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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 322-330, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970070


BACKGROUND@#There are few data comparing clinical outcomes of complex percutaneous coronary intervention (CPCI) when using biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents (BP-DES) or second-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stents (DP-DES). The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of BP-DES and compare that with DP-DES in patients with and without CPCI during a 5-year follow-up.@*METHODS@#Patients who exclusively underwent BP-DES or DP-DES implantation in 2013 at Fuwai Hospital were consecutively enrolled and stratified into two categories based on CPCI presence or absence. CPCI included at least one of the following features: unprotected left main lesion, ≥2 lesions treated, ≥2 stents implanted, total stent length >40 mm, moderate-to-severe calcified lesion, chronic total occlusion, or bifurcated target lesion. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and total coronary revascularization (target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization [TVR], and non-TVR) during the 5-year follow-up. The secondary endpoint was total coronary revascularization.@*RESULTS@#Among the 7712 patients included, 4882 (63.3%) underwent CPCI. Compared with non-CPCI patients, CPCI patients had higher 2- and 5-year incidences of MACE and total coronary revascularization. Following multivariable adjustment including stent type, CPCI was an independent predictor of MACE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]: 1.151; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.017-1.303, P  = 0.026) and total coronary revascularization (aHR: 1.199; 95% CI: 1.037-1.388, P  = 0.014) at 5 years. The results were consistent at the 2-year endpoints. In patients with CPCI, BP-DES use was associated with significantly higher MACE rates at 5 years (aHR: 1.256; 95% CI: 1.078-1.462, P  = 0.003) and total coronary revascularization (aHR: 1.257; 95% CI: 1.052-1.502, P  = 0.012) compared with that of DP-DES, but there was a similar risk at 2 years. However, BP-DES had comparable safety and efficacy profiles including MACE and total coronary revascularization compared with DP-DES in patients with non-CPCI at 2 and 5 years.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Patients underwent CPCI remained at a higher risk of mid- to long-term adverse events regardless of the stent type. The effect of BP-DES compared with DP-DES on outcomes was similar in CPCI and non-CPCI patients at 2 years but had inconsistent effects at the 5-year clinical endpoints.

Humans , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Polymers/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Absorbable Implants , Prosthesis Design
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 66-72, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969744


Objective: To compare the efficacy of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and coronary angiography guided drug eluting stent (DES) implantation for the treatment of left main coronary artery (LMCA) lesions. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies, which compared IVUS with coronary angiography guided DES implantation for the treatment of LMCA lesions published before August 2021 were searched in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Baseline data, interventional procedures and endpoint events of each study were collected. The primary endpoint was major cardiovascular adverse events (MACE), and the secondary endpoints were all-cause death, cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR) and target vessel revascularization (TVR). The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) and the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool were used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. Results: Nine studies were included, including 3 RCT and 6 observational studies, with a total of 5 527 cases of LMCA. All the 6 observational studies had NOS scores≥6, and the 3 RCT had a low risk of overall bias. The results of meta-analysis showed that compared with coronary angiography guided group, MACE rate (OR=0.55, 95%CI 0.47-0.66, P<0.001), all-cause death (OR=0.56, 95%CI 0.43-0.74, P<0.001), cardiac death (OR=0.43, 95%CI 0.30-0.61, P<0.001), MI (OR=0.64, 95%CI 0.52-0.79, P<0.001), TLR (OR=0.49, 95%CI 0.28-0.86, P=0.013) and TVR (OR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60-0.98, P=0.037) were all significantly lower in the IVUS guided group. Conclusions: Compared with angiography guided, IVUS guided PCI with DES implantation in LMCA lesions could significantly reduce the risk of MACE, death, MI, TLR and TVR. IVUS is thus superior to coronary angiography for guiding PCI treatment among patients with LMCA.

Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Angiography , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Risk Factors , Myocardial Infarction/etiology
Chinese Journal of Cardiology ; (12): 450-457, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935169


Objective: To explore and compare the effect of standard or prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on the long-term prognosis of elderly patients with coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. Methods: Consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus, ≥65 years old, underwent DES implantation, and had no adverse events within 1 year after operation underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from January to December 2013 in Fuwai Hospital were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. These patients were divided into three groups according to DAPT duration: standard DAPT duration group (11 ≤ DAPT duration≤ 13 months) and prolonged DAPT duration group (13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months; DAPT duration>24 months). All the patients were followed up at 1, 6 months, 1, 2 and 5 years in order to collect the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and type 2 to 5 bleeding events defined by the Federation of Bleeding Academic Research (BARC). MACCE were consisted of all cause death, myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization or stroke. The incidence of clinical adverse events were compared among 3 different DAPT duration groups, and Cox regression model were used to analyze the effect of different DAPT duration on 5-year long-term prognosis. Results: A total of 1 562 patients were enrolled, aged (70.8±4.5) years, with 398 female (25.5%). There were 467 cases in standard DAPT duration group, 684 cases in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group and 411 cases in DAPT duration>24 months group. The patients in standard DAPT duration group and the prolonged DAPT duration groups accounted for 29.9% (467/1 562) and 70.1% (1 095/1 562), respectively. The 5-year follow-up results showed that the incidence of all-cause death in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group (4.8%(33/684) vs. 8.6%(40/467),P=0.011) and DAPT duration>24 month group(4.1%(17/411) vs. 8.6%(40/467),P=0.008) were significantly lower than in standard DAPT group. The incidence of myocardial infarction in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group was lower than in standard DAPT duration group (1.9%(13/684) vs. 5.1%(24/467),P=0.002). The incidence of MACCE in 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group was the lowest (standard DAPT duration group, 13<DAPT duration≤ 24 months group and DAPT duration>24 month group were 19.3% (90/467), 12.3% (84/684), 20.2% (83/411), respectively, P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke and bleeding events among the three groups (all P>0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that compared with the standard DAPT group, prolonged DAPT to 13-24 months was negatively correlated with MACCE (HR=0.601, 95%CI 0.446-0.811, P=0.001), all-cause death (HR=0.568, 95%CI 0.357-0.903, P=0.017) and myocardial infarction (HR=0.353, 95%CI 0.179-0.695, P=0.003). DAPT>24 months was negatively correlated with all-cause death (HR=0.687, 95%CI 0.516-0.913, P=0.010) and positively correlated with revascularization (HR=1.404, 95%CI 1.116-1.765, P=0.004). There was no correlation between prolonged DAPT and bleeding events. Conclusions: For elderly patients with coronary heart disease complicated with diabetes mellitus underwent DES implantation, and had no MACCE and bleeding events within 1 year after operation, appropriately prolonging of the DAPT duration is related to the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Patients may benefit the most from the DAPT between 13 to 24 months. In addition, prolonging DAPT duration does not increase the incidence of bleeding events in this patient cohort.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Diabetes Mellitus , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Hemorrhage , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(1): 80-89, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1131255


Resumo Fundamento O uso do stent farmacológico (SF) comparado ao stent não farmacológico (SNF) na intervenção coronariana percutânea (ICP) reduziu o percentual de reestenose, porém sem impacto na mortalidade, com aumento no custo. A literatura carece de estudos randomizados que comparem economicamente esses dois grupos de stents na realidade do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Objetivo Estimar a razão custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) entre SF e SNF na coronariopatia uniarterial em pacientes do SUS Métodos Pacientes com coronariopatia uniarterial sintomática foram randomizados em 3 anos para uso de SF ou SNF durante a ICP, na proporção de 1:2, com seguimento clínico de 12 meses. Foram avaliados reestenose intrastent (RIS), revascularização da lesão-alvo (RLA), eventos adversos maiores e custo-efetividade (CE) de cada grupo. Os valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados No grupo SF, dos 74 pacientes (96,1%) que completaram o acompanhamento, ocorreu RIS em 1(1,4%), RLA em 1 (1,4%), óbito em 1 (1,4%), sem trombose. No grupo SNF, dos 141 pacientes (91,5%),ocorreu RIS em 14 (10,1%), RLA em 10 (7,3%), óbito em 3 (2,1%) e trombose em 1 (0,74%). Na análise econômica, o custo do procedimento foi de R$ 5.722,21 no grupo SF e de R$4.085,21 no grupo SNF. A diferença de efetividade a favor do grupo SF por RIS e RLA foi 8,7% e 5,9%, respectivamente, com RCEI de R$ 18.816,09 e R$ 27.745,76. Conclusões No SUS, o SF foi custo-efetivo, em concordância com o limiar de CE preconizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):80-89)

Abstract Background The use of drug-eluting stents (DESs), compared with bare-metal stents (BMSs), in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has reduced the rate of restenosis, without an impact on mortality but with an increase in costs. Medical literature lacks randomized studies that economically compare these 2 stent types within the reality of the Brazilian Unified Public Health System (SUS). Objective To estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) between DES and BMS in SUS patients with single-vessel coronary artery disease. Methods Over a 3-year period, patients with symptomatic single-vessel coronary artery disease were randomized in a 1:2 ratio to receive a DES or BMS during PCI, with a 1-year clinical follow-up. The evaluation included in-stent restenosis (ISR), target lesion revascularization (TLR), major adverse events, and cost-effectiveness for each group. P-values <0.05 were considered significant. Results In the DES group, of 74 patients (96.1%) who completed the follow-up, 1 developed ISR (1.4%), 1 had TLR (1.4%), and 1 died (1.4%), with no cases of thrombosis. In the BMS group, of 141 patients (91.5%), ISR occurred in 14 (10.1%), TLR in 10 (7.3%), death in 3 (2.1%), and thrombosis in 1 (0.74%). In the economic analysis, the cost of the procedure was R$ 5,722.21 in the DES group and R$ 4,085.21 in the BMS group. The effectiveness by ISR and TLR was 8.7% for DES and 5.9% for BMS, with an ICER of R$ 18,816.09 and R$ 27,745.76, respectively. Conclusions In the SUS, DESs were cost-effective in accordance with the cost-effectiveness threshold recommended by the World Health Organization (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; 115(1):80-89)

Humans , Brazil , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prosthesis Design , Stents/adverse effects , Public Health , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Coronary Restenosis/prevention & control , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2674-2681, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877875


BACKGROUND@#The mechanism and characteristics of early and late drug-eluting stent in-stent restenosis (DES-ISR) have not been fully clarified. Whether there are different outcomes among those patients being irrespective of their repeated treatments remain a knowledge gap.@*METHODS@#A total of 250 patients who underwent initial stent implantation in our hospital, and then were readmitted to receive treatment for the reason of recurrent significant DES-ISR in 2016 were involved. The patients were categorized as early ISR (<12 months; E-ISR; n = 32) and late ISR (≥12 months; L-ISR; n = 218). Associations between patient characteristics and clinical performance, as well as clinical outcomes after a repeated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were evaluated. Primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) included cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization (TLR).@*RESULTS@#Most baseline characteristics are similar in both groups, except for the period of ISR, initial pre-procedure thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, and some serum biochemical indicators. The incidence of MACE (37.5% vs. 5.5%; P < 0.001) and TLR (37.5% vs. 5.0%; P < 0.001) is higher in the E-ISR group. After multivariate analysis, E-ISR (odds ratio [OR], 13.267; [95% CI 4.984-35.311]; P < 0.001) and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (odds ratio [OR], 6.317; [95% CI 1.145-34.843]; P = 0.034) are the independent predictors for MACE among DES-ISR patients in the mid-term follow-up of 12 months.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early ISR and left ventricular systolic dysfunction are associated with MACE during the mid-term follow-up period for DES-ISR patients. The results may benefit the risk stratification and secondary prevention for DES-ISR patients in clinical practice.

Humans , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Restenosis , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 856-862, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942086


OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate the correlation between CKLF-like marvel transmembrane domain containing member (CMTM5) gene and the risk of in-stent restenosis (ISR) with coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and to detect the effects and mechanisms of CMTM5-stimulated genes on human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation and migration.@*METHODS@#A total of 124 hospitalized patients in Shijitan Hospital were enrolled in this study. All the CAD patients were detected with platelet reactivity and grouped into two groups according to platelet reactivity; ISR was conformed by coronary angiography; RT-PCR method was used to detect CMTM5 gene expression; The CMTM5 over expression, reduction and control EC lines were established; Cell count, MTT, Brdu and flow cytometry methods were used to detect the proliferation of ECs, scratch and transwell experiments to test the migration of ECs, Western blot was used to detect signal path expressions.@*RESULTS@#CMTM5 gene expression in HAPR (High on aspirin platelet reactivity) group was 1.72 times compared with No-HAPR group, which was significantly higher than No-HAPR group. HAPR group ISR rate was 25.8% (8 cases), the incidence of No-HAPR ISR group was 9.7% (9 cases), and the results showed that in HAPR group, the incidence of ISR was significantly higher than that in No-HAPR group (P=0.04, OR=0.04, 95%CI=1.16-7.52), which showed that CMTM5 gene was significantly correlated with the risk of ISR. In HAPR group ISR rate was 25.8% (8 cases), the incidence of ISR in No-HAPR group was 9.7% (9 cases), and the results showed that the risk of ISR in HAPR group was significantly higher than that in No-HAPR group. All the results showed that CMTM5 was significantly correlated with the risk of ISR in CAD patients (P < 0.05). CMTM5 overexpression inhibited the proliferation and migration ability of ECs (P < 0.05), PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were involved in the role of regulation on ECs.@*CONCLUSION@#Our results revealed that CMTM5 gene was closely related with ISR, CMTM5 overexpression may repress ECs proliferation and migration through regulating PI3K-Akt signaling.

Humans , Chemokines , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Restenosis , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Endothelial Cells , MARVEL Domain-Containing Proteins , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 72-79, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742502


PURPOSE: This study sought to determine the 1-year clinical effectiveness and safety of a biodegradable, polymer-containing Biolimus A9™-eluting stent (BES) in Korean patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1000 ACS patients with 1251 lesions who underwent implantation of BESs at 22 centers in Korea were enrolled between May 2011 and July 2013. We assessed major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as the composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and clinical-driven target vessel revascularization at 12 months. RESULTS: Patient mean age was 62.6±11.4 years. 72.8% of the patients were male, 28.5% had diabetes, 32.8% had multi-vessel disease (MVD), and 47.9% presented with acute MI (AMI). The mean global registry of acute coronary events risk score of all patients was 103.0±27.6. The number of stents per patient was 1.3±0.6. The incidences of MACE and definite stent thrombosis at 12 months were 3.9% and 0.2%, respectively. On multivariate Cox-regression analysis, age ≥65 years was identified as an independent predictors of 1-year MACE (hazard ratio=2.474; 95% confidence interval=1.202−5.091). Subgroup analyses revealed no significant differences in the incidence of MACE between patients with and without diabetes (4.3% vs. 3.7%, p=0.667), between those who presented with and without AMI (4.4% vs. 3.4%, p=0.403), and between those with and without MVD (4.6% vs. 3.5%, p=0.387). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated excellent 1-year clinical outcomes of BES implantation in patients at low-risk for ACS.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Sirolimus/adverse effects , Sirolimus/analogs & derivatives , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(4): 277-283, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-887947


Abstract Background: The place of drug-eluting balloons (DEB) in the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) is not well-defined, particularly in a population of all-comers with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Objective: Compare the clinical outcomes of DEB with second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) for the treatment of ISR in a real-world population with a high proportion of ACS. Methods: A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with ISR treated with a DEB compared to patients treated with a second-generation DES was performed. The primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization). Comparisons were performed using Cox proportional hazards multivariate adjustment and Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank. Results: The cohort included 91 patients treated with a DEB and 89 patients treated with a DES (74% ACS). Median follow-up was 26 months. MACE occurred in 33 patients (36%) in the DEB group, compared to 17 patients (19%) in the DES group (p log-rank = 0.02). After multivariate adjustment, there was no significant difference between the groups (HR for DEB = 1.45 [95%CI: 0.75-2.83]; p = 0.27). Mortality rates at 1 year were 11% with DEB, and 3% with DES (p = 0.04; adjusted HR = 2.85 [95%CI: 0.98-8.32]; p = 0.06). Conclusion: In a population with a high proportion of ACS, a non-significant numerical signal towards increased rates of MACE with DEB compared to second-generation DES for the treatment of ISR was observed, mainly driven by a higher mortality rate. An adequately-powered randomized controlled trial is necessary to confirm these findings.

Resumo Fundamento: O papel de balões farmacológicos (BFs) no tratamento de reestenose intra-stent (RIS) não está bem definido, particularmente em na síndrome coronária aguda (SCA). Objetivo: Comparar desfechos clínicos do uso de BF com stents farmacológicos (SFs) de segunda geração no tratamento de RIS em uma população real com alta prevalência de SCA. Métodos: Foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva de pacientes consecutivos com RIS tratados com um BF comparados a pacientes tratados com SF de segunda geração. O desfecho primário incluiu eventos cardiovasculares adversos importantes (morte por todas as causas, infarto do miocárdio não fatal, e revascularização da lesão alvo). As comparações foram realizadas pelo modelo proporcional de riscos de Cox ajustado e análise de Kaplan-Meier com log-rank. Resultados: A coorte incluiu 91 pacientes tratados com BF e 89 pacientes tratados com um SF (75% com SCA). O tempo mediano de acompanhamento foi de 26 meses. Eventos cardiovasculares adversos importantes ocorreram em 33 pacientes (36%) no grupo BF, e em 17 (19%) no grupo SF (p log-rank = 0,02). Após ajuste multivariado, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (HR para BF = 1,45 [IC95%: 0,75-2,83]; p = 0,27). As taxas de mortalidade de 1 ano foram 11% com BF, e 3% com SF (p = 0,04; HR ajustado = 2,85 [IC95%: 0,98-8,32; p = 0,06). Conclusão: Em uma população com alta prevalência de SCA, observou-se um aumento não significativo nas taxas de eventos cardiovasculares adversos importantes com o uso de BF comparado ao uso de SF de segunda geração para o tratamento de RIS, principalmente pelo aumento na taxa de mortalidade. É necessário um ensaio clínico controlado, randomizado, com poder estatístico adequado para confirmar esses achados.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/instrumentation , Paclitaxel/therapeutic use , Coronary Restenosis/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Prosthesis Design , Time Factors , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/adverse effects , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Risk Assessment , Coated Materials, Biocompatible , Coronary Restenosis/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(6): 541-543, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787324


Abstract We describe the treatment of a patient presenting with very-late stent thrombosis with the use of a drug-coated balloon. In this patient, optical coherence tomography disclosed that ruptured and complicated neoatherosclerosis was the underlying substrate responsible for the episode of very-late stent thrombosis. The potential use of drug-coated balloons in this unique scenario is discussed.

Resumo Descrevemos o tratamento de um paciente apresentando trombose de stent muito tardia com a utilização de um balão farmacológico. Nesse paciente, a tomografia de coerência ótica revelou que a neoaterosclerose apresentava-se complicada e com ruptura, sendo portanto o substrato subjacente responsável pelo episódio de trombose de stent muito tardia. O uso potencial de balões farmacológicos nesse cenário especial é discutido.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Coronary Thrombosis/therapy , Angioplasty, Balloon , Coronary Restenosis/therapy , Atherosclerosis/complications , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , Coronary Restenosis/etiology , Coronary Restenosis/diagnostic imaging
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(5): 373-381, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784169


Abstract Background: There are sparse data on the performance of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) in acute and real-life setting. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the safety and efficacy of first- versus second-generation DES in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Methods: This all-comer registry enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with ACS and treated with percutaneous coronary intervention with the implantation of first- or second-generation DES in one-year follow-up. The primary efficacy endpoint was defined as major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE), a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, target-vessel revascularization and stroke. The primary safety outcome was definite stent thrombosis (ST) at one year. Results: From the total of 1916 patients enrolled into the registry, 1328 patients were diagnosed with ACS. Of them, 426 were treated with first- and 902 with second-generation DES. There was no significant difference in the incidence of MACCE between two types of DES at one year. The rate of acute and subacute ST was higher in first- vs. second-generation DES (1.6% vs. 0.1%, p < 0.001, and 1.2% vs. 0.2%, p = 0.025, respectively), but there was no difference regarding late ST (0.7% vs. 0.2%, respectively, p = 0.18) and gastrointestinal bleeding (2.1% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.21). In Cox regression, first-generation DES was an independent predictor for cumulative ST (HR 3.29 [1.30-8.31], p = 0.01). Conclusions: In an all-comer registry of ACS, the one-year rate of MACCE was comparable in groups treated with first- and second-generation DES. The use of first-generation DES was associated with higher rates of acute and subacute ST and was an independent predictor of cumulative ST.

Resumo Fundamento: Os dados sobre o desempenho dos diferentes tipos de stents farmacológicos (SF) no cenário agudo e da vida real são escassos. Objetivo: Comparar a segurança e a eficácia dos SF de primeira e de segunda geração em pacientes com síndrome coronariana aguda (SCA). Métodos: Este registro arrolou pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de SCA e tratados com intervenção coronariana percutânea e implantação de SF de primeira ou segunda geração em seguimento de 1 ano. O desfecho primário 'eficácia' foi definido como eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (ECAM), um composto de morte por todas as causas, infarto do miocárdio não fatal, revascularização de vaso-alvo e acidente vascular encefálico. O desfecho primário 'segurança' foi trombose de stent (TS) definitiva em 1 ano. Resultados: Do total de 1.916 pacientes arrolados, 1.328 foram diagnosticados com SCA. Desses, 426 foram tratados com SF de primeira geração e 902, com SF de segunda geração. Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de ECAM entre os dois tipos de SF em 1 ano. A taxa de TS aguda e subaguda foi maior com SF de primeira geração do que com os de segunda geração (1,6% vs. 0,1%, p < 0,001; e 1,2% vs. 0,2%, p = 0,025, respectivamente), mas não houve diferença para TS tardia (0,7% vs. 0,2%, respectivamente, p = 0,18) nem para sangramento gastrointestinal (2,1% vs.1,1%, p = 0,21). Na regressão de Cox, o SF de primeira geração foi preditor independente para TS cumulativa [HR 3,29 (1,30-8,31); p = 0,01]. Conclusões: No registro de SCA, a taxa de ECAM em 1 ano foi comparável nos grupos tratados com SF de primeira e de segunda geração. O uso de SF de primeira geração associou-se a maiores taxas de TS aguda e subaguda, sendo um preditor independente para TS cumulativa.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Coronary Artery Bypass/adverse effects , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Poland/epidemiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Time Factors , Cerebrovascular Disorders/mortality , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 606-613, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52540


PURPOSE: The effects on the side-branch (SB) ostium, following paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) treatment of de novo coronary lesions of main vessels have not been previously investigated. This study was aimed at evaluating the serial morphological changes of the SB ostium after PCB treatment of de novo coronary lesions of main vessels using optical coherence tomography (OCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, single-center observational study enrolled patients with de novo lesions, which were traversed by at least one SB (≥1.5 mm) and were treated with PCB. The SB ostium was evaluated with serial angiographic and OCT assessments pre- and post-procedure, and at 9-months follow-up. RESULTS: Sixteen main vessel lesions were successfully treated with PCB, and 26 SBs were included for analysis. Mean SB ostial lumen area increased at 9-months follow-up (0.92±0.68 mm2 pre-procedure, 1.03±0.77 mm2 post-procedure and 1.42±1.18 mm2 at 9-months). The SB ostial lumen area gain was 0.02±0.24 mm2 between pre- and post-procedure, 0.37±0.64 mm2 between post-procedure and 9-months, and 0.60±0.93 mm2 between pre-procedure and 9-months. The ostial lumen area increased by 3.9% [interquartile range (IQR) of -33.3 to 10.4%] between pre- and post-procedure, 52.1% (IQR of -0.7 to 77.3%) between post-procedure and 9-months and 76.1% (IQR of 18.2 to 86.6%) between pre-procedure and 9-months. CONCLUSION: PCB treatment of de novo coronary lesions of main vessels resulted in an increase in the SB ostial lumen area at 9-months.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary/methods , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Stenosis/diagnosis , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Paclitaxel/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Treatment Outcome , Tubulin Modulators/administration & dosage
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(3): 174-182, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723823


Background: Drug-eluting stents have been used in daily practice since 2002, with the clear advantages of reducing the risk of target vessel revascularization and an impressive reduction in restenosis rate by 50%-70%. However, the occurrence of a late thrombosis can compromise long-term results, particularly if the risks of this event were sustained. In this context, a registry of clinical cases gains special value. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drug-eluting stents in the real world. Methods: We report on the clinical findings and 8-year follow-up parameters of all patients that underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with a drug-eluting stent from January 2002 to April 2007. Drug-eluting stents were used in accordance with the clinical and interventional cardiologist decision and availability of the stent. Results: A total of 611 patients were included, and clinical follow-up of up to 8 years was obtained for 96.2% of the patients. Total mortality was 8.7% and nonfatal infarctions occurred in 4.3% of the cases. Target vessel revascularization occurred in 12.4% of the cases, and target lesion revascularization occurred in 8% of the cases. The rate of stent thrombosis was 2.1%. There were no new episodes of stent thrombosis after the fifth year of follow-up. Comparative subanalysis showed no outcome differences between the different types of stents used, including Cypher®, Taxus®, and Endeavor®. Conclusion: These findings indicate that drug-eluting stents remain safe and effective at very long-term follow-up. Patients in the "real world" may benefit from drug-eluting stenting with excellent, long-term results. .

Fundamento: Stents eluidores de drogas têm sido utilizados na prática médica desde 2002, e apresentam grande eficácia na redução do risco de revascularização do vaso-alvo, e notável redução da taxa de reestenose de 50%-70%. No entanto, a ocorrência de trombose tardia pode comprometer os resultados a longo prazo, especialmente se o risco de trombose for mantido ao longo dos anos. Neste contexto, o registro da prática clínica assume grande importância. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia e segurança de stents eluidores de drogas no mundo real. Métodos: Relatamos os resultados de todos os pacientes que foram submetidos à intervenção coronária percutânea com stent eluidor de drogas no período entre janeiro de 2002 a abril de 2007, e que foram acompanhados por 8 anos. Os stents eluidores de drogas foram utilizados de acordo com as recomendações clínicas do cardiologista intervencionista e a disponibilidade do stent. Resultados: Um total de 611 pacientes foram avaliados, com acompanhamento clínico de 96,2% destes pacientes por até 8 anos. A mortalidade total foi de 8,7%. Infarto não-fatal ocorreu em 4,3% dos casos. A taxa de revascularização do vaso-alvo foi de 12,4% e a da lesão-alvo foi de 8,0%. A taxa de trombose de stent foi de 2,1%. Não houve novos episódios de trombose de stent após o quinto ano de acompanhamento. Uma subanálise comparativa indicou não haver diferenças nos desfechos clínicos apos a utilização dos stents Cypher, Taxus e Endeavor. Conclusão: Estes resultados indicam que stents eluidores de drogas são seguros e eficazes em acompanhamentos de longo prazo, e que pacientes no mundo real podem beneficiar destes stents, com excelentes resultados a longo prazo. .

Aged , Female , Humans , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , Follow-Up Studies , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/mortality , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 102(6): 529-538, 06/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712921


Background: Long-term outcomes of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remain uncertain. Objective: To investigate long-term outcomes of drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: We performed search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and ISI Web of Science (until February 2013) for randomized trials comparing more than 12-month efficacy or safety of DES with BMS in patients with STEMI. Pooled estimate was presented with risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) using random-effects model. Results: Ten trials with 7,592 participants with STEMI were included. The overall results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of all-cause death and definite/probable stent thrombosis between DES and BMS at long-term follow-up. Patients receiving DES implantation appeared to have a lower 1-year incidence of recurrent myocardial infarction than those receiving BMS (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.00, p= 0.05). Moreover, the risk of target vessel revascularization (TVR) after receiving DES was consistently lowered during long-term observation (all p< 0.01). In subgroup analysis, the use of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) was associated with reduced risk of stent thrombosis in STEMI patients (RR = 0.37, p=0.02). Conclusions: DES did not increase the risk of stent thrombosis in patients with STEMI compared with BMS. Moreover, the use of DES did lower long-term risk of repeat revascularization and might decrease the occurrence of reinfarction. .

Fundamento: Os resultados a longo prazo dos stents farmacológicos (SF) contra stents convencionais (SC) em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST (IMEST) permanecem incertos. Objetivo: Investigar os resultados a longo prazo dos stents farmacológicos (SF) contra stents convencionais (SC) em pacientes com infarto do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST (IMEST) . Métodos: Foi realizada pesquisa de dados nas bases de dados MEDLINE, EMBASE, na Cochrane Library, e na ISI Web of Science (até fevereiro de 2013) para estudos clínicos aleatórios que comparam a eficácia durante mais de 12 meses ou a segurança do SF com SC em pacientes com IMEST. Foi apresentada uma estimativa agrupada com risco relativo (RR) e seu intervalo de confiança de 95 % (IC), utilizando modelo de efeitos aleatórios. Resultados: Dez estudos com 7.592 participantes com IMEST foram incluídos. Os resultados gerais mostraram que não houve diferença significativa na incidência de morte por todas as causas e trombose de stent definida/provável entre SF e SC em seguimento de longo prazo. Os pacientes que receberam implante de SF pareciam ter uma incidência de infarto do miocárdio recorrente inferior a1 ano que aqueles que receberam SC (RR = 0,75, 95% CI 0,56-1,00, p = 0,05). Além disso, o risco de revascularização do vaso alvo (RVA) depois de receber o SF diminui consistentemente durante a observação a longo prazo (todos p <0,01). Na análise de subgrupo, o uso de stents com eluição de everolimus (EEE) foi associado a um risco reduzido de trombose de stent em pacientes IMEST (RR = 0,37, p = 0,02). Conclusões: SF não aumentou o risco de trombose de stent em pacientes com IMEST em comparação com SC. Além disso, o uso de SF fez baixar o risco de longo prazo de repetição ...

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Drug-Eluting Stents , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stents , Coronary Thrombosis/etiology , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Metals , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Odds Ratio , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
J. vasc. bras ; 13(1): 48-52, Jan-Mar/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709797


Arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are anomalous communications between an artery and a vein, bypassing the capillary network. They can be subdivided on the basis of etiology into congenital and acquired fistulae. The latter may be caused by closed or penetrating traumas, or may be iatrogenic injuries. We report on a case of a young adult female gunshot wound victim treated with emergency laparotomy who developed asymmetrical edema of the lower limbs during the late postoperative period. Imaging exams showed the presence of a left internal iliac AVF, treated using endovascular surgery with placement of a covered stent, resulting in total occlusion of arteriovenous communication.

As fístulas arteriovenosas (FAVs) são comunicações anômalas entre uma artéria e uma veia, sem envolvimento capilar. Segundo sua etiologia, podem ser divididas em congênitas e adquiridas, resultantes de traumas fechados ou penetrantes, e de lesões iatrogênicas. Relatamos o caso de mulher jovem, vítima de ferimento por arma de fogo, submetida à laparotomia de urgência, que evoluiu no pós-operatório tardio com edema assimétrico de membros inferiores. Os exames de imagem demonstraram a presença de fístula arteriovenosa ilíaca interna esquerda, tratada através de cirurgia endovascular com stent revestido, determinando a total oclusão da comunicação arterial e venosa.

Humans , Female , Adult , Iliac Artery/injuries , Wounds, Gunshot/therapy , Arteriovenous Fistula/diagnosis , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Angiography/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units , Time Factors , Tomography/methods
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 101(2): 117-126, ago. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-685391


FUNDAMENTO: O benefício clínico de intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) para lesões coronárias longas é incerto; além disso, foram levantadas dúvidas questões sobre a sua segurança. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os preditores de eventos cardíacos adversos maiores (ECAM) associados à ICP utilizando Full Metal Jacket (FMJ), definido como a sobreposição de stents farmacológicos (SF) medindo >60 mm de comprimento, para lesões muito longas. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 136 pacientes consecutivos com lesões coronárias longas, requerendo FMJ em nosso cadastro de centro único. O desfecho primário incluiu a ocorrência combinada de todas as causas de morte, infarto do miocárdio (IM) e revascularização do vaso alvo (RVA). Variáveis demográficas, clínicas, angiográficas e de procedimento foram avaliadas por meio de análise de regressão de Cox para determinar os preditores independentes de desfecho. RESULTADOS: O comprimento médio do stent por lesão foi de 73,2 ± 12,3 mm e o diâmetro médio do vaso de referência foi de 2,9 ± 0,6 mm. O sucesso angiográfico foi de 96,3%. A ausência de ECAM foi de 94,9% em 30 dias e 85,3% em um ano. No acompanhamento de um ano, a taxa de mortalidade por todas as causas foi de 3,7% (1,5% por mortes cardíacas), a taxa de IM foi de 3,7%, e a incidência de trombose de stent (TS) definitiva ou provável foi de 2,9%. O gênero feminino [risco relativo (RR), 4,40; intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC), 1,81-10,66, p = 0,001) e ICP de artéria coronária não direita (RR, 3,49; p = 0,006; IC 95%, 1,42-8,59) foram preditores independentes de ECAM em um ano. A ausência de eventos adversos em um ano foi maior em pacientes com angina estável submetidos à ICP (RR, 0,33; IC 95% 0,13-0,80, p = 0,014). CONCLUSÕES: A ICP utilizando FMJ com SF para lesões muito longas foi eficaz, mas associada a uma alta taxa de TS em acompanhamento de um ano. No entanto, a taxa de mortalidade cardíaca, IM não relacionado a procedimento, e ECAM foi relativamente baixa. ICP de vaso coronário alvo, apresentação clínica, e gênero feminino são novos fatores clínicos contemporâneos que parecem apresentar efeitos adversos sobre o resultado da ICP utilizando FMJ para lesões longas.

BACKGROUND: The clinical benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for long coronary lesions is unclear; furthermore, concerns have been raised about its safety. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) associated with PCI using a full metal jacket (FMJ), defined as overlapping drug-eluting stents (DES) measuring >60 mm in length, for very long lesions. METHODS: We enrolled 136 consecutive patients with long coronary lesions requiring FMJ in our single-center registry. The primary endpoint included the combined occurrence of all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Demographic, clinical, angiographic, and procedural variables were evaluated using stepwise Cox regression analysis to determine independent predictors of outcome. RESULTS: The mean length of stent per lesion was 73.2 ± 12.3 mm and the mean reference vessel diameter was 2.9 ± 0.6 mm. Angiographic success was 96.3%. Freedom from MACE was 94.9% at 30 days and 85.3% at one year. At the one-year follow-up, the all-cause mortality rate was 3.7% (1.5% cardiac deaths), the MI rate was 3.7%, and the incidence of definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST) was 2.9%. Female gender [hazard ratio (HR), 4.40; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.81-10.66; p = 0.001) and non-right coronary artery PCI (HR, 3.49; 95%CI, 1.42-8.59; p = 0,006) were independent predictors of MACE at one year. Freedom from adverse events at one year was higher in patients with stable angina who underwent PCI (HR, 0.33; 95%CI, 0.13-0.80; p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: PCI using FMJ with DES for very long lesions was efficacious but associated with a high rate of ST at the one-year follow-up. However, the rate of cardiac mortality, nonprocedure-related MI, and MACE was relatively low. Target coronary vessel PCI, clinical presentation, and female gender are new contemporary clinical factors that appear to have adverse effects on the outcome of PCI using FMJ for long lesions.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Coronary Disease/surgery , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Cause of Death , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/instrumentation , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 100(3): 221-228, mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-670862


FUNDAMENTO: O papel dos testes de reatividade plaquetária (RP) na predição de eventos em longo prazo em pacientes latino-americanos tratados com stents farmacológicos (SF) não foi estabelecido. OBJETIVOS: Analisar o papel dos testes de RP na predição de eventos após a implantação de SF. MÉTODOS: De maio de 2006 a janeiro de 2008, foram incluídos 209 pacientes brasileiros que se submeteram a tratamento eletivo com SF. A RP foi avaliada 12 a 18 horas após o procedimento, por agregometria de transmitância de luz com 5µM de ADP. Os pacientes foram acompanhados prospectivamente por até 4,8 anos. Dezessete (8%) dos indivíduos foram perdidos durante o acompanhamento e a coorte final foi composta de 192 pacientes. A curva ROC foi utilizada para determinar o melhor ponto de corte de 5µM de ADP para prever eventos. O endpoint primário foi uma combinação de morte cardiovascular, infarto agudo do miocárdio, trombose definitiva de stent, e revascularização de artéria alvo.Modelos de risco proporcional de Cox foram utilizados para determinar as variáveis independentemente associadas com o tempo até o primeiro evento. RESULTADOS: O melhor ponto de corte de 5µM de ADP foi de 33%. Cento e sete (55,7%) pacientes apresentaram 5mM de ADP > 33%. A taxa de sobrevivência livre de eventos em 1.800 dias foi de 55% contra 70% para os indivíduos com ADP5 acima e abaixo desse ponto de corte, respectivamente (p = 0,001). Preditores de tempo independentes para o primeiro evento foram tabagismo atual (HR 3,49, IC95%: 1,76-6,9, p = 0,0003), ADP 5mM > 33% (HR 1,95, IC95%: 1,09-3,51, p = 0,025) e idade (HR 1,03 IC 95%: 1,0-1,06, p = 0,041). CONCLUSÕES: Neste estudo, 55,7% dos pacientes apresentaram alta reatividade plaquetária durante tratamento. 5µM de ADP > 33% foi um preditor independente de eventos em longo prazo.

BACKGROUND: The role of platelet reactivity (PR) tests in the prediction of long-term events in Latin-American patients treated with drug-eluting stents (DES) has not been established. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of PR tests in the prediction of events after DES implantation. METHODS: From May 2006 through January 2008, 209 Brazilian patients who underwent elective treatment with DES were included. PR was assessed 12 to 18h after the procedure by light transmittance aggregometry with 5µM of ADP. Patients were prospectively followed for up to 4.8 years. Seventeen (8%) individuals were lost to follow-up and the final cohort comprised 192 patients. Receiver operating curve (ROC) was used to determine the best 5µM of ADP cutoff to predict events. The primary endpoint was a combination of cardiovascular death, acute myocardial infarction, definite stent thrombosis, and target-artery revascularization. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the variables independently associated with the time to the first event. RESULTS: The best ADP 5µM cutoff was 33%. One hundred and seven (55.7%) patients had ADP 5µM >33%. Event-free survival rate at 1,800 days was 55% vs. 70% for individuals with ADP5 above and below such cutoff, respectively (p=0.001). Independent predictors of time to first event were current smoking (HR 3.49; 95% CI 1.76-6.9; p=0.0003), ADP 5µM >33% (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.09-3.51; p=0.025) and age (HR 1.03; 95% CI 1.0-1.06; p=0.041). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 55.7% of the patients had high on-treatment platelet reactivity. ADP 5µM >33% was an independent predictor of long-term events.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/adverse effects , Platelet Aggregation/drug effects , Platelet Function Tests/standards , Ticlopidine/analogs & derivatives , Brazil/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Platelet Function Tests/methods , Reference Standards , Risk Factors , Ticlopidine/adverse effects
Journal of the Saudi Heart Association. 2013; 25 (4): 233-238
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-132928


Drug-eluting stents [DES] are used in the majority of patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], and have reduced the rate of in-stent restenosis and repeated revascularization in comparison to bare metal stents. However, stent thrombosis [ST] is an uncommon but serious complication of coronary artery stents that is mostly fatal or presents as a large non-fatal myocardial infarction [MI], usually with ST elevation. To study the incidence of stent thrombosis in Middle Eastern Saudi patients who underwent PCI using both drug-eluting stents [DES] and bare metal stents [BMS]. ST can occur acutely [within 24 h], sub acutely [within 30 days], or as late as one year [late] or even more than one year [very late]. In an observational, single center study in catheterization [cath] lab a total of 1386 patients underwent PCI between January 2008 and September 2010. The study included all patients in that period who had acute coronary syndrome and stable coronary artery disease [CAD]. A total of 1386 patients had PCI and stent deployments; 19 [1.3%] patients had stent thrombosis, four patients [21%] received BMS and 15 patients [79%] received DES. Four patients had acute ST; five had subacute ST; eight patients had late ST; while two patients had very late ST. Nine patients [47%] had DM and eight patients [42%] had hypertension. The incidence of ST in Saudi patients who received DES at our center is similar to internationally reported numbers. Almost half of ST patients are diabetics and there is increasing concern that the risk for late stent thrombosis is slightly higher with DES than BMS.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug-Eluting Stents/adverse effects , Stents/adverse effects , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Incidence , Acute Coronary Syndrome , Coronary Artery Disease , Retrospective Studies