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1.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 79-85, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151426

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O diagnóstico da hanseníase possui números significativos que causam preocupação à saúde pública. Os casos de resistência medicamentosa nessa doença se iniciaram em meados dos anos 60 e diante do problema, a Organização Mundial da Saúde instituiu em 1981 a poliquimioterapia, associação dos antibióticos rifampicina, dapsona e clofazimina, tratamento atual de escolha. A resistência aos fármacos na hanseníase é reportada pela literatura, desvelando um obstáculo à sua eliminação. Apresentamos nessa revisão os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa no tratamento para hanseníase e seus impactos. Metodologia: Revisão sistemática sobre os aspectos da resistência medicamentosa utilizando a pesquisa exploratória como metodologia de abordagem. Foram pesquisados os termos resistência medicamentosa, hanseníase, recidiva, alterações genéticas e os operadores booleanos "and" e "or" na busca. Resultados e discussão: A dificuldade de tomar a medicação corretamente foi um dos principais fatores que acarretaram resistência do bacilo Mycobacterium leprae aos fármacos. Homens de países norte e sul-americanos e asiáticos foram os mais atingidos por episódios de resistência. A resistência medicamentosa é uma das principais causas de recidivas em hanseníase. O principal fármaco causador de resistência medicamentosa descrito nos trabalhos foi a dapsona (46,6%) e a maioria das alterações genéticas encontradas estão no gene rpoB; 23,2% dos registros relatados foram de resistência secundária aos fármacos e, também, sete casos de resistência múltipla a esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Os principais aspectos da resistência medicamentosa na hanseníase são os equívocos ao ingerir os medicamentos e as alterações genéticas na bactéria. Os impactos causados estão na dificuldade de refazer o tratamento, a possibilidade de nova transmissão e o aparecimento de sintomas mais graves.


Introduction: The diagnosis of leprosy has significant numbers causing public health concern. Reports of drug resistance in this disease begun in the mid-1960s and due to this problem, the World Health Organization instituted a multidrug therapy with rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine antibiotic association in 1981, which is currently the first-choice treatment for leprosy. Cases of drug resistance have been reported in literature, revealing an obstacle to the eradication of the disease. This paper has the purpose of presenting the key aspects and impacts of drug resistance in the treatment for leprosy. Methods: Systematic review of the drug resistance aspects using exploratory research as an approach methodology. The authors searched the terms drug resistance, leprosy, recurrence, genetic alterations, and the Boolean operators "and" and "or" between them. Results and discussion: The difficulty in taking the medication correctly was one of the key factors that led to drug resistance for Mycobacterium leprae. Men from North and South American, as well as from Asian countries, were the most affected by episodes of resistance. Drug resistance is one of the main causes of leprosy recurrences. Dapsone was the most frequently identified drug resistance in the studies (46.6%), while most of the genetic alterations were found in the rpoB gene; 23.2% of the cases were from secondary resistance episodes, and seven cases of multiple resistance were reported. Conclusion: The misconceptions when taking the treatment and the Mycobacterium leprae genetic alterations have been described as the key aspects of drugs resistance in leprosy and the impacts caused are the difficulty in redoing the treatment, the possibility of new transmission, and the appearance of more severe symptoms.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Mycobacterium leprae/drug effects , Rifampin/adverse effects , Bacteria/genetics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Fluoroquinolones/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Leprosy/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects
3.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 52, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088611

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are described in individuals with leprosy without the clinical features of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), a condition involving thromboembolic phenomena. We have described the persistence of these antibodies for over 5 years in patients with leprosy after specific treatment. Objectives: To determine whether epidemiological, clinical and immunological factors played a role in the longterm persistence of aPL antibodies in leprosy patients after multidrug therapy (MDT) had finished. Methods: The study sample consisted of 38 patients with a diagnosis of leprosy being followed up at the Dermatology and Venereology Outpatient Department at the Alfredo da Matta Foundation (FUAM) in Manaus, AM. ELISA was used to detect anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodies. Patients were reassessed on average of 5 years after specific treatment for the disease (MDT) had been completed. Results: Persistence of aPL antibodies among the 38 leprosy patients was 84% (32/38), and all had the IgM isotype. Mean age was 48.1 ± 15.9 years, and 23 (72.0%) were male. The lepromatous form (LL) of leprosy was the most common (n = 16, 50%). Reactional episodes were observed in three patients (9.4%). Eighteen (47.37%) were still taking medication (prednisone and/or thalidomide). Mean IgM levels were 64 U/mL for aCL and 62 U/mL for anti-β2GPI. In the multivariate binary logistic regression the following variables showed a significant association: age (p = 0.045, OR = 0.91 and CI 95% 0.82-0.98), LL clinical presention (p = 0.034; OR = 0.02 and CI 95% = 0.0-0.76) and bacterial index (p = 0.044; OR = 2.74 and CI 95% = 1.03-7.33). We did not find association between prednisone or thalidomide doses and positivity for aPL (p = 0.504 and p = 0.670, respectively). No differences in the variables vascular thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity, diabetes, smoking and alcoholism were found between aPL-positive and aPL-negative patients. Conclusion: Persistence of positivity for aPL antibodies was influenced by age, clinical presentation and bacterial index. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the reason for this persistence, the role played by aPL antibodies in the disease and the B cell lineages responsible for generation of these antibodies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leprosy/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/instrumentation , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/analysis , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin/analysis , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , beta 2-Glycoprotein I/analysis
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(3): 377-384, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949891

ABSTRACT

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The Clinical Trial for Uniform Multidrug Therapy for Leprosy Patients in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR), designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a six-months regimen, assessed the adverse effects caused by the drugs. OBJECTIVE: Describe adverse effects due to MDT in U-MDT/CT-BR, comparing the uniform regimen (U-MDT) to the current WHO regimen (R-MDT). Patients and methods: After operational classification, patients were randomly allocated to the study groups. U-MDT PB and U-MDT MB groups, received the U-MDT regimen, six doses of MB-MDT (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine). R-MDT PB and R-MDT MB groups, received the WHO regimens: six doses (rifampicin and dapsone) for PB and 12 doses (rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine) for MB. During treatment, patients returned monthly for clinical and laboratorial evaluation. Patients with single lesion were not included in this trial. RESULTS: Skin pigmentation (21.7%) and xerosis (16.9%) were the most frequent complaints among 753 patients. Laboratory exams showed hemoglobin concentration lower than 10g/dL in 23.3% of the patients, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) above 40U/L in 29.5% and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) above 40U/L in 28.5%. Twenty-four patients (3.2%) stopped dapsone intake due to adverse effects, of whom 16.6% due to severe anemia. One case of sulfone syndrome was reported. STUDY LIMITATIONS: Loss of some monthly laboratory sample collection. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistical difference regarding adverse effects in the R-MDT and U-MDT groups but anemia was greater in patients from R-MDT/MB group, therefore adverse effects do not represent a constraint to recommend the six-month uniform regimen of treatment for all leprosy patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Rifampin/adverse effects , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects , Rifampin/administration & dosage , Brazil , Hemoglobins/analysis , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Clofazimine/administration & dosage , Dapsone/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Anemia/chemically induced , Anemia/blood , Leprostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Leprosy/complications , Leprosy/drug therapy , Leprosy/blood
7.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(6): 858-860, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887122

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Cutaneous drug reactions are adverse reactions to medications that may present with different clinical features, ranging from localized to generalized lesions. In this report we describe a case of an unusual drug reaction, resembling the morphology of Sweet syndrome lesions. The patient had a psychiatric illness and was using thioridazine hydrochloride for one year. He developed infiltrated and grouped erythematous lesions on the elbows and knees three days after commencing multiple drugs (promethazine, haloperidol, mirtazapine and levomepromazine). After suspension of these four drugs and after the use of glucocorticoids, the patient had significant clinical improvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Sweet Syndrome/pathology , Drug Eruptions/pathology , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Biopsy , Sweet Syndrome/chemically induced , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Erythema/chemically induced , Erythema/pathology
8.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 50(4): 245-254, jul.-ago 2017.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-877413

ABSTRACT

Study design: Cohort study Objective: Analyze the adverse reactions that occurred in Brazilian patients with colorectal cancer submitted to chemotherapy with two different protocols, in order to identify the types and severity of those most frequent recorded. Methods: Sixty-three patients, who started treatment from June 2014 to May 2015, were separated into two groups: mFOLFOX6 (protocol containing oxaliplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil in bolus and continuous infusion, n= 40) and FOLFIRI (protocol containing irinotecan, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil in bolus and continuous infusions, n= 23). Data related to the demographic and clinical profile of the patients were collected from the medical record, as well as information about the treatment performed and the adverse reactions manifested. The reactions were classified according to their severity (grades 1, 2, 3 and 4) and causality (definite, probable, possible and doubtful). Results: A high frequency of adverse reactions was observed in both groups, reaching 92.5% of patients with mFOLFOX6 protocol and 95.6% with FOLFIRI protocol. Gastrointestinal and neurological toxicities were the most frequent among the groups. When comparing the occurrence of intergroup reactions, there was difference only for gastrointestinal toxicities (p= 0.035). In 17.5% of patients mFOLFOX6 group (n= 7) and in 8.7% of patients FOLFIRI group (n= 2), grades 3 and 4 adverse reactions were observed and classified as probable. Conclusion: The adverse reactions were more diversified and frequent in the mFOLFOX6 group compared to the FOLFIRI group. However, no difference was observed in the severity and causality of reactions in both groups (AU)


Study design: Cohort study Objective: Analyze the adverse reactions that occurred in Brazilian patients with colorectal cancer submitted to chemotherapy with two different protocols, in order to identify the types and severity of those most frequent recorded. Methods: Sixty-three patients, who started treatment from June 2014 to May 2015, were separated into two groups: mFOLFOX6 (protocol containing oxaliplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil in bolus and continuous infusion, n= 40) and FOLFIRI (protocol containing irinotecan, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil in bolus and continuous infusions, n= 23). Data related to the demographic and clinical profile of the patients were collected from the medical record, as well as information about the treatment performed and the adverse reactions manifested. The reactions were classified according to their severity (grades 1, 2, 3 and 4) and causality (definite, probable, possible and doubtful). Results: A high frequency of adverse reactions was observed in both groups, reaching 92.5% of patients with mFOLFOX6 protocol and 95.6% with FOLFIRI protocol. Gastrointestinal and neurological toxicities were the most frequent among the groups. When comparing the occurrence of intergroup reactions, there was difference only for gastrointestinal toxicities (p= 0.035). In 17.5% of patients mFOLFOX6 group (n= 7) and in 8.7% of patients FOLFIRI group (n= 2), grades 3 and 4 adverse reactions were observed and classified as probable. Conclusion: The adverse reactions were more diversified and frequent in the mFOLFOX6 group compared to the FOLFIRI group. However, no difference was observed in the severity and causality of reactions in both groups.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Colorectal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects
9.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2017; 27 (6): 342-347
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188497

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of concurrent Chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced inoperable squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity in terms of local control and toxicity


Study Design: Case series


Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology [INMOL], Lahore, from January 2008 to December 2013


Methodology: Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced inoperable oral cavity cancer, registered in INMOL hospital from January 2008 to December 2013 who fulfilled a pre-defined eligibility criteria, were enrolled in the study


Concurrent Chemoradiation protocol consisted of conventional fractionation delivering 70 Gy with weekly Cisplatin [50 mg/m[2]] during the course of radiation


Tumor response was calculated by RECIST criteria version 1.1 along with the median overall survival and disease-free survival. Acute treatment related toxicities were graded as [G]


Results: Thirty-six [52.17%] patients showed complete response; while 19 [27.54%], 8 [11.59%] and 6 [8.7%] were observed with partial response, stable and progressive disease, respectively. Treatment response was significant [p<0.001] in terms of responders vs. nonresponders to treatment. Median overall survival was 18.00 months; whereas, median disease-free survival remained 14.00 months. Main toxicities included mucositis [G3 and G4, 71%], xerostomia [G2 and G3, 82.5%], vomiting [G3 and G4, 51%], myelosuppression [G3 and G4, 26.2%], dermatitis [G3 and G4, 49.2%], and fatigue [G3 and G4, 57.9%]


Conclusion: Platinum based CCRT remained effective for inoperable oral cancer patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cisplatin/administration & dosage , Dose Fractionation, Radiation
10.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 33(2): 62-64, 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-964927

ABSTRACT

La lepra es una infección crónica, granulomatosa, producida por Mycobacterium leprae, que afecta piel y nervios periféricos. Se describen dos tipos de reacciones leprosas: tipo I y tipo II, las que corresponden a cuadros agudos que exacerban la enfermedad. Estas leproreacciones pueden ocurrir antes, durante o después del tratamiento. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino que acude a consultar con lesiones cutáneas y resultado de biopsia de piel con diagnóstico de lepra. Se inicia tratamiento multidroga OMS-MB1. Posteriormente presenta una leproreacción tipo I, por lo que se le realiza tratamiento con prednisona.


Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and peripheral nervous system produced by Mycobacterium leprae. Two types of acute leprosy reactions have been described: type I and type II. These reactions can occur before, during or after treatment. We present the case of an adult male patient presenting with skin lesions and skin biopsy diagnostic for leprosy. A multidrug WHO-MB 1 treatment was initiated, after which he presents with type I lepra reaction requiring corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Leprosy, Lepromatous/diagnosis , Leprosy, Lepromatous/drug therapy , Clofazimine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Erythema Nodosum/chemically induced , Rifampin/adverse effects , Biopsy , Dapsone/adverse effects , Leprosy, Multibacillary/pathology , Leprostatic Agents/adverse effects
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 20(1): 14-18, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-776466

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, 275 patients in use of tenofovir were retrospectively followed-up for three years to evaluate risk factors involved in impaired renal function. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test were used to verify any differences in creatinine levels and estimated clearance at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, adjusting for the co-variables sex, skin color, age >50 years, arterial hypertension, diabetes and the use of the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) lopinavir/r or atazanavir/r. The software package STATISTICA 10® was used for statistical analysis. The patients’ mean age was 43.2 ± 10.7 years. Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and diabetes were found in 20.4% and 8.7% of the patients, respectively. Overall, 96.7% were on tenofovir associated with lamivudine (TDF + 3TC), 39.3% on lopinavir/r, 29.8% on efavirenz, and 17.6% on atazanavir/r. There was a statistically significant difference in estimated creatinine clearance at 24 months, when the co-variables male (F = 3.95; p = 0.048), SAH (F = 6.964; p = 0.009), and age over 50 years (F = 45.81; p < 0.001) were taken into consideration. Analysis of the co-variable use of atazanavir/r showed a tendency toward an increased risk over time (F = 2.437; p = 0.063); however, no significant time interaction was seen. At 36-month, a statistically significant difference was found for age over 50 years, (F = 32.02; p < 0.05) and there was a significant time-by-sex interaction (F = 3.117; p = 0.0149). TDF was discontinued in 12 patients, one because of a femoral neck fracture (0.7%) and 11 due to nephrotoxicity (4%). Of these latter cases, 9/11 patients were also using protease inhibitors. These data strongly alert that tenofovir use should be individualized with careful attention to renal function especially in male patients, over 50 years, with SAH, and probably those on ATV/r.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Tenofovir/adverse effects , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate/drug effects , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Kidney/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tenofovir/administration & dosage
14.
Clinics ; 70(6): 429-434, 06/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-749788

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Fixed-dose combination formulations, which simplify the administration of drugs and prevent the development of drug resistance, have been recommended as a standard anti-tuberculosis treatment regimen. However, the composition and dosage recommendations for fixed-dose combination formulations differ from those for separate formulations. Thus, questions about the effectiveness and side effects of combination formulations remain. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of these two types of anti-tuberculosis regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment. METHOD: A prospective, randomized controlled study was conducted using the directly observed treatment short-course strategy. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two short-course regimens. One year after completing the treatment, these patients’ outcomes were analyzed. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00979290. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were enrolled, 142 of whom were evaluable for safety assessment. The two regimens had a similar incidence of adverse effects. In the per-protocol population, serum bilirubin concentrations at the peak level, at week 4, and at week 8 were significantly higher for the fixed-dose combination formulation than for the separate formulations. All patients had negative sputum cultures at the end of the treatment, and no relapse occurred after one year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized study, transient higher serum bilirubin levels were noted for the fixed-dose combination regimen compared with the separate formulations during treatment. However, no significant difference in safety or efficacy was found between the groups when the directly observed treatment short-course strategy was used. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antitubercular Agents/administration & dosage , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Antitubercular Agents/adverse effects , Bilirubin/blood , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Combinations , Directly Observed Therapy/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Prospective Studies , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Sputum/microbiology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Vision Disorders/chemically induced
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 214-223, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hematological abnormalities during hepatitis C virus (HCV) combination therapy with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin often necessitate dose reduction. Variants of the ITPA gene have been reported to protect against anemia during the early stages of HCV combination treatments but have also been associated with larger decreases in platelet counts. We aimed to identify the association between specific ITPA gene polymorphisms and hematological abnormalities in patients undergoing HCV combination therapy. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 175 patients treated with HCV combination therapy were enrolled at St. Martin De Porres Hospital in Taiwan between 2006 and 2012. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within or adjacent to the ITPA gene (rs1127354, rs6051702) were genotyped. We investigated the effect of ITPA gene variants on hematological abnormalities during the therapy. RESULTS: The ITPA rs1127354 minor variants were significantly associated with protection against anemia at week 4 (p=1.86 x 10(-6)) and with more severe decreases in platelet counts during HCV combination therapy. SNP rs6051702 was not associated with the hemoglobin decline to >3 g/dL at week 4 in our study (p=0.055). CONCLUSIONS: The ITPA SNP rs1127354 is a useful predictor of ribavirin-induced anemia in Taiwanese patients and may be related to more severe decreases in platelet counts during the early stage of HCV combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Female , Hematologic Diseases/chemically induced , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Taiwan , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 214-223, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hematological abnormalities during hepatitis C virus (HCV) combination therapy with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin often necessitate dose reduction. Variants of the ITPA gene have been reported to protect against anemia during the early stages of HCV combination treatments but have also been associated with larger decreases in platelet counts. We aimed to identify the association between specific ITPA gene polymorphisms and hematological abnormalities in patients undergoing HCV combination therapy. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 175 patients treated with HCV combination therapy were enrolled at St. Martin De Porres Hospital in Taiwan between 2006 and 2012. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within or adjacent to the ITPA gene (rs1127354, rs6051702) were genotyped. We investigated the effect of ITPA gene variants on hematological abnormalities during the therapy. RESULTS: The ITPA rs1127354 minor variants were significantly associated with protection against anemia at week 4 (p=1.86 x 10(-6)) and with more severe decreases in platelet counts during HCV combination therapy. SNP rs6051702 was not associated with the hemoglobin decline to >3 g/dL at week 4 in our study (p=0.055). CONCLUSIONS: The ITPA SNP rs1127354 is a useful predictor of ribavirin-induced anemia in Taiwanese patients and may be related to more severe decreases in platelet counts during the early stage of HCV combination therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Female , Hematologic Diseases/chemically induced , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Humans , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Pyrophosphatases/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Taiwan , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 18(1): 110-113, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703056

ABSTRACT

Pegylated interferon alpha (Peg IFN-α) in combination with ribavirin is the backbone of treatment in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Cardiotoxicity due to interferon therapy is rare. The most frequent cardiovascular complications are arrhythmias and ischemic manifestations. Cardiomyopathy is extremely rare but can be life threatening. We present the case of a 41-year-old female patient with CHC in whom Peg IFN-α induced dilated cardiomyopathy and hypothyroidism. Chest radiography showed an enlarged and globular cardiac silhouette and pulmonary congestion. Echocardiography showed decreased left ventricular systolic function with an ejection fraction of 32% and fractional shortening of 15%. Cardiomyopathy had a complete remission after cessation of antiviral therapy with short-term heart failure medications and supportive care. Then we review the current literature about interferon induced cardiomyopathy in patients with HCV infection, as well as share our clinical experience in diagnosing and managing this rare complication.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/chemically induced , Hypothyroidism/chemically induced , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Ribavirin/administration & dosage
18.
Hansen. int ; 39(1): 8-21, 2014. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-831057

ABSTRACT

O tratamento da hanseníase pode causar efeitos adversos relacionados à Rifampicina (RMP) ou Dapsona (DDS) levando à mudança no esquema terapêutico. Objetivou-se determinar as causas da mudança do tratamento e avaliar as condições clínicas dermatológicas dos pacientes que fizeram uso da terapêutica alternativa. De 182 pacientes tratados entre 1997-2008, 34 (18,7%) fizeram doses alternativas e 21 foram entrevistados. O perfil foi constituído por casados, de 40 à 59 anos, baixa condição socioeconômica e escolaridade. Os pacientes paucibacilares (PB) e multibacilares (MB) sem o uso de DDS e de RMP tiveram as últimas baciloscopias (BAAR) negativas (>50%), e os resultados positivos dos outros mostrou involução lenta. A forma clínica mais incidente foi a virchowiana nos intolerantes à DDS, e a dimorfa nos sem a RMP. Os efeitos adversos acometeram mais os MB. Nos intolerantes à DDS, a mudança do esquema terapêutico foi relacionada às causas hematológicas (48,5%) e os à RMP, as hepáticas (50%). Na avaliação as placas e nódulos desapareceram. As manchas, dor geral ou localizada em membros, diminuição da sensibilidade e da força muscular com aparecimento de garra móvel foram significativas. A evolução das incapacidades revelou a necessidade de monitorar atentamente a função neural nos casos de alta.


Leprosy treatment can cause adverse effects related to rifampin (RMP) or dapsone (DDS) leading to changes of the therapeutic regimen. The objective was to determine the causes of changes in the treatment and to evaluate the clinical dermatological conditions of patients who underwent alternative therapy. Out of 182 patients treated between 1997- 2008, 34 (18.7%) underwent alternative doses, and 21 were interviewed. The profile of the patients was: married, 40 to 59 years, low socioeconomic and educational status. The latest bacilloscopic index (BI) of paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) patients that did not use DDS and RMP was negative (> 50%), and the positive results observed in the other patients evidenced slow recovery. The most frequent clinical form was lepromatous in patients intolerant to DDS and borderline leprosy in those without RMP. Adverse effects were most commonin MB patients. Intolerance to DDS was related to hematological causes (48.5%), and intolerance to RMP was due to hepatic conditions (50%). Upon evaluation nodules and plaques disappeared. Plaques, generalor localized pain in limbs, reduced sensitivity and muscular strength with the appearance of claw were significant findings. The development of disabilities revealed the need of careful monitoring of the neural function in cases discharged from treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Leprosy/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Disease-Free Survival , Rifampin/adverse effects
19.
An. bras. dermatol ; 88(6,supl.1): 109-112, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696808

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C is an inflammatory disease of the liver caused by a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Hepacivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family, called the hepatitis C virus. After initial infection, 70% to 85% of the patients develop chronic hepatitis C with hepatic fibrosis. In addition to specific liver changes, various extrahepatic manifestations have been associated with the hepatitis C virus infection or with medications used to treat the condition. We report the case of a patient with chronic hepatitis C who presented with the signs and symptoms of borderline tuberculoid leprosy and type 1 reaction four months after the start of treatment with a pegylated interferon/ribavirin combination.


A hepatite C é uma doença inflamatória fígado causada por um vírus RNA de fita simples, pertencente ao gênero Hepacivirus e à família Flaviviridae, denominado de vírus da hepatite C. Após infecção inicial 70 a 85% dos pacientes infectados evoluem para hepatite C crônica, com fibrose progressiva. Além das alterações hepáticas específicas, várias manifestações extra-hepáticas têm sido relacionadas à infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C ou às medicações utilizadas no seu tratamento. Nesse trabalho, apresenta-se caso de paciente portador de hepatite C crônica, que manifestou um quadro hanseníase boderline tuberculóide e reação hansênica do tipo I, quatro meses após início do tratamento com interferon peguilado associado à ribavirina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Interferons/adverse effects , Leprosy, Borderline/chemically induced , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/chemically induced , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Acute-Phase Reaction/chemically induced , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects , Hepatitis C/complications , Leprosy, Borderline/pathology , Leprosy, Tuberculoid/pathology
20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(4): 346-348, jul.-ago. 2013.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694794

ABSTRACT

El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1), en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarrollaron síntomas de enfermedad vascular periférica y al examen físico sus pulsos estaban disminuidos o ausentes. El Doppler arterial confirmó signos de espasmo arterial difuso en dos de ellos. Se hizo diagnóstico de ergotismo secundario a la asociación de ergotamina-inhibidores de la proteasa. Los pacientes fueron tratados con la discontinuación de las drogas involucradas (inhibidores de la proteasa y ergotamina), bloqueantes cálcicos, profilaxis antitrombótica con enoxaparina, antiagregación con ácido acetil salicílico y uno ellos recibió pentoxifilina e infusión de prostaglandinas vasodilatadoras con mejoría de los síntomas. Discutimos la presentación clínica de esta interacción medicamentosa, difícil de diagnosticar correctamente sin una fuerte sospecha de su existencia.


Ergotism is a complication of acute intoxication and/or chronic abuse of ergot derivatives. It expresses itself through a vasomotor syndrome with peripheral vascular disease which frequently involves extremities. We report four cases of HIV-1 infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs including boosted-protease inhibitors who had self-treated themselves with ergotamine. They developed peripheral vascular disease symptoms and their pulses where diminished or absent in the physical examination. Arterial Doppler confirmed diffused arterial spasm in two of them. Ergotism following ergotamine-protease inhibitors association was diagnosed. Patients were treated through the discontinuity of involved drugs (protease inhibitors and ergotamine), calcium blockers; antithrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparine, antiaggregant therapy with acetylsalicylic acid, and one of them received pentoxifylline and vasodilator prostaglandins infusion, with amelioration of the symptoms. We discuss the clinical presentation of this drug interaction, difficult to diagnose properly without a strong suspicion of its existence.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists/adverse effects , Ergotamine/adverse effects , Ergotism/etiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Drug Therapy, Combination/adverse effects
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