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1.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 1114-1119, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012374

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological characteristics of occupational lung diseases, to reduce the missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses of the diseases and to help standardize the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Methods: A total of 4 813 lung biopsy specimens (including 1 935 consultation cases) collected at the Department of Pathology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China from January 1st, 2017 to December 31th, 2019 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 126 cases of occupational lung diseases were confirmed with clinical-radiological-pathological diagnosis. Special staining, PCR and scanning electron microscopy were also used to rule out the major differential diagnoses. Results: The 126 patients with occupational lung diseases included 102 males and 24 females. All of them had a history of exposure to occupational risk factor(s). Morphologically, 68.3% (86/126) of the cases mainly showed pulmonary fibrotic nodules, dust plaque formation or carbon end deposition in pulmonary parenchyma. 16.7% (21/126) of the cases mainly showed welding smoke particle deposition in the alveolar cavity and lung interstitium while 15.1% (19/126) of the cases showed granulomas with fibrous tissue hyperplasia, alveolar protein deposition or giant cell interstitial pneumonia. The qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of residual dust components in the lung under scanning electron microscope were helpful for the diagnosis of welder's pneumoconiosis and hard metal lung disease. Conclusions: The morphological characteristics of lung biopsy tissue are important reference basis for the clinicopathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of occupational lung diseases. Recognizing the characteristic morphology and proper use of auxiliary examination are the key to an accurate diagnosis of occupational lung diseases on biopsy specimens.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pneumoconiosis/pathology , Lung/pathology , Dust , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Biopsy
2.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 1152-1162, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010338

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#The phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway is one of the main signaling pathways related to autophagy. Autophagy plays a key role in the formation of silicosis fibrosis. The phenotypic transformation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is a hallmark of the transition from the inflammatory phase to the fibrotic phase in silicosis. This study aims to investigate whether the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway affects the phenotypic transformation of silicosis-induced lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts via mediating macrophage autophagy.@*METHODS@#The human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophages by treating with 100 ng/mL of phorbol ester for 24 h. Macrophages were exposed to different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) and different times (0, 6, 12, 24, 48 h) of SiO2 dust suspension. The survival rate of macrophages was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) method. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure the contents of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the cell supernatant. The co-culture system of macrophages and HFL-1 cells was established by transwell. A blank control group, a SiO2 group, a LY294002 group, a SC79 group, a LY294002+SiO2 group, and a SC79+SiO2 group were set up in this experiment. Macrophages in the LY294002+SiO2 group were pretreated with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) for 18 hours, and macrophages in the SC79+SiO2 group were pretreated with SC79 (Akt activator) for 24 hours, and then exposed to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust suspension for 12 hours. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) protein in macrophages was detected by the immunofluorescence method. The protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, Beclin-1, LC3 in macrophages, and collagen III (Col III), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), fibronectin (FN), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor-1 (TIMP-1) in HFL-1 cells were measured by Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#After the macrophages were exposed to SiO2 dust suspension of different concentrations for 12 h, the survival rates of macrophages were gradually decreased with the increase of SiO2 concentration. Compared with the 0 μg/mL group, the survival rates of macrophages in the 100, 200, and 400 μg/mL groups were significantly decreased, and the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were obviously increased (all P<0.05). When 100 μg/mL SiO2 dust suspension was applied to macrophages, the survival rates of macrophages were decreased with the prolonged exposure time. Compared with the 0 h group, the survival rates of macrophages were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), the concentrations of TGF-β1 and TNF-α in the cell supernatant were significantly increased, and the protein expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3II were increased markedly in the 6, 12, 24, and 48 h groups (all P<0.05). Immunofluorescence results demonstrated that after exposure to SiO2 (100 μg/mL) dust for 12 h, LC3 exhibited punctate aggregation and significantly higher fluorescence intensity compared to the blank control group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank control group, the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated in the SiO2 group (all P<0.05). Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were down-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were up-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were decreased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were down-regulated (all P<0.05) in the LY294002+SiO2 group. Compared with the SiO2 group, the protein expressions of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR were up-regulated and the protein expressions of LC3II and Beclin-1 were down-regulated in macrophages (all P<0.05), the contents of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the cell supernatant were increased (both P<0.01), and the protein expressions of Col III, FN, α-SMA, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 in HFL-1 cells were up-regulated (all P<0.05) in the SC79+SiO2 group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Silica dust exposure inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, increases autophagy and concentration of inflammatory factors in macrophages, and promotes the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts. The regulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway can affect the autophagy induction and the concentration of inflammatory factors of macrophages by silica dust exposure, and then affect the phenotype transformation of HFL-1 cells into myofibroblasts induced by silica dust exposure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Silicon Dioxide/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 , Sirolimus , Beclin-1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Dust , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Silicosis/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Autophagy
3.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 536-540, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986065

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of pneumoconiosis deaths in Putuo District of Shanghai, and to provide evidence for prevention and management of pneumoconiosis in the future. Methods: In June 2021, the data of 263 patients with pneumoconiosis who died from January 1961 to December 2020 in Putuo District of Shanghai were retrospectively analyzed. Trend χ(2) test, analysis of variance and Spearman rank correlation methods were used to analyze the basic information, age of exposure to dust, promotion period, course of disease and direct cause of death of patients with pneumoconiosis. Results: Among the 263 cases of pneumoconiosis patients who died in Putuo District of Shanghai from 1961 to 2020, 260 cases (98.86%) were male. The main types of pneumoconiosis were foundry worker pneumoconiosis (53.23%, 140/263) and silicosis (43.73%, 115/263). The main types of pneumoconiosis were sand cleaner (36.50%, 96/263). The age of onset was (53.42±10.13) years old, the age of death was (76.14±9.12) years old, and the age of exposure to dust was (20.91±8.99) years. The duration of dust exposure was negatively correlated with the duration of disease (r(s)=-0.24, P<0.001). With the increase of pneumoconiosis stage, the mortality of silicosis and foundry worker pneumoconiosis also showed an increasing trend (χ(2)(trend)=4.22, 3.87, P=0.040, 0.049). 31.94% (84/263) of pneumoconiosis patients died directly from pneumoconiosis, ranking first among the direct causes of death. Conclusion: The death cases of pneumoconiosis in Putuo District of Shanghai are mainly foundry worker pneumoconiosis and silicosis, and pneumoconiosis is the main cause of death.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Female , Retrospective Studies , China/epidemiology , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis/epidemiology , Dust
4.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 533-535, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986064

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical diagnostic characteristics of pneumoconiosis patients of migrant workers in Hunan Province, and to provide scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of pneumoconiosis. Methods: In February 2022, through the Hunan Provincial Medical Treatment and Assistance Information Platform for Pneumoconiosis Migrant Workers, the cases of irresponsible subjects with pneumoconiosis that were first diagnosed clinically in Hunan Province from January 2017 to December 2021 were collected, and analyzed their gender, age, length of service, types of pneumoconiosis, stages of pneumoconiosis, and comorbidities. Results: From January 2017 to December 2021, there were a total of 26131 cases of irresponsible pneumoconiosis patients diagnosed clinically in Hunan Province, with males accounting for 99.8% (26072 cases) and an average age of (60.66±8.04) years old. Among the 26131 patients, coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis were the main causes, with 16816 and 9078 cases respectively, accounting for 99.1% of the diagnosed cases. There were 8640 cases (33.1%) of stageⅠpneumoconiosis, 6601 cases (25.2%) of stage Ⅱ pneumoconiosis, and 10890 cases (41.7%) of stage Ⅲ pneumoconiosis. 2051 patients experienced complications. The average age of exposure to dust of 26131 patients was (17.81±9.69) years, and the age of exposure to dust in silicosis patients was (14.60±9.62) years. The working age of coal worker's pneumoconiosis was (19.60±9.26) years. Compared with coal workers' pneumoconiosis patients, silicosis patients had a shorter working time exposed to dust, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Coal workers' pneumoconiosis and silicosis are mainly diagnosed for the first time in migrant workers' pneumoconiosis patients in Hunan Province. Pneumoconiosis patients should be diagnosed in time, which is conducive to treatment and rehabilitation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Child, Preschool , Coal Mining , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Silicosis , Anthracosis/epidemiology , Dust , Coal , China/epidemiology
5.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 439-442, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986046

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate and understand the medical security and quality of life of migrant workers with pneumoconiosis, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control countermeasures of migrant workers with pneumoconiosis and targeted poverty alleviation. Methods: Using a stratified random sampling method, 200 migrant workers diagnosed with pneumoconiosis at the Shandong Academy of Occupational Health and Occupational Medicine from January 2016 to December 2021 were selected as the observation group, while 200 non migrant workers diagnosed with pneumoconiosis were selected as the control group. St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Pneumoconiosis Questionnaire were used to collect and compare information on the age, working age of dust exposure, economic sources, employment status, income, medical security and quality of life of two groups of patients. Results: The age of migrant worker pneumoconiosis patients in the observation group was (58.1±8.1) years old, and the working age of dust exposure was (19.3±10.1) years. The main source of income was children support (85.5%, 171/200), employment status was mainly wait for employment or unemployed (69.0%, 138/200), personal monthly income was mainly non income (90.0%, 180/200), and family annual income was mainly less than 10000 yuan (48.0%, 96/200). The average personal annual medical expenditure of 5000-<10000 yuan accounted for 42.0% (84/200). The age of pneumoconiosis patients in the control group was (59.2±8.9) years old, and the working age of dust exposure was (20.2±10.5) years. The main source of income was retirement pension or salary (99.0%, 198/200), with retirement as the main employment status (66.0%, 132/200), the main personal monthly income was 2000-<4000 yuan (61.5%, 123/200), the main family annual income was 20000-<40000 yuan (44.0%, 88/200), and the average personal annual medical expenditure was mostly non-expenditure (92.0%, 184/200). There were statistically significant differences in the distribution of economic sources, employment status, personal monthly income, family annual income and average personal annual medical expenditure between the two groups (P<0.001). The main type of insurance for the observation group was rural cooperative medical care (68.5%, 137/200), and 87.0% (174/200) had no medical reimbursement and a proportion less than 50%. There were statistically significant differences in insurance type and medical reimbursement proportion between the two groups (P<0.001). The respiratory symptoms, activity ability, daily life influence and total quality of life scores of pneumoconiosis patients in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.001) . Conclusion: Migrant workers with pneumoconiosis have low income, high medical expenditure, low medical reimbursement proportion and poor quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to draw high attention from relevant departments and provide timely attention and assistance to improve the quality of life of migrant workers with pneumoconiosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Quality of Life , Pneumoconiosis , Income , Employment , Dust , China
6.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 317-320, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986038

ABSTRACT

Occupational disease hazards in plywood manufacturing mainly include wood dust, formaldehyde, phenol, ammonia, noise, terpene, microorganisms, etc. The exposure is complex with multiple factors accompanied or coexisted. In the production process, these factors are exceeded, and mass occupational disease hazard events occurred among workers. Exposure to wood dust, formaldehyde, terpene, etc., put workers at increased risk of cancer. This article provides a review of this issue in order to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational disease hazards in plywood manufacturing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Wood/chemistry , Occupational Diseases/chemically induced , Formaldehyde/adverse effects , Terpenes , Dust , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects
7.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 247-254, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986023

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the composition of bacteria in lower respiratory tract of patients with pneumoconiosis and dust exposure, and to compare and analyze the difference and correlation between them. Methods: From May 2020 to January 2021, a prospective multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted to select patients with pneumoconiosis who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage treatment at the Respiratory and Critical Care Medical Department of the 920th Hospital of the Joint Support Force and the Respiratory Department of Tongren Hospital in Kunming, as well as the population of dust recipients. A total of 24 patients with pneumoconiosis (pneumoconiosis group) were included, and 16 dust exposed individuals (dust exposed group) were used as controls. Two groups of patients' alveolar lavage fluid were collected. The 16SrRNA gene V3-V4 sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis platform were used to measure and analyze the differences in microbial structure composition and associations between bacterial communities. Results: Compared with the dust exposed group, the top 5 bacterial phyla in the alveolar lavage fluid level of patients with pneumoconiosis were the same, followed by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Compared with the dust exposure group, the pneumoconiosis group patients belong to the top 5 genera of horizontal flora abundance, which are different. The dust exposure group is respectively: Pseudomonas, Proctor, Streptococcus, Achromobacter, and Neisseria. The pneumoconiosis group is respectively: Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Streptococcus, Ralstonia, and Proctor. The Alpha diversity analysis results showed that compared with the dust exposed group, the level of bacterial diversity in the pneumoconiosis group was difference (P<0.05), and there was no statistically significant difference in bacterial evenness (P>0.05) ; Beta diversity showed differences in microbial community structure between the two groups (P<0.05 ). Single factor microbial association network analysis showed that there was a high correlation between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the pneumoconiosis and dust exposed groups and other species, showing a positive correlation; The correlation between Proteobacteria and other species is high, showing a negative correlation. Conclusion: The structure and relative abundance of bacteria in lower respiratory tract were different between patients with pneumoconiosis and dust exposure, and the diversity of bacteria in lower respiratory tract increased in patients with pneumoconiosis, which may be related to disease status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Pneumoconiosis , Bacteria/genetics , Dust , Respiratory System
8.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 344-349, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986010

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the exposure level of dust and noise in the mining industry and provide data support for revising policy for the prevention and control of occupational diseases. Methods: In May 2022, Data was collected through the National Surveillance Program for Occupational Hazards in the Workplace. Descriptive analysis was conducted for dust and noise levels by industry type and enterprise size from 7, 679 enterprises in the mining industry among 29 provincial regions nationwide. Results: The enterprises in the mining industry included in the National Surveillance Program for Occupational Hazards in the Workplace are mainly small and micro, accounting for 47.97% (3684/7679) and 30.00% (230/7679) respectively. The industry is mainly compred of employers in the non-metallic ming and beneficiation industry, accounting for 50.25% (3859/7679). Among the enterprises with silica dust, coal dust, and noise hazards, the proportion of enterprises where total dust concentration and noise intensity exceed the standard is higher than 50%. 30% of the posts are with an exposure level of silica dust, coal dust, and noise that exceeds the standard. The exceedance rate and the median of the time-weighted average concentration of total coal dust among large and medium-sized enterprises are higher than those among small and micro-sized enterprises (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The dust and noise hazards in the mining industry are lower than in the past in China, but more than 25% of workers are still at a high risk of occupational pneumoconiosis and noise deafness. Therefore, intervention and surveillance strategies should be strengthened in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dust/analysis , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Occupational Health , Coal , Silicon Dioxide/analysis , Coal Mining
9.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 727-734, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985554

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the performance of pulmonary function tests in people aged ≥40 years and its changes in China, and provide evidence for the evaluation of the effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevention and control in China. Methods: The subjects of the survey were from COPD surveillance during 2014-2015 and during 2019-2020, which covered 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China. The survey used multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, the trained investigators conducted face-to-face interview to know whether subjects had previous pulmonary function testing or not. Complex sampling weighting was used to estimate the rate of pulmonary function testing in people aged ≥40 years, and the pulmonary function testing rates of the two COPD surveillance periods were compared. Results: A total of 148 427 persons were included in the analysis, including 74 591 persons during 2014-2015 and 73 836 persons during 2019-2020. In 2019-2020, the pulmonary function testing rate in Chinese residents aged ≥40 years was 6.7% (95%CI: 5.2%-8.2%), the rate in men (8.1%, 95%CI: 6.7%-9.6%) was higher than that in women (5.4%, 95%CI: 3.7%- 7.0%), and the rate in urban residents (8.3%, 95%CI: 6.1%-10.5%) was higher than that in rural residents (4.4%, 95%CI: 3.8%-5.1%). The rate of pulmonary function testing increased with the increase of education level. During 2019-2020, the residents with history of chronic respiratory diseases had the highest rate of pulmonary function testing (21.2%, 95%CI: 16.8%-25.7%), followed by the residents with respiratory symptoms (15.1%, 95%CI: 11.8%-18.4%) , the pulmonary function testing rate in those who knew the name of chronic respiratory disease was higher than that in those who did not knew the name of respiratory disease, and the pulmonary function testing rate in former smokers was higher than that in current smokers and non-smokers. Those exposed to occupational dust and/or harmful gases had a higher rate of pulmonary function testing compared with those who were not exposed, and those who used polluted fuels indoors had a lower rate of pulmonary function testing than those who did not use polluted fuels indoors (all P<0.05). Compared with 2014-2015, the pulmonary function testing rate in residents aged ≥40 years in China increased by 1.9 percentage points during 2019-2020, and the rate of pulmonary function testing in groups with different characteristics all increased, and the rates of pulmonary function testing increased by 7.4 percentage points and 7.1 percentage points in residents with respiratory symptoms and in those with history of chronic respiratory diseases (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Compared with 2014-2015, the rate of pulmonary function testing increased in China during 2019-2020 and the increase in residents with history of chronic respiratory diseases and respiratory symptoms was relatively obvious, but the overall pulmonary function testing rate was still at a low level. Effective measures should be taken to further increase the rate of pulmonary function testing.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adult , Asian People , China , Dust , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiratory Function Tests
10.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 732-740, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Currently, a significant number of miners are involved in mining operations at the Gejiu tin mine in Yunnan. This occupational setting is associated with exposure to dust particles, heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and radioactive radon, thereby significantly elevating the risk of lung cancer. This study aims to investigate the involvement of leptin-mediated extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in the malignant transformation of rat alveolar type II epithelial cells induced by Yunnan tin mine dust.@*METHODS@#Immortalized rat alveolar cells type II (RLE-6TN) cells were infected with Yunnan tin mine dust at a concentration of 200 μg/mL for nine consecutive generations to establish the infected cell model, which was named R₂₀₀ cells. The cells were cultured normally, named as R cells. The expression of leptin receptor in both cell groups was detected using the Western blot method. The optimal concentration of leptin and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor (U0126) on R₂₀₀ cells was determined using the MTT method. Starting from the 20th generation, the cells in the R group were co-cultured with leptin, while the cells in the R₂₀₀ group were co-cultured with the MEK inhibitor U0126. The morphological alterations of the cells in each group were visualized utilizing hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, concanavalin A (ConA) was utilized to detect any morphological differences, and an anchorage-independent growth assay was conducted to assess the malignant transformation of the cells. The changes in the ERK signaling pathway in epithelial cells after the action of leptin were detected using the Western blot method.@*RESULTS@#Both the cells in the R group and R₂₀₀ group express leptin receptor OB-R. Compared to the R₂₀₀ group, the concentration of leptin at 100 ng/mL shows the most significant pro-proliferation effect. The proliferation of R₂₀₀ cells infected with the virus is inhibited by 30 μmol/L U0126, and a statistically significant divergence was seen when compared to the control group (P<0.05). Starting from the 25th generation, the cell morphology of the leptin-induced R₂₀₀ group (R₂₀₀L group) underwent changes, leading to malignant transformation observed at the 30th generation. The characteristics of malignant transformation became evident by the 40th generation in the R₂₀₀L group. In contrast, the other groups showed agglutination of P40 cells, and the speed of cell aggregation increased with an increase in ConA concentration. Notably, the R₂₀₀L group exhibited faster cell aggregation compared to the U0126-induced R₂₀₀ (R₂₀₀LU) group. Additionally, the cells in the R₂₀₀L group were capable of forming clones starting from P30, with a colony formation rate of 2.25‰±0.5‰. However, no clonal colonies were observed in the R₂₀₀LU group and R₂₀₀ group. The expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) was enhanced in cells of the R₂₀₀L group. However, when the cells in the R₂₀₀L group were treated with U0126, a blocking agent, the phosphorylation level of pERK decreased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Leptin can promote the malignant transformation of lung epithelial cells infected by mine dust, and the ERK signaling pathway may be necessary for the transformation of alveolar type II epithelial cells induced by Yunnan tin mine dust.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Dust , Tin/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Leptin/adverse effects , Receptors, Leptin , China , Signal Transduction , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases/adverse effects
11.
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 428-441, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982762

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of nasal provocation test(NPT) in evaluating the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy(AIT) in patients with dust mite induced allergic rhinitis(AR). Methods:A total of 83 patients with dust mite induced AR with/without asthma were included. Symptom score(SS), daily medication score(DMS), combined symptom and medication score(CSMS), rhinoconjunctivitis quality of life questionnaire(RQLQ), NPT and skin prick test(SPT) were assessed before and after 1 year AIT. Results:There were statistical differences in SS(P<0.000 1), DMS(P<0.000 1), CSMS(P<0.000 1), and RQLQ(P<0.000 1) after 1 year of AIT compared with pre-treatment. The effective rate of CSMS was 73.49%, and the effective rate of NPT was 42.17%. CSMS was consistent with NPT in efficacy assessment(Kappa=0.437, P<0.001); while in 54 patients with pre-treatment NPT concentrations other than the original concentration, CMSM and NPT showed better consistence(Kappa=0.895, P<0.001). Among the 48 patients with ineffective NPT assessment in the first year, 25 patients completed the second-year follow-up, and 12 patients(48.00%) showed effective in NPT. However, 10 out of 12 patients(83.33%) with NPT concentration other than original solution pre-treatment showed effective NPT at the second year. Conclusion:NPT can be used as one of the indicators for efficacy evaluation for dust mite induced AR patients, especially for patients with positive NPT induced at lower concentrations before treatment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Pyroglyphidae , Allergens , Nasal Provocation Tests , Quality of Life , Rhinitis, Allergic/therapy , Desensitization, Immunologic , Skin Tests , Dust
12.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 132-135, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970726

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics of stage Ⅰ occupational cement pneumoconiosis patients. Methods: In October 2021, the data of patients with occupational cement pneumoconiosis diagnosed by the Third Hospital of Peking University from 2014 to 2020 were collected, and the data of the patients' initial exposure age, dust exposure duration, diagnosis age, incubation period, chest X-ray findings, lung function and other data were analyzed retrospectively. Spearman grade correlation was used for correlation analysis of grade count data. The influencing factors of lung function were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Results: A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. There were 80 male patients and 27 female patients. The inital exposure age was (26.2±7.7) years, the diagnosis age was (59.4±7.9) years, the dust exposure duration was (17.9±8.0) years, and the incubation period was (33.1±10.3) years. The initial dust exposure age and the dust exposure duration in female patients were less than those in men, and the incubation period was longer than that in men (P<0.05). The imaging analysis showed the small opacities as"pp"accounted for 54.2%. 82 patients (76.6%) had small opacities distributed in two lung areas. The lung areas distribution of small opacities in female patients was less than that in male patients (2.04±0.19 vs 2.41±0.69, P<0.001). There were 57 cases of normal pulmonary function, 41 cases of mild abnormality and 9 cases of moderate abnormality. The number of lung regions with small opacities on X-ray was the risk factor for abnormal lung function in cement pneumoconiosis patients (OR=2.491, 95%CI=1.197-5.183, P=0.015) . Conclusion: The patients with occupational cement pneumoconiosis had long dust exposure duration and incubation period, light imaging changes and pulmonary function damage. The abnormal lung function was related to the range of pulmonary involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Pneumoconiosis , Dust , Hospitals , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
13.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 123-125, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970723

ABSTRACT

Objective: In order to understand the dust concentration in the workplace of dust exposure enterprises in Shenxian. To evaluate the degree of occupational hazard factors of dust exposure enterprises. And provide basis for the formulation of occupational protection standards and management system of dust exposure enterprises. Methods: In February 2022, the dust concentration monitoring data of 89 dust exposure enterprises from 2017 to 2020 by the Shenxian Center for Disease Control and Prevention were collected, and the qualified rates of dust concentration detection of dust exposure enterprises in different years, dust types and enterprise sizes were analyzed. Results: A total of 89 dust enterprises were monitored from 2017 to 2020, 2132 dust samples were collected, and 1818 qualified samples were taken, with a total qualified rate of 85.3%. From 2017 to 2020, the dust detection qualified rates showed a year-by-year increase trend, 78.7% (447/568), 84.1% (471/560), 88.6% (418/472) and 90.6% (482/532), respectively, with statistically significant differences (χ(2)=36.27, P=0.003). The differences in the qualified rates of dust detection samples of silicon dust (66.1%, 41/62), grain dust (86.7%, 1549/1786), cotton dust (84.1%, 106/126) and wood dust (77.2%, 122/158) were statistically significant (χ(2)=29.66, P=0.002). The qualified rate of dust samples in large and medium-sized enterprises (95.1%, 1194/1256) was higher than that of small-sized enterprises (71.2%, 624/876), and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=1584.40, P=0.001) . Conclusion: The qualified rate of dust concentration monitoring results of dust exposure enterprises in Shenxian showed an increase trend year by year, while the pualified rate of dust concentration monitoring in small-sized enterprises was low, and the occupational hazard of silica dust was still severe.


Subject(s)
Dust , Silicon , Wood , Workplace
14.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 66-71, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970715

ABSTRACT

Welding operations are widely present in the manufacturing production process, involving a large number of occupational groups, and are the key occupations where work injuries and occupational diseases occur in China. For different welding processes and welding materials, the content and focus of occupational health monitoring are different. At present, the item of occupational health examination in welding operation is in poor consistency with the on-site exposure of occupational hazard factors, and it is mainly concentrated in the stage of disease development, which can not reflect the early health damage caused by welding dust exposure in time. The emergence of biomarkers of welding dust can make up for this defect. Therefore, it is of great significance to describe the current situation of occupational health monitoring of welding dust and summarize the research progress of related biomarkers for the early prevention of diseases caused by welding dust and the practice of occupational health monitoring.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Welding , Occupational Exposure/analysis , Dust/analysis , Biomarkers , Air Pollutants, Occupational/analysis
15.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 31-35, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970706

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the influencing factors of abnormal pulmonary function in dust-exposed workers and establish the risk prediction model of abnormal pulmonary function. Methods: In April 2021, a total of 4255 dust exposed workers from 47 enterprises in 2020 were included in the study. logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of abnormal pulmonary function in dust-exposed workers, and the corresponding nomogram prediction model was established. The model was evaluated by ROC curve, Calibrationpolt and decision analysis curve. Results: logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=1.03, 95%CI=1.02~1.05, P<0.001) , physical examination type (OR=4.52, 95%CI=1.69~12.10, P=0.003) , dust type (Comparison with coal dust, Cement dust, OR=3.45, 95%CI=1.45~8.18, P=0.005, Silica dust (OR=2.25, 95%CI=1.01~5.03, P=0.049) , blood pressure (OR=1.63, 95%CI=1.22~2.18, P=0.001) , creatinine (OR=0.08, 95%CI=0.05~0.12, P<0.001) , daily exposure time (OR=1.06, 95%CI=1.10~1.12, P=0.034) and total dust concentration (OR=1.29, 95%CI=1.08~1.54, P=0.005) were the influencing factors of abnormal pulmonary function. The area under the ROC curve of risk prediction nomogram model was 0.764. The results of decision analysis curve showed that the nomogram model had reference value in the prevention and intervention of abnormal pulmonary function when the threshold probability exceeded 0.05. Conclusion: The accuracy ofthe nomogram model constructed by logistic regression werewell in predicting the risk of abnormal lung function of dust-exposed workers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dust/analysis , Lung , Nomograms , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
16.
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 21-30, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970705

ABSTRACT

Objective: Differential flora and differential metabolites shared by the intestinal and respiratory tracts of rats were screened to analyze the possible role of changes in intestinal flora and metabolites in the progression of pneumoconiosis in rats. Methods: In April 2020, 18 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (control group, coal mine dust group and silica group, 6 in each group) , rats in the coal mine dust group and silica group were perfused with 1 ml of 50 mg/ml coal mine well dust suspension and silica suspension by nontracheal exposure, respectively. While rats in the control group were perfused with an equal dose of sterilized normal saline. Twenty four weeks after dust staining, rat feces, throat swabs, and lung lavages were collected. 16SrDNA gene sequencing and UHPLC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics were used to analyze the flora and metabolites in feces, throat swabs and lung lavage fluid of rats in each group, to screen for shared differential flora and shared differential metabolites in intestinal and respiratory tract, and the correlation analysis between the differential flora and metabolites was performed using Spearman's statistics. Results: Compared with the control group, a total of 9 species shared differential flora between intestinal and respiratory tract were screened at phylum level, and a total of 9 species shared differential genus between intestinal and respiratory tract were screened at genus level in the coal mine dust group, mainly Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, etc. Compared with the control group, a total of 9 shared differential flora were screened at the phylum level, and a total of 5 shared differential genus were screened at the genus level in the silica group, mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Allobactera, Mucilaginibacter, etc. Compared with the control group, a total of 7 shared differential metabolites were screened for up-regulation of Stigmatellin, Linalool oxide and Isoleucine-leucine in both intestinal and respiratory tract in the coal mine dust group. Compared with the control group , a total of 19 shared differential metabolites werescreened in the silica group, of which Diethanolamine, 1-Aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid, Isoleucine-leucine, Sphingosine, Palmitic acid, D-sphinganine, 1, 2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, and 1-Stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphocholine were up-regulated in both the intestinal and respiratory tract. Conclusion: There is a translocation of intestinal and respiratory flora in pneumoconiosis rats, and rats have an imbalance of lipid metabolism during the progression of pneumoconiosis.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Isoleucine , Leucine , Coal Mining , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Pneumoconiosis , Dust/analysis , Silicon Dioxide , Coal
17.
São Paulo; s.n; 2023. 79 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1434690

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O trabalho informal é acompanhado de diversas particularidades, além do manuseio de produtos químicos sem equipamentos adequados, pode acontecer a exposição passiva de familiares ou amigos próximos, como por exemplo as crianças. Na cidade de Limeira, no interior de São Paulo, há a produção informal de joias e bijuterias, envolvendo atividades que vão desde a montagem de peças até a solda. Objetivos: este estudo avaliou a exposição de crianças à poeiras contendo metais, nas residências de trabalhadores informais e domiciliares da cadeia produtiva de joias e bijuterias de Limeira. Método: foram coletadas amostras de poeira com lenços eletrostáticos em 21 domicílios do grupo exposto e 23 do grupo controle e determinados os Elementos Potencialmente Tóxicos (EPT) Cr, Sn, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb e As, nos ambientes. As análises foram realizadas no Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas do Estado de São Paulo (IPT), por ICP-MS. Também, foram cedidos os resultados das concentrações de EPT no sangue de uma subamostra de crianças, presentes na população de estudo, pela coordenadora do projeto (KPKO). Resultados: As concentrações de Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd e Sn na poeira doméstica foram significativamente maiores no grupo exposto (<0,05), assim como as concentrações de Pb e Cd no sangue das crianças do grupo exposto (<0,05). As concentrações de EPT na poeira doméstica e no sangue das crianças apresentaram correlação moderada para Cr (Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman (Rho) 0,40), Zn (Rho -0,43) e As (Rho 0,40), e uma forte correlação para Cd (Rho 0,80) (p <0,05). Conclusões: Os resultados do estudo apontaram riscos para a exposição infantil ao Cd, As e Cr durante a produção informal e doméstica de joias e bijuterias, salientando a importância de proteger a saúde infantil através da promoção de ações de segurança. Adicionalmente, os lenços eletrostáticos se mostraram ferramentas de baixo custo e eficazes para avaliação da exposição a EPT.


Introduction: Informal work is followed by several particularities, besides the handling of chemicals without proper equipment, there may happen the passive exposure of family members or close friends, such as children. In the city of Limeira, in the interior of São Paulo, there is informal jewelry production, involving activities ranging from assembling pieces to welding. Objectives: This study evaluated the exposure of children to dust containing metals in the homes of informal and home-based workers in the jewelry production industry in Limeira. Method: dust samples were collected with electrostatic cloths from 21 households in the exposed group and 23 in the control group, and the Potentially Toxic Elements (PTE) Cr, Sn, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and As were determined in the environments. The analyses were carried out at the Technological Research Institute of the State of São Paulo (IPT), by ICP-MS. Also, the results of PTE concentrations in the blood of a subsample of children, present in the study population, were provided by the project coordinator (KPKO). Results: Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Sn in household dust were significantly higher in the exposed group (<0.05), as were concentrations of Pb and Cd in the blood of children in the exposed group (<0.05). PTE concentrations in house dust and children's blood showed moderate correlation for Cr (Spearman's Correlation Coefficient (Rho) 0.40), Zn (Rho -0.43) and As (Rho 0.40), and a strong correlation for Cd (Rho 0.80) (p <0.05). Conclusions: The results of the study indicated risks for children's exposure to Cd, As and Cr during informal, domestic jewelry production, highlighting the importance of protecting children's health by promoting safety actions. Additionally, electrostatic cloths proved to be low-cost and effective tools for assessing exposure to PTE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Child Health , Air Pollution, Indoor , Dust , Environmental Exposure , Jewelry , Informal Sector , Metals
18.
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(2): 285-291, abr.jun.2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400223

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The home environment is one of the most favorable spaces for the development of mites because of its low light, humidity, and temperature. Thus, it contributes to the growing cases of allergies among atopic individuals. Objective: To investigate the faunal profile of house dust mites in the city of Rio de Janeiro and the allergenic potential in this region. Methods: Thirty dust samples were collected from homes in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and the species found were classified according to their morphology, family, and genus by classification key. For the collection region, the total protein level was assessed by the Lowry method and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions (SDSPAGE). Results: There was a predominance of Pyroglyphidae mites, accounting for 84.9% of samples; Tyrophagus putrescentiae accounted for 8%, Blomia tropicalis for 6%, Cheyletus malaccensis for 1%, and Acarus siro for 0.1%. The allergen protein content of the samples was the following: group 1 ­ 25 kDa (Der 1, Der p 1, and Blo t 1), group 2 ­ 15 kDa (Der f 2, Der 2, Tyr p 2, and Blo t 2), and group 3 ­ 29-30 kDa (Der f 3 and Blo t 3), which indicates that people in this region are susceptible to sensitization to these mites. Conclusion: Knowledge of the mite fauna in the region under study allows the guidance of health care professionals to perform skin tests for specific mites and conduct treatment according to the pool of mite extracts containing antigens, making immunotherapy more effective.


Introdução: O ambiente domiciliar é um dos espaços favoráveis para o desenvolvimento de ácaros, tendo em vista a baixa luminosidade, umidade e temperatura, o que contribui para os crescentes casos de alergias em indivíduos atópicos. Objetivo: Investigar o perfil faunístico dos ácaros na cidade do Rio de Janeiro e o potencial alergêncio para essa região. Métodos: Foram coletadas 30 amostras de poeira em residências na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, e as espécies encontradas foram classificadas quanto à morfologia, família e o gênero por chave de classificação. Para as regiões das coletas, a carga total de proteínas contendo os alérgenos foi determinada pelo método de Lowry e eletroforese em condições desnaturantes (SDS-PAGE). Resultados: Os resultados mostram a predominância de 84,9% de ácaros da família Pyroglyphidae; para os demais ácaros o percentual corresponde a 8% Tyrophagus putrescentiae, 6% Blomia tropicalis, 1% Cheyletus malaccensis, e 0,1% de Acarus siro. O conteúdo proteico alergêncio constituinte das amostras foram, grupo 1: 25 kDa (Der 1, Der p 1 e Blo t 1); grupo 2: 15 kDa (Der f 2, Der 2, Tyr p 2 e Blo t 2); e para o grupo 3: 29-30 kDa (Der f 3 e Blo t 3), o que indica uma região passível à sensibilização de indivíduos por estes ácaros. Conclusão: O conhecimento da acarofauna nas regiões em estudo permite orientar a comunidade médica quanto à realização de testes cutâneos, além da terapêutica a partir do pool de extratos de ácaros contendo os antígenos, a fim de tornar a imunoterapia mais eficaz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyroglyphidae , Dust , Hypersensitivity , Mites , Therapeutics , Skin Tests , Allergens , Residence Characteristics , Diagnosis , Home Environment , Humidity , Immunotherapy
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 315-323, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935389

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the prevalence of chronic cough, chronic expectoration and dyspnea and related factors in residents aged ≥40 years in China, and provide basic data for the prevention and control of chronic respiratory diseases. Methods: Data were from 2014-2015 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease surveillance in China. The information about chronic respiratory symptoms were collected by face-to-face interview. The prevalence rates of chronic cough, chronic expectoration, dyspnea and chronic respiratory symptoms and their 95%CI were estimated with complex sampling weights. Results: A total of 75 082 subjects were included in the analysis. The prevalence rates of chronic cough, chronic expectoration, dyspnea and chronic respiratory symptoms in the Chinese aged ≥40 years were 3.75% (95%CI: 3.38%-4.11%), 5.83% (95%CI: 5.40%-6.26%), 2.45% (95%CI: 2.02%-2.87%) and 8.93% (95%CI: 8.25%-9.62%), respectively. The prevalence rates of chronic cough, chronic expectoration, dyspnea and chronic respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic respiratory diseases were relatively higher, which were 10.27%, 13.85%, 6.43%, 20.72% respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, region, education level, occupation, BMI, family history of respiratory diseases, history of severe respiratory infections in childhood, exposure to dust or chemicals in workplace and smoking status affected the prevalence of chronic cough, chronic expectoration and dyspnea. The prevalence of the three types of chronic respiratory symptoms increased significantly with age, which were higher in western region, smokers and underweight/obese subjects. The three prevalence rates mentioned above were higher in those with a history of severe respiratory infection in childhood, those exposed to biomass fuel in household, and those exposed to dust or chemicals in workplace. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of chronic respiratory symptoms was high in residents aged ≥40 years in China. Many factors affected the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms. Comprehensive prevention and control measures targeting risk factors should be taken to reduce the burden of chronic respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , China/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Dust , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Prevalence
20.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 561-566, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935325

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution on depression hospitalization cost and length of stay in 57 cities of China. Methods: A total of 84 207 patients with depression in 57 cities of China from January 2013 to December 2017 were selected as the subjects. The demographic characteristics and hospitalization status of the patients were obtained from the database of basic medical insurance for urban workers and urban residents in China. The environmental exposure data of the same period were obtained from the national air quality real-time release platform of China Environmental Monitoring Station. A generalized additive model based on quasi-Poisson distribution was used to analyze PM2.5 exposure effect in each city, and the nonlinear mixing of moving average temperature, relative humidity and date was controlled by natural smooth spline function. Results: Among the included cities, southern cities accounted for 50.88% (29), and the number of female inpatients, hospitalization costs and hospitalization days accounted for 62.65%, 63.50% and 60.85% (42 735 cases, 567.78 million yuan and 1.14 million days, respectively). The proportion of hospitalized cases, hospitalization cost and length of stay in the age group of 40 to 64 years old were 59.15% (40 346 cases), 53.92% (482.15 million yuan) and 52.07% (0.98 million days), respectively. PM2.5 level was positively correlated with the number of hospitalized cases with depression, hospitalization cost and length of stay. When the 3-day moving average of PM2.5 exposure level increased by 10 μg/m3, the number of hospitalization cases increased by 0.64%. The attributed percentage (95%CI) of hospitalized cases, hospitalization costs and length of stay were 3.35% (0.57%-6.04%), 3.04% (0.52%-5.48%) and 3.07% (0.49%-5.56%), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the attributed percentage of hospitalization cases, hospitalization cost and length of stay to PM2.5 exposure ranged from 3.97% to 4.68%, 4.04% to 4.33% and 4.13% to 4.30% in northern China, male and cold season, respectively. Conclusion: PM2.5 exposure is associated with the increase of hospitalization cost and length of stay among Chinese urban population with depression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Depression , Dust/analysis , Hospitalization , Particulate Matter/analysis
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