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1.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 226-232, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971680

ABSTRACT

Five new spirostanol saponins (1-5) and seven known compounds (6-12) were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 75% ethanol extract of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus. The identification and structural elucidation of all the isolates were performed through extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, HR-ESI-MS data analysis and comparisons with literature values. Antioxidant evaluation showed that compounds 6-11 exhibited certain scavenging effects on ABTS radical, where compounds 6, 7 and 11 had IC50 values of 0.208, 0.057 and 0.014 mg·mL-1, respectively.


Subject(s)
Saponins/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Molecular Structure
2.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 214-225, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971679

ABSTRACT

Developing analytical methods for the chemical components of natural medicines remains a challenge due to its diversity and complexity. Miao-Fu-Zhi-Tong (MFZT) granules, an ethnic Yi herbal prescription, comprises 10 herbs and has been clinically applied for gouty arthritis (GA) therapy. Herein, a series of chemical profiling strategies including in-house library matching, molecular networking and MS/MS fragmentation behavior validation based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) were developed for qualitative analysis of MFZT granules. A total of 207 compounds were identified or characterized in which several rare guanidines were discovered and profiled into alkyl substituted or cyclic subtypes. Moreover, network pharmacology analysis indicated that MFZT's anti-gout mechanism was mostly associated with the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like signaling and rheumatoid arthritis pathways, along with the synergistic effect of 84 potential active compounds. In addition, a quantitative analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine the 29 potential effective components. Among them, berberine, pellodendrine, 3-feruloylquinic acid, neoastilbin, isoacteoside and chlorogenic acid derivatives at higher concentrations were considered as the chemical markers for quality control. These findings provide a holistic chemical basis for MFZT granules and will support the development of effective analytical methods for the herbal formulas of natural medicines.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Quality Control , Arthritis, Gouty
3.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 197-213, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971678

ABSTRACT

Angelicae Sinensis Radix (AS) is reproted to exert anti-depression effect (ADE) and nourishing blood effect (NBE) in a rat model of depression. The correlation between the two therapeutic effects and its underlying mechanisms deserves further study. The current study is designed to explore the underlying mechanisms of correlation between the ADE and NBE of AS based on hepatic metabonomics, network pharmacology and molecular docking. According to metabolomics analysis, 30 metabolites involved in 11 metabolic pathways were identified as the potential metabolites for depression. Furthermore, principal component analysis and correlation analysis showed that glutathione, sphinganine, and ornithine were related to pharmacodynamics indicators including behavioral indicators and hematological indicators, indicating that metabolic pathways such as sphingolipid metabolism were involved in the ADE and NBE of AS. Then, a target-pathway network of depression and blood deficiency syndrome was constructed by network pharmacology analysis, where a total of 107 pathways were collected. Moreover, 37 active components obtained from Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Triple-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS) in AS extract that passed the filtering criteria were used for network pharmacology, where 46 targets were associated with the ADE and NBE of AS. Pathway enrichment analysis further indicated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in the ADE and NBE of AS. Molecular docking analysis indciated that E-ligustilide in AS extract exhibited strong binding activity with target proteins (PIK3CA and PIK3CD) in sphingolipid metabolism. Further analysis by Western blot verified that AS regulated the expression of PIK3CA and PIK3CD on sphingolipid metabolism. Our results demonstrated that sphingolipid metabolic pathway was the core mechanism of the correlation between the ADE and NBE of AS.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Molecular Docking Simulation , Network Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Metabolomics/methods , Mass Spectrometry
4.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 89-95, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971322

ABSTRACT

The primary chemical components of Astragalus membranaceus include polysaccharides, saponins, flavonoids, and amino acids. Recent studies have shown that Astragalus membranaceus has multiple functions, including improving immune function and exerting antioxidative, anti-radiation, anti-tumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and hormone-like effects. Astragalus membranaceus and its extracts are widely used in clinical practice because they have obvious therapeutic effects against various autoimmune diseases and relatively less adverse reaction. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of central nervous system (CNS), which mainly caused by immune disorder that leads to inflammatory demyelination, inflammatory cell infiltration, and axonal degeneration in the CNS. In this review, the authors analyzed the clinical manifestations of MS and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and focused on the efficacy of Astragalus membranaceus and its chemical components in the treatment of MS/EAE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Astragalus propinquus/chemistry , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Polysaccharides
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1249-1263, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970596

ABSTRACT

The chemical components of Huanglian Decoction were identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technology. The gradient elution was conducted in Agilent ZORBAX Extend-C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution(A)-acetonitrile(B) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL·min~(-1) and the column temperature of 35 ℃. The MS adopted the positive and negative ion mode of electrospray ionization(ESI), and the MS data were collected under the scanning range of m/z 100-1 500. Through high-resolution MS data analysis, combined with literature comparison and confirmation of reference substances, this paper identified 134 chemical components in Huanglian Decoction, including 12 alkaloids, 23 flavonoids, 22 terpenes and saponins, 12 phenols, 7 coumarins, 12 amino acids, 23 organic acids, and 23 other compounds, and the medicinal sources of the compounds were ascribed. Based on the previous studies, 7 components were selected as the index components. Combined with the network pharmacology research and analysis me-thods, the protein and protein interaction(PPI) network information of the intersection targets was obtained through the STRING 11.0 database, and 20 core targets of efficacy were screened out. In this study, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS technology was successfully used to comprehensively analyze and identify the chemical components of Huanglian Decoction, and the core targets of its efficacy were discussed in combination with network pharmacology, which laid the foundation for clarifying the material basis and quality control of Huanglian Decoction.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Network Pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Technology
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1218-1228, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970593

ABSTRACT

In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) were combined with non-targeted metabonomic analysis based on multivariate statistics analysis, and the content of five indicative components in nardosinone was determined and compared by UPLC. The main chemical components of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma with imitative wild cultivation and wild Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma were comprehensively analyzed. The results of multivariate statistical analysis based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and GC-MS were consistent. G1 and G2 of the imitative wild cultivation group and G8-G19 of the wild group were clustered into category 1, while G7 of the wild group and G3-G6 of the imitative wild cultivation group were clustered into category 2. After removing the outlier data of G1, G2, and G7, G3-G6 of the imitative wild cultivation group were clustered into one category, and G8-G19 of the wild group were clustered into the other category. Twenty-six chemical components were identified according to the positive and negative ion modes detected by LC-MS. The content of five indicative components(VIP>1.5) was determined using UPLC, revealing that chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, linarin, nardosinone, and total content in the imitative wild cultivation group were 1.85, 1.52, 1.26, 0.90, 2.93, and 2.56 times those in the wild group, respectively. OPLS-DA based on GC-MS obtained 10 diffe-rential peaks. Among them, the relative content of α-humulene and aristolene in the imitative wild cultivation group were extremely significantly(P<0.01) and significantly(P<0.05) higher than that in the wild group, while the relative content of 7 components such as 5,6-epoxy-3-hydroxy-7-megastigmen-9-one, γ-eudesmol, and juniper camphor and 12-isopropyl-1,5,9-trimethyl-4,8,13-cyclotetrade-catriene-1,3-diol was extremely significantly(P<0.01) and significantly(P<0.05) lower than that in the wild group, respectively. Therefore, the main chemical components of the imitative wild cultivation group and wild group were basically the same. However, the content of non-volatile components in the imitative wild cultivation group was higher than that in the wild group, and the content of some volatile components was opposite. This study provides scientific data for the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma with imitative wild cultivation and wild Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma.


Subject(s)
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, Liquid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 114-125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970507

ABSTRACT

Galli Gigerii Endothelium Corneum(GGEC), the dried gizzard membrane of Gallus gallus domesticus is a Chinese medicinal material commonly used for digestion. However, due to the particularity of texture and composition, its active ingre-dients have not been clarified so far, and there is also a lack of quality evaluation indicators. In this study, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the chemical components from the water extract of GGEC, and ten nucleosides were identified for the first time. HPLC fingerprints of the water extracts of GGEC were established and the content of seven nucleosides was determined. The fingerprint similarities of 40 batches of GGEC samples ranged from 0.765 to 0.959, indicating that there were great differences among the GGEC products processed with different methods. In addition, SPSS 22.0 and SIMCA 14.1 were used for hierarchical cluster analysis(HCA) and principal component analysis(PCA) on the 19 common peaks of the HPLC fingerprints of GGEC, and the 40 batches of samples were divided into three categories: raw GGEC, fried GGEC and vinegar-processed GGEC. Eight differential components in GGEC were marked by orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis(OPLS-DA), two of which were adenine and thymine. The results of content determination showed that the total content of the seven nucleosides in raw GGEC, fried GGEC and vinegar-processed GGEC were 182.5-416.8, 205.3-368.7, and 194.2-283.0 μg·g~(-1), respectively. There were significant differences in the content of hypoxanthine, thymine and thymidine among the GGEC products processed with different methods(P<0.05), which were graded in the order of fried GGEC>vinegar-processed GGEC>raw GGEC. This suggested that the content of hypoxanthine, thymine and thymidine tended to increase during the frying process, and the variation range might be related to the degree of heat exposure. The established methods in this study were simple and reproducible, and could be used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of GGEC and its processed pro-ducts. This study also provided reference for the establishment of quality standards of GGEC with chemical components as control index.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Acetic Acid , Thymine , Thymidine , Water , Hypoxanthines
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 71-81, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970503

ABSTRACT

Wuzhuyu Decoction, the classical formula recorded in the Treatise on Febrile Diseases(Shang Han Lun), has been included in the Catalogue of Ancient Classic Prescriptions(the First Batch). Consisting of Euodiae Fructus, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens, and Jujubae Fructus, it is effective in warming the middle, tonifying deficiency, dispelling cold, and descending adverse Qi, and is widely applied clinically with remarkable efficacies. For a classical formula, the chemical composition is the material basis and an important premise for quantity value transfer. This study aimed to establish a rapid identification method of chemical components in Wuzhuyu Decoction by high-resolution mass spectrometry(HR-MS) and molecular network. AQUITY UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) was used for sample separation, and acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water was used as mobile phases for gradient elution. Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS data were collected in positive and negative ion modes, and GNPS molecular network was plotted according to the similarity of MS/MS fragmentation modes. Cytoscape 3.6.1 was used to screen molecular clusters with similar structures. Finally, the chemical components of Wuzhuyu Decoction were rapidly identified according to the controls, as well as the information of retention time, accurate relative molecular weight of HR-MS, and MS/MS multistage fragments. A total of 105 chemical components were identified in Wuzhuyu Decoction. This study can provide data for the follow-up quality control, standard substance research, and pharmacodynamic material research on Wuzhuyu Decoction, as well as references for the rapid qualitative analysis of the chemical components of Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Quality Control
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 60-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970502

ABSTRACT

In this study, five polysaccharides from Lycium barbarum(LBPs)(LBP-1-LBP-5) were selectively extracted by different extraction methods, and the chemical composition, structural characteristics, and biological activities of LBPs were explored. The results of chemical composition analysis showed that alkaloids were not detected in the five LBPs. The total polysaccharide content was(81.95%±1.6%)-(92.96%±0.76%), the uronic acid content was(8.26%±0.46%)-(24.81%±0.46%), and the protein content was(0.06%±0.03%)-(1.35%±0.13%). The monosaccharide compositions of the five LBPs were basically same, mainly including glucose, xylose, and galactose. However, there was significant difference in the content ratio of different monosaccharide. The results of infrared spectra analysis indicated that the five LBPs had typical infrared spectral characteristics of polysaccharides. The results of nuclear magnetic resonance characteristic spectrum analysis revealed that the five LBPs had two configurations of α and β. Meanwhile, there were triple helix structures in LBP-2, LBP-3, and LBP-4, which enhanced the activities of polysaccharides. The results of activities screening suggested that the biological activities of the five LBPs were significantly different. LBP-3 showed the highest lipid oxidation clearance rate, and its antioxidant activity was equivalent to that of the positive control group. The inhibitory rate of LBP-4 on α-amylase and its activation rate of alcohol dehydrogenase were better than those of other fractions, and the inhibitory rate of LBP-4 on α-amylase was slightly higher than that of the positive control group when the mass concentration was 10 g·L~(-1). LBP-2 showed stronger inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase and hyaluronidase. This study provides references for the precise development and utilization of LBPs.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Lycium/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Monosaccharides
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 472-480, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970484

ABSTRACT

This study identified the anti-depression targets of Kaixin San(KXS) in the brain tissue with "target fishing" strategy, and explored the target-associated pharmacological signaling pathways to reveal the anti-depression molecular mechanism of KXS. The Balb/c mouse model of depression was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) and the anti-depression effect of KXS was evaluated by forced swimming test and sucrose preference test. KXS active components were bonded to the benzophenone-modified magnetic nanoparticles by photocrosslinking reaction for capturing target proteins from cortex, thalamus and hippocampus of depressive mice. The target proteins were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS). The enrichment analysis on signaling pathways was performed by Cytoscape. The potential biological functions of targets were verified by immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay. The results showed that KXS significantly improved the behavioral indexes. There were 64, 91, and 44 potential targets of KXS identified in cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus, respectively, according to the target identification experiment. The functions of these targets were mainly associated with vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, salmonella infection, thyroid hormone synthesis, and other signaling pathways. Besides, the results of immunohistochemistry and Western blot showed that KXS up-regulated the expressions of argipressine(AVP) in the cortex, heat shock protein 60(HSP60), cytochrome C oxidase 4(COX4), and thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH) in the thalamus, and down-regulated the expressions of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) p65 in the thalamus. Therefore, KXS may exert anti-depression effect through regulating vasopressin signaling pathway in the cortex and inflammation, energy metabolism, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways in the thalamus, and the effect of KXS on hippocampus is not significant.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chromatography, Liquid , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Hippocampus , Stress, Psychological/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Depression/drug therapy
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 430-442, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970480

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents in stem leaf, root, and flower of Ixeris sonchifolia were identified by the ultra performance li-quid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry(UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS~n). The separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with a mobile phase of water(containing 0.1% formic acid, A)-acetonitrile(B) with gradient elution. With electrospray ionization source, the data of 70% methanol extract from stem leaf, root and flower of I. sonchifolia were collected by high-resolution full-scan Fourier transform spectroscopy, data dependent acquisition, precursor ion scan, and selected ion monitoring in the negative and positive ion modes. The compounds were identified based on accurate molecular weight, retention time, fragment ions, comparison with reference standard, Clog P and references. A total of 131 compounds were identified from the 70% methanol extract of I. sonchifolia, including nucleosides, flavonoids, organic acids, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoids, and 119, 110, and 126 compounds were identified from the stem leaf, root and flower of I. sonchifolia, respectively. In addition, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-7-O-sambubioside and caffeylshikimic acid were discovered from I. sonchifolia for the first time. This study comprehensively analyzed and compared the chemical constituents in different parts of I. sonchifolia, which facilitated the discovery of effective substances and the development and application of medicinal material resources of I. sonchifolia.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Methanol , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Mass Spectrometry , Asteraceae
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 421-429, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970479

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents in the ethanol extract of Hypericum wightianum(Hypericaceae) were purified by column chromatography and identified via magnetic resonance imaging(NMR), high-resolution mass spectrum, and circular dichroism. A total of 22 compounds were identified, including eight polyprenylated phloroglucinols(1-8), three chromones(9-11), and three terpenoids(14-16) and so on. Among them, compounds 16 and 17 were first reported in the genus Hypericum, and compounds 1-11, 14, 15, and 19 were first isolated from H. wightianum. Compounds 1-4 were previously reported as two pairs of enantiomers. This study reported the chiral resolutions and absolute configurations of compounds 1-4 for the first time.


Subject(s)
Phloroglucinol , Hypericum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 399-414, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970477

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the chemical composition of Rehmanniae Radix braised with mild fire and compare the effect of processing method on the chemical composition of Rehmanniae Radix. To be specific, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with linear ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) was used to screen the chemical constituents of Rehmanniae Radix. The chemical constituents were identified based on the relative molecular weight and fragment ions, literature information, and Human Metabolome Database(HMDB). The ion peak area ratio of each component before and after processing was used as the index for the variation. SIMCA was employed to establish principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) models of different processed products. According to the PCA plot, OPLS-DA plot, and VIP value, the differential components before and after the processing were screened out. The changes of the content of differential components with the processing method were analyzed. A total of 66 chemical components were identified: 57 of raw Rehmanniae Radix, 55 of steamed Rehmanniae Radix, 55 of wine-stewed Rehmanniae Radix, 51 of repeatedly steamed and sundried Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, 62 of traditional bran-braised Rehmanniae Radix, and 63 of electric pot-braised Rehmanniae Radix. Among them, the 9 flavonoids of braised Rehmanniae Radix were from Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. PCA suggested significant differences in the chemical composition of Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata prepared with different processing methods. OPLS-DA screened out 32 chemical components with VIP value >1 as the main differential components. Among the differential components, 9 were unique to braised Rehmanniae Radix(traditional bran-braised, electric pot-braised) and the degradation rate of the rest in braised(traditional bran-braised, electric pot-braised) or repeatedly steamed and sundried Rehmanniae Radix was higher than that in the steamed or wine-stewed products. The results indicated the chemical species and component content of Rehmanniae Radix changed significantly after the processing. The 32 components, such as rehmapicrogenin, martynoside, jionoside D, aeginetic acid, hesperidin, and naringin, were the most important compounds to distinguish different processed products of Rehmanniae Radix. The flavonoids introduced by Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium as excipient may be the important material basis for the effectiveness of braised Rehmanniae Radix compared with other processed products.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rehmannia/chemistry , Flavonoids/analysis
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 382-389, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970475

ABSTRACT

We prepared 15 batches of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples with the decoction pieces of different batches. Further, we established the specific chromatograms and index component content determination method of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples and analyzed the peaks and similarity of the chromatograms. With sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, polygalaxanthone Ⅲ, 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, ginsenoside Rb_1, β-asarone, α-asarone, and dehydropachymic acid as index components, the index component content determination method was established and 70%-130% of the mean content of each component was set as the range. The chromatograms of 15 batches of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples had a total of 22 characteristic peaks, among which 8 peaks were identified, which represented sibiricose A5, sibiricose A6, polygalaxanthone Ⅲ, 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, ginsenoside Rb_1, β-asarone, α-asarone, and dehydropachymic acid, respectively. The chromatograms shared the similarity of 0.992-0.999. The 15 batches of benchmark samples had sibiricose A5 of 0.34-0.55 mg·g~(-1), sibiricose A6 of 0.43-0.57 mg·g~(-1), polygalaxanthone Ⅲ of 0.12-0.19 mg·g~(-1), 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose of 1.08-1.78 mg·g~(-1), ginsenoside Rb_1 of 0.33-0.62 mg·g~(-1), β-asarone of 2.34-3.72 mg·g~(-1), α-asarone of 0.11-0.22 mg·g~(-1), and dehydropachymic acid of 0.053-0.079 mg·g~(-1). This study established the specific chromatograms and index component content determination method of Kaixin Powder benchmark samples, and the method was simple, feasible, reproducible, and stable. This study provides a scientific basis for further research on the key chemical properties of the benchmark samples and preparations of Kaixin Powder.


Subject(s)
Powders , Ginsenosides , Benchmarking , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Sucrose , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 356-365, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970472

ABSTRACT

This research established a high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method for simultaneous determination of isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, and isovitexin in Commelina communis to conduct content difference analysis and quality evaluation of 62 batches of C. communis from different origins. The HPLC content determination was performed on a Dikma Platisil ODS chromatographic column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid(14∶86) as the mobile phase. The detection wavelength was set at 348 nm, the flow rate was 1.0 mL·min~(-1), and the column temperature was 35 ℃. The differences in origins and quality of 62 batches of C. communis were studied by chemometrics. The results showed that the determination of four components mani-fested a good linear relationship in the range of mass concentration(r>0.999 9), and the average recovery rate was 96.17%-103.0%. The relative standard deviations(RSDs) of precision, stability, and repeatability were all less than 2.0%. The content of four components from high to low was isoorientin>isovitexin>orientin>vitexin. Forty-seven batches of C. communis with clear origins were classified into six categories by chemometrics. C. communis from different origins had different qualities. Generally, C. communis from Western China, Central China, and South of China had superior qualities. The HPLC method established in this study is specific, simple, and efficient, which provides references for the comprehensive evaluation of the quality of C. communis. The chemometrics shows that the qualities of C. communis from different origins are largely different. Isoorientin can be used as an index to determine the content of C. communis, and its content limit should be set no less than 0.023%.


Subject(s)
Commelina , Chemometrics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 285-291, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970464

ABSTRACT

Protein polypeptides and polysaccharides, the indispensable macromolecular active components in traditional Chinese medicine, are widely found in Chinese medicine decoction after the decoction of traditional Chinese medicine. However, through oral administration, these macromolecules are digested by the stomach and intestine and thus fail to be absorbed in prototype. This is inconsistent with the actual clinical efficacy of Chinese medicine decoction. According to modern research, new phase structures and effects of the macromolecules emerge during the decoction of traditional Chinese medicine, but the phase change law caused by the interaction among the components of traditional Chinese medicine and the relationship between phase structure and effect are still unclear. Thus, this study reviewed the oral absorption of macromolecular components of traditional Chinese medicine, analyzed the internal relationship of the form of macromolecules in traditional Chinese medicine with the absorption and effect based on phase structure, and summarized the research mode of oral absorption and effect of macromolecules in traditional Chinese medicine with phase structures as the core, providing new ideas and methods for future research.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Stomach , Administration, Oral
17.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 459-480, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982717

ABSTRACT

Chang-Kang-Fang (CKF) formula, a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) prescription, has been widely used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, its potential material basis and underlying mechanism remain elusive. Therefore, this study employed an integrated approach that combined ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) with network pharmacology to systematically characterize the phytochemical components and metabolites of CKF, as well as elucidating its underlying mechanism. Through this comprehensive analysis, a total of 150 components were identified or tentatively characterized within the CKF formula. Notably, six N-acetyldopamine oligomers from CicadaePeriostracum and eight resin glycosides from Cuscutae Semen were characterized in this formula for the first time. Meanwhile, 149 xenobiotics (58 prototypes and 91 metabolites) were detected in plasma, urine, feces, brain, and intestinal contents, and the in vivo metabolic pathways of resin glycosides were elaborated for the first time. Furthermore, network pharmacology and molecular docking analyses revealed that alkaloids, flavonoids, chromones, monoterpenes, N-acetyldopamine dimers, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, and Cus-3/isomer might be responsible for the beneficial effects of CKF in treating IBS, and CASP8, MARK14, PIK3C, PIK3R1, TLR4, and TNF may be its potential targets. These discoveries offer a comprehensive understanding of the potential material basis and clarify the underlying mechanism of the CKF formula in treating IBS, facilitating the broader application of CKF in the field of medicine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Glycosides , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods
18.
Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical sciences ; (6): 349-360, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982052

ABSTRACT

Vesicles derived from Chinese medicinal herbs (VCMH) are nano-vesicular entities released by the cells of Chinese medicinal herbs. VCMHs have various biological effects and targeting characteristics, and their component chemicals and functional activities are closely related to the parent plant. VCMH differs from animal-derived vesicles in three ways: stability, specificity, and safety. There are a number of extraction and isolation techniques for VCMH, each with their own benefits and drawbacks, and there is no unified standard. When two or more approaches are used, high quantities of intact vesicles can be obtained more quickly and efficiently. The obtained VCMHs were systematically examined and evaluated. Firstly, they are generally saucer-shaped, cup-shaped or sphere, with particle size of 10-300 nm. Secondly, they contain lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and other active substances, and these components are an important part for intercellular information transfer. Finally, they mostly have good biocompatibility and low toxicity, with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-fibrotic effects. As a new drug carrier, VCMHs have outstanding active targeting capabilities, and the capsule form can effectively preserve the drugs, considerably enhancing drug delivery efficiency and stability in vitro and in vivo. The modification of its vesicular structure by suitable physical or chemical means can further create more stable and precise drug carriers. This article reviews the extraction and purification techniques, activity evaluation and application of VCMH to provide information for further research and application of new active substances and targeted drug carriers.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Antioxidants , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Drug Carriers
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3806-3814, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981513

ABSTRACT

The weight coefficients of appearance traits, extract yield of standard decoction, and total content of honokiol and magnolol were determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP), criteria importance though intercrieria correlation(CRITIC), and AHP-CRITIC weighting method, and the comprehensive scores were calculated. The effects of ginger juice dosage, moistening time, proces-sing temperature, and processing time on the quality of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex(MOC) were investigated, and Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the process parameters. To reveal the processing mechanism, MOC, ginger juice-processed Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex(GMOC), and water-processed Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex(WMOC) were compared. The results showed that the weight coefficients of the appearance traits, extract yield of standard decoction, and total content of honokiol and magnolol determined by AHP-CRITIC weighting method were 0.134, 0.287, and 0.579, respectively. The optimal processing parameters of GMOC were ginger juice dosage of 8%, moistening time of 120 min, and processing at 100 ℃ for 7 min. The content of syringoside and magnolflorine in MOC decreased after processing, and the content of honokiol and magnolol followed the trend of GMOC>MOC>WMOC, which suggested that the change in clinical efficacy of MOC after processing was associated with the changes of chemical composition. The optimized processing technology is stable and feasible and provides references for the modern production and processing of MOC.


Subject(s)
Ginger , Magnolia/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Biphenyl Compounds/chemistry , Lignans/chemistry
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3516-3534, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981484

ABSTRACT

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-Exactive Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry(UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap HRMS) was employed to systematically analyze the chemical constituents in Lysionoti Herba, and high perfor-mance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet(HPLC-UV) to determine the content of main compounds. A Synergi~(TM) Hydro-RP 100 Å colu-mn(2 mm×100 mm, 2.5 μm) was used for gradient elution with acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min~(-1) and a column temperature of 40 ℃. MS and MS/MS were conducted with electrospray ionization(ESI) in both positive and negative modes. The chemical components in Lysionoti Herba were identified by comparison with the retention time and mass spectra of reference compounds and the relevant mass spectral data reported in MS databases and relevant literature. Furthermore, the content of five constituents(neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside B, acteoside, and nevadensin) in different Lysiono-ti Herba samples was simultaneously determined by HPLC-UV at the wavelength of 330 nm. A total of 84 compounds were identified in Lysionoti Herba, including 27 flavonoids, 20 phenylethanoid glycosides, 5 amino acids, 18 organic acids, 1 alkaloid, 6 nucleosides, and 7 others. The content of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, forsythoside B, acteoside, and nevadensin showed good linear relationship(r>0.999) with the peak area within certain concentration ranges, which were 3.22-102.90, 12.84-410.82, 31.63-1 012.01, 25.00-800.11, and 4.08-130.51 μg·mL~(-1), respectively. The instrument precision, method repeatability, and solution stability all met requirement, and the average recovery rate was 97.31%-100.2%, with RSD ranging from 0.95% to 2.4%. The content of the five components varied among different Lysionoti Herba samples collected from different regions of Guizhou, and the average content of forsythoside B was the highest. The established qualitative method can rapidly and efficiently identify the chemical components of Lysionoti Herba, and the developed HPLC-UV method can simultaneously determine the content of five components in a simple, ra-pid, and accurate manner, providing a scientific basis for the quality evaluation of Lysionoti Herba.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Chlorogenic Acid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry
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