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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1632-1641, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970635

ABSTRACT

With the improvement of living standards and changes in working style, the prevalence of abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism in humans is increasing in modern society. Clinically, the related indicators are often improved by changing the lifestyle and/or taking hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering drugs, but there are no therapeutic drugs for disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism at present. Hepatitis C virus core protein binding protein 6(HCBP6) is a newly discovered target that can regulate triglyceride and cholesterol content according to level oscillations in the body, thereby regulating abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism. Relevant studies have shown that ginsenoside Rh_2 can significantly up-regulate the expression of HCBP6, but there are few studies on the effect of Chinese herbal medicines on HCBP6. Moreover, the three-dimensional structural information of HCBP6 has not been determined and the discovery of potential active components acting on HCBP6 is not rapidly advanced. Therefore, the total saponins of eight Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to regulate abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism were selected as the research objects to observe their effect on the expression of HCBP6. Then, the three-dimensional structure of HCBP6 was predicted, followed by molecular docking with saponins in eight Chinese herbal medicines to quickly find potential active components. The results showed that all total saponins tended to up-regulate HCBP6 mRNA and protein expression, where gypenosides showed the optimum effect on up-regulating HCBP6 mRNA and ginsenosides showed the optimum effect on up-regulating HCBP6 protein expression. Reliable protein structures were obtained after the prediction of protein structures using the Robetta website and the evaluation of the predicted structures by SAVES. The saponins from the website and literature were also collected and docked with the predicted protein, and the saponin components were found to have good binding activity to the HCBP6 protein. The results of the study are expected to provide ideas and methods for the discovery of new drugs from Chinese herbal medicines to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucose , Lipid Metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ginsenosides , Proteins , Saponins , RNA, Messenger
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1620-1631, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970634

ABSTRACT

The study identified the blood-entering components of Sijunzi Decoction after gavage administration in rats by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS, and investigated the mechanism of Sijunzi Decoction in treating Alzheimer's disease by virtue of network pharmacology, molecular docking, and experimental verification. The blood-entering components of Sijunzi Decoction were identified based on the mass spectra and data from literature and databases. The potential targets of the above-mentioned blood-entering components in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease were searched against PharmMapper, OMIM, DisGeNET, GeneCards, and TTD. Next, STRING was employed to establish a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network. DAVID was used to perform the Gene Ontology(GO) annotation and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment. Cytoscape 3.9.0 was used to carry out visual analysis. AutoDock Vina and PyMOL were used for molecular docking of the blood-entering components with the potential targets. Finally, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3K)/protein kinase B(Akt) signaling pathway enriched by the KEGG analysis was selected for validation by animal experiments. The results showed that 17 blood-entering components were detected in the serum samples after administration. Among them, poricoic acid B, liquiritigenin, atractylenolide Ⅱ, atractylenolide Ⅲ, ginsenoside Rb_1, and glycyrrhizic acid were the key components of Sijunzi Decoction in treating Alzheimer's disease. HSP90AA1, PPARA, SRC, AR, and ESR1 were the main targets for Sijunzi Decoction to treat Alzheimer's disease. Molecular docking showed that the components bound well with the targets. Therefore, we hypothesized that the mechanism of Sijunzi Decoction in treating Alzheimer's disease may be associated with the PI3K/Akt, cancer treatment, and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways. The results of animal experiments showed that Sijunzi Decoction significantly attenuated the neuronal damage in the hippocampal dentate gyrus area, increased the neurons, and raised the ratios of p-Akt/Akt and p-PI3K/PI3K in the hippocampus of mice. In conclusion, Sijunzi Decoction may treat Alzheimer's disease by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. The findings of this study provide a reference for further studies about the mechanism of action and clinical application of Sijunzi Decoction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Rats , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Network Pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1606-1619, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970633

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the biological effect and mechanism of Vernonia anthelmintica Injection(VAI) on melanin accumulation. The in vivo depigmentation model was induced by propylthiouracil(PTU) in zebrafish, and the effect of VAI on melanin accumulation was evaluated based on the in vitro B16F10 cell model. The chemical composition of VAI was identified according to the high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Network pharmaco-logy was applied to predict potential targets and pathways of VAI. A "VAI component-target-pathway" network was established, and the pharmacodynamic molecules were screened out based on the topological characteristics of the network. The binding of active molecules to key targets was verified by molecular docking. The results showed that VAI promoted tyrosinase activity and melanin production in B16F10 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner and could restore the melanin in the body of the zebrafish model. Fifty-six compounds were identified from VAI, including flavonoids(15/56), terpenoids(10/56), phenolic acids(9/56), fatty acids(9/56), steroids(6/56), and others(7/56). Network pharmacological analysis screened four potential quality markers, including apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein, involving 61 targets and 65 pathways, and molecular docking verified their binding to TYR, NFE2L2, CASP3, MAPK1, MAPK8, and MAPK14. It was found that the mRNA expression of MITF, TYR, TYRP1, and DCT in B16F10 cells was promoted. By UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and network pharmacology, this study determined the material basis of VAI against vitiligo, screened apigenin, chrysoeriol, syringaresinol, and butein as the quality markers of VAI, and verified the efficacy and internal mechanism of melanogenesis, providing a basis for quality control and further clinical research.


Subject(s)
Animals , Vernonia/chemistry , Melanins/metabolism , Zebrafish/metabolism , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Apigenin/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1578-1588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970630

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of n-butanol alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice based on the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome via PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis. In the experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into the following six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups(80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and a fluconazole group(20 mg·kg~(-1)). The VVC model was induced in mice except for those in the blank control group by the estrogen dependence method. After modeling, no treatment was carried out in the blank control group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups were treated with BAEB at 80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1), respectively, and those in the fluconazole group were treated with fluconazole at 20 mg·kg~(-1). The mice in the VVC model group received the same volume of normal saline. The general state and body weight of mice in each group were observed every day, and the morphological changes of Candida albicans in the vaginal lavage of mice were examined by Gram staining. The fungal load in the vaginal lavage of mice was detected by microdilution assay. After the mice were killed, the degree of neutrophil infiltration in the vaginal lavage was detected by Papanicolaou staining. The content of inflammatory cytokines interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in the vaginal lavage was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and vaginal histopathology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression and distribution of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry(IHC), and the expression and distribution of pNLRC4 and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were detected by immunofluorescence(IF). The protein expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by Western blot(WB), and the mRNA expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed redness, edema, and white secretions in the vagina. Compared with the VVC model group, the BAEB groups showed improved general state of VVC mice. As revealed by Gram staining, Papanicolaou staining, microdilution assay, and HE staining, compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed a large number of hyphae, neutrophils infiltration, and increased fungal load in the vaginal lavage, destroyed vaginal mucosa, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. BAEB could reduce the transformation of C. albicans from yeast to hyphae. High-dose BAEB could significantly reduce neutrophil infiltration and fungal load. Low-and medium-dose BAEB could reduce the da-mage to the vaginal tissue, while high-dose BAEB could restore the damaged vaginal tissues to normal levels. ELISA results showed that the content of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and LDH in the VVC model group significantly increased compared with that in the blank control group, and the content of IL-1β, IL-18 and LDH in the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the VVC model group. WB and qRT-PCR results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed reduced protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues of mice and increased protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3. Compared with the VVC model group, the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups showed up-regulated protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues and inhibited protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3 in vaginal tissues. This study indicated that the therapeutic effect of BAEB on VVC mice was presumably related to the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by promoting PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Humans , Mice , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Inflammasomes/genetics , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , 1-Butanol/pharmacology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Candida albicans , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ethanol , RNA, Messenger , Calcium-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1526-1534, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970624

ABSTRACT

Qijiao Shengbai Capsules(QJ) can invigorate Qi and replenish the blood, which is commonly used clinically for adjuvant treatment of cancer and leukopenia due to chemoradiotherapy. However, the pharmacological mechanism of QJ is still unclear. This work aims to combine the high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints and network pharmacology to clarify the effective components and mechanism of QJ. The HPLC fingerprints of 20 batches of QJ were established. The similarity evaluation among 20 batches of QJ was performed by using Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(version 2012), resulting in a similarity greater than 0.97. Eleven common peaks were identified by reference standard, including ferulic acid, calycosin 7-O-glucoside, ononin, calycosin, epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, icariin, formononetin, baohuoside I, and Z-ligustilide. The "component-target-pathway" network was constructed by network pharmacy, and 10 key components in QJ were identified, such as ferulic acid, calycosin 7-O-glucoside, ononin, and calycosin. The components were involved in the phosphoinositide 3 kinase-protein kinase B(PI3K-Akt), mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK), and other signaling pathways by regulating potential targets, including EGFR, RAF1, PIK3R1, and RELA, to auxiliarily treat tumors, cancers, and leukopenia. The molecular docking conducted on the AutoDock Vina platform confirmed the high binding activity of 10 key effective components with core targets, with the binding energy less than-5 kcal·mol~(-1). In this study, the effective components and mechanism of QJ have been preliminary revealed based on HPLC fingerprint and network pharmacology, which provided a basis for quality control of QJ and a refe-rence for further study on its mechanism.


Subject(s)
Network Pharmacology , Capsules , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1352-1369, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970606

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis(AS) is caused by impaired lipid metabolism, which deposits lipids in the intima, causes vascular fibrosis and calcification, and then leads to stiffening of the vascular wall. Hyperlipidemia(HLP) is one of the key risk factors for AS. Based on the theory of "nutrients return to the heart and fat accumulates in the channels", it is believed that the excess fat returning to the heart in the vessels is the key pathogenic factor of AS. The accumulation of fat in the vessels over time and the blood stasis are the pathological mechanisms leading to the development of HLP and AS, and "turbid phlegm and fat" and "blood stasis" are the pathological products of the progression of HLP into AS. Didang Decoction(DDD) is a potent prescription effective in activating blood circulation, removing blood stasis, resolving turbidity, lowering lipids, and dredging blood vessels, with the functions of dispelling stasis to promote regeneration, which has certain effects in the treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. This study employed high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) to screen the main blood components of DDD, explored the targets and mechanisms of DDD against AS and HLP with network pharmacology, and verified the network pharmacological results by in vitro experiments. A total of 231 blood components of DDD were obtained, including 157 compounds with a composite score >60. There were 903 predicted targets obtained from SwissTargetPrediction and 279 disease targets from GeneCards, OMIM, and DisGeNET, and 79 potential target genes of DDD against AS and HLP were obtained by intersection. Gene Ontology(GO) analysis suggested that DDD presumably exerted regulation through biological processes such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammatory response, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) analysis suggested that signaling pathways included lipid and atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, chemo-carcinogenesis-receptor activation, and AGE-RAGE signaling pathways in diabetic complications. In vitro experiments showed that DDD could reduce free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation and cholesterol ester content in L02 cells and improve cellular activity, which might be related to the up-regulation of the expression of PPARα, LPL, PPARG, VEGFA, CETP, CYP1A1, and CYP3A4, and the down-regulation of the expression of TNF-α and IL-6. DDD may play a role in preventing and treating AS and HLP by improving lipid metabolism and inflammatory response, and inhibiting apoptosis with multi-component, multi-target, and multi-pathway characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Network Pharmacology , Nutrients , Atherosclerosis/prevention & control , Lipids , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1330-1342, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970604

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of Cistanches Herba in the treatment of cancer-induced fatigue(CRF) by network pharmacology combined with in vivo and in vitro experiments to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical medication. The chemical constituents and targets of Cistanches Herba were searched from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). The targets of CRF were screened out by GeneCards and NCBI. The common targets of traditional Chinese medicine and disease were selected to construct a protein-protein interaction(PPI) network, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) functional and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses. A visual signal pathway rela-ted to Chinese medicine and disease targets was constructed. The CRF model was induced by paclitaxel(PTX) in mice. Mice were divided into a control group, a PTX model group, and low-and high-dose Cistanches Herba extract groups(250 and 500 mg·kg~(-1)). The anti-CRF effect in mice was evaluated by open field test, tail suspension test, and exhaustive swimming time, and the pathological morphology of skeletal muscle was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The cancer cachexia model in C2C12 muscle cells was induced by C26 co-culture, and the cells were divided into a control group, a conditioned medium model group, and low-, medium-, and high-dose Cistanches Herba extract groups(62.5, 125, and 250 μg·mL~(-1)). The reactive oxygen species(ROS) content in each group was detected by flow cytometry, and the intracellular mitochondrial status was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The protein expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α(HIF-1α), BNIP3L, and Beclin-1 were detected by Western blot. Six effective constituents were screened out from Cistanches Herba. The core genes of Cistanches Herba in treating CRF were AKT1, IL-6, VEGFA, CASP3, JUN, EGFR, MYC, EGF, MAPK1, PTGS2, MMP9, IL-1B, FOS, and IL10, and the pathways related to CRF were AGE-RAGE and HIF-1α. Through GO enrichment analysis, it was found that the main biological functions involved were lipid peroxidation, nutrient deficiency, chemical stress, oxidative stress, oxygen content, and other biological processes. The results of the in vivo experiment showed that Cistanches Herba extract could significantly improve skeletal muscle atrophy in mice to relieve CRF. The in vitro experiment showed that Cistanches Herba extract could significantly reduce the content of intracellular ROS, the percentage of mitochondrial fragmentation, and the protein expression of Beclin-1 and increase the number of autophagosomes and the protein expression of HIF-1α and BNIP3L. Cistanches Herba showed a good anti-CRF effect, and its mechanism may be related to the key target proteins in the HIF-1α signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Cistanche , Network Pharmacology , Beclin-1 , Reactive Oxygen Species , Plant Extracts , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Neoplasms/genetics
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 226-233, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970518

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to explore the effects of Huangqin Tang(HQT) on the NLRP3/Caspase-1 signaling pathway in mice with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis(UC). C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a blank group, a model group(DSS group), and low-, medium-and high-dose HQT groups(HQT-L, HQT-M, and HQT-H), and western medicine mesalazine group(western medicine group). The UC model was induced in mice. Subsequently, the mice in the HQT-L, HQT-M, HQT-H groups, and the western medicine group were given low-, medium-, high-dose HQT, and mesalazine suspension by gavage, respectively, while those in the blank and DSS groups were given an equal volume of distilled water by gavage. After 10 days of administration, the body weight, DAI scores, and colonic histopathological score of mice in each group were determined. The levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, and TNF-α in serum were determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was determined by RT-qPCR. The protein expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed decreased body weight of mice and increased DAI scores and intestinal histopathological score. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group showed improved DAI scores, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). The intestinal histopathological scores of the HQT groups and the western medicine group significantly decreased, especially in the HQT-M, HQT-H, and the western medicine groups(P<0.05). In addition, compared with the blank group, the DSS group showed elevated expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and decreased IL-10 level. Compared with the DSS group, the HQT groups and the western medicine group displayed decreased expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduced serum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increased IL-10 level. The improvement was the most significant in the HQT-H group and the western medicine group(P<0.01). In conclusion, HQT may reduce the expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in colon tissues, reduce the se-rum levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, and increase the expression of IL-10 by regulating the classic pyroptosis pathway of NLRP3/Caspase-1, thereby improving the symptoms of intestinal injury and inflammatory infiltration of intestinal mucosa in DSS mice to achieve its therapeutic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Caspase 1/genetics , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Colon , Dextran Sulfate/adverse effects , Disease Models, Animal , Interleukin-10/genetics , Interleukin-6/genetics , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Scutellaria baicalensis/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 183-192, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970513

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the anti-depression mechanism of Zuojin Pills based on the plasma constituents, network pharmacology, and experimental verification. UHPLC-TOF-MS was used for qualitative analysis of Zuojin Pills-containing serum. Targets of the plasma constituents and the disease were retrieved from PharmMapper and GeneCards. Then the protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed and core targets were screened for GO term enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment. Cytoscape 3.7.2 was employed construct the "compound-target-pathway" network and the targets and signaling pathways of Zuojin Pills against depression were predicted. CUMS-induced depression mouse model was established to verify the key targets. The results showed that a total of 21 constituents migrating to blood of Zuojin Pills were identified, which were mainly alkaloids. A total of 155 common targets of the constituents and the disease and 67 core targets were screened out. KEGG enrichment and PPI network analysis showed that Zuojin Pills may play a role in the treatment of depression through AMPK/SIRT1, NLRP3, insulin and other targets and pathways. Furthermore, the results of animal experiments showed that Zuojin Pills could significantly improve the depression behaviors of depression, reduce the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus and serum, activate AMPK/SIRT1 signaling, and reduce the protein expression of NLRP3. In conclusion, Zuojin Pills may play a role in the treatment of depression by activating AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway, and inhibiting NLRP3 activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Network Pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Sirtuin 1 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 170-182, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970512

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the mechanism of Qingkailing(QKL) Oral Preparation's heat-clearing, detoxifying, mind-tranquilizing effects based on "component-target-efficacy" network. To be specific, the potential targets of the 23 major components in QKL Oral Preparation were predicted by the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP) and SwissTargetPrediction. The target genes were obtained based on UniProt. OmicsBean and STRING 10 were used for Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment of the targets. Cytoscape 3.8.2 was employed for visualization and construction of "component-target-pathway-pharmacological effect-efficacy" network, followed by molecular docking between the 23 main active components and 15 key targets. Finally, the lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells were adopted to verify the anti-inflammatory effect of six monomer components in QKL Oral Preparation. It was found that the 23 compounds affected 33 key signaling pathways through 236 related targets, such as arachidonic acid metabolism, tumor necrosis factor α(TNF-α) signaling pathway, inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels, cAMP signaling pathway, cGMP-PKG signaling pathway, Th17 cell differentiation, interleukin-17(IL-17) signaling pathway, neuroactive ligand-receptor intera-ction, calcium signaling pathway, and GABAergic synapse. They were involved in the anti-inflammation, immune regulation, antipyretic effect, and anti-convulsion of the prescription. The "component-target-pathway-pharmacological effect-efficacy" network of QKL Oral Preparation was constructed. Molecular docking showed that the main active components had high binding affinity to the key targets. In vitro cell experiment indicated that the six components in the prescription(hyodeoxycholic acid, baicalin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid C, epigoitrin, geniposide) can reduce the expression of nitric oxide(NO), TNF-α, and interleukin-6(IL-6) in cell supernatant(P<0.05). Thus, the above six components may be the key pharmacodynamic substances of QKL Oral Preparation. The major components in QKL Oral Prescription, including hyodeoxycholic acid, baicalin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid C, epigoitrin, geniposide, cholic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, and γ-aminobutyric acid, may interfere with multiple biological processes related to inflammation, immune regulation, fever, and convulsion by acting on the key protein targets such as IL-6, TNF, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2(PTGS2), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase(ALOX5), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1(VCAM1), nitric oxide synthase 2(NOS2), prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype(PTGER2), gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha(GABRA), gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1(GABBR1), and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase(ABAT). This study reveals the effective components and mechanism of QKL Oral Prescription.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Chlorogenic Acid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid , Interleukin-6 , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 82-95, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970504

ABSTRACT

With the approach of untargeted metabolomics and correlation analysis, this study aimed to explore the mechanism of Aurantii Fructus from Lingnan region in alleviating dryness by analyzing the different effects of raw Aurantii Fructus(RAF) and processed Aurantii Fructus(PAF) on fecal endogenous metabolism in normal rats. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were randomly divided into a control group(C), an RAF group(10 g·kg~(-1)), and a PAF group(10 g·kg~(-1)). After seven days of administration, the effects of RAF and PAF on dryness-related indexes were compared, including water intake, fecal water content, salivary secretion, the expression of AQP5, VIP, and 5-HT in the submandibular gland, as well as the expression of AQP3, VIP, and 5-HT in the colon. The fecal samples in each group were determined by LC-MS. Multivariate statistical analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for screening the differential metabolites and metabolic pathways in alleviating dryness of RAF. The results indicated that both RAF and PAF showed certain dryness, and the dryness of RAF was more significant. Moreover, PAF could alleviate dryness of RAF to a certain extent by reducing the water intake, fecal water content, and the expression of AQP3, VIP, and 5-HT in the colon and increasing the salivary secretion and the levels of AQP5, VIP, and 5-HT in the submandibular gland. According to the analysis of fecal metabolomics, 99 and 58 metabolites related to dryness were found in RAF and PAF respectively, where 16 of them played an important role in alleviating dryness of RAF. Pathway analysis revealed that the mechanism of PAF in alleviating dryness of RAF was presumably related to the regulation of riboflavin metabolism, purine metabolism, arginine biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism, alanine metabolism, aspartate metabolism, glutamate metabolism, and retinol metabolism pathways. This study suggested that PAF might alleviate dryness of RAF by affecting the metabolic levels of the body, which provides a new basis for further clarifying the processing mechanism of PAF.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Serotonin , Metabolomics , Water
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 481-491, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970485

ABSTRACT

Based on network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vitro experimental verification, this study aims to explore the effect of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination on HSC-LX2 pyroptosis. Specifically, the targets of Albiziae Cortex, Tribuli Fructus, and hepatic fibrosis were retrieved from an online database and CNKI, and "drug-component-target" network and "drug-component-target-disease" network were constructed. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was established based on STRING. Metascape was employed for Gene Ontology(GO) term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway enrichment, and the mechanism of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination against liver fibrosis was predicted. Molecular docking was used to verify some of the results of network pharmacology, and in vitro experiment was carried out to further verify the above conclusions. According to the results of network pharmacological analysis, 25 active components and 439 targets of Albiziae Cortex-Tribuli Fructus combination and 152 anti-liver fibrosis targets were screened out, including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain and leucine-rich-repeat-and pyrin-domain-containing 3(NLRP3) and caspase-1. The key targets were involved in 194 KEGG pathways in which the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway topped. The binding common targets were related to pyroptosis. The results of in vitro experiment showed that the pair-containing serum reduced the proliferation rate of HSC-LX2 and the content of reactive oxygen species(ROS), interleukin-18(IL-18), and interleukin-1β(IL-1β)(P<0.05). Western blot and qRT-PCR suggested that the protein and gene expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, α-smooth muscle actin(α-SMA), and gasdermin D(GSDMD) in HSC-LX2 increased after AngⅡ stimulation, and the expression decreased after the intervention of pair-containing serum(P<0.05). In summary, the pair-containing serum can inhibit the classic pathway of pyroptosis, which may be the anti-liver fibrosis mechanism. This is consistent with the predicted results of network pharmacology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hepatic Stellate Cells , Network Pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Caspase 1/genetics , Fibrosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology
13.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 359-370, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982707

ABSTRACT

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is the crucial pathway in chronic kidney disease (CKD) leading to the end-stage renal failure. However, the underlying mechanism of Shen Qi Wan (SQW) on RIF is not fully understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) in SQW on tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A RIF mouse model induced by adenine and a TGF-β1-stimulated HK-2 cell model were etablished to explore the involvement of AQP 1 in the protective effect of SQW on EMT in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, the molecular mechanism of SQW on EMT was explored in HK-2 cells with AQP1 knockdown. The results indicated that SQW alleviated kidney injury and renal collagen deposition in the kidneys of mice induced by adenine, increased the protein expression of E-cadherin and AQP1 expression, and decreased the expression of vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Similarly, treatmement with SQW-containing serum significantly halted EMT process in TGF-β1 stimulated HK-2 cells. The expression of snail and slug was significantly upregulated in HK-2 cells after knockdown of AQP1. AQP1 knockdown also increased the mRNA expression of vimentin and α-SMA, and decreased the expression of E-cadherin. The protein expression of vimentin increased, while the expression of E-cadherin and CK-18 significantly decreased after AQP1 knockdown in HK-2 cells. These results revealed that AQP1 knockdown promoted EMT. Furthermore, AQP1 knockdown abolished the protective effect of SQW-containing serum on EMT in HK-2 cells. In sum, SQW attentuates EMT process in RIF through upregulation of the expression of AQP1.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Male , Rats , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Cell Line , Kidney/physiology , Fibrosis/drug therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy , Adenine , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Aquaporin 1/metabolism
14.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 323-332, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982704

ABSTRACT

Pharmacodynamics material basis and effective mechanisms are the two main issues to decipher the mechnisms of action of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for the treatment of diseases. TCMs, in "multi-component, multi-target, multi-pathway" paradigm, show satisfactory clinical results in complex diseases. New ideas and methods are urgently needed to explain the complex interactions between TCMs and diseases. Network pharmacology (NP) provides a novel paradigm to uncover and visualize the underlying interaction networks of TCMs against multifactorial diseases. The development and application of NP has promoted the safety, efficacy, and mechanism investigations of TCMs, which then reinforces the credibility and popularity of TCMs. The current organ-centricity of medicine and the "one disease-one target-one drug" dogma obstruct the understanding of complex diseases and the development of effective drugs. Therefore, more attentions should be paid to shift from "phenotype and symptom" to "endotype and cause" in understanding and redefining current diseases. In the past two decades, with the advent of advanced and intelligent technologies (such as metabolomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, single-cell omics, and artificial intelligence), NP has been improved and deeply implemented, and presented its great value and potential as the next drug-discovery paradigm. NP is developed to cure causal mechanisms instead of treating symptoms. This review briefly summarizes the recent research progress on NP application in TCMs for efficacy research, mechanism elucidation, target prediction, safety evaluation, drug repurposing, and drug design.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Network Pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Metabolomics
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 277-288, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#JieZe-1 (JZ-1), a Chinese herbal prescription, has an obvious effect on genital herpes, which is mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Our study aimed to address whether HSV-2 induces pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells and to investigate the anti-HSV-2 activity of JZ-1 and the effect of JZ-1 on caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis.@*METHODS@#HSV-2-infected VK2/E6E7 cells and culture supernate were harvested at different time points after the infection. Cells were co-treated with HSV-2 and penciclovir (0.078125 mg/mL) or caspase-1 inhibitor VX-765 (24 h pretreatment with 100 μmol/L) or JZ-1 (0.078125-50 mg/mL). Cell counting kit-8 assay and viral load analysis were used to evaluate the antiviral activity of JZ-1. Inflammasome activation and pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells were analyzed using microscopy, Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide staining, lactate dehydrogenase release assay, gene and protein expression, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.@*RESULTS@#HSV-2 induced pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells, with the most significant increase observed 24 h after the infection. JZ-1 effectively inhibited HSV-2 (the 50% inhibitory concentration = 1.709 mg/mL), with the 6.25 mg/mL dose showing the highest efficacy (95.76%). JZ-1 (6.25 mg/mL) suppressed pyroptosis of VK2/E6E7 cells. It downregulated the inflammasome activation and pyroptosis via inhibiting the expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (P < 0.001) and interferon-γ-inducible protein 16 (P < 0.001), and their interactions with apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and reducing cleaved caspase-1 p20 (P < 0.01), gasdermin D-N (P < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.001), and IL-18 levels (P < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#JZ-1 exerts an excellent anti-HSV-2 effect in VK2/E6E7 cells, and it inhibits caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis induced by HSV-2 infection. These data enrich our understanding of the pathologic basis of HSV-2 infection and provide experimental evidence for the anti-HSV-2 activity of JZ-1. Please cite this article as: Liu T, Shao QQ, Wang WJ, Liu TL, Jin XM, Xu LJ, Huang GY, Chen Z. The Chinese herbal prescription JieZe-1 inhibits caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis induced by herpes simplex virus-2 infection in vitro. J Integr Med. 2023; 21(3): 277-288.


Subject(s)
Humans , Caspase 1/metabolism , Inflammasomes/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy
16.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3753-3764, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981508

ABSTRACT

Prunus mume is an edible and medicinal material, and Mume Fructus is its processed product, which was first recorded in Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing). It is an effective drug for stopping diarrhea with astringents and promoting fluid production to quiet ascaris. By consulting the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties, modern codes, and other rela-ted literature, this paper sorted out the medicinal evolution of Mume Fructus, examined the ancient efficacy of Mume Fructus and the main indications, and summarized the inclusion of Mume Fructus in national and provincial standards. It is recorded in the ancient herbal works of the past dynasties that Mume Fructus can be processed by various methods such as roasting, stir-frying or micro-frying, stir-frying with charcoal, single steaming, steaming with wine, and steaming after soaking in wine or vinegar, and prepared into pills, powders, and ointments, which are used in the treatment of fatigue, diabetes, malaria, dysentery, ascariasis, and other diseases. Mume Fructus has been included in nine editions of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and 19 provincial and municipal preparation specifications. The processing method of Mume Fructus is determined, namely, clean P. mume should be softened by moistening in water or steaming and pitted. By reviewing the effects of processing on its chemical composition, pharmacological effects, and its modern clinical application, this paper identified the following issues. The ancient application methods of Mume Fructus are diverse but less commonly used in modern times, there is a lack of standardized research on the processing, and the research on the changes caused by the difference in Mume Fructus before and after processing is not deep. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the change pattern of its chemical composition before and after processing and its correlation between its medicinal activity to standardize the processing technology and provide a solid basis for the use of Mume Fructus in parts and its quality control.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Materia Medica/analysis , Fruit/chemistry , Quality Control , Prunus/chemistry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3743-3752, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981507

ABSTRACT

Radiation-induced intestinal injury(RIII), a common complication of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies, affects the quality of life and the radiotherapy efficacy for cancer. Currently, the main clinical approaches for the prevention and treatment of RIII include drug therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and surgical treatment. Among these methods, drug therapy is cost-effective. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) containing a variety of active components demonstrates mild side effects and good efficacy in preventing and treating RIII. Studies have proven that TCM active components, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and alkaloids, can protect the intestine against RIII by inhibiting oxidative stress, regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, modulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, adjusting intestinal flora, and suppressing cell apoptosis. These mechanisms can help alleviate the symptoms of RIII. The paper aims to provide a theoretical reference for the discovery of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of RIII by reviewing the literature on TCM active components in the last 10 years.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Quality of Life , Intestines , Alkaloids
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3701-3714, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981502

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the anti-inflammatory material basis and molecular mechanism of Artemisia stolonifera based on the analysis of the chemical components in different extracted fractions of A. stolonifera and their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in combination with network pharmacology and molecular docking. Thirty-two chemical components were identified from A. stolonifera by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Among them, there were 7, 21 and 22 compounds in water, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions, respectively. The antio-xidant capacity of different extracted fractions was evaluated by measuring their scavenging ability against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl(DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS) free radicals and total antioxidant capacity [ferric reducing antioxidant power(FRAP) assay]. The inflammatory model of RAW264.7 cells was induced by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and the levels of nitrite oxide(NO), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-6(IL-6) in the supernatant and the mRNA expression of related inflammatory factors in cells were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects. The results revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of A. stolonifera was the optimal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory fraction. By network pharmacology, it was found that flavonoids such as rhamnazin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, luteolin and nepetin could act on key targets such as TNF, serine/threonine protein kinase 1(AKT1), tumor protein p53(TP53), caspase-3(CASP3) and epidermal growth factor receptor(EGFR), and regulate the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein kinase B(PI3K-AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) signaling pathways to exert the anti-inflammatory effects. Molecular docking further indicated excellent binding properties between the above core components and core targets. This study preliminarily clarified the anti-inflammatory material basis and mechanism of ethyl acetate fraction of A. stolonifera, providing a basis for the follow-up clinical application of A. stolonifera and drug development.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Artemisia , Network Pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Interleukin-6
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3684-3692, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981498

ABSTRACT

According to the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) theory, Qi is the essential component maintaining life. Mitochondria are the cellular organelles that generate energy. Qi exhibits abundant common characteristics in bioenergetics compared with mitochondria which control the cellular energy through fusion and fission. Studies have proven that the qi-tonifying function of Chinese medicinal plants and their components facilitates mitochondrial fusion, therefore enhancing ATP synthesis. These studies provide a framework for deciphering the pharmacological mechanisms of Qi-tonifying herbs. This article introduces the common source and function shared by Qi and mitochondria and the regulatory effects of herbal remedies on energy from mitochondria dynamics. This review aims to interpret the connotation of tonifying qi in TCM theory based on the modern biomedical theory.


Subject(s)
Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Qi , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Plants, Medicinal
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3576-3588, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981489

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacology, molecular docking, and in vivo and in vitro experiments were employed to study the molecular mechanism of Blaps rynchopetera Fairmaire in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC). The components of B. rynchopetera were collected by literature review, and the active components were screened out through the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform(TCMSP). PharmMapper was used to obtain the targets of the active components. The targets of NSCLC were obtained from DrugBank, GeneCards, OMIM, TTD, and PharmGKB. The Venn diagram was drawn to identify the common targets shared by the active components of B. rynchopetera and NSCLC. The "drug component-target" network and protein-protein interaction(PPI) network were constructed by Cytoscape, and the key targets were screened by Centiscape. Gene Ontology(GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment of the above key targets were performed by DAVID. AutoDock and PyMOL were used for the molecular docking between the key targets and corresponding active components. A total of 31 active components, 72 potential targets, and 11 key targets of B. rynchopetera against NSCLC were obtained. The active components of B. rynchopetera had good binding activity with key targets. Further, the serum containing B. rynchopetera was prepared and used to culture human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The CCK-8 assay was employed to determine the inhibition rates on the growth of A549 cells in blank control group and those exposed to different concentrations of B. rynchopetera-containing serum, cisplatin, and drug combination(B. rynchopetera-containing serum+cisplatin) for different time periods. The cell migration and invasion of A549 cells were detected by cell scratch assay and Transwell assay, respectively. Western blot was employed to determine the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X(Bax), caspase-3, cell division cycle 42(CDC42), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase SRC, and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in A549 cells. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with Lewis cells and randomly assigned into a model control group, a B. rynchopetera group, a cisplatin group, and a drug combination(B. rynchopetera+cisplatin) group, with 12 mice per group. The body weight and the long diameter(a) and short diameter(b) of the tumor were monitored every other day during treatment, and the tumor volume(mm~3) was calculated as 0.52ab~2. After 14 days of continuous medication, the mice were sacrificed for the collection of tumor, spleen, and thymus, and the tumor inhibition rate and immune organ indexes were calculated. The tissue morphology of tumors was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining, and the positive expression of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, CDC42, SRC, and VEGF in the tumor tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that B. rynchopetera and the drug combination regulated the expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, CDC42, SRC, and VEGF to inhibit the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A549 cells and Lewis cells, thus playing a role in the treatment of NSCLC via multiple ways.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Caspase 3 , Network Pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Cisplatin , Molecular Docking Simulation , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
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