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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 292-301, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878038

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Generic drugs are bioequivalent to their brand-name counterparts; however, concerns still exist regarding the effectiveness and safety of generic drugs because of small sample sizes and short follow-up time in most studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term antihypertensive efficacy, cost-effectiveness and cardiovascular outcomes of generic drugs compared with brand-name drugs.@*METHODS@#In a multicenter, community-based study including 7955 hypertensive patients who were prospectively followed up for an average of 2.5 years, we used the propensity-score-matching method to match the patients using brand-name drugs to those using generic drugs in a ratio of 1:2, 2176 patients using brand-name drugs and 4352 patients using generic drugs.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences between generic drugs and brand-name drugs in blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy, BP control rate, and cardiovascular outcomes including coronary heart disease and stroke. The adjusted mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) of systolic BP (SBP)-lowering was -7.9 mmHg (95% CI, -9.9 to -5.9) in the brand-name drug group and -7.1 mmHg (95% CI, -9.1 to -5.1) in the generic drug group after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, number of antihypertensive drugs and traditionally cardiovascular risk factors. Among patients aged <60 years, brand-name drugs had a higher BP control rate (47% vs. 41%; P = 0.02) and a greater effect in lowering SBP compared with generic drugs, with the between-group difference of 1.5 mmHg (95% CI, 0.2-2.8; P = 0.03). BP control rate was higher in male patients using brand-name drugs compared with those using generic drugs (46% vs. 40%; P = 0.01). Generic drugs treatment yielded an average annual incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $315.4 per patient per mmHg decrease in SBP compared with brand-name drugs treatment.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our data suggested that generic drugs are suitable and cost-effective in improving hypertension management and facilitating public health benefits, especially in low- and middle-income areas.


Subject(s)
Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , China , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
2.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(4): 237-245, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039229

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Recent studies suggest that sustained use of generic antibiotics may be associated with clinical failure and emergence of antibacterial resistance. The present study was designed to determine the clinical outcome between the use of generic meropenem (GM) and brand-name meropenem (BNM). Additionally, this study evaluated the economic impact of GM and BNM to determine if the former represents a cost-effective alternative to the latter. Methods: Patients treated between January 2011 and May 2014 received GM while patients treated between June 2014 and March 2017 received BNM. Mortality was compared between groups. Total infection cost was defined by the cost of antimicrobial consumption, length of stay, and laboratory and imaging exams until infection resolution. Findings: A total of 168 patients were included; survival rate for the 68 patients treated with GM was 38% compared to 59% in the patients treated with BNM. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables most strongly-associated with mortality were cardiovascular disease (OR 18.18, 95% CI 1.25-262.3, p = 0.033) and treatment with generic meropenem (OR 18.45, 95% CI 1.45-232.32, p = 0.024). On the other hand, total infection cost did not show a significant difference between groups (BNM $10,771 vs. GM $11,343; p = 0.91). Interpretation: The present study suggests that patients treated with GM have a risk of death 18 times higher compared to those treated with BNM. Furthermore, economic analysis shows that GM is not more cost effective than BNM. Summary: More studies measuring clinical outcomes are needed to confirm the clinical equivalence of brand-name versus generic antibiotics, not only for meropenem but also for other molecules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Generic/economics , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Meropenem/economics , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/economics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Survival Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/mortality , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Sex Distribution , Colombia , Age Distribution , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(1): 32-40, feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003654

ABSTRACT

Resumen Antecedentes: Los estudios clínicos orientados a evaluar la calidad de medicamentos genéricos pueden ser útiles para fortalecer políticas de acceso a terapia anti-retroviral combinada (TARc). Objetivo: Describir la efectividad y seguridad del esquema genérico lamivudina/tenofovir/efavirenz (3TC/TDF/EFV) en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve, pertenecientes a un programa de atención integral. Materiales/Métodos: Estudio clínico prospectivo fase IV abierto y sin grupo control. Entre 2012-2014, se incluyeron y siguieron 40 pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve y con indicación para iniciar tratamiento. Los pacientes fueron tratados con el esquema genérico 3TC/TDF/EFV y fueron seguidos durante 12 meses. El seguimiento incluyó valoración clínica, parámetros inmunovirológicos y de laboratorio, al inicio del tratamiento y a los 3, 6 y 12 meses. Resultados: De los 40 pacientes, 30 (75%) cumplieron los doce meses de tratamiento; de ellos, 80% alcanzó CV indetectable (< 40 copias/mL) y 83,3% CV < 50 copias/mL. Adicionalmente, en el grupo hubo un incremento en la mediana de 173 linfocitos TCD4/mm3. Por su parte, los resultados del hemograma completo, creatininemia y transaminasas hepáticas se conservaron en rangos normales y no generaron cambios del TARc. Los efectos adversos reconocidos para estos medicamentos se presentaron en menos de 10% de los pacientes y no tuvieron implicaciones graves. Conclusiones: En este grupo pequeño de pacientes, el esquema genérico 3TC/TDF/EFV es efectivo y seguro en el tratamiento de pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA naïve, y su perfil de efectividad y seguridad es similar al del esquema 3TC/TDF/EFV innovador en pacientes con condiciones clínicas similares.


Background: Clinical studies aimed to evaluating the quality of generic drugs may be useful to strengthen policies of access to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Aim: To describe the effectiveness and safety of the generic schema lamivudine/tenofovir/efavirenz (3TC/TDF/EFV) in patients with HIV/AIDS naive, belonging to a comprehensive care program. Methods: A nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study, during 2012 to 2014 naive HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive cART were recruited. Patients were treated with generic scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV and were followed-up during 12 months. Clinical, immunological and laboratory parameters were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Results: Of the 40 patients, 30 (75%) met the 12 months of treatment; of them, 80% achieved undetectable viral load (< 40 copies/mL) and 83.3% viral load < 50 copies/mL. Additionally, there was a significant increase (173 cells/mm3) in the median for CD4 T lymphocyte count. Moreover, the results of the whole blood count, creatinine and transaminases were preserved in normal ranges and did not generate changes in the cART. Potential side effects of antiretroviral drugs occurred in less than 10% of patients and had no serious implications. Conclusions: In this small group of patients, the generic scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS naïve, and its effectiveness and safety profile is similar to show by innovator scheme 3TC/TDF/EFV in patients with similar clinical conditions. Registro Estudio: Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos (RPCEC) ID: RPCEC00000134. Registered 20 July 2012.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Colombia , Statistics, Nonparametric , Cyclopropanes , Alkynes
4.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 53: 94, jan. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043318

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate trends in the use of generic and non-generic medicines to treat hypertension and diabetes under the Farmácia Popular Program (FP) and its impact on generic medicines sales volume and market share in the Brazilian pharmaceutical market. METHODS This longitudinal, retrospective study used interrupted time series design to analyze changes in monthly sales volume and proportion of medicines sales (market share) for oral antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines for generic versus non-generic products. Analyses were conducted in a combined dataset that aggregate monthly sales volumes from the Farmácia Popular program and from the QuintilesIMS™ (IQVIA) national market sales data from January 2007 to December 2012. The Farmácia Popular program phases analyzed included: a) 2009 reductions in medicines reference prices (AFP-II) and b) 2011 implementation of free medicines program for hypertension and diabetes, the Saúde não tem preço (SNTP - Health has no price). RESULTS Patterns of use for FP-covered antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines were similar to their use in the market in general. After one year of the decreases in government subsidies in April 2010, market share of antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines experienced relative declines of -54.5% and -59.9%, respectively. However, when FP-covered medicines were made free to patients, overall market volume for antidiabetic and antihypertensive generics increased dramatically, with 242.6% and 277.0% relative increases by February 2012, as well as non-generics with relative increase of 209.7% and 279% for antidiabetic and antihypertensive medicines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ministry of Health policies on the amount of patient cost sharing and on the choice of medicines on coverage lists have substantial impacts on overall generic sales volume in retail pharmacies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Commerce/trends , Community Pharmacy Services/trends , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , National Health Programs/trends , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Pharmacies/trends , Pharmacies/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Time Factors , Brazil , Program Evaluation , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Commerce/statistics & numerical data , Community Pharmacy Services/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Health Policy , Hypertension/drug therapy , National Health Programs/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(10): 1235-1242, oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902437

ABSTRACT

Background: The availability of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is just starting to expand in Chile. Aim: To report the initial experience of patients treated with DAA and their evolution after treatment. Material and Methods: Prospective cohort study, from June 2013 to August 2016 of patients treated with DAA for HCV in three clinical centers. The presence of cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory features; adverse events (AE) and post-treatment changes in liver function were evaluated. Sustained viral response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was determined. Results: One hundred six patients aged 58 ± 13 years, 54% males, were included. HCV genotype 1b was present in 88% and 47% had cirrhosis. Treatment regimens were asunaprevir + daclatasvir (DCV) in 17% of patients, paritaprevir / ritonavir / ombitasvir + dasabuvir in 33%, sofosbuvir (SOF) + DCV in 19%, and SOF + ledipasvir in 30%. Twenty five percent of patients used generic drugs. SVR12 was 92.1%, with no differences between generic and brand-name drugs. Serious AE were recorded in 22% of patients, being more common in those with cirrhosis (34% vs 11.5%, p < 0.01). At 12 weeks post-treatment follow-up, there was a decrease in aminotransferase values (p < 0.01), improvement in Child-Pugh score (5.9 vs. 5.5, p = 0.03) and decreased presence of ascites (p = 0.02). Conclusions: In our setting, DAA for HCV was highly effective and safe in non-cirrhotic patients. Hepatic function and inflammation improved at 12 weeks of follow-up. AE were common in patients with cirrhosis, suggesting that these patients should be treated by experienced teams. Generic drugs had similar effectiveness compared to originals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Sustained Virologic Response , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Drugs, Generic/adverse effects , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/physiopathology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/physiopathology
6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 22(8): 2627-2644, Ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-890424

ABSTRACT

Resumo A necessidade de aumento do acesso aos medicamentos, aliada à limitada aceitação dos genéricos, tem suscitado a busca de intervenções eficazes para a sua promoção. Esta revisão sistemática realizou levantamento de intervenções voltadas à promoção do uso dos medicamentos genéricos e seus impactos. Foram incluídos ensaios randomizados, ensaios controlados não randomizados, estudos tipo antes e depois e séries temporais interrompidas. As análises quanto ao impacto das intervenções e qualidade das evidências seguiram as orientações da Cochrane. A classificação do impacto das intervenções variou de muito grande a muito pequeno e da qualidade da evidência de alta a muito baixa. Selecionou-se 17 artigos com público alvo de prescritores, farmacêuticos e usuários. As intervenções utilizadas foram educativas, de incentivo financeiro, uso de prescrição eletrônica e gerencial. Intervenções aplicadas aos prescritores tiveram impacto pequeno a médio, com qualidade muito baixa a baixa; aos farmacêuticos, impacto pequeno e qualidade muito baixa; aos usuários mostraram impacto médio e grande com qualidade muito baixa e baixa. São necessários mais estudos de boa qualidade abordando as intervenções.


Abstract The need to increase access to medicines, coupled with the limited acceptance of generics has sparked the search for effective interventions to promote it. This systematic review aimed to conduct a survey on interventions to promote the use of generic drugs and its impact. Randomized clinical trials, non-randomized controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series were included. The analysis of the impact of interventions and quality of evidence followed Cochrane's guidelines. Impact of interventions was rated from "very large" to "very small" and the quality of evidence was rated from "high" to "very low". Seventeen papers addressing prescribers, pharmacists and users were selected. There were educational, financial incentives and use of electronic prescription and managerial interventions. Interventions applied to prescribers had little to medium impact, with very low-to-low quality evidence. Interventions applied to pharmacists had small impact with very low quality evidence. Interventions applied to users had medium and large impact with very low-to-low quality evidence. Further studies with good quality addressing interventions are required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Health Services Accessibility , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , Attitude of Health Personnel , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Motivation
7.
Medical Principles and Practice. 2017; 26 (3): 221-228
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188527

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In this study, peripheral blood lymphocytes were compared between a brand-name and a generic tacrolimus group in stable liver transplant recipients


Subjects and Methods: Sixteen patients who underwent ABO-compatible living donor liver transplants between 2012 and 2013 and had stable graft function were included in this study. Ten patients received brand-name tacrolimus and 6 patients re-ceived generic tacrolimus. CDS, CD47 CDS, yd, CD4+FoxP3+, and CD3-CD56+ T cells were analyzed in peripheral blood obtained preoperatively and 4,8,12, and 24 weeks after liver transplantation. Categorical variables were compared using a x2 test or Fisher exact test, and continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test


Results: Regarding the baseline and perioperative characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups. Immunosuppression also was not different. Subtype analysis of T-cell populations carried out in parallel showed similar levels of CD3, CD4, CDS, and ydJ cells with brand-name tacrolimus and generic tacrolimus in stable liver transplant recipients. However, the levels of CD4+Foxp3+ and CD3-CD56+ T cells were higher in the brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group 8 weeks after transplantation [p < 0.05]


Conclusions: The level of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells was higher in the brand-name tacrolimus group than in the generic tacrolimus group after transplantation. This finding showed that brand-name tacrolimus could have more potential immunosuppressive activity than generic tacrolimus regarding the contribution of CD4+Foxp3+ T cells to graft tolerance in liver transplant recipients


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Liver Transplantation , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Lymphocytes/drug effects , Living Donors , ABO Blood-Group System , Statistics, Nonparametric
8.
Rev. saúde pública (Online) ; 51: 59, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903215

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Patient Medication Knowledge , Drug Prescriptions/economics , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population , Brazil , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Drugs, Generic/economics , Consumer Behavior , Middle Aged
9.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 25(2): 251-258, abr.-jun. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-785218

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: analisar a utilização e a percepção sobre medicamentos genéricos pela população com diabetes e hipertensão na cidade de São Paulo, considerando-se a Política de Medicamentos Genéricos no Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal com dados do Inquérito de Saúde do Município de São Paulo (ISA-Capital), coletados em 2003; foi analisado o conhecimento sobre medicamentos genéricos e a associação entre utilização desses medicamentos e características sociodemográficas e socioeconômicas. RESULTADOS: foram incluídos 603 participantes; entre hipertensos e diabéticos, foi encontrada baixa utilização de medicamento genérico (33,3% e 26,3%, respectivamente) e a principal vantagem atribuída ao medicamento genérico foi o baixo custo (71,0% e 71,1%, respectivamente); não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre uso de medicamento genérico e idade, sexo ou escolaridade. CONCLUSÃO: o baixo custo e não haver diferença entre uso do genérico e escolaridade reforçam a importância do medicamento genérico para a promoção da equidade e do acesso universal a medicamentos.


OBJETIVO: analizar el uso de medicamentos genéricos en la población con diabetes e hipertensión en São Paulo, Brasil, considerando la política de medicamentos genéricos en Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal con datos de la Encuesta en Salud del municipio de São Paulo (ISA-Capital), colectados en 2003; se analizó el conocimiento sobre medicamentos genéricos y la asociación entre el uso de estos y las características sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas de la población. RESULTADOS: incluimos 603 participantes, entre hipertensos y diabéticos se encontró un uso escaso de genéricos (33,3% y 26,3%, respectivamente) y la principal ventaja atribuida al medicamento genérico fue el bajo costo (71,0% y 71,1%, respectivamente); no hubo diferencia entre el uso de medicación genérica y la edad, sexo o educación. CONCLUSIÓN: el bajo costo y ninguna diferencia entre el uso de genérico y educación refuerza la importancia de los genéricos para la promoción de la equidad y el acceso universal a los medicamentos.


OBJECTIVE: to analyze the use and perception of generic drugs by people with diabetes and hypertension in São Paulo City, Brazil, considering the Brazilian Generic Drug Policy. METHODS: this was a cross-sectional study using data from a household health survey (ISA-Capital) in 2003; analysis was performed on knowledge regarding generic drugs and on the association between their use and sociodemographic and socio-economic characteristics. RESULTS: 603 people with hypertension and diabetes were included in the study, low use of generic drugs was found (33.3% and 26.3, respectively) and low cost was the major reported advantage of generic drugs (71.0% and 71.1%, respectively); there was no statistically significant difference between the use of generic medication and age, sex or schooling. CONCLUSION: low cost and there being no difference between generic drug use and education level strengthen the importance of generic drugs for promoting equity and universal access to medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Drugs, Generic/economics , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Hypertension/drug therapy , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Generic Drug Policy
10.
Rev. saúde pública ; 50(supl.2): 11s, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830783

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the existence of differences in the use of generic medicines in Brazil according to demographic and socioeconomic variables and acquisition sources of the medicines. METHODS Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM – National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines). Data collection took place between September, 2013 and February, 2014 in homes of Brazilian cities (urban area). The use of medicines has been investigated in relation to the treatment of chronic diseases and, in the case of acute events, regarding use over the previous 15 days. Generics were identified by visualization of packaging presented by the users of the medicines. The independent variables used were sex, age, education level, economic class, and region of the Country. The statistical significance of differences between the groups was evaluated by Pearson’s Chi-squared test, considering a 5% significance level. RESULTS The prevalence of generic medicines use was 45.5% (95%CI 43.7–47.3). There was no difference considering education level. The prevalence was higher in females (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9–49.0) than in males (43.1%; 95%CI 40.5–45.8), and were higher with increasing age. Generic medicines were more used in the economic class C (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9–49.1) and in the South (50.6%; 95%CI 46.6–54.6) and Southeast (49.9%; 95%CI 46.8–53.0) regions. Generics accounted for 37.3% of the medicines provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS Currently, there is a choice of purchase or free provision by the Brazilian Unified Health System, characterized by quality assurance and reduced price regarding branded medicines considered as reference. In the private market, a considerable part of the population is choosing generic medicines thanks to the availability of this option for virtually all medicines most used by the population.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar se há diferença no uso de medicamentos genéricos no Brasil segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e fontes de obtenção dos medicamentos. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal de base populacional, conduzido com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), com coleta de dados entre setembro de 2013 e fevereiro de 2014 em residências de municípios brasileiros urbanos. O uso dos medicamentos foi investigado em relação ao tratamento de doenças crônicas e, no caso de eventos agudos, quanto ao uso nos últimos 15 dias. Os genéricos foram identificados por visualização das embalagens apresentadas pelos usuários dos medicamentos. As variáveis independentes utilizadas foram sexo, idade, escolaridade, classe econômica e região do País. A avaliação da significância estatística das diferenças entre os grupos foi analisada pelo teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson, considerando nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS A prevalência de uso de genéricos foi de 45,5% (IC95% 43,7–47,3). Não houve diferença por escolaridade, as prevalências foram maiores no sexo feminino (47,0%; IC95% 44,9–49,0) em relação ao masculino (43,1%; IC95% 40,5–45,8) e foram crescentes com o aumento da idade. Maiores usos de genéricos foram encontrados na classe econômica C (47,0%; IC95% 44,9–49,1) e nas regiões Sul (50,6%; IC95% 46,6-54,6) e Sudeste (49,9%; IC95% 46,8–53,0). Observou-se ainda que os genéricos representaram 37,3% dos medicamentos disponibilizados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde . CONCLUSÕES Pode-se concluir que hoje existe uma alternativa de compra ou fornecimento gratuito pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, caracterizada por garantia de qualidade e preço reduzido em relação aos medicamentos de marca comercial considerados como referência. No mercado privado, boa parte da população está optando pelo uso de medicamentos genéricos, graças à disponibilidade dessa opção para praticamente todos os medicamentos mais utilizados pela população.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Age Distribution , Age Factors , Brazil , National Health Programs , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Social Class , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 32(7): e00070215, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-952290

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Este estudo compara a percepção, conhecimento e uso de medicamentos genéricos em adultos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio de dois estudos transversais de base populacional realizados em 2002 e 2012. Os desfechos estudados foram: (a) prevalência de utilização de medicamentos genéricos; (b) proporção de uso de medicamentos genéricos entre os demais medicamentos; (c) percepção dos usuários sobre preço e qualidade dos medicamentos genéricos; (d) conhecimento dos usuários sobre medicamentos genéricos; e (e) estratégias de aquisição de medicamentos. A prevalência de uso de medicamentos genéricos aumentou de 3,6% (IC95%: 3,0-4,3) para 26,1% (IC95%: 24,5-27,7) no período de dez anos. A percepção sobre preço e qualidade dos medicamentos genéricos se manteve estável, a identificação das características que diferenciam os medicamentos genéricos dos demais medicamentos melhorou (p < 0,001) e o erro de classificação de medicamento diminuiu (p < 0,001). Houve um aumento significativo na estratégia de aquisição de medicamentos pela substituição do medicamento prescrito pelo medicamento genérico. Entre 2002 e 2012, aumentou o conhecimento e uso de medicamentos genéricos, enquanto a percepção quanto ao menor preço e qualidade equivalente mantiveram-se elevadas.


Abstract: This study compared the perception, knowledge, and use of generic drugs by adults in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, using two cross-sectional population-based studies from 2002 and 2012. Study outcomes were: (a) prevalence of use of generics; (b) generics as a proportion of all medication; (c) users' perceptions of prices and quality; (d) users' knowledge of generics; and (e) strategies for acquisition of medicines. Prevalence of generics use increased from 3.6% (95%CI: 3.0-4.3) to 26.1% (95%CI: 24.5-27.7) in the 10-year period. Perceptions of prices and quality of generics remained stable, identification of characteristics that distinguish generics from other drugs improved (p < 0.001), and drug classification errors decreased (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in acquiring medication by replacing prescribed drugs with generics. Between 2002 and 2012 there was an increase in knowledge and use of generics, while perception of lower prices and equivalent quality remained high.


Resumen: Este estudio compara la percepción, conocimiento y uso de medicamentos genéricos en adultos de Pelotas, Río Grande do Sul, Brasil, a través de dos estudios transversales de base poblacional, realizados en 2002 y 2012. Los resultados estudiados fueron: (a) prevalencia de utilización de medicamentos genéricos; (b) proporción de uso de medicamentos genéricos entre los demás medicamentos; (c) percepción de los usuarios sobre el precio y calidad de los medicamentos genéricos; (d) conocimiento de los usuarios sobre medicamentos genéricos y (e) estrategias de adquisición de medicamentos. La prevalencia de uso de medicamentos genéricos aumentó de 3,6% (IC95%: 3,0-4,3) a 26,1% (IC95%: 24,5-27,7) en un período de 10 años. La percepción sobre el precio y calidad de los medicamentos genéricos se mantuvo estable, la identificación de las características que diferencian los medicamentos genéricos de los demás medicamentos mejoró (p < 0,001) y el error de clasificación de medicamentos disminuyó (p < 0,001). Hubo un aumento significativo en la estrategia de adquisición de medicamentos, a través de la sustitución del medicamento prescrito por el medicamento genérico. Entre 2002 y 2012 aumentó el conocimiento y uso de medicamentos genéricos, mientras que la percepción en lo referente al menor precio y calidad equivalente, se mantuvieron elevadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Perception , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Drug Substitution/trends , Drug Substitution/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interviews as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged
12.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(1): 44-50, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744722

ABSTRACT

Objectives: to compare the biological efficacy of generic enoxaparin (HeptronTM) versus branded Sanofi-Aventis enoxaparin for prophylaxis and treatment of lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a prospective, randomized, open-label study. Methods: patients with diagnosed lower-extremity DVT (therapeutic branch, n=57) and patients requiring venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis after arterial vascular surgery or major lower-extremity amputations (prophylactic branch, n=57) were randomized to receive generic or branded enoxaparin for up to seven days. Enoxaparin activity was measured by estimating blood anti-factor Xa levels at the peak plasma concentration. As secondary outcomes, development or progression of VTE events, major adverse events and major bleeding events were considered for efficacy and safety comparisons. Results: DVT therapy: twenty-five patients received generic enoxaparin while 32 received branded enoxaparin (subcutaneous, 1 mg/kg BID). Mean percentages of anti-factor Xa levels within the target ranges were 62 ± 35.4% and 67.5 ± 24.7%, respectively (p= .035 for non-inferiority). No patient presented DVT progression, clinically detectable pulmonary embolism, or major bleeding events in any subgroup. DVT prophylaxis: Thirty patients received generic enoxaparin and 27 received branded enoxaparin (subcutaneous, 40 mg/day). Mean percentages of anti-factor Xa levels within the target ranges were 77.9 ± 30.9% and 77.8 ± 32.9%, respectively (p = .009 for non-inferiority). There were no cases of VTE or major bleeding events in any subgroup. Conclusion: generic and branded enoxaparins exhibited similar in vivo responses as measured by the anti-factor Xa activity, as well as similar clinical efficacy and safety outcomes. .


Objetivos: comparar a eficácia biológica da enoxaparina genérica (HeptronTM) versus enoxaparina Sanofi-Aventis na profilaxia e no tratamento da trombose venosa profunda (TVP) de membros inferiores em ensaio prospectivo, randomizado e não cego. Método: pacientes com diagnóstico de TVP de membros inferiores (grupo terapêutico, n = 57) e pacientes com indicação de profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso (TEV), após cirurgias vasculares de grande porte ou amputações maiores (grupo profilático, n = 57), foram randomizados para receber a enoxaparina sob teste (HeptronTM) ou a droga padrão-ouro (Sanofi-Aventis). A atividade da enoxaparina foi mensurada pela análise diária da atividade antifator-Xa no pico de concentração plasmática das drogas. Foram coletados dados de ocorrência ou progressão de TVP/TEV, eventos adversos graves e sangramentos graves; e foram utilizados para a análise de eficácia e segurança clínica como objetivos secundários. Resultados: grupo terapêutico: 25 pacientes receberam enoxaparina genérica, e 32, a droga padrão-ouro (via subcutânea, 1 mg/kg, a cada 12 horas). Os percentuais médios de atividade antifator-Xa dentro dos limites terapêuticos foram de 62 ± 35,4% e 67,5 ± 24,7%, respectivamente (p = 0,035, para não inferioridade). Nenhum paciente apresentou progressão da TVP, embolia pulmonar clinicamente detectável ou sangramentos maiores. Grupo profilático: trinta pacientes receberam enoxaparina genérica, e 27, a droga padrão-ouro (via subcutânea, 40 mg/dia). Os percentuais médios de atividade antifator-Xa dentro dos limites terapêuticos foram de 77,9 ± 30.9% e 77,8 ± 32,9%, respectivamente (p = 0,009, para não inferioridade). Nenhum paciente desenvolveu TVP ou apresentou sangramentos maiores. Conclusão: enoxaparinas genéricas e de marca apresentaram respostas semelhantes em estudos in vivo, quando medidas pela atividade do anti-fator Xa, assim como eficácia clínica e dados de segurança similares. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
13.
Rev. bras. cardiol. (Impr.) ; 27(5): 333-341, set.-out. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742404

ABSTRACT

Fundamentos: Indicadores são ferramentas úteis para se conhecer o perfil da prescrição. Objetivo: Analisar os indicadores de prescrição medicamentosa recomendados pela Organização Mundial da Saúde em prescrições de pacientes idosos internados em enfermaria de cardiologia do sistema público de saúde. Métodos: Estudo exploratório-descritivo de abordagem qualitativa através da análise de 1382 prescrições, durante o período de internação, de 223 pacientes idosos admitidos na enfermaria da cardiologia clínica de um hospital de ensino. Resultados: A média de medicamentos por prescrição foi 11,66. Foram prescritos 16 117 medicamentos: 72,69% prescritos pelo nome genérico; 99,39% padronizados pela instituição; 2,86% antimicrobianos; 41,87% injetáveis e 4,39% medicamentos psicotrópicos. Os medicamentos mais prescritos foram: dipirona sódica (7,84%), omeprazol (4,80%) e maleato de enalapril (4,78%). No primeiro nível da classificação do Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical, as classes mais utilizadas foram: sistema cardiovascular (35,18%), trato gastrintestinal (23,42%), sangue e órgãos hematopoiéticos (17,81%). No segundo nível, as classes predominantes foram: antitrombóticos (17,61%),analgésicos (9,30%) e antieméticos (8,20%). Conclusões: Nas prescrições analisadas, o consumo médio de medicamentos foi alto, justificado pela complexidade, idade e doenças concomitantes dos pacientes; parte dos medicamentos foi prescrita pelo nome comercial, contrariando a legislação vigente para o serviço público. Para uma utilização de medicamentos mais racional e segura em idosos no serviço de cardiologia, conclui-se que há necessidade de se estabelecerem padrões mínimos para os indicadores de prescrição referentes ao número de medicamentos, injetáveis, antimicrobianos e psicotrópicos, de acordo com a complexidade do âmbito hospitalar na faixa etária estudada.


Background: Indicators are useful tools for examining drug prescription profiles. Objective: To analyze drug prescription indicators recommended by the World Health Organization in prescriptions for elderly patients in a cardiology ward under Brazil’s Unified National Health System (SUS). Methods: This exploratory descriptive study uses a qualitative approach through analyzing 1,382 prescriptions issued during the hospitalization of 223 elderly patients in the clinical cardiology Ward of a teaching hospital. Results: The average number of drugs per prescription was 11.66, with a total of 16,117 medications prescribed: 72.69% prescribed by their generic names; 99.39% listed as approved by the institution; 2.86% antimicrobials; 41.87% injectables; and 4.39% psychotropics. The medications most frequently prescribed were dipyrone (7.84%), omeprazole (4.80%)and enalapril maleate (4.78%). At the first ATC classification level, the classes most used were: cardiovascular system (35.18%), gastrointestinal tract(23.42%); and blood or blood-forming organs (17.81%). At the second level, the predominant classes were: antithrombotics (17.61%), analgesics (9.30%) and antiemetics (8.20%). Conclusions: In the prescriptions analyzed, average drug consumption was high, justified by thecomplexity, age and concomitant diseases of the patients, with some medications prescribed by brandname, breaching Brazilian National Health System law. This leads to the conclusion that, in order to ensure safer and more rational use of medications for elderly patients in cardiology units, minimum indicator standards must be established for the number of injectable, antimicrobial and psychotropic drugs prescribed, tailored to the complexity of the hospital environment for the age bracket addressed by this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Drug Prescriptions , Hospitals, Teaching , Unified Health System , World Health Organization , Tertiary Healthcare/methods , Cardiology , Health Services , Hospital Units , Indicators and Reagents , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Therapeutics
14.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-737692

ABSTRACT

A sinvastatina, pertencente à classe das estatinas, é um importante fármaco redutor do colesterol e é encontrada comercialmente como medicamentos referência, genéricos e similares em diferentes dosagens, sendo a de 10 mg a mais comum. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a qualidade e a equivalência entre comprimidos de sinvastatina 10 mg comercializados no mercado brasileiro. Foram selecionados dois medicamentos similares, um genérico e referência. Os ensaios de controle de qualidade aplicados foram: determinação do peso médio, dureza, friabilidade, desintegração, teor de princípio ativo, uniformidade de conteúdo e dissolução in vitro. Para tanto, foi necessário desenvolvimento e validação de metodologia por espectrofotometria na região do ultravioleta (UV). As formulações apresentaram-se dentro dos limites preconizados para todas as análises. No entanto, quando analisou-se estatisticamente os perfis de dissolução, verificou-se a não equivalência entre os medicamentos similares e o de referência. Porém, através dos resultados obtidos, podemos evidenciar a equivalência entre o genérico e o de referência, sugerindo sua intercambialidade...


Simvastatin, a well-known medicine of the statin class, is used therapeutically for the reduction of cholesterol and is commercially available in reference, similar and generic forms, in various doses, the tablet of 10 mg being the commonest in prescriptions. The purpose of this study was to test the quality and the pharmaceutical equivalence of tablets containing 10 mg of simvastatin available on the Brazilian market. One generic, one reference and two similar dosage forms were selected. The quality-control variables used were: weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration, content of the active principle, content uniformity and dissolution in vitro. A UV-spectrophotometric method was developed and validated. All formulations were approved in the quality analysis. By using mathematical and statistical models, it was observed that the dissolution profiles of the similar dosage forms were not equivalent to that of the reference. On the other hand, when the generic medicine was compared with the reference, their interchangeability was confirmed...


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Simvastatin/administration & dosage , Simvastatin/pharmacokinetics , Tablets , Therapeutic Equivalency
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 12(3): 267-273, Jul-Sep/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723915

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Results Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. Conclusion For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners. .


Objetivo Avaliar nível de conhecimento, percepções e perfil de utilização dos medicamentos genéricos entre leigos. Métodos Realizou-se um estudo transversal com 278 voluntários (180 mulheres e 98 homens, com idade de 37,1±15,8 anos). Criou-se um questionário com perguntas em relação à utilização, à percepção e ao conhecimento sobre genéricos. Resultados A maioria dos entrevistados (99,6%) conhecia a existência dos genéricos, e apenas 48,6% souberam definir corretamente o que os mesmos são. Do total de entrevistados, 78,8% tiveram algum tipo de informação com relação aos genéricos. Essas informações foram obtidas, principalmente, por meio da televisão (49,3%). Com relação às características dos medicamentos genéricos, 79,1% afirmaram ter confiança em sua eficácia, 74,8% acreditavam que o medicamento genérico possuía um efeito igual ao do medicamento de marca, 88,8% informaram que o genérico possuía um preço menor que o medicamento de marca, e 80,2% afirmaram comprar o medicamento genérico por conta do preço. Quanto à prescrição de medicamentos por parte dos profissionais médicos, 17,6% dos participantes afirmaram que seu médico nunca prescreveu medicamentos genéricos e apenas 7,5% disseram que seus médicos sempre prescreviam genéricos. Conclusão Para um público leigo, a amostra estudada apresentou suficiente conhecimento com relação aos genéricos, no que concerne à definição, eficácia e custo. Dessa forma, os voluntários entrevistados apresentaram elevada propensão à utilização de genéricos. Adicionalmente, os resultados deste estudo demonstraram que se faz necessário implantar programas para ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Perception , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Jul-Sep; 51(3): 366-368
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154421

ABSTRACT

Treatment of cancer is limited by affordability of patients in the many developing countries including India. Generic drug manufacturers have responded to this scenario by making drugs available at affordable costs, often at less than 10% the cost of the original brand. In our practice, it is found that there is a three-fold higher prescription of generic brands compared to innovator, accompanied by cost savings of up to 80% per prescription. Unfortunately, the regulatory environment prevailing in India is not geared to ensure satisfactory quality of generic products. The standards set by the regulatory agencies for establishing equivalence of generics vis-ΰ-vis the innovator product allow anticancer generics to enter markets without undergoing clinical evaluation. Many drug manufacturing units in India flout good manufacturing practice norms, which was evident during the center for drug evaluation and research classifications inspection in the year 2006. Inferior drugs have therefore, made their way into the Indian markets, compromising the quality of care. The system of drug manufacturing and marketing approval needs a major overhaul, including regular inspection of manufacturing facilities. Bioequivalence should be made mandatory for all oral formulations. Unless these measures are rigidly implemented, the benefits of generic substitution would be seriously undermined.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Therapeutic Equivalency
17.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 148-155, abr. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712431

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones hospitalarias son una amenaza para la salud pública. A pesar de los esfuerzos para contenerlas, su incidencia sigue siendo grande y genera altos costos en la atención en salud. Objetivo. Determinar los factores asociados a mortalidad en pacientes con diagnóstico de infecciones hospitalarias en nuestra institución. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio prospectivo de cohortes entre enero y diciembre del 2011 por medio de la observación de 1.015 pacientes con diagnóstico de infección de acuerdo a los criterios del sistema de vigilancia hospitalaria sugeridos por los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Se excluyó a quienes no tenían cultivo microbiológico de la infección o habían tenido reingresos hospitalarios en menos de un año. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, perfiles de resistencia microbiológica y uso de antibióticos. La variable de desenlace fue la muerte. Se realizó un análisis de supervivencia para cada variable, estableciendo significación estadística con la prueba de log-rank , así como un análisis multivariado mediante regresión de Cox. Se consideraron significativos los valores de p menores de 0,05. Resultados. El promedio de edad fue de 43 años (57 % hombres y 43 % mujeres); 53 % de los pacientes tuvo diagnóstico clínico y 47 %, quirúrgico; 54 % de las infecciones se presentó en la herida quirúrgica y 62 % de ellas se asociaron a microorganismos Gram negativos. La mortalidad durante el seguimiento fue de 24,4 %. En el análisis multivariado se encontró asociación con mortalidad para las variables de estancia en cuidado intensivo ( hazard ratio (HR)=1,51; IC 95% 1,13-2,01), uso inapropiado de antibióticos (HR=3,05; IC 95% 2,34-3,98) y uso de antibiótico genérico o copia (HR=1,91; IC IC 95% 1,43-2,55). Conclusiones. El empleo de moléculas genéricas y el uso inadecuado de antibióticos en pacientes con infecciones hospitalarias son factores que pueden modificarse para disminuir la mortalidad.


Introduction: Nosocomial infections are a public health threat. Despite multiple efforts, its incidence is still significant and it generates high costs in health care. Objective: To determine risk factors associated with mortality in patients with healthcare infections in a tertiary level hospital in Colombia. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort observational study was performed between January and December 2011. One thousand one hundred and fifteen patients with health care infections using the CDC definition criteria were included. Exclusion criteria were those patients with no microbiologic isolate associated with the infection or hospital readmissions in the last year. Socio-demographic and clinical variables, bacterial resistance profiles and antibiotic use were evaluated. Death was the primary outcome. Survival analysis for each variable was performed using statistical significance defined by the log-rank test. Multivariate and Cox regression analyses were done. Values of p less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Mean age was 43 years old (57% men and 47% women); 53% of patients had a medical condition and 47% surgical diagnosis; 54% of health care infections were surgical site infections and 62% were associated to Gram-negative bacilli. The mortality rate during follow-up was 24.4%. On multivariate analysis we found an association with intensive care stay (HR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.13-2.01), inappropriate use of antibiotics (HR=3.05; 95% CI: 2.34-3.98) and use of generic antibiotics or copies (HR=1.91; 95%CI: 1.43-2.55). Conclusions: The use of generic molecules of antibiotics and inappropriate antibiotic treatments in patients with health care infections are modifiable factors to decrease mortality.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cross Infection/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Colombia/epidemiology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/mortality , Inappropriate Prescribing , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 110(4): 285-290, ago. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-657460

ABSTRACT

Introduction.There is clinical evidence suggesting that original salbutamol is more effective than a similar salbutamol product to revert symptoms in acute asthma exacerbation.. Objective. To evaluate the bronchodilator response of both salbutamol medicinal products in children with asthma and to establish, based on the forced expiratory volume, if there is a difference between the group treated with the original salbutamol and the group treated with similar salbutamol. Design. Prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Material and Methods. One hundred and twenty six children (63 boys, age 9.18 ± 2.83 years old) were included. They were administered a dose of 20 drops (5 mg) of the original salbutamol or similar salbutamol product in nebulizing solution diluted only once in 2 ml saline solution. Preand post-bronchodilator, intra- and inter-group forced expiratory volume was compared at baseline and at 30 minutes. The weight of salbutamol drops was determined by gravimetry, the concentration by chromatography and the number of drops by bottle. Results. The bronchodilator response between the pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume was 225 ml (95% CI: 164-286) and 224 ml (95% CI: 163-284) for original salbutamol and similar salbutamol, respectively (p < 0.001). The Delta difference was 1.3 ml (95% CI: -86+83) (p = 0.97). The mean, standard deviation and variation coefficient percentage of the weight of the drop was 364.75 mg (± 6.01, 1.65) and 543.88 mg (± 56.09, 10.31) (p < 0.001) for original salbutamol and similar salbutamol, respectively. Conclusion. There were no differences in the bronchodilator response measured by FEV1 between the original salbutamol and a similar salbutamol product.


Introducción. Existe evidencia clínica que sugiere que el salbutamol original sería más eficaz que el salbutamol similar para revertir los síntomas en el episodio agudo de asma. Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta broncodilatadora de ambas especialidades farmacéuticas de salbutamol en niños con asma y establecer, mediante el volumen espiratorio forzado, si difiere entre los grupos tratados con salbutamol original y similar. Diseño. Estudio prospectivo, aleatorizado, controlado, a doble ciego. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron 126 niños (63 varones, edad 9,18 ± 2,83 años), que recibieron una dosis de 20 gotas (5 mg) de salbutamol original o similar en solución para nebulizar diluida en 2 ml de solución fisiológica por única vez. Se comparó el volumen espiratorio forzado prebroncodilatador y posbroncodilatador, intragrupos e intergrupos, al inicio y a los 30 minutos. Se determinó el peso de las gotas de salbutamol por gravimetría, la concentración por cromatografía y el número de gotas por envase. Resultados. La respuesta broncodilatadora entre el volumen espiratorio forzado prebroncodilatador y posbroncodilatador fue de 225 ml (IC 95%: 164-286) y 224 ml (IC 95%: 163-284) para salbutamol original y similar, respectivamente (p <0,001). El delta de la diferencia fue de 1,3 ml (IC 95%: -86+83) (p= 0,97). La media, desvío estándar y porcentaje del coeficiente de variación del peso de las gotas fue de 364,75 mg (± 6,01, 1,65) y 543,88 mg (± 56,09, 10,31) (p <0,001) para salbutamol original y similar, respectivamente. Conclusión. No hubo diferencias en la respuesta broncodilatadora medida por el VEF1 entre salbutamol original y similar.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Albuterol/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Albuterol/administration & dosage , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Drugs, Generic/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies
20.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 17(1): 79-87, jan. 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-610661

ABSTRACT

Embora os genéricos tenham sido introduzidos no país para oferecer alternativa mais acessível aos medicamentos de referência, representam apenas 14 por cento das vendas em unidades no conjunto do mercado farmacêutico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar o nível de conhecimento e o grau de utilização de genéricos em residentes do município de Tubarão, SC. Para isso, realizou-se um estudo transversal com uma amostra de 234 entrevistados, estratificada por bairro. Quanto ao grau de utilização, a maioria dos entrevistados já havia utilizado genéricos, e metade possuía pelo menos um exemplar dessa opção em casa. Para verificar o conhecimento sobre os diferentes tipos de medicamentos, realizou-se um teste de identificação de figuras de embalagens representativas das versões genérico, de referência e similar do paracetamol e do atenolol, 91,0 por cento dos sujeitos identificaram corretamente todas as figuras. Ser de classe econômica mais elevada, já ter utilizado medicamento genérico, acreditar que o genérico tem o mesmo efeito que o medicamento de referência, encontrar medicamentos genéricos nas farmácias com facilidade e costumar comprar o genérico foram fatores associados positivamente com a identificação correta.


Although generic medication has been introduced in the country to offer an accessible alternative to brand-name medication, it represents only 14 percent of sales in number of units within the pharmaceutical market. The aim of this work was to research the level of awareness and the use of generic products among residents of the municipality of Tubarão, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A transversal study was carried out with a sample of 234 interviewees, distributed among municipal areas. With regard to use, the majority of those interviewed had used generic medication, and half of them had at least one such product in their home. To verify awareness of different types of medication, pictures with the generic, brand name and similar packaging for paracetamol and atenolol were shown and 91 percent were able to identify all products correctly. To be of higher economic standing, already having used generic products, believing that the generic medication has the same effect as the brand name medication, finding generic products in drugstores easily and being accustomed to buy generic products, were factors that were positively associated with the correct identification.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Drugs, Generic/therapeutic use , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
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