively. pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs could enhance the sensitivity of adriamycin to MCF-7/ADR cells in a positive correlation with the concentration, and the sensitivity was significantly higher than that of K562/ADR cells. Western blot results showed that the expression level of P-gp in MCF-7/ADR cells decreased significantly after treatment with pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs, while the expression level of P-gp in K562/ADR cells did not change significantly. Experimental results show that pEGF-CS-TMP-NPs have an active targeting effect on MCF-7/ADR cells with high EGFR expression, and can effectively reverse the multidrug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells. Active targeting effect is related to the peptides modification of nanoparticles, and the mechanism of reversing tumor MDR may be achieved by down-regulating the expression level of P-gp.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Chitosan , Doxorubicin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , Nanoparticles , Peptides , Pyrazines
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829046

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of Bmi-1 gene silencing on drug resistance of leukemia cell K562/ADR and to explore its possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#After two sequences of Bmi-1-siRNA were transfected into drug-resistant K562/ADR cells, the mRNA and protein expressions of Bmi-1 gene were detected. After Bmi-1 gene silencing the expression of P-gp and MDR1 were detected and the accumulation of doxorubicin in K562/ADR cells were detected by flow cytometry to determine the effect of Bmi-1 gene silencing on drug resistance of K562/ADR cells. The protein expression of NF-κB was analyzed after Bmi-1 gene silencing. Then after K562/ADR cells were treated with NF-κB inhibitor PDTC, the protein expression of P-gp and its functional changes were analyzed to determine the effect of NF-κB on drug resistance of leukemia cells. The protein expressions of PTEN, AKT and p-AKT after Bmi-1 gene silencing were detected and the effect of Bmi-1 gene silencing on PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in drug-resistant cells was determined. After K562/ADR cells were treated with PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitor LY294002, the protein expressions of NF-κB and P-gp were analyzed to determine the regulation of AKT on the expression of NF-κB and P-gp. The protein expressions of AKT, p-AKT, NF-κB and P-gp were detected after the Bmi-1-siRNA transfected cells were treated by PTEN inhibitor BPV. Above-mentioned expression of mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, and the protein expression was detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#The expression of Bmi-1 gene in K562/ADR cells decreased at both mRNA and protein levels and the doxorubicin accumulation increased after Bmi-1 gene silencing. The expression of MDR1/P-gp in Bmi-1-siRNA transfected cells was lower than that in K562/ADR cells (P<0.05). After Bmi-1 gene silencing, the activity of NF-κB decreased. The activity of NF-κB and P-gp expression was inhibited and the function of P-gp in K562/ADR cells was reduced by using NF-κB inhibitor (PDTC). The protein expression of PTEN increased while the protein expression of p-AKT decreased after Bmi-1 gene silencing (P<0.05). The protein expressions of p-AKT, P-gp and the activity of NF-κB were inhibited significantly by using PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 (P<0.05). After the Bmi-1-siRNA transfected cells were treated by PTEN inhibitor BPV, the activity of NF-κB and the protein expressions of P-gp were restored.@*CONCLUSION@#Bmi-1 plays a key role in MDR-mediated multidrug resistance in K562/ADR cells, which may be mediated by activating PTEN/AKT pathway to regulate NF-κB.


Subject(s)
Doxorubicin , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Humans , K562 Cells , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 7
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1064-1068, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827160

ABSTRACT

Abstract  Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a malignant myeloproliferative tumor which is originating from hematopoietic stem cells. Chemotherapy is the preferred made of treatment for the disease. However, in recent years, more and more patients have multidrug resistance (MDR) during treatment, which is the main cause of failure treatment, therefore, the search for effective reversal agents has important clinical significance. Traditional Chinese medicine derived reversal agents have the characteristics of multiple targets, low toxicity and high efficiency, which can reverse the drug resistance through different mechanisms, and the research potential is unlimited. In recent years, it has been widely concerned by scholars at home and abroad, especially the research on physcion, emodin, curcumin, matrine, gambogic acid, oridonin, ligustrazine, solanine and other monomers, which has made great advance. In this reviwe, the recent research advance on the reversal of MDR in chronic myeloid leukemia by Chinese medicine monomer is summarized briefly.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
18.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 57(3): 31-43, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1262015

ABSTRACT

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI), an infection that disproportionately affects women, is commonly caused by bacteria. Emergence of multi-drug resistant urinary tract infections is a serious health issue with significant maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria and associated factors among reproductive age women with significant bacteriuria. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2016 on 424 study subjects in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Data were collected using pretested questionnaire. Morning midstream urine samples were collected and processed following standard operating procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done following Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute 2014 guidelines. Samples were tested for cell surface hydrophobicity, biofilm production, extended spectrum betalactamases and carbapenemases production. Results: The prevalence of UTI among suspected reproductive age women was 22.9%. E. coli was the most frequent isolate with a rate of 57% among isolated bacteria followed by Klebsiella species (24.7%). Over 90% of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. Resistance pattern for ampicillin was 100% followed by ticarcillin (92.4%) and colistin (86%) while less resistance rate was found for imipenem(13%). Multivariate analysis revealed that risk factors such as previous history of hospitalization, extended spectrum betalactamase production and strong biofilm production were significantly associated with multidrug resistance (p <0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) among isolates of UTI in the study was high and this correlates with the prevalence of virulence phenotypes. Gram-negative organisms were the most common causes of UTIs


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple , Ethiopia , Reproductive History , Urinary Tract Infections , Women
19.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 57(3): 45-55, 2019. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1262016

ABSTRACT

Background: Pediatric patients are at increased risk of nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant pathogens which are more prevalent in the hospital environment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates and associated factors in pediatric patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from March to August, 2016. Data included sociodemographic and clinical variables in patients clinically suspected of having nosocomial infections and collected using a structured questionnaire. Bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility test was done with standard microbiological methods. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20 and p value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Out of 939 children admitted to the hospital, 384 patients (40.9%) were clinically suspected and had 462 nosocomial infections. Blood stream infection was the most common site of nosocomial infections. Culture confirmed nosocomial infections were reported in 82 patients (21.4%; 95% CI, 17.2-25.8%) with 88 isolates. Among the most frequently isolated bacteria, 21 (23.9%) were Klebsiella spp, and 16 (18.2%) were S. aureus, 62.5% of which were methicillin resistant. Among all bacterial pathogens, 88.9% were multi-drug resistant. Extremely high (97.9%) multi-drug resistance was associated with Gram negative bacteria. Among these, all isolates, except E. coli, were 100% multi-drug resistant. Long hospital stay and malnutrition were significantly associated with nosocomial infections. Conclusion: The high prevalence of nosocomial infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria suggests the need for proper implementation of the nosocomial infections prevention and control measures


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Ethiopia , Patients , Pediatrics
20.
J. appl. sci. environ. manag ; 23(1): 41-46, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1263365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Several items containing residual antimicrobial agents are disposed of in dumpsites, placing a pressure on the microbial flora and a potential for development of resistance in these microorganisms. Multidrug resistance patterns and multiple antibiotic resistance index of Salmonella spp. isolated from waste dumps in Zaria Metropolis were thus assayed in this study using one hundred and twelve (112) soil samples collected from four waste dumpsites located in Sabon-Gari, Samaru, Tudun-Wada and Zaria City. Salmonella spp. were isolated by culture methods on selective media and characterized using a series of biochemical tests. The isolates were confirmed using microgen identification kits. Results were statistically analysed using percentages. The antibiotic resistance patterns were determined, using the disc-diffusion method. Ten antibiotics belonging to eight different classes, namely B-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolone, Nitrofurantoins, sulphonamides, and phenicols were tested. The result of the study revealed that 57.2% of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR) taken as resistance to four or more antibiotics tested. On the other hand, all the isolates showed 100% susceptibility to Chloramphenicol (30µg) and Gentamicin (30µg) while 76.2% had Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) Index of 0.2 and above. The isolates showing resistance to the highest number of antibiotics were obtained from refuse dumpsites in Zaria City while an isolate from Sabon-Gari was found to be resistant to six antibiotics. These results could be indicative of possible disposal of these drug residues in the waste dump locations making them hot spots for development of resistance


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple
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