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1.
Actual. nutr ; 24(3): 194-199, Jul-Sept 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, ARGMSAL, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1511518

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El tratamiento mediante los distintos tipos de dietas cetogénicas ha demostrado en diversos trabajos efectividad en la reducción de las crisis convulsivas, de manera total o parcial. Sin embargo, se reportan tasas de deserción en la realización a largo plazo. Objetivo: Este trabajo tiene como objetivo identificar beneficios y dificultades que perciben las familias de niños en el tratamiento de Epilepsia resistente a fármacos que lleven a cabo la dieta cetogénica y que podrían influir en la adherencia o deserción. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal retrospectivo, en el Servicio de Neurología Infantil del HIBA, sección Dieta Cetogénica. Para el estudio, se realizó una encuesta para recabar características sociodemográficas de la población bajo estudio y también sobre dificultades y beneficios hallados en la terapia cetogénica. Se analizaron frecuencias, medias y chi cuadrado para establecer diferencias significativas con intervalo de confianza de 95%. Resultados: La muestra estuvo compuesta por 51 participantes, de 0 a 18 años. Al indagar sobre si percibían mejoras tras realizar terapia cetogénica, el 81% respondió que sí, el 11% no percibió mejoras y el 8% no sabía. Acerca de la presencia de dificultades para llevar a cabo el tratamiento, el 71% respondió que se encontraba con dificultades, el 23% no registró dificultades y el 6% manifestó que a veces. Al relacionar la presencia de dificultades con el nivel socioeconómico, se observaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos, siendo de mayor incidencia en familias de ingresos más bajos. Respecto de la variable edad, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en relación con las dificultades percibidas. Conclusiones: Es importante continuar trabajando con las familias en las dificultades que presentan para evitar deserción del tratamiento. Asimismo, resulta indispensable destacar el alto porcentaje de mejorías que perciben sus padres para lograr mayor adherencia


Introduction: Treatment using the different types of ketogenic diets has been shown in various studies to be effective in reducing seizures, which can be total or partial. However, dropout rates are reported in the long-term completion of it. Objetive: The objective of this work is to identify the benefits and difficulties perceived by the families of children undergoing treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy who follow the ketogenic diet and that could influence adherence or desertion. Materials and methods: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at the HIBA Child Neurology Service, Ketogenic Diet section. For the study, a survey was carried out to collect sociodemographic characteristics of the population under study and also about difficulties and benefits found in ketogenic therapy. Frequencies, measures and chi square were analyzed to establish significant differences with a 95% confidence interval. Results: The sample consisted of 51 participants, from 0 to 18 years old. When asked if they perceived improvements after performing ketogenic therapy, 81% answered yes, 11% did not perceive improvements and 8% did not know. About the presence of difficulties to carry out the treatment, 71% answered that they had difficulties, 23% did not have them and 6% sometimes.When relating the presence of difficulties with the socioeconomic level, significant differences were observed between the groups, with a higher incidence in lower-income families. Regarding the age variable, no significant differences were found in relation to the perceived difficulties. Conclusion: It is important to continue working with families on the difficulties they present to avoid dropping out of treatment. Likewise, it is essential to highlight the high percentage of improvements that their parents perceive to achieve greater adherence


Subject(s)
Diet, Ketogenic , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Quality of Life , Child
2.
Fronteiras na Neurociência ; 17(0): 1-7, 27/07/2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SES-RJ | ID: biblio-1451498

ABSTRACT

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy is an established treatment for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy that reduces seizure frequency by at least 50% in approximately half of patients; however, the characteristics of the patients with the best response have not yet been identified. Thus, it is important to identify the profile of patients who would have the best response to guide early indications and better patient selection.


A terapia com estimulação do nervo vago (ENV) é um tratamento estabelecido para pacientes com epilepsia resistente a medicamentos que reduz a frequência de crises em pelo menos 50% em aproximadamente metade dos pacientes; entretanto, as características dos pacientes com melhor resposta ainda não foram identificadas. Assim, é importante identificar o perfil de pacientes que teriam melhor resposta para orientar indicações precoces e melhor seleção de pacientes.


Subject(s)
Neurosciences , Epilepsy , Vagus Nerve Stimulation , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Seizures , Therapeutics
3.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 91(1): 38-45, ene.-jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1443351

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) cerca de 70 millones de personas en el mundo padecen epilepsia. Los países de medianos y bajos ingresos presentan 70-80% de los casos; se estima que afecta 4-13% de los niños hasta los 16 años, de los cuales la epilepsia farmacorresistente (EFR) se desarrolla en 10-23%. Objetivo: Determinar factores de riesgo asociados a EFR en pacientes pediátricos atendidos en Hospital María, Especialidades Pediátricas (HMEP), Tegucigalpa, marzo 2017-marzo 2022. Métodos: Estudio de casos-controles. A partir del total de pacientes menores de 18 años con diagnóstico de epilepsia atendidos en el Servicio de Neurología HMEP, se definió Caso como pacientes con diagnóstico de EFR y Controles como pacientes con epilepsia no farmacorresistente (ENFR). A partir de expedientes clínicos, se evaluaron factores sociodemográficos, antecedentes personales y familiares, factores clínicos, estudios de imagen y electroencefalograma. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité de Ética Institucional. Resultados: Se analizaron 81 casos y 162 controles. La edad más afectada en casos fue preescolar (35.8%), en controles fue edad escolar (41.4%). El sexo masculino presentó similar distribución en ambos grupos (51.8% y 51.2%). La procedencia rural fue más frecuente en los casos que en controles (58.0% versus 48.8%). Se identificaron los siguientes factores asociados a EFR: Antecedentes familiares de epilepsia (ORa 2.32, IC95%1.22­4.41, p=0.01), alteración focal en examen físico (ORa 2.23, IC95%1.10­4.55, p=0.02), neurodesarrollo anormal (ORa 2.78, IC95%1.18­6.54, p=0.02). Discusión: El control adecuado de las crisis epilépticas incide directamente en la calidad de vida y sobrevida de los pacientes. La identificación correcta de los niños con epilepsia con los factores asociados identificados en este estudio, que coinciden con lo descrito internacionalmente, permitirá hacer un mejor tamizaje y priorizar la referencia temprana a un neurólogo pediatra contribuyendo a mejorar la calidad de vida de los pacientes...(AU)


Subject(s)
Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Sociodemographic Factors , Seizures/complications , Electroencephalography
4.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1425743

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Felbamato. Indicação: Tratamento de epilepsia refratária. Pergunta: O Felbamato é mais eficaz e seguro comparado a anticonvulsivantes disponíveis no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em pacientes com epilepsia refratária? Métodos: Revisão rápida de evidências (overview) de revisões sistemáticas, com levantamento bibliográfico realizado na base de dados PUBMED, utilizando estratégia estruturada de busca. A qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas foi avaliada com AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 2 revisões sistemáticas, que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: O felbamato não demonstrou ser uma opção mais benéfica que os demais medicamentos disponíveis no SUS no tratamento de epilepsia refratária a medicamentos. Salienta-se que a maior parte das evidências eram de baixa certeza


Technology: Felbamate. Indication: Treatment of refractory epilepsy. Question: Is felbamate more effective and safer compared to anticonvulsants available in Brazilian Public Health System in patients with refractory epilepsy? Methods: A rapid review of evidence (overview) of systematic reviews, with bibliographic survey carried out in the PUBMED database, using a structured search strategy. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR-2 (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews). Results: Two systematic reviews that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Conclusion: Felbamate did not prove to be a more beneficial option than the other drugs available in the Brazilian Public Health System in the treatment of drug-refractory epilepsy. It should be noted that most of the evidence was of low certainty


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Seizures/drug therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome
5.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 453-458, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985890

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical features of children with uridine responsive developmental epileptic encephalopathy 50 (DEE50) caused by CAD gene variants. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 6 patients diagnosed with uridine-responsive DEE50 caused by CAD gene variants at Beijing Children's Hospital and Peking University First Hospital from 2018 to 2022. The epileptic seizures, anemia, peripheral blood smear, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), visual evoked potential (VEP), genotype features and the therapeutic effect of uridine were descriptively analyzed. Results: A total of 6 patients, including 3 boys and 3 girls, aged 3.5(3.2,5.8) years, were enrolled in this study. All patients presented with refractory epilepsy, anemia with anisopoikilocytosis and global developmental delay with regression. The age of epilepsy onset was 8.5 (7.5, 11.0) months, and focal seizures were the most common seizure type (6 cases). Anemia ranged from mild to severe. Four patients had peripheral blood smears prior to uridine administration, showing erythrocytes of variable size and abnormal morphology, and normalized at 6 (2, 8) months after uridine supplementation. Two patients suffered from strabismus, 3 patients had VEP examinations, indicating of suspicious optic nerve involvement, and normal fundus examinations. VEP was re-examined at 1 and 3 months after uridine supplementation, suggesting significant improvement or normalization. Cranial MRI were performed at 5 patients, demonstrating cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. They had cranial MRI re-examined after uridine treatment with a duration of 1.1 (1.0, 1.8) years, indicating significant improvement in brain atrophy. All patients received uridine orally at a dose of 100 mg/(kg·d), the age at initiation of uridine treatment was 1.0 (0.8, 2.5) years, and the duration of treatment was 2.4 (2.2, 3.0) years. Immediate cession of seizures was observed within days to a week after uridine supplementation. Four patients received uridine monotherapy and were seizure free for 7 months, 2.4 years, 2.4 years and 3.0 years respectively. One patient achieved seizure free for 3.0 years after uridine supplementation and had discontinued uridine for 1.5 years. Two patients were supplemented with uridine combined with 1 to 2 anti-seizure medications and had a reduced seizure frequency of 1 to 3 times per year, and they had achieved seizure free for 8 months and 1.4 years respectively. Conclusions: The clinical manifestations of DEE50 caused by CAD gene variants present a triad of refractory epilepsy, anemia with anisopoikilocytosis, and psychomotor retardation with regression, accompanied by suspected optic nerve involvement, all of which respond to uridine treatment. Prompt diagnosis and immediate uridine supplementation could lead to significant clinical improvement.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant , Epilepsy/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Uridine , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Anemia , Electroencephalography/adverse effects , Neurodegenerative Diseases
6.
Rev. Cient. Esc. Estadual Saúde Pública de Goiás Cândido Santiago ; 9 (Ed. Especial, 1ª Oficina de Elaboração de Pareceres Técnicos Científicos (PTC): 9f1-EE3, 2023. ilus, tab, apêndice
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, ColecionaSUS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1524805

ABSTRACT

Uso de canabidiol (CDB) medicinal presente no óleo de canabis. Indicação: Tratamento de crianças portadoras de epilepsia refratária resistente a medicação e síndromes graves decorrentes. Pergunta: O uso do canabidiol em crianças com epilepsia resistente a medicamentos apresentaria diminuição na frequência de crises convulsivas? Objetivo: Investigar a eficácia e a segurança do canabidiol, em comparação a placebo, na manutenção da remissão em crianças com epilepsia refratária. Métodos: Revisão rápida de revisões sistemáticas, por meio de buscas bibliográficas realizadas nas bases PUBMED, SCOPUS, BVS, Cochrane Library. Foram utilizadas estratégias de buscas com vocabulário padronizado e avaliação da qualidade metodológica usando o checklist AMSTAR 2. Resultados: Foram selecionadas duas revisões sistemáticas que atendiam aos critérios de elegibilidade. O CDB quando comparado ao placebo reduziu 50% das convulsões para epilepsia refrataria (RR 1.69 [1.20 ­ 2.36]), para a síndrome de Lennox-Gastaut o RR foi 2.98 (IC 95%, 1.83 - 4.85) e para a síndrome de Dravet o RR foi 2.26 (IC 95% ,1.38 - 3.70). O CDB pode resultar em uma diminuição no apetite em dosagens maiores (RR = 2,10, IC 95% [0,96­4,62], embora não apresente diferença de efeito dos grupos comparadores. Conclusão: Duas revisões sistemáticas recentes o CDB quando comparado ao placebo reduziu 50% das convulsões para epilepsia refrataria e síndromes graves. Entretanto, existem poucos ensaios clínicos publicados na área


: Use of cannabidiol (CBD) present in cannabis oil. Indication: Treatment of children with drug-resistant refractory epilepsy and severe syndromes resulting. Question: Would the use of cannabidiol in children with drug-resistant epilepsy lead to a decrease in seizure frequency? Objective: to investigate the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol, compared to placebos, in maintaining remission in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods: Rapid review of systematic reviews, through a bibliographical search carried out in the PUBMED, SCOPUS, BVS, Cochrane Library databases. Predefined search strategies were followed, and the methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Results: Two systematic reviews were selected, which met the eligibility criteria. CBD when compared to placebo reduce 50% of seizures for refractory epilepsy (RR 1.69, IC 95% [1.20 ­ 2.36]), for Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome the RR was foi 2.98 (IC 95%, 1.83 - 4.85) and for Dravet Syndrome o RR FOI 2.26 (IC 95% ,1.38 - 3.70). CBD may result in appetite decrease using high doses (RR = 2.10, 95% IC [0.96­ 4.62], with no statistical difference. Conclusion: Two recent systematics, CBD, when compared to placebo, presented 50% of seizures for refractory epilepsy and severe syndromes. However, there are few clinical trials published in the area


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/drug therapy , Dronabinol/therapeutic use , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Efficacy , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(4): 250-253, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1426694

ABSTRACT

La neuromodulación es una práctica médica implementada desde hace más de cuatro décadas. En lo que respecta a la Neurocirugía, cumple un papel en el tratamiento de diversas patologías (Parkinson, distonías, epilepsia, etc.) y con un gran potencial para aplicarlas en otras (trastorno obsesivo compulsivo [TOC], dolor pélvico). Es por ello que, en los últimos años, se cuadruplicaron las inversiones de empresas biotecnológicas en este campo por la demanda y aplicación de la terapia. La neuromodulación abarca también otras especialidades, como por ejemplo Otorrinolaringología (ORL) en implantes cocleares, Cardiología con diversos modelos de marcapasos cardíacos, Endocrinología con bombas de infusión de medicamentos, Uroginecología en incontinencia, etcétera. Nuestra institución aplica en su práctica clínica todas estas técnicas, y cumple una función jerárquica como centro de referencia en educación y políticas sanitarias. Por estos aspectos, sumados a su infraestructura, personal profesional y enfoque sanitario, puede ser considerada como un Centro de Neuromodulación referente en la región. (AU)


Neuromodulation is a medical practice established for more than forty years. In the neurosurgical field it plays a role in the treatment of different diseases (Parkinson, Dystonia, Epilepsy, etc) and has a great potential to apply in other pathologies (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Pelvic pain). In the last years the biotechnological industry has quadrupled the investment in this field because of the demand and therapy application. Neuromodulation encompasses other specialities, for example otorhinolaryngology in cochlear implants, in cardiology with different models of pacemakers, endocrinology with implanted infusion pumps, urological gynecology in incontinence treatments, etc. Our institution applies all these techniques in its clinical practice, having a hierarchical role as a reference center in education and health policies. Due to these aspects, added to its infrastructure, professional staff and health approach, it can be considered as a reference Neuromodulation Center in the region. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Neurotransmitter Agents/therapeutic use , Deep Brain Stimulation , Chronic Pain/therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Pain Management/methods , Functional Status
9.
Med. infant ; 29(3): 205-211, Septiembre 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1399593

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Reportamos resultados sobre la efectividad, seguridad y tolerancia del cannabidiol como adyuvante terapéutico en pacientes pediátricos con encefalopatías epilépticas del desarrollo (EED) resistentes al tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico tras un seguimiento promedio de 20 meses. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo para evaluar la eficacia, la seguridad y la tolerancia del aceite de cannabis medicinal enriquecido con CBD añadido a los medicamentos anticonvulsivos estándar en niños con EED resistentes a los medicamentos atendidos en un único centro. Resultados: Entre octubre de 2018 y marzo de 2020, se incluyeron 59 pacientes. La edad media en el momento del inicio del protocolo fue de 10,5 años (rango, 2-17 años). La mediana de la duración del tratamiento fue de 20 meses (rango, 12-32). La mediana de edad en el momento de la primera convulsión fue de 8 meses (rango, 1 día - 10 años). Al final del seguimiento, el 78% de los niños tenía una disminución ≥ 50% en frecuencia de las crisis y el 47,5% tenía una disminución > 75%. Siete pacientes (11,9%) estaban libres de convulsiones. El número de crisis se redujo de una mediana de 305/mes a 90/mes, que supone una reducción media del 57% y una mediana del 71% (p < 0,0001). Los efectos adversos fueron en su mayoría leves o moderados. El CBD se interrumpió en 17 pacientes (28,8%) por falta de respuesta al tratamiento, aumento de la frecuencia de las convulsiones, intolerancia al fármaco o cumplimiento terapéutico insuficiente. Conclusión: En los niños con EED resistentes a los fármacos, el tratamiento a largo plazo del cannabis medicinal enriquecido con CBD como terapia adyuvante resultó ser seguro, bien tolerado y eficaz. Las reducciones sostenidas en la frecuencia de las convulsiones y la mejora de los aspectos de la vida diaria se observaron en comparación con nuestros preliminares (AU)


Objective: We report results on the effectiveness, safety, and tolerance of cannabidiol (CBD) as add-on therapy in children with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) resistant to pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment after a mean follow-up of 20 months. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of CBD-enriched medical cannabis oil added to standard antiseizure medications in children with drug-resistant DEEs seen at a single center. Results: Between October 2018 and March 2020, 59 patients were included. The median age at protocol initiation was 10.5 years (range, 2-17 years). Median treatment duration was 20 months (range, 12-32). The median age at the time of the first seizure was 8 months (range, 1 day - 10 years). At the end of follow-up, 78% of the children had a decrease ≥ 50% in seizure frequency and 47.5% had a decrease of > 75%. Seven patients (11.9%) were seizure free. The number of seizures was reduced from a median of 305/month to 90/month, accounting for a mean reduction of 57% and a median of 71% (p < 0.0001). Adverse effects were mostly mild or moderate. CBD was discontinued in 17 patients (28.8%) due to lack of response to treatment, increased seizure frequency, drug intolerance, or poor compliance. Conclusion: In children with drug-resistant DEE, long-term treatment with CBD-enriched medicinal cannabis as add-on therapy proved to be safe, well tolerated, and effective. Sustained reductions in seizure frequency and improvement in aspects of daily living were observed compared to our preliminary results (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Medical Marijuana/therapeutic use , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/drug therapy , Hospitals, Pediatric , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies
11.
Arq. bras. neurocir ; 41(1): 19-25, 07/03/2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362069

ABSTRACT

Introduction Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjuvant therapy used in the treatment of patients with refractory epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery or who have limited results after surgical procedures. Currently, there is enough evidence to support its use in patients with various types of epilepsy. Therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the possibility of optimizing therapy by reducing the consumption of the system's battery. Methods The prospective and double-blind analysis consisted in the evaluation of 6 patients submitted to VNS implantation for 3 months, followed by adjustment of the stimulation settings and continuity of follow-up for another month. The standard protocol was replaced by another with a frequency value of 20 Hz instead of 30 Hz to increase battery life. The safety of this procedure was evaluated through the assessment of two main variables: seizures and side effects. Results The stimulation at 20 Hz showed 68% reduction in the incidence of seizures (p»0.054) as well as low incidence of side effects. Conclusion The present study suggests that the reduction of the stimulation frequency from 30 to 20 Hz is a safe procedure, and it does not compromise the effectiveness of therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Seizures/therapy , Vagus Nerve/anatomy & histology , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/adverse effects , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Quality of Life , Seizures/prevention & control , Locus Coeruleus , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Treatment Outcome , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Implantable Neurostimulators
12.
Journal of Biomedical Engineering ; (6): 1165-1172, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970655

ABSTRACT

Drug-refractory epilepsy (DRE) may be treated by surgical intervention. Intracranial EEG has been widely used to localize the epileptogenic zone (EZ). Most studies of epileptic network focus on the features of EZ nodes, such as centrality and degrees. It is difficult to apply those features to the treatment of individual patients. In this study, we proposed a spatial neighbor expansion approach for EZ localization based on a neural computational model and epileptic network reconstruction. The virtual resection method was also used to validate the effectiveness of our approach. The electrocorticography (ECoG) data from 11 patients with DRE were analyzed in this study. Both interictal data and surgical resection regions were used. The results showed that the rate of consistency between the localized regions and the surgical resections in patients with good outcomes was higher than that in patients with poor outcomes. The average deviation distance of the localized region for patients with good outcomes and poor outcomes were 15 mm and 36 mm, respectively. Outcome prediction showed that the patients with poor outcomes could be improved when the brain regions localized by the proposed approach were treated. This study provides a quantitative analysis tool for patient-specific measures for potential surgical treatment of epilepsy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Epilepsy/surgery , Brain/surgery , Electrocorticography/methods , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/surgery , Brain Mapping/methods , Electroencephalography/methods
13.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e20176, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1403748

ABSTRACT

Abstract The increasing number of reports of web-based experiences on the success of Cannabis-based therapies in controlling seizures in children suffering from refractory epilepsy have led to efforts by governments and associations to a recent change in legislation. The Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA) allowed the import of Cannabis extracts in 2015 and the registration of the first industrialized drug in 2017. In 2019, ANVISA approved procedures for the granting of a Sanitary Authorization for manufacturing and imports, establishing marketing requirements, prescribing, dispensing, monitoring and surveillance of cannabis products for medicinal purposes. Similar to other consumer products of health concern, is necessary to ensure the quality and health safety of these products worldwide. The aim of the present study to evaluate the presence of As, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Co, Cr and Mn present in Cannabis extracts and resins used in the treatment of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Samples (48 national and 24 imported) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry - ICP-MS. The imported extracts presented more homogeneous inorganic element values, while national extracts showed varied levels, thus indicating the highest health risk.


Subject(s)
Patients/classification , Cannabis/adverse effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Medical Marijuana , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Health , Disease , Elements , Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency , Resins , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/drug therapy , Methods
14.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1391842

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La epilepsia del lóbulo temporal suele producir déficits mnésicos, atencionales y del lenguaje. En la mayoría de los casos, se trata con fármacos an-tiepilépticos, pero falla en un tercio de ellos. Por tal razón, una opción terapéutica es la lobectomía temporal, que contribuye a menguar las crisis. Sin embargo, los procedimientos quirúrgicos pueden conllevar secuelas, entre ellas consecuencias a nivel cognitivo. Para contrarrestar dichos efectos, se acostumbra llevar a cabo una rehabilitación neuropsicológica que va en pro de recuperar, fortalecer y sostener en el tiempo habilidades que ya venían afectándose desde antes de la cirugía. Objetivo. Brindar una reflexión en torno a la intervención neuropsicológica de la epilepsia en el lóbulo temporal. Método. La reflexión sobre el tema parte de un interés clínico y posteriormente se fue ampliando a partir de la revisión de la literatura en diferentes bases de datos como PubMed, Medline y Scopus entre los años 2000 y 2021. Reflexión. Son amplias las opciones terapéuticas a nivel neuropsicológico y pueden contribuir de manera positiva en la recuperación del paciente, por lo cual los profe-sionales requieren conocer las posibilidades de ello para poder utilizar las estrategias más adecuadas según cada caso y brindar opciones que beneficien la calidad de vida, teniendo en cuenta que ninguna es más efectiva que otra. Conclusión. Como resultado, se presenta un panorama general de la rehabilitación neuropsicológica en pacientes pre y posquirúrgicos con lobectomía, haciendo énfasis en la rehabilitación neuropsicológica tradicional y la rehabilitación basada en inteli-gencia artificial, realidad virtual y computación


Introduction. Temporal lobe epilepsy usually produces mnestic, attentional, and language deficits. In most cases, it is treated with antiepileptic drugs, but one third of them fail, so one therapeutic option is temporal lobectomy, which helps to reduce seizures. However, surgical procedures can have sequelae, including cognitive con-sequences. To counteract these effects, neuropsychological rehabilitation is usually carried out in order to recover, strengthen, and sustain in time skills that were already affected before the surgery. Objective. To provide a reflection on the neuropsychological intervention of tem-poral lobe epilepsy. Method. The reflection on the subject starts from a clinical interest and was sub-sequently expanded from the review of the literature in different databases such as PubMed, Medline, and Scopus between 2000 and 2021. Reflection. There are many therapeutic options at the neuropsychological level and they can contribute positively to the patient's recovery, so professionals need to know the possibilities in order to use the most appropriate strategies according to each case and provide options that benefit the quality of life, taking into account that none is more effective than the other one.Conclusion. As a result, an overview of neuropsychological rehabilitation in pre- and post-surgical patients with lobectomy is presented, with emphasis on traditional neuropsychological rehabilitation and rehabilitation based on artificial intelligence, virtual reality, and computation


Subject(s)
Rehabilitation/psychology , Epilepsy , Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe , Neurological Rehabilitation/psychology , Temporal Lobe , Anterior Temporal Lobectomy , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Neurological Rehabilitation , Anticonvulsants , Neuropsychology
15.
Rev. cienc. salud (Bogotá) ; 20(1): 1-9, ene.-abr. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367576

ABSTRACT

Introducción:el síndrome de Dravet, también conocido como epilepsia mioclónica grave de la infancia, corresponde a una encefalopatía epiléptica resistente a fármacos que inicia generalmente en el primer año de vida. Se caracteriza por crisis epilépticas que suelen tener múltiples desencadenantes; el más asociado es la presencia de episodios febriles previos. Se considera una enfermedad rara, debido a su baja incidencia y prevalencia. Presentación del caso: niño de 10 años de edad con un cuadro de epilepsia de origen estructural, asociada con un retraso en el neurodesarrollo y anomalías craneofaciales meno-res, con antecedente de cardiopatía congénita no corregida, colpocefalia y agenesia del cuerpo calloso. Debido a la persistencia de las crisis convulsivas y su consiguiente resistencia farmacológica, se le rea-lizó un exoma genético que evidenció una mutación del gen SCN9. Discusión: el síndrome de Dravet debe ser sospechado en todo paciente menor de un año que tenga crisis convulsivas a repetición asociadas con episodios febriles cuantificados. Aproximadamente, entre el 70 % y el 85 % de los pacientes con el diagnóstico de síndrome de Dravet presenta una mutación en el gen SCN1A, por lo que mutaciones en otros genes que codifican para canales de sodio, ubicados en el mismo cromosoma, como el SCN9A, podrían contribuir de forma multifactorial a dicha entidad


Introduction: Dravet syndrome, also known as severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy, is a drug resistant epileptic encephalopathy that usually begins in the first year of life. It is characterized by the presence of epileptic seizures that usually have multiple triggers; the most currently associated is the presence of previous febrile episodes. It is considered as a rare disease due to its low incidence and prevalence. Case presentation: We reported the case of a ten-year-old boy with structural epilepsy associated with a neuro-developmental delay and minor craniofacial anomalies. He had a history of uncorrected congenital heart disease, colpocephaly, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Due to the persistence of seizures secondary to drug resistance, it was decided to perform a genetic exome that evidenced a mutation of the SCN9A gene. Conclusions: Dravet syndrome should be suspected in all patients under one year of age who have recu-rrent seizures associated with fever that does not respond to medication and modifies its presentation. Approximately 70%−85% of the patients diagnosed with Dravet syndrome have a mutation in the SCN1A gene; therefore, mutations in other genes that encode sodium channels located on the same chromosome, such as SCN9A, could contribute in a multifactorial way.


Introdução: a síndrome de Dravet, também conhecida como epilepsia mioclônica grave da infância, corresponde a uma encefalopatia epiléptica resistente a medicamentos que geralmente se inicia no primeiro ano de vida. É caracterizada pela presença de crises epilépticas que costumam ter múltiplos detonantes, sendo que o mais associado atualmente é a presença de episódios febris prévios. É conside-rada uma doença rara devido à sua baixa incidência e prevalência. Apresentação do caso: é apresentado o caso de um menino de 10 anos de idade com quadro de epilepsia de origem estrutural, associada a atraso no desenvolvimento neurológico e pequenas anomalias craniofaciais; com histórico de cardio-patia congênita não corrigida, colpocefalia e agenesia do corpo caloso. Devido à persistência das crises epilépticas e consequente resistência farmacológica, optou-se pela realização de um exoma genético que apresenta uma mutação do gene SCN9. Discussão: a síndrome de Dravet deve ser suspeitada em todos os pacientes com menos de um ano de idade que apresentam convulsões repetidas associadas a episódios febris quantificados. Aproximadamente 70 a 85% dos pacientes com diagnóstico de síndrome de Dravet apresentam mutação no gene SCN1A, portanto mutações em outros genes que codificam canais de sódio, localizados no mesmo cromossomo, como o SCN9A, poderiam contribuir de forma multifatorial para essa entidade


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Epilepsies, Myoclonic , Seizures , Brain Diseases , Drug Resistance , Child , Epilepsy, Generalized , Drug Resistant Epilepsy
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 290-298, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Epilepsy affects about 50 million people worldwide and around 30% of these patients have refractory epilepsy, with potential consequences regarding quality of life, morbidity and premature mortality. Objective: The aim of treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs) is to allow patients to remain without seizures, with good tolerability. Levetiracetam is a broad-spectrum ASM with a unique mechanism of action that differs it from other ASMs. It has been shown to be effective and safe for treating adults and children with epilepsy. Methods: This was a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of levetiracetam in children and adults (4-65 years) as an adjuvant treatment for focal-onset seizures. It was conducted among 114 patients undergoing treatment with up to three ASMs. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the proportion of patients who achieved a reduction of ≥ 50% in the mean number of focal seizures per week, over a 16-week treatment period. The patients were randomized to receive placebo or levetiracetam, titrated every two weeks from 20 mg/kg/day or 1,000 mg/day up to 60 mg/kg/day or 3,000 mg/day. Results: Levetiracetam was significantly superior to placebo (p = 0.0031); 38.7% of the participants in the levetiracetam group and 14.3% in the control group shows reductions in focal seizures. Levetiracetam was seen to have a favorable safety profile and an adverse event rate similar to that of placebo. Conclusion: Corroborating the results in the literature, levetiracetam was shown to be effective and safe for children and adults with refractory focal-onset epilepsy.


RESUMO Introdução: A epilepsia afeta cerca de 50 milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e aproximadamente 30% desses pacientes apresentam epilepsia refratária, com possíveis consequências na qualidade de vida, morbidade e mortalidade prematura. Objetivo: O objetivo do tratamento com fármacos antiepilépticos (FAEs) é permitir que os pacientes permaneçam sem crises epilépticas com boa tolerabilidade. O levetiracetam (LEV) é um FAE de amplo espectro, com mecanismo de ação único, diferente dos demais e que demonstra ser eficaz e seguro no tratamento de adultos e crianças. Métodos: Estudo de fase III, multicêntrico, randomizado, duplo-cego e controlado por placebo avalia a eficácia e a segurança do LEV em crianças e adultos (4-65 anos) como tratamento adjuvante para crises de início focal em 114 pacientes já tratados com até três FAEs. A análise de eficácia primária foi baseada na proporção de pacientes que apresentaram redução ≥50% no número médio de crises epilépticas focais semanais, durante 16 semanas. Os pacientes foram randomizados para receber placebo ou LEV, titulado a cada duas semanas de 20 mg/kg/dia ou 1.000 mg/dia até 60 mg/kg/dia ou 3.000 mg/dia. Resultados: LEV foi significativamente superior ao placebo (p=0,0031), com 38,7% dos participantes no grupo LEV e 14,3% no grupo controle que apresentaram redução das crises focais. LEV apresenta bom perfil de segurança com eventos adversos semelhantes ao placebo. Conclusão: Corroborando com os resultados da literatura, o levetiracetam mostra-se eficaz e seguro para crianças e adultos com epilepsia focal refratária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Epilepsies, Partial , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Quality of Life , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Drug Therapy, Combination , Levetiracetam/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use
18.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1096-1101, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922589

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neuromodulative therapeutic technique for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who are not suitable for resection or who have experienced a failed resection. This study aims to explore the efficacy and safety of VNS in patients with refractory epilepsy, and to analyze the influential factors for the efficacy.@*METHODS@#A retrospective review of clinical data were conducted for 35 patients, who were treated for refractory epilepsy through VNS surgery in the Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University from April 2016 to August 2019. All patients were analyzed in terms of the clinical and follow-up data.@*RESULTS@#After a mean follow-up of 26 months (6-47 months), outcome was as follows: 7 patients were MuHugh class I, 13 patients were MuHugh class II, 8 patients were MuHugh class III, and 7 patients were MuHugh class IV-V. The total efficacy rate in the short duration group was significantly higher than that in the long duration group (77.8% vs 50.0%, @*CONCLUSIONS@#VNS is a safe and effective option in treating patients with refractory epilepsy, especially for those with short duration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistant Epilepsy/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Treatment Outcome , Vagus Nerve Stimulation
19.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 887-890, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical features and disease-causing variants of a pediatric patient with fatal encephalopathy caused by mitochondrial peroxidase division deficiency, to identify the possible genetic causes of the disease and provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.@*METHODS@#A child with fatal encephalopathy caused by mitochondrial peroxidase division deficiency in West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University was selected. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and disease-causing variant were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#The main clinical symptoms of the patient were fever, headache and vomiting, followed by drug refractory epilepsy and progressive disturbance of consciousness. MRI showed deepening of sulcus, dilatation of bilateral ventricles, and multiple patch-like abnormal signals in paraventricular white matter, semioval center and subcortical white matter of bilateral frontal lobe. Gene detection showed a heterozygous missense variant c.1207C>T(p.Arg403Cys) in DNM1L, according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics classification standards and guidelines for genetic variants, this variant was predicted to be pathogenic(PS1+PS2+PM2+PP3). After treated with gamma globulin, glucocorticoid, "mitochondrial cocktail therapy" and anti-epilepsy drugs, the condition of the patient was getting better, seizure attacks reduced and consciousness level improved.@*CONCLUSION@#The c.1207C>T variant in DNM1L gene may be the disease-causing variant for the patient, and the result of genetic testing provides a basis for the clinical diagnosis in this case.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Drug Resistant Epilepsy , Dynamins , Genomics , Mitochondria , Mutation , Peroxidase , Seizures
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