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Rev. chil. infectol ; 38(1): 69-80, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388209


Resumen Pseudomonas aeruginosa es uno de los principales patógenos que causa infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud (IAAS). Su capacidad de adaptación, diseminación, resistencia intrínseca a los antimicrobianos y de adquirir nuevos mecanismos a través de elementos genéticos móviles, hacen que el tratamiento de las infecciones por este microorganismo sea un desafío para el médico clínico. Intrínsecamente, P. aeruginosa, presenta una reducida permeabilidad en la membrana externa, debido a la expresión de bombas de expulsión, y una cefalosporinasa tipo AmpC inducible. Además, P. aeruginosa es capaz de adquirir nuevos determinantes de resistencia por transferencia horizontal en forma de casetes situados en integrones, y a su vez, localizados en transposones o plásmidos. Dentro de la resistencia enzimática que presenta P. aeruginosa destacan las β-lactamasas, incluyendo aquellas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y las carbapenemasas. Pero también enzimas modificadoras de los aminoglucósidos, haciendo que este microorganismo pueda presentar fenotipos de multi-resistencia (MDR), resistencia extrema (XDR) y panresistencia (PDR) a los antimicrobianos denominados antipseudomonas, incluyendo a las nuevas cefalosporinas con inhibidores de beta-lactamasas.

Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections (HAI). Its capacity of adaptation, dissemination, intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials and of acquiring new mechanisms through mobile genetic elements, make the treatment of infections by this microorganism a challenge for the clinician. Intrinsically, P. aeruginosa, presents a reduced permeability in the external membrane, due to the expression of efflux pumps, and an inducible AmpC-type cephalosporinase. In addition, P. aeruginosa is able to acquire new resistance determinants by horizontal transfer in the form of cassettes located in integrons, and in turn located in transposons or plasmids. Within the enzymatic resistance that P. aeruginosa presents, betalactamases, including extended spectrum (ESBL) and carbapenemases. But also aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, stand out, causing this microorganism to present multi-resistance phenotypes (MDR), extreme resistance (XDR) and pan-resistance (PDR) to the called antipseudomonal antibiotics, including the new cephalosporins with betalactamase inhibitors.

Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Pseudomonas Infections , Plasmids , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Laboratories , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101038, jan., 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249296


ABSTRACT Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important causative agent of nosocomial infections. As pathogen, P. aeruginosa is of increasing clinical importance due to its ability to develop high-level multidrug resistance (MDR). Methods: The aim of the present study was to better understand the intrinsic virulence of circulating strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by surveying and characterizing the antibiotic resistance profiles and prevalence of virulence factors in 51 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from children admitted to Hospital del Niño-Panamá during the period of October 2016 until March 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration for 12 antibiotics against P. aeruginosa clinical isolates using the VITEK system ( Additionally, all isolates were examined by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the presence of components of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump system (mexABR) and pyoverdine receptor genes and betalactamases resistance genes (ESBL) using gene-specific primers. Results: A total of 51 pyoverdine producing clinical isolates were analyzed, all of which expressed resistance genes such as genes of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump system (mexABR) and pyoverdine receptor genes (fpvA). Out of 51 MDR isolates, 22 were ESBL producers. The most common ESBL gene was blaTEM expressed by 43% of the isolates. The isolates tested in this study showed increased resistance to antibiotics in the following categories: (i) penicillins (ampicillin (69%), piperacillin (22%); (ii) pyrimethamines (trimethoprim, 65%); (iii) nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, 63%), and (iv) third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime (53%). These results underscore a high prevalence of MDR amongst clinical isolates from Panama. Conclusions: The present study indicates that prevalence of BlaTEM-carrying strains is increasing with subsequent multidrug resistance in Panamá and as well reported worldwide. The virulent factors identified in this study provide valuable information regarding the prevalence of resistance genes and their potential impact on treatments that exploit the unique physiology of the pathogen. To prevent further spread of MDR, the proportions of resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa should be constantly evaluated on healthcare institutions of Panamá. More importantly, this information can be used to better understand the evolution and dissemination of strains hoping to prevent the development of resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Future studies quantifying the expression of these virulent genes will emphasize on the acquisition of multidrug resistance.

Humans , Child , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection , Panama , Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Membrane Transport Proteins/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 25(1): 101544, jan., 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249299


ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) represents a significant impact in transmission, outcome, and health costs. The World Health Organization recommends implementation of rapid diagnostic methods for multidrug-resistance detection. This study was performed to evaluate the frequency of pre- and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB) among MDR-TB patients, the pattern of resistance mutations for fluoroquinolones and the clinical outcome. Adult patients followed at a Brazilian regional reference center for TB, from January 2013 to June 2019 were included. Stored Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) cultures were recovered, the DNA was extracted, and the susceptibility test was performed using the line probe assay for second line antimycobacterial drugs, Genotype MTBDRsl version 2.0 (Hain Lifescience, CmbH, Germany). Among 33 MDR-TB included patients, we diagnosed XDR-TB or pre-XDR in five (15%) cases. Of these, mutations related to fluoroquinolones resistance were observed in four Mtb isolates, including one who had no phenotypic resistance profile. In two other patients with phenotypic resistance to ofloxacin, genotypic resistance was not found. Case fatality rate was 60% in pre/XDR-TB group, compared to 3.6% in the remaining of patients. This study observed few cases of pre-XDR and XDR-TB among a MDR-TB cohort. Phenotypic and genotypic assays presented good agreement. Clinical outcome was more favorable for patients with susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and injectable drugs.

Humans , Adult , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology
Scientific reports ; 11(1224)2021.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS | ID: biblio-1148480


After nearly a century of vaccination and six decades of drug therapy, tuberculosis (TB) kills more people annually than any other infectious disease. Substantial challenges to disease eradication remain among vulnerable and underserved populations. The Guarani-Kaiowá people are an indigenous population in Paraguay and the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. This community, marginalized in Brazilian society, experiences severe poverty. Like other South American indigenous populations, their TB prevalence is high, but the disease has remained largely unstudied in their communities. Herein, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from local clinics were whole genome sequenced, and a population genetic framework was generated. Phylogenetics show M. tuberculosis isolates in the Guarani-Kaiowá people cluster away from selected reference strains, suggesting divergence. Most cluster in a single group, further characterized as M. tuberculosis sublineage 4.3.3. Closer analysis of SNPs showed numerous variants across the genome, including in drug resistance-associated genes, and with many unique changes fixed in each group. We report that local M. tuberculosis strains have acquired unique polymorphisms in the Guarani-Kaiowá people, and drug resistance characterization is urgently needed to inform public health to ensure proper care and avoid further evolution and spread of drug-resistant TB

Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Phylogeny , Brazil , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Population Groups , Genotype
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887737


Objective@#To evaluate multidrug resistant loop-mediated isothermal amplification (MDR-LAMP) assay for the early diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and to compare the mutation patterns associated with the @*Methods@#MDR-LAMP assay was evaluated using 100 @*Results@#The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of MDR-LAMP were 85.5%, 93.6%, 96.7%, and 74.4% for the detection of resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin, respectively, and 80.5%, 92.3%, 98.6%, and 41.4% for the detection of @*Conclusion@#MDR-LAMP is a rapid and accessible assay for the laboratory identification of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of

Antitubercular Agents , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Catalase/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Isoniazid , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Oxidoreductases/genetics , Phenotype , Rifampin , Whole Genome Sequencing
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e02622020, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143877


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenemase-resistant enterobacteria that produce the bla NDM gene are found worldwide. However, this is the first report of blaNDM in Klebsiella aerogenes in Brazil. METHODS: The identification of bacterial species was performed using anautomated system and confirmed by biochemical tests, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and detection of resistance genes. RESULTS: The clinical isolate showed minimum inhibitory concentration resistance to meropenem and polymyxin B at 8mg/L and 4mg/L, respectively. Only the blaNDM gene was detected. CONCLUSIONS: The current report of the blaNDM gene in isolated MDR enterobacteria indicates that this gene can spread silently in a hospital setting.

Enterobacter aerogenes/genetics , Bacterial Proteins , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Brazil , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 52(3): 81-90, Sept. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340907


Abstract This study was undertaken to investígate the resistance phenotypes to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSb) antibiotics and their associated genotypes in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. We analyzed one hundred, consecutive, non-duplicate isolates (methicillin-susceptible MSSA, n = 53 and methicillin-resistant MRSA, n =47) obtained from var-ious clinical samples between July 2012 to December 2013. The resistance profile to MLSb antibiotics was determined by phenotypic methods and the resistance genes were detected by PCR assays. All of the isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (SmaI-PFGE). The overall prevalence of resistance to MLSb antibiotics was 38% and the resistance phenotype distribution was as follows: cMLSb, 22%; iMLSB, 10%; MSb, 5% and L, 1%. We detected ermA, ermC, ermB and mrsA/B genes in these resistant isolates. The single ermA gene was commonly observed mainly in those with a cMLSb R phenotype, whereas the combination ermA and ermC was more commonly observed in isolates with inducible expression. The patterns of SmaI-PFGE suggest a great genetic diversity in both MRSA and MSSA resistant to MLSb antibiotics. The results demonstrate the local presence of S. aureus resistant to MLSb antibiotics and its most frequently described responsible genes. Some of these isolates, especially those with the iMLSB phenotype, may be associated with therapeutic failure. Therefore, efforts should be directed to the correct detection of all MLSb resistant isolates using appropriate laboratory tests. PFGE results reveal a wide spread of resistance genes rather than the circulation of S. aureus clones resistant to MLSb antibiotics.

Resumen Los objetivos de este estudio fueron investigar en Staphylococcus aureus la presencia de fenotipos resistentes a los antibióticos macrólidos, lincosamidas y estreptograminas tipoB (MLSb) y conocer sus genotipos responsables. Analizamos 100 aislamientos consecutivos, no duplicados (53 sensibles a meticilina [MSSA] y 47 resistentes a meticilina [MRSA]), obtenidos entre 2012 y 2013 a partir de diferentes muestras clínicas. El perfil de resistencia a los antibióticos MLSb fue determinado por métodos fenotípicos y los genes de resistencia se detectaron por PCR. Todos los aislamientos fueron comparados por SmaI-PFGE. La prevalencia global de resistencia a los antibióticos MLSB fue del 38% y la distribución de los fenotipos de resistencia fue la siguiente: cMLSB, 22%; iMLSB, 10%; MSB, 5%; L, 1%. Se detectaron los genes ermA, ermC y mrsA/B en los aislamientos resistentes. El gen ermA se observó, sobre todo, en aislamientos con fenotipo resistente constitutivo R (cMLSB), mientras que la combinación ermA y ermC se detectó principalmente en aislamientos con resistencia inducible (iMLSB). Los patrones de Smal-PFGE sugieren una gran diversidad genética en los aislamientos resistentes a los antibióticos MLSb, tanto MRSA como MSSA. Los resultados demuestran la presencia local de S. aureus resistentes a los antibióticos MLSB y de sus genes responsables más frecuentemente descritos. Estos cultivos, especialmente aquellos con fenotipo resistente iMLSB, pueden asociarse con fallas terapéuticas. Por lo tanto, los esfuerzos deben dirigirse a la correcta detección de todos los cultivos resistentes a MLSB utilizando pruebas de laboratorio adecuadas. Los resultados de Smal-PFGE sugieren una amplia diseminación de genes de resistencia, más que la circulación de clones resistentes a los antibióticos MLSB.

Humans , Staphylococcal Infections , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Phenotype , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Uruguay , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Macrolides/pharmacology , Streptogramin B/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Lincosamides/pharmacology , Tertiary Care Centers , Genotype , Hospitals, Public , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200520, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154871


BACKGROUND The evaluation of procedures for drug susceptibility prediction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on genomic data against the conventional reference method test based on culture is realistic considering the scenario of growing number of tools proposals based on whole-genome sequences (WGS). OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate drug susceptibility testing (DST) outcome based on WGS tools and the phenotypic methods performed on isolates of M. tuberculosis Lineage 1 from the state of Pará, Brazil, generally associated with low levels of drug resistance. METHODOLOGY Culture based DST was performed using the Proportion Method in Löwenstein-Jensen medium on 71 isolates that had been submitted to WGS. We analysed the seven main genome sequence-based tools for resistance and lineage prediction applied to M. tuberculosis and for comparison evaluation we have used the Kappa concordance test. FINDINGS When comparing the WGS-based tools against the DST, we observed the highest level of agreement using TB-profiler. Among the tools, TB-profiler, KvarQ and Mykrobe were those which identified the largest number of TB-MDR cases. Comparing the four most sensitive tools regarding resistance prediction, agreement was observed for 43 genomes. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Drug resistance profiling using next-generation sequencing offers rapid assessment of resistance-associated mutations, therefore facilitating rapid access to effective treatment.

Humans , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Whole Genome Sequencing , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200055, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135234


BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the number of new cases of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB), pre extensively drug-resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) has increased considerably worldwide. OBJECTIVES Herein, using 156 M. tuberculosis isolates from 106 patients previously classified as MDR or pre-XDR or XDR isolates, we investigated the genetic mutation profiles associated with phenotypic resistances in patients with MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB, treatment outcomes and resistance evolution. METHODS Molecular analyses were performed by partial sequencing of the rpoB, katG, gyrA, gyrB, rrs genes and analysis of the fabG-inhA promoter region. Clinical, epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from the TB Notification database system of São Paulo (TB-WEB) and the Information System for Special Tuberculosis Treatments (SITE-TB). FINDINGS Drug resistance was attributed to previously known mutations and a novel Asp449Val mutation in gyrB was observed in four isolates from the same patient. Ten patients had more than one isolate evaluated and eight of these patients displayed resistance progression. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The present study is the first to report the frequency of mutations related to second-line drug resistance in MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB and XDR-TB isolates. The results could lead to the improvement of available technologies for the rapid detection of drug resistant TB.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis/microbiology , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200064, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136871


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection lacks treatment options and is associated with prolonged hospital stays and high mortality rates. The production of carbapenemases is one of the most important factors responsible for this multi-resistance phenomenon. METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the presence of genes encoding carbapenemases in K. pneumoniae isolates circulating in one of the public hospitals in the city of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. We also determined the best combination of drugs that display in vitro antimicrobial synergy. First, 147 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were validated for the presence of blaKPC, bla GES, bla NDM, bla SPM, bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla OXA-48 genes using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Thereafter, using two isolates (97 and 102), the role of double and triple combinational drug therapy as a treatment option was analyzed. RESULTS: Seventy-four (50.3%) isolates were positive for bla NDM, eight (5.4%) for bla KPC, and one (1.2%) for both bla NDM and bla KPC. In the synergy tests, double combinations were better than triple combinations. Polymyxin B and amikacin for isolate 97 and polymyxin B coupled with meropenem for isolate 102 showed the best response. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians in normal practice use multiple drugs to treat infections caused by multi-resistant microorganism; however, in most cases, the benefit of the combinations is unknown. In vitro synergistic tests, such as those described herein, are important as they might help select an appropriate multi-drug antibiotic therapy and a correct dosage, ultimately reducing toxicities and the development of antibiotic resistance.

Humans , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 371-380, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089307


ABSTRACT Introduction: The presence of Acinetobacter baumannii outside hospitals remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) A. baumannii in the extra-hospital environment in Mthatha, South Africa and to investigate the frequency of carbapenemase-encoding genes. Material and Methods: From August 2016 to July 2017 a total of 598 abattoir samples and 689 aquatic samples were collected and analyzed presumptively by cultural methods for the presence of A. baumannii using CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium. Species identification was performed by autoSCAN-4 (Dade Behring Inc., IL) and confirmed by the detection of their intrinsic blaOXA-51 gene. Confirmed MDR A. baumannii isolates were screened for the presence of carbapenemase-encoding genes, ISAba1 insertion sequence and integrase intI1. Results: In total, 248 (19.3%) Acinetobacter species were isolated. Acinetobacter. baumannii was detected in 183 (73.8%) of which 85 (46.4%) and 98 (53.6%) were recovered from abattoir and aquatic respectively. MDR A. baumannii was detected in 56.5% (48/85) abattoir isolates and 53.1% (52/98) aquatic isolates. Isolates showed high resistance to antimicrobials most frequently used to treat Acinetobacter infections such as piperacillin/tazobactam; abattoir (98% of isolates resistant), aquatic (94% of isolates resistant), ceftazidime (84%, 83%), ciprofloxacin (71%, 70%), amikacin (41%, 42%), imipenem (75%, 73%), and meropenem (74%, 71%). All the isolates were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. All the isolates carried blaOXA-51-like. The blaOXA-23 was detected in 32 (66.7%) abattoir isolates and 11 (21.2%) aquatic isolates. The blaOXA-58-like was positive in 7 (14.6%) and 4 (7.7%) abattoir and aquatic isolates, respectively. Both groups of isolates lacked blaOXA-24-like, blaIMP-type, blaVIM-type, blaNDM-1, blaSIM, blaAmpC, ISAba1 and inI1. Isolates showed high level of Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Index (MARI) ranging from 0.20-0.52. Conclusion: Extra-hospital sources such as abattoir and aquatic environments may be a vehicle of spread of MDR A. baumannii strains in the community and hospital settings.

Humans , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , South Africa/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 125-134, mayo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011461


Resumen Introducción. La resistencia a los antibióticos es la principal causa del fracaso del tratamiento contra Helicobacter pylori; la claritromicina y el metronidazol son los antibióticos que generan mayor resistencia. En Colombia, la resistencia primaria a estos dos antibióticos y el uso excesivo de levofloxacina han alcanzado los límites aceptados (13,6, 83 y 16 %, respectivamente). A pesar de ello, se usa el tratamiento empírico combinando estos antibióticos en pacientes en los que ha fallado anteriormente. Objetivo. Determinar la resistencia a los antibióticos en pacientes previamente tratados para H. pylori en Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo en el que se evaluó mediante dilución en agar la resistencia a la amoxicilina, la claritromicina, la levofloxacina y el metronidazol en 10 aislamientos provenientes de 5 pacientes con tres o cuatro tratamientos fallidos para H. pylori. La resistencia a los antibióticos se confirmó mediante secuenciación de ADN (Magrogen, Korea). Resultados. Ocho de los aislamientos presentaron resistencia a dos o más antibióticos y todos fueron resistentes a la levofloxacina. Los patrones de sensibilidad de los aislamientos provenientes del antro pilórico y del cuerpo del estómago, fueron diferentes en tres de los pacientes. Conclusión. Hasta donde se sabe, esta es la primera evidencia de resistencia múltiple de H. pylori en Colombia en pacientes previamente tratados. Los resultados evidenciaron las consecuencias del uso de un esquema ineficaz de tratamiento antibiótico y la necesidad de evaluar la sensibilidad a los antibióticos en diferentes sitios anatómicos del estómago. La resistencia múltiple limita el número de antibióticos útiles para erradicar H. pylori.

Abstract Introduction: The main cause for Helicobacter pylori infection treatment failure is antibiotic resistance, where clarithromycin and metronidazole play the main role. In Colombia, primary resistance as a consequence of the use of these two antibiotics and excessive levofloxacin use is above the accepted limit (13.6%, 83%, and 16%, respectively). Despite this fact, empirical therapies that include the combination of these antibiotics are used in patients with previous therapeutic failure. Objective: To determine antibiotic resistance in patients previously treated for H. pylori in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: We conducted a descriptive study that included ten isolates obtained from five patients with three or four previous failed treatments for H. pylori. Antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole was investigated by agar dilution and confirmed by DNA sequencing (Magrogen, Korea). Results: Eight isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to levofloxacin. Susceptibility patterns in isolates from the gastric antrum and the body of the stomach were different in three patients. Conclusion: As far as we know, this is the first evidence of multiple H. pylori resistance in Colombia in previously treated patients. Results demonstrated the consequences of using an ineffective antibiotic scheme and the need to assess antibiotic susceptibility in different anatomical sites of the stomach. The consequences of multiple resistance decrease possible antibiotic effectiveness to eradicate H. pylori in the future.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Helicobacter pylori/drug effects , Helicobacter Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gastritis/microbiology , Biopsy , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Helicobacter pylori/isolation & purification , Helicobacter pylori/genetics , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Gastroscopy , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/pharmacology , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/pharmacology , Gastritis/epidemiology , Genes, Bacterial , Amoxicillin/pharmacology , Metronidazole/therapeutic use , Metronidazole/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 39(supl.1): 135-149, mayo 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011462


Abstract Introduction: The use of antibiotics in humans, animal husbandry and veterinary activities induces selective pressure leading to the colonization and infection by resistant strains. Objective: We evaluated water samples collected from rivers of the Guanabara Bay, which have suffered minor and major environmental degradation, and clinical samples of hospital origin to detect evidence of the presence of resistance genes to aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics and fluoroquinolones in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: For isolation of the water strains we employed culture media containing 32 μg/ml cephalotin and 8 μg/ml gentamicin. The strains from clinical materials were selected using culture media containing 8 μg/ml gentamicin. The strains were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), plasmid DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect genes encoding enzymes modifying aminoglycosides (EMA), extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and plasmid mechanisms of quinolone resistance (PMQR). Results: The AST of the isolates recovered from water samples showed multidrug-resistance profiles similar to those found in isolates recovered from clinical materials. All isolates from water samples and 90% of the isolates from clinical samples showed at least one plasmid band. In the PCR assays, 7.4% of the isolates recovered from water samples and 20% of those from clinical materials showed amplification products for the three antimicrobial classes. Conclusion: We believe that the detection of microorganisms presenting genetic elements in environments such as water is necessary for the prevention and control of their dissemination with potential to infect humans and other animals in eventual contact with these environments.

Resumen Introducción. El uso de antibióticos en seres humanos, en la industria pecuaria y en las actividades veterinarias induce una presión selectiva que resulta en la colonización e infección con cepas resistentes. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia de genes de resistencia a aminoglucósidos, betalactámicos y fluoroquinolonas en cepas de Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae y Escherichia coli, obtenidas de muestras de agua de los ríos que desembocan en la bahía de Guanabara y de muestras clínicas de hospitales de Río de Janeiro. Materiales y métodos. En la selección de las cepas resistentes obtenidas de las muestras de agua de los ríos, se emplearon medios de cultivo que contenían 32 μg/ml de cefalotina y 8 μg/ ml de gentamicina. En el caso de las muestras de especímenes clínicos, se usaron medios de cultivo que contenían 8 μg/ml de gentamicina. Las cepas se identificaron y se sometieron a pruebas de sensibilidad antimicrobiana, extracción de ADN plasmídico y pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) para detectar los genes que codifican aquellas enzimas que modifican los aminoglucósidos, las betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y los mecanismos de resistencia a las quinolonas mediados por plásmidos. Resultados. Se encontraron perfiles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos similares en los dos grupos. En todas las bacterias obtenidas de las muestras de agua y en 90 % de las muestras clínicas, se evidenciaron bandas de plásmidos asociados con la transferencia de genes de resistencia. En las pruebas de PCR, se obtuvieron productos de amplificación de los genes de resistencia para las tres clases de antimicrobianos analizados, en el 7,4 % de las bacterias recuperadas de las muestras de agua y en el 20 % de aquellas recuperadas de las muestras clínicas. Conclusión. La detección de microorganismos con elementos genéticos que confieren resistencia a los antibióticos en ambientes como el agua, es una estrategia necesaria para prevenir y controlar la diseminación de estos agentes patógenos con potencial para infectar a humanos y a otros animales en dichos ambientes.

Humans , Water Microbiology , Bays/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Rivers/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Plasmids/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/physiology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Water Pollution , Hospitals, Urban , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/enzymology , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Medical Waste
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180352, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041560


Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is concernig because it reduces the antibiotic therapy options for bacterial infections. METHODS: Resistant and virulent genes from an isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae derived from a patient with sepsis in a hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil, were investigated using PCR and DNA sequencing. RESULTS: bla NDM-1, aac(6')-Ib-cr and acrB resistance genes, and cps and mrkD virulence genes were detected. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first report on bla NDM-1 in Recife-PE. This detection alerts researchers to the need to control the spread of bla NDM-1 resistance gene by this bacterium in Brazil.

Humans , Female , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Virulence/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sepsis/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190079, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040613


A total of 124 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates recovered during a 12-year period (2003-2015) from outpatients assisted at Centro de Referência e Treinamento DST/AIDS-CRT of São Paulo city, Brazil, were analysed. The following resistance rates were observed: penicillin-59.6%, ciprofloxacin-15.3%, and azithromycin-6.7%. Although reduced susceptibility to these drugs was observed since 2003, no ceftriaxone-resistant isolates were detected. Ciprofloxacin- and azithromycin non-susceptible isolates were grouped in 11 clusters. Mutations were detected in GyrA and ParC of isolates 124 and 260, and a C2611T substitution on 23S rRNA alleles was also observed in isolate 260. Both isolates belonged to ST1901/ST6210 (MSLT/NG-MAST schemes).

Humans , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/drug effects , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genetics , Time Factors , Urban Population , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Mutation
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 438-441, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039218


ABSTRACT Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most frequent Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens associated with hospital-acquired infection worldwide. We briefly describe A. baumannii isolates that were recovered from surrounding ICU bed surfaces, exhibiting multidrug resistance phenotype and belonging to some widely spread clonal complexes of clinical A. baumannii isolates.

Beds/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolation & purification , Intensive Care Units , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/drug effects , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross Infection/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Tertiary Care Centers , Genes, Bacterial
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(3): 425-432, jul.-sep. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978911


RESUMEN Objetivos. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir la presencia de Enterobacteriaceae en muestras de carne recolectadas en mercados tradicionales de Lima y establecer los niveles de resistencia a antimicrobianos y la presencia de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) y AmpC en Escherichia coli. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron un total de 138 muestras de carne, 64 (46,4 %) de pollo, 44 (31,9 %) de carne de res y 30 (21,7%) de carne de cerdo. Las bacterias aisladas pertenecieron a 17 géneros diferentes, y específicamente 14 fueron clasificados como Enterobacteriaceae. Se analizó la sensibilidad frente a diez agentes antimicrobianos mediante el método de difusión de disco Kirby-Bauer, se determinó la presencia de BLEE y AmpC mediante las pruebas de doble disco y de inducción de imipenem-ceftazidima, respectivamente. Resultados. Los niveles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos fueron altos frente a trimetoprima-sulfametoxazol, ampicilina, tetraciclina, ácido nalidíxico, ciprofloxacino y cloranfenicol. Existen diferencias significativas en los niveles de resistencia a los antibióticos según el tipo de carne (pollo, carne de res y cerdo) (p <0,05). Los niveles de resistencia a múltiples antimicrobianos (MDR) fueron particularmente altos en pollo y cerdo (98,2 % y 86,4 %, respectivamente). Además, la presencia de BLEE en Escherichia coli aisladas de carne de pollo fue del 59,4 %. Conclusiones. Los niveles de resistencia a los antimicrobianos fueron altos frente a los antibióticos usados frecuentemente en humanos, se destaca el pollo y la res como potenciales reservorios de Escherichia coli productoras de BLEE y pAmpC, respectivamente.

ABSTRACT Objective. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of Enterobacteriaceae in meat samples collected in traditional markets of Lima and to establish the levels of antimicrobial resistance and the presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (BLEE) and AmpC in Escherichia coli. Materials and Methods. A total of 138 meat samples, 64 (46.4%) chicken, 44 (31.9%) beef and 30 (21.7%) pork were collected. The isolated bacteria belonged to 17 different genera and, specifically, 14 were classified as Enterobacteriaceae. Sensitivity to ten antimicrobial agents was analyzed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, BLEE and AmpC were determined by double disc and imipenem-ceftazidime induction tests, respectively. Results. Antimicrobial resistance levels were high against trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. There are significant differences in antibiotic resistance levels depending on the type of meat (chicken, beef and pork) (p <0.05). Multiple drug resistance (MDR) levels were particularly high in chicken and pork (98.2% and 86.4%, respectively). In addition, the presence of BLEE in Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat was 59.4%. Conclusions. Multiple drug resistance levels were high compared to antibiotics frequently used in humans; chicken and beef are highlighted as potential reservoirs of BLEE and pAmpC-producing Escherichia coli, respectively.

Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Food Microbiology , Meat/microbiology , Peru , Bacterial Proteins , beta-Lactamases , Food Industry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , beta-Lactam Resistance , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7044, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951748


In this study, we screened differentially expressed genes in a multidrug-resistant isolate strain of Clostridium perfringens by RNA sequencing. We also separated and identified differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the isolate strain by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). The RNA sequencing results showed that, compared with the control strain, 1128 genes were differentially expressed in the isolate strain, and these included 227 up-regulated genes and 901 down-regulated genes. Bioinformatics analysis identified the following genes and gene categories that are potentially involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in the isolate strain: drug transport, drug response, hydrolase activity, transmembrane transporter, transferase activity, amidase transmembrane transporter, efflux transmembrane transporter, bacterial chemotaxis, ABC transporter, and others. The results of the 2-DE showed that 70 proteins were differentially expressed in the isolate strain, 45 of which were up-regulated and 25 down-regulated. Twenty-seven DEPs were identified by MS and these included the following protein categories: ribosome, antimicrobial peptide resistance, and ABC transporter, all of which may be involved in MDR in the isolate strain of C. perfringens. The results provide reference data for further investigations on the drug resistant molecular mechanisms of C. perfringens.

Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Clostridium perfringens/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Genes, MDR , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Clostridium perfringens/classification , Clostridium perfringens/drug effects , Clostridium perfringens/metabolism , DNA, Complementary , Proteome/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Gene Ontology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(6): 764-768, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897038


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important pathogen globally, presents several resistance mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the presence of bla GES in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from various clinical specimens from patients admitted to three different hospitals in Recife, Brazil. The Guiana extended spectrum beta-lactamase (GES) enzymes are responsible for conferring broad spectrum resistance to beta-lactam drugs, including the carbapenems. METHODS: A total of 100 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to identify bla GES, bla KPC, bla SPM-1, bla IMP, and bla VIM. Additionally, PCR products positive for bla GES were sequenced. The clonal profiles of these same isolates were then determined by means of enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR analysis. RESULTS: PCR analysis revealed that four isolates harbored bla GES; DNA sequencing showed that two harbored bla GES-1 and two bla GES-11. Beta-lactamase genes bla SPM-1, bla IMP, bla VIM, and bla KPC were investigated; none of these genes was detected. Automated susceptibility testing methods (Vitek®2, bioMérieux) showed that the bla GES-1-positive isolates were only susceptible to polymyxin B. The patterns obtained with ERIC-PCR methods showed clonal relationship between the two isolates that harbored bla GES-11, whereas different clonal profiles were found in the isolates harboring bla GES-1. CONCLUSIONS: We detected the presence of bacterial isolates positive for two different variants of the enzyme GES in three different hospitals from Recife, Brazil. These enzymes have a great capacity for dissemination among Gram-negative bacteria and confer broad-spectrum resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and to the carbapenems.

Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/enzymology , beta-Lactamases/drug effects , Brazil , Base Sequence , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 37(4): 473-485, oct.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-888492


Resumen Introducción. En el tercer trimestre de 2012, comenzó a operar el Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia de Resistencia Antimicrobiana en las infecciones asociadas a la atención en salud, con el fin de recabar y analizar la información referente al problema en Colombia. Objetivo. Describir los perfiles de resistencia y los resultados de la vigilancia por el laboratorio con base en los datos recolectados en el Sistema. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo con base en la información del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública, Sivigila, 1 de septiembre de 2012 a 31 de diciembre de 2014, así como de las bases de datos Whonet con los datos notificados por las unidades primarias generadoras de datos y los resultados de la confirmación por el laboratorio de la caracterización fenotípica y genotípica de la resistencia a carbapenemasas en 1.642 aislamientos (927 de enterobacterias, 614 de Pseudomonas spp. y 101 de Acinetobacter spp.). Resultados. La resistencia de Escherichia coli a las cefalosporinas de tercera generación presentó un incremento significativo, alcanzando 26,3 % en unidades de cuidados intensivos y 22,5 % en otras áreas de hospitalización. La resistencia a ertapenem de Klebsiella pneumoniae registró un incremento y alcanzó 14,6 % en unidades de cuidados intensivos. La resistencia de Acinetobacter baumannii a los carbapenémicos superó el 50 % en dichas unidades, en tanto que en Pseudomonas aeruginosa se presentaron porcentajes más bajos (38,8 %). Las carbapenemasas más frecuentes en enterobacterias fueron la KPC (n=574), seguida de la NDM (n=57); en P. aeruginosa, la VIM (n=229) y la KPC (n=114), y en A. baumannii, la OXA-23 (n=87). Se detectaron varias combinaciones de carbapenemasas, siendo la de KPC y VIM la más frecuente en Pseudomonas spp., y en enterobacterias. Conclusión. La información obtenida a partir del Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia ha permitido conocer los perfiles y los mecanismos de resistencia a carbapenémicos de las cepas que están circulando en las instituciones de salud del país.

Abstract Introduction: The Colombian National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections was set up to meet this problem in the third quarter of 2012. Objective: To describe resistance profiles and laboratory-based surveillance based on the information collected by the System. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of the information notified to the Colombian Public Health Surveillance System (Sivigila), and in the Whonet databases covering the period from July 2012 to December 2014 provided by the primary data-generating units in the country, as well as laboratory surveillance results from 1,642 phenotypic and genotypic tests on carbapenemase isolates (927 from Enterobacteriaceae, 614 from Pseudomonas spp. and 101 from Acinetobacter spp.). Results: There was a significant increase in Escherichia coli resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (reaching 26.3% in ICUs and 22.5% in other hospital wards), and Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to ertapenem also increased (reaching 14.6% in ICUs). Acinetobacter baumannii carbapenem resistance exceeded 50% in ICUs whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa had lower carbapenem resistance (38.8%). KPC (n = 574) and NDM (n=57) were the most frequently occurring carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae, VIM (n=229) and KPC (n=114) in P. aeruginosa, and OXA-23 in A. baumannii (n=87); several carbapenemase combinations were identified, KPC + VIM being the most common in Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. Conclusion: The data from the surveillance of healthcare-associated infections revealed significant carbapenem resistance profiles and antimicrobial resistance mechanisms circulating in Colombian healthcare institutions.

Humans , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Public Health Surveillance , Phenotype , Bacterial Proteins/analysis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , beta-Lactamases/analysis , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Databases, Factual , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Colombia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Genes, Bacterial , Genotype , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics