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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#International Labour Organization (ILO) report indicates more than 2.4 million workers die from work-related diseases and accidents each year. Work-related respiratory ailments related to airborne particulate matter such as flour dust are responsible for about 386,000 deaths and 6.6 million illness-adjusted life years. Even though exposure to flour dust together with the extreme expansions of flour mill sectors is a priority health concern, extent of the problem is little investigated in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnitude and risk factors of work-related respiratory symptoms among flour mill workers in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia.@*METHODS@#This study employed a comparative cross-sectional survey of 560 samples (280 exposed group from flour mill workers and 280 unexposed group from office workers) with a stratified random sampling technique. The study was conducted from March to April 2019 in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. We used the British Medical Research Council (BMRC) questionnaire to assess work-related respiratory symptoms. The questionnaire was pretested and interview administered to collect data. Binary logistic regression analysis was fitted to evaluate significant factors of respiratory symptoms at a < 0.05 p value. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a confidence interval (CI) of 95% was calculated to determine a strength of association.@*RESULTS@#All the sampled participants had fully responded to the interview. The median age of exposed and unexposed groups was 28.5 interquartile range (IQR, 20) and 31 (IQR, 15) years, respectively. The prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms among flour mill workers was substantially higher than that of among controls, 63.9% and 20.7%, respectively (Χ@*CONCLUSION@#Respiratory symptoms emanating from exposure to various flour dusts were significantly higher among flour mill workers than among the control group. Therefore, we recommend the need to effectively implement health and safety programs that account for the reduction of dust at a source, use of engineering controls (e.g., provision of adequate ventilation systems), use of administrative measures (e.g., training program and health surveillance) and provision of a suitable personal protective equipment (PPE). Furthermore, it is vital to integrate workplace health and safety programs to the wider public health policies and strategies to effectively mitigate the burden of work-related respiratory conditions. We also encourage future studies to evaluate concentration of flour dusts combined with physical examinations to establish plausible associations of respiratory symptoms with dusts of flour mill-related origin.


Subject(s)
Adult , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dust , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Flour , Humans , Male , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Prevalence , Respiration Disorders/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace , Young Adult
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 898-907, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878139

ABSTRACT

Pneumoconiosis refers to a spectrum of pulmonary diseases caused by inhalation of mineral dust, usually as the result of certain occupations. The main pathological features include chronic pulmonary inflammation and progressive pulmonary fibrosis, which can eventually lead to death caused by respiratory and/or heart failure. Pneumoconiosis is widespread globally, seriously threatening global public health. Its high incidence and mortality lie in improper occupational protection, and in the lack of early diagnostic methods and effective treatments. This article reviews the epidemiology, safeguard procedures, diagnosis, and treatment of pneumoconiosis, and summarizes recent research advances and future research prospects.


Subject(s)
Dust , Humans , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Pneumoconiosis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785337

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-δ-dependent Akt activation is known to play critical roles in various immune responses of white blood cells in which PI3K-δ isoform is mostly expressed in contrast to the classes IA PI3Ks p110α and p110β. However, the immunological role of PI3K-δ isoform is still controversial in airway epithelium under house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic response. This study aimed to evaluate the role of PI3K-δ isoform in HDM-induced allergic responses, focusing on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in airway epithelium.METHODS: We used wild-type mice and PI3K-δ knock-out (KO) mice for HDM-induced asthma animal model and also performed in vitro experiments using primary cultured murine tracheal epithelial cells and human airway epithelial cells.RESULTS: PI3K-δ activated HDM-induced NLRP3 inflammasome and epithelial cell-derived cytokines in the lung including airway epithelial cells. PI3K-δ KO mice or knock-down of PI3K-δ using siRNA exhibited the significant reduction in allergic asthmatic features and the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly as well as epithelial cell-derived cytokines. Interestingly, significantly increased expression of PI3K-δ isoform was observed in stimulated airway epithelial cells and the increases in epithelial cell-derived cytokines were markedly suppressed by blocking PI3K-δ, while these cytokine levels were independent of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that PI3K-δ-isoform can promote HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation via NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent response as well as via NLRP3 inflammasome-independent epithelial cell activation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Cytokines , Dust , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Leukocytes , Lung , Mice , Models, Animal , Phosphotransferases , Pyroglyphidae , RNA, Small Interfering
4.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(2): e188, abr.-jun. 2019. tab, fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126614

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La inmunosupresión es uno de los principales obstáculos en el tratamiento de cáncer, por esta razón, diversos inmunomoduladores naturales y sintéticos son estudiados, con el fin de atenuar los efectos de la terapia convencional. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad inmunomoduladora del polvo seco de Punica granatum Linn (granada). Métodos: Ratas machos Wistar fueron divididas en cuatro grupos: grupo I (control), II (inmunizado con glóbulos rojos de carnero), III (inmunosuprimido con ciclofosfamida e inmunizado con glóbulos rojos de carnero) y IV (tratado con polvo de granada, inmunosuprimido con ciclofosfamida e inmunizado con glóbulos rojos de carnero). Las variables estudiadas fueron el peso corporal y detección de anticuerpos hemoaglutinantes. Resultados: Se observó ligera tendencia al aumento del peso corporal en los grupos I, II y III, con respuesta diferente en el grupo IV, donde hubo una leve disminución. El título de anticuerpos del grupo III disminuyó con respecto al II y IV, tanto en la respuesta primaria como secundaria. En el grupo IV el título de anticuerpos resultó ser estadísticamente significativo con relación al del grupo III (p= 0,000) para ambas respuestas. Conclusiones: La Púnica granatum mostró efecto inmunomodulador, al incrementar el nivel de anticuerpos hemaglutinantes(AU)


Introduction: Immunosuppression is one of the main obstacles in the treatment of cancer, for this reason, several natural and synthetic immunomodulators are studied, in order to attenuate the effects of conventional therapy. Objective: To evaluate the immunomodulator activity of Punica granatum Linn (pomegranade). Methods: Wistar male rats were divided into four groups: group I (control), II (immunized with red blood cells of sheep), III (immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and immunized with red blood cells of sheep) and IV (treated with pomegranate powder, immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide and immunized with red blood cells of sheep). The variables studied were body weight and detection of haemagglutinating antibodies. Results: A slight tendency to increase body weight was observed in groups I, II and III, with a different response in group IV, where there was a slight decrease. The antibody titre of group III decreased with respect to II and IV, both in the primary and secondary response. In group IV the antibody titer was found to be statistically significant in relation to group III (p = 0.000) for both responses. Conclusions: Punic granatum showed immunomodulatory effect, increasing the level of haemagglutinating antibodies(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Immunosuppression , Cyclophosphamide , Pomegranate , Antibodies/drug effects , Neoplasms , Dust
6.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e3-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750171

ABSTRACT

Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED) is a rare hereditary disorder with a triad of sparse hair, dental hypoplasia, and anhidrosis. Here we report a case of AED with food allergy and atopic eczema. The patient was a 11-month-old boy admitted to our hospital with pyrexia for 2 weeks. He presented with a history of dry skin, eczema, and food allergy to egg. On clinical examination, his body temperature was 38.8°C, with dry skin and eczema almost all over the body, sparse eyebrows, and scalp hair. Laboratory investigations and physical examination did not show any evidence of infection. Radioallergosorbent test was positive to egg yolk, egg white, ovomucoid, milk, house dust, and house dust mite. As the child did not sweat despite the high fever, we performed the sweat test which revealed a total lack of sweat glands. Genetic examination revealed a mutation of the EDA gene and he was diagnosed as AED. His pyrexia improved upon cooling with ice and fan. His mother had lost 8 teeth and her sweat test demonstrated low sweating, suggestive of her being a carrier of AED. Atopy and immune deficiencies have been shown to have a higher prevalence in patients with AED. Disruption of the skin barrier in patients with AED make them more prone to allergic diseases such as atopic eczema, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and food allergy. Careful assessment of the familial history is essential to differentiate AED when examining patients with pyrexia of unknown origin and comorbid allergic diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Body Temperature , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dust , Ectodermal Dysplasia , Eczema , Egg White , Egg Yolk , Eyebrows , Fever , Food Hypersensitivity , Hair , Humans , Hypohidrosis , Ice , Infant , Male , Milk , Mothers , Ovomucin , Ovum , Physical Examination , Prevalence , Pyroglyphidae , Radioallergosorbent Test , Rhinitis, Allergic , Scalp , Skin , Sweat , Sweat Glands , Sweating , Tooth
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762168

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to organic dust has been widely investigated as a potential risk factor for asthma with different results. To clarify a potential relationship, we performed the present meta-analysis to integrate the results of studies examining the association of organic dust exposure with asthma. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search in the electronic databases including EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases (up to August 2018) was conducted. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for organic dust exposure and asthma were retrieved and pooled to generate summary effect estimates in Revman 5.2. RESULTS: Database searches retrieved 1,016 records. A total of 17 studies containing 3,619 cases and 6,585 controls were finally included in our meta-analysis. The summary estimates suggested that organic dust exposure was positively associated with asthma (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.26–1.75; P < 0.00001), whether among population-based case-control studies (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13–1.35; P < 0.00001) or hospital-based case-control studies (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.27–6.12; P = 0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that paper/wood (OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.38–1.90; P < 0.00001), flour/grain (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.11–1.97; P = 0.008), and textile dust (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.08–2.09; P = 0.02) exposure were significantly associated with asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the studies evaluated, our meta-analysis results prompt that organic dust exposure is a risk factor inducing asthma, although precise analysis focus on specific organic dust materials is still warranted.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Case-Control Studies , Dust , Odds Ratio , Risk Factors , Textiles
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Ultra-rush schedule of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (UR-SCIT) administering maximum maintenance dose of allergen extract within one day can save time and effort for allergen immunotherapy in patients with allergic disease. However, UR-SCIT is associated with an increased risk of systemic reaction (SR) and typically has been conducted in a hospital admission setting. To overcome disadvantages of UR-SCIT, we evaluated the safety of UR-SCIT conducted in an outpatient clinic in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS: UR-SCIT was performed in 538 patients with AD and/or AR sensitized to house dust mite (HDM). A maximum maintenance dose of tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract (1 mL of maintenance concentration) was divided into 4 increasing doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mL) and administered to the patients by subcutaneous injection at 2-hour intervals for 8 hours in an outpatient clinic. SRs associated with UR-SCIT were classified according to the World Allergy Organization grading system. RESULTS: SR was observed in 12 of 538 patients (2.2%) with AD and/or AR during UR-SCIT. The severity grades of the observed SRs were mild-to-moderate (grade 1 in 7 patients, grade 2 in 4 patients, and grade 3 in 1 patient). The scheduled 4 increasing doses of HDM extract could be administered in 535 of 538 patients (99.4%) except 3 patients who experienced SR before administration of the last scheduled dose. SR was observed within 2 hours in 11 patients after administration of the scheduled doses of HDM extract except one patient who experienced a grade 2 SR at 5.5 hours after administration of the last scheduled dose. CONCLUSIONS: UR-SCIT with tyrosine-adsorbed HDM extract conducted in an outpatient clinic was tolerable in patients with AD and AR. UR-SCIT can be a useful method to start a SCIT in patients with AD and AR.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care Facilities , Appointments and Schedules , Dermatitis, Atopic , Desensitization, Immunologic , Dust , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Injections, Subcutaneous , Methods , Outpatients , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762156

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of daily vacuuming of mattresses on the concentration of house dust mite (HDM) allergens and on allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms in children sensitized to HDM. METHODS: Forty children between the ages of 6 and 12 years with mild persistent AR and sensitized only to HDM were enrolled and randomly allocated to 2 groups. Caregivers of children in the experimental group cleaned the children's rooms and vacuumed their mattresses daily for 2 weeks. Caregivers of children in the control group cleaned the children's rooms without vacuuming mattresses. Symptoms of AR were checked weekly and dust samples were collected from the mattresses before and after the study. RESULTS: Demographics at the beginning of the study were not significantly different between the 2 groups. In the experimental group, symptoms of AR and dust weight were significantly decreased after 2 weeks (total symptoms of AR, P <0.001; sneezing, P < 0.001; rhinorrhea, P <0.001; nasal obstruction, P < 0.001; itching, P <0.001; and dust weight, P = 0.006). The concentrations of HDM allergens were not changed significantly (Der p1, P = 0.333; Der f1, P = 0.841). In the control group, there were no significant changes in symptoms of AR, dust weight, or the concentration of HDM allergens. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that daily vacuuming of mattresses reduced dust weight and symptoms of AR. However, the concentration of HDM allergens did not significantly decrease.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Beds , Caregivers , Child , Demography , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Dust , Humans , Nasal Obstruction , Pruritus , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis, Allergic , Sneezing , Vacuum
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762147

ABSTRACT

Environmental variations induced by industrialization and climate change partially explain the increase in prevalence and severity of allergic disease. One possible mechanism is the increase in allergen production leading to more exposure and sensitization in susceptible individuals. House dust mites (HDMs) are important sources of allergens inducing asthma and rhinitis, and experimentally they have been demonstrated to be very sensitive to microenvironment modifications; therefore, global or regional changes in temperature, humidity, air pollution or other environmental conditions could modify natural HDM growth, survival and allergen production. There is evidence that sensitization to HDMs has increased in some regions of the world, especially in the subtropical and tropical areas; however, the relationship of this increase with environmental changes is not so clear as has reported for pollen allergens. In this review, we address this point and explore the effects of current and predicted environmental changes on HDM growth, survival and allergen production, which could lead to immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization and allergic disease prevalence. We also assess the role of adjuvants of IgE responses, such as air pollution and helminth infections, and discuss the genetic and epigenetic aspects that could influence the adaptive process of humans to drastic and relatively recent environmental changes we are experiencing.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Allergens , Asthma , Climate Change , Dust , Epigenomics , Helminths , Humans , Humidity , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Pollen , Prevalence , Pyroglyphidae , Rhinitis
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766777

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is a growing global health concern estimated to contribute to as many as 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide per year. So it poses the greatest environmental risk to human health. A strong and rapidly expanding body of evidence links ambient air pollution to respiratory and cardiovascular conditions that eventually may also affect cognition in the elderly. Among various ambient air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) has been implicated as a chronic source of neuroinflammation and reactive oxygen species that produce neuropathology resulting in neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative disease. The current review will briefly discuss the clinical features and underlying mechanism of PM induced cognitive dysfunction, more specifically, dementia.


Subject(s)
Aged , Air Pollution , Alzheimer Disease , Cognition , Dementia , Dust , Global Health , Humans , Mortality, Premature , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Neuropathology , Particulate Matter , Reactive Oxygen Species
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766614

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to make recommendations for the management of eye health related to fine dust exposure. Fine dust is one of the biggest problems related to air pollution in Korea and is becoming a social issue. Fine dust can be classified into fine dust, ultrafine dust, and nanoparticles according to the size of the constituent particles. Although studies evaluating the harmful effects of particulate matter (PM) have been conducted mainly on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, the ocular surface is a tissue that is continuously exposed to the atmosphere. Eye symptoms caused by PM exposure include eye redness, irritation, and sensation of a foreign body. Typical eye diseases caused by PM exposure include conjunctivitis, dry eye disease, and blepharitis. PM is thought to induce and exacerbate ocular surface diseases and lead to damage through oxidative stress, toxicity, and immune and inflammatory reactions on the ocular surface. For eye health management related to PM exposure, it is necessary to reduce the chance of exposure to PM in advance according to the PM forecast, avoid additional repeated exposure after PM exposure, and remove PM through eye washing and eyelid cleaning. In addition, eye drops, such as artificial tears, diquafosol, and cyclosporin A, can be used to prevent and treat ocular surface disease and deterioration of the damage. In patients who already have ocular surface disease, the harmful effects of PM exposure may be greater and more attention should be paid to eye health management.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Atmosphere , Blepharitis , Conjunctivitis , Cyclosporine , Dust , Eye Diseases , Eyelids , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Korea , Lubricant Eye Drops , Nanoparticles , Ophthalmic Solutions , Oxidative Stress , Particulate Matter , Sensation
13.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 141-150, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on associations between occupational diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure and colorectal cancer is limited. We aimed to assess the effect of workplace exposure to diesel exhaust and gasoline on the risk of colorectal cancer. METHODS: This caseecontrol study included 181,709 colon cancer and 109,227 rectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1961 and 2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Cases and controls were identified from the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study cohort and matched for country, birth year, and sex. Diesel exhaust and gasoline exposure values were assigned by country-specific job-exposure matrices. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using conditional logistic regression models. The results were adjusted for physical strain at work and occupational exposure to benzene, formaldehyde, ionizing radiation, chlorinated hydrocarbons, chromium, and wood dust. RESULTS: Diesel exhaust exposure was associated with a small increase in the risk of rectal cancer (odds ratio 1/4 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.02–1.08). Gasoline exposure was not associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSION: This study showed a small risk increase for rectal cancer after workplace diesel exhaust exposure. However, this finding could be due to chance, given the limitations of the study.


Subject(s)
Benzene , Case-Control Studies , Chromium , Cohort Studies , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dust , Finland , Formaldehyde , Gasoline , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated , Iceland , Logistic Models , Norway , Occupational Exposure , Odds Ratio , Parturition , Radiation, Ionizing , Rectal Neoplasms , Scandinavian and Nordic Countries , Sweden , Vehicle Emissions , Wood
14.
Safety and Health at Work ; : 196-204, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Liquid chromatographyetandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) for simultaneous analysis of multiple microbial secondary metabolites (MSMs) is potentially subject to interference by matrix components. METHODS: We examined potential matrix effects (MEs) in analyses of 31 MSMs using ultraperformance LC-MSMS. Twenty-one dust aliquots from three buildings (seven aliquots/building) were spiked with seven concentrations of each of the MSMs (6.2 pg/µl–900 pg/µl) and then extracted. Another set of 21 aliquots were first extracted and then, the extract was spiked with the same concentrations. We added deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM) to all aliquots as a universal internal standard. Ten microliters of the extract was injected into the ultraperformance LC-MSMS. ME was calculated by subtracting the percentage of the response of analyte in spiked extract to that in neat standard from 100. Spiked extract results were used to create a matrix-matched calibration (MMC) curve for estimating MSM concentration in dust spiked before extraction. RESULTS: Analysis of variance was used to examine effects of compound (MSM), building and concentration on response. MEs (range: 63.4%–99.97%) significantly differed by MSM (p < 0.01) and building (p < 0.05). Mean percent recoveries adjusted with DOM and the MMC method were 246.3% (SD = 226.0) and 86.3% (SD = 70.7), respectively. CONCLUSION: We found that dust MEs resulted in substantial underestimation in quantifying MSMs and that DOM was not an optimal universal internal standard for the adjustment but that the MMC method resulted in more accurate and precise recovery compared with DOM. More research on adjustment methods for dust MEs in the simultaneous analyses of multiple MSMs using LC-MSMS is warranted.


Subject(s)
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-Methylamphetamine , Calibration , Dust , Mass Spectrometry , Methods
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite growing concern over occupational exposure to particulate matter (PM) such as grain dust and diesel exhaust, information about the exposure level and health implications among workers in small-scale milling enterprises in developing countries like Nigeria has not been adequately documented. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of exposure to grain dust and diesel exhaust and effect on lung function among grain millers in food markets in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. METHODS: The study adopted descriptive cross-sectional design with a comparative approach. Sixteen grain milling shops each were randomly selected from two major food markets in Ibadan metropolis for indoor PM₁₀ and PM(2.5) monitoring. Seventy-two respondents each were proportionately selected from grain millers and shop owners for forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow rate tests. RESULTS: The PM(2.5) concentrations for both market locations ranged between 1,269.3 and 651.7 μg/m³, while PM₁₀ concentrations were between 1,048.2 and 818.1 μg/m³. The recorded concentrations exceeded the World Health Organization guideline limit of 50 μg/m³ and 25 μg/m³ for PM(2.5) and PM₁₀, respectively. As compared with control group (2.1 L), significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second value (1.61 L) was observed among the exposed group (p < 0.05). Likewise, significantly lower peak expiratory flow rate value (186.7 L/min) was recorded among the exposed group than the control group (269.51 L/min) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Exposure to grain dust and diesel exhaust accentuated respiratory disorders with declines in lung functions amongst grain millers. Improved milling practices and engaging cleaner milling facilities should be adopted to minimize exposure and related hazards.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Dust , Forced Expiratory Volume , Lung , Nigeria , Occupational Exposure , Particulate Matter , Peak Expiratory Flow Rate , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vehicle Emissions , World Health Organization
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hypoallergenic recombinant Der p 2 has been produced by various genetic manipulations, but mutation of a naturally polymorphic amino acid residue known to affect IgE binding has not been studied. This study aimed to determine the effect of a point mutation (S47W) of residue 47 of Der p 2 on its structure and immunoglobulin (Ig) E binding. Its ability to induce pro-inflammatory responses and to induce blocking IgG antibody was also determined. METHODS: S47 of recombinant Der p 2.0110, one of the predominant variants in Bangkok, was mutated to W (S47W). S47W secreted from Pichia pastoris was examined for secondary structure and for the formation of a hydrophobic cavity by 8-Anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) staining. Monoclonal and human IgE-antibody binding was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Allergen-induced degranulation by human epsilon receptor expressed-rat basophil was determined. Stimulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 release from human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells and inhibition of IgE binding to the wild type allergen by S47W-induced IgG were determined. RESULTS: S47W reduced secondary structure and failed to bind the hydrophobic ANS ligand as well as a monoclonal antibody known to be dependent on the nature of the side chain of residue 114 in an adjacent loop. It could also not stimulate IL-8 release from BEAS2B cells. IgE from house dust mite (HDM)-allergic Thais bound S47W with 100-fold weaker avidity, whereas IgE of HDM-allergic Australians did not. S47W still induced basophil degranulation, although requiring higher concentrations for some subjects. Anti-S47W antiserum-immunized mice blocked the binding of human IgE to wild type Der p 2. CONCLUSIONS: The mutant S47W had altered structure and reduced ability to stimulate pro-inflammatory responses and to bind IgE, but retained its ability to induce blocking antibodies. It thus represents a hypoallergen produced by a single mutation of a non-solvent-accessible amino acid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Blocking , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Basophils , Dust , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Mice , Pichia , Point Mutation , Pyroglyphidae
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742453

ABSTRACT

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms that are generally found not only in the natural environment but also in the human engineered environment, including water, soil, and dust. These organisms can form biofilms and can be readily aerosolized because they are hydrophobic owing to the presence of the lipid-rich outer membrane. Aerosolization and subsequent inhalation were the major route of NTM lung disease. Water distribution systems and household plumbing are ideal habit for NTM and the main transmission route from natural water to household. NTM have been isolated from drinking water, faucets, pipelines, and water tanks. Studies that used genotyping have shown that NTM isolates from patients are identical to those in the environment, that is, from shower water, showerheads, tap water, and gardening soil. Humans are likely to be exposed to NTM in their homes through simple and daily activities, such as drinking, showering, or gardening. In addition to environmental factors, host factors play an important role in the development of NTM lung disease. The incidence and prevalence of NTM lung disease are increasing worldwide, and this disease is rapidly becoming a major public health problem. NTM lung disease is associated with substantially impaired quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality, and high medical costs. A more comprehensive understanding of the infection source and epidemiology of NTM is essential for the development of new strategies that can prevent and control NTM infection.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Biofilms , Drinking , Drinking Water , Dust , Epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Gardening , Humans , Incidence , Inhalation , Lung Diseases , Lung , Membranes , Mortality , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prevalence , Public Health , Quality of Life , Sanitary Engineering , Soil , Water
18.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 357-360, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785375

ABSTRACT

The pneumatic colorectal injury caused by high pressure compressed air are rare and can be fatal. Herein, we present a case of 45-year-old male who developed sudden onset of severe abdominal pain after cleaning the dust on his pants with high pressure compressed air gun dust cleaner. Emergent exploratory laparotomy was done which findings are a huge rectal perforation with multiple serosal and subserosal tear in sigmoid to splenic flexure of colon. Anterior resection with left hemicolectomy, and temporary transverse colostomy was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful. Recently, prognosis is generally favorable because of prompt diagnosis and emergent surgical management.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Colon , Colon, Sigmoid , Colon, Transverse , Colostomy , Compressed Air , Diagnosis , Dust , Humans , Laparotomy , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Rectum , Tears
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785300

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of occupational hazards and personal protective equipment use among dental hygienists (DHs).METHODS: A total of 271 self-administered questionnaires were obtained from 280 DHs working at dental hospitals or clinics in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.RESULTS: The occupational hazards included work involving dust (94.1%), volatile substances (86.0%), noise (97.0%), and light-curing units (96.7%). The proportion of dental hygiene tasks that participants perceived as harmful were 42.4%, 51.7%, 9.2%, and 31.4% in the same order as above. The proportion of participants who used dust-proof masks during work involving dust was 1.1%. Those who wore gas-proof masks and gloves for work using volatile substances were 0.7% and 31.2%, respectively. Participants who used goggles for work involving light-curing units were 31.0%. None of the participants used ear plugs for work involving noise. A total of 22.9% of the participants recognized the Material Safety Data Sheet, while 79.7% had never been educated about harmful work environments.CONCLUSION: When compared to exposure status and perception of occupational hazards, the level of protective equipment use was very low. Extra measures to increase DHs’ use of personal protective equipment are necessary.


Subject(s)
Dental Hygienists , Dust , Ear , Eye Protective Devices , Humans , Korea , Masks , Material Safety Data Sheets , Noise , Occupations , Oral Hygiene , Personal Protective Equipment
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of fine dust concentrations in the air on the incidence of viral respiratory infections in the Republic of Korea.METHODS: A time series analysis using R statistics was performed to determine the relationship between weekly concentrations of fine dust in the air and the incidences of acute respiratory tract infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (HAdV), rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human coronavirus (HCoV), human bocavirus (HBoV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and influenza virus (IFV), from the beginning of 2016 to the end of 2017. Correlations between various meteorological factors and the amount of fine dust were analyzed using the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. To analyze the relationship between viral infections and fine dust, a quasi-poisson analysis was performed.RESULTS: The incidence of the HAdV was proportional to fine dust and air temperature. The IFV was proportional to fine dust and relative humidity and was inversely proportional to temperature. The HMPV was proportional to fine dust, wind speed, and inversely proportional to relative humidity. The HCoV was proportional to micro dust, relative humidity, and inversely proportional to temperature. Both the HBoV and HPIV were directly proportional to fine dust, temperature, wind speed, and inversely proportional to relative humidity. The RSV was inversely proportional to fine dust, temperature, wind speed. A lag effect was observed for the influenza virus, in that its incidence increased 2–3 weeks later on the cumulative lag model.CONCLUSION: As the weekly average concentration of fine dust increases, the incidence of HAdV, HMPV, HCoV, HBoV, HPIV, and influenza increase.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Air Pollution , Coronavirus , Dust , Human bocavirus , Humans , Humidity , Incidence , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Meteorological Concepts , Orthomyxoviridae , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Particulate Matter , Republic of Korea , Respiration Disorders , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinovirus , Wind
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