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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Bacteroides , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dysbiosis , Inflammation , Mice, Inbred C57BL
2.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 5(1): 43-49, ene. 28, 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1354457

ABSTRACT

La incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia va en aumento, y se ha convertido en una de las principales consultas. Una posible causa es la disbiosis del microbioma intestinal, relacionada con estados inflamatorios aumentados. Debido a la necesidad de mejorar la calidad de vida, y el impacto en lo económico y en lo educativo, surgen los probióticos como tratamiento adyuvante, por lo que se pretende determinar la asociación del uso de Bifidobacterium en menores de 5 años con la modulación de la respuesta inmune en enfermedades alérgicas. El microbioma intestinal inicia su desarrollo y maduración desde la gestación, continúa en el nacimiento y termina hasta los 3 años, influenciado por factores maternos, neonatales y ambientales. La disbiosis intestinal generada por estos factores reduce la proporción de bifidobacterias, lo cual se relaciona con estados proinflamatorios. En consecuencia, estudios del uso de Bifidobacterium en niños con enfermedades alérgicas ha evidenciado mejora de síntomas y calidad de vida. Los probióticos favorecen un microbioma intestinal saludable, asociado a un estado antiinflamatorio, debido a la regulación en el balance celular Th1/Th2/T reguladoras y células asesinas naturales. Esta modulación en la respuesta inmune permite mejor control de síntomas, calidad de vida y menor incidencia de enfermedades alérgicas en la infancia


The incidence of allergic diseases in childhood is increasing, and has become one of the main queries. One possible cause is dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, related to increased inflammatory states. Due to the need to improve the quality of life, and the economic and educational impact, probiotics emerge as adjuvant treatment, so it is intended to determine the association of the use of Bifidobacterium in children under 5 years with the modulation of the immune response in allergic diseases. The intestinal microbiome begins its development and maturation from gestation, continues at birth and ends up to 3 years, influenced by maternal, neonatal and environmental factors. The intestinal dysbiosis generated by these factors reduces the proportion of bifidobacteria, which is related to proinflammatory states. Consequently, studies of the use of Bifidobacterium in children with allergic diseases have shown improvement in symptoms and quality of life. Probiotics favor a healthy intestinal microbiome, associated with an anti-inflammatory state, due to the regulation of the regulatory Th1/Th2/T cell balance and natural killer cells. This modulation in the immune response allows better control of symptoms, quality of life and lower incidence of allergic diseases in childhood


Subject(s)
Bifidobacterium , Disease , Probiotics , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child , Immunity
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929242

ABSTRACT

Wantong Jingu Tablet (WJT), a mixture of traditional Chinese medicine, was reported to relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but its pharmacological mechanism was not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic mechanisms of WJT for RA in vivo. The effects of WJT on joint pathology, as well as the levels of Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-3, cleaved-caspase-3, ERK1/2, pERK1/2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rats. The intestinal flora composition and the metabolites alteration were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing and metabolomics method, respectively. We found that WJT ameliorated the severity of the CIA rats which might be mediated by inducing apoptosis, inactivating the MEK/ERK signals and reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. WJT, in part, relieved the gut microbiota dysbiosis, especially bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes and Deferribacteres, as well as bacterial genus Vibrio, Macrococcus and Vagococcus. 3'-N-debenzoyl-2'-deoxytaxol, tubulysin B, and magnoline were significantly associated with the specific genera. We identified serotonin, glutathione disulfide, N-acetylneuraminic acid, naphthalene and thromboxane B2 as targeted molecules via metabolomics. Our findings contributed to the understanding of RA pathogenesis, and WJT played essential roles in gut microbiota health and metabolite modulation in the CIA rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Dysbiosis , Metabolomics , Rats , Tablets
4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 634-638, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927551

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a non-specific inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract that is generally accepted to be closely related to intestinal dysbiosis in the host. GI infections contribute a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD; however, although the results of recent clinical studies have revealed an inverse correlation between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and IBD, the exact mechanism underlying the development of IBD remains unclear. H. pylori, as a star microorganism, has been a focus for decades, and recent preclinical and real-world studies have demonstrated that H. pylori not only affects the changes in the gastric microbiota and microenvironment but also influences the intestinal microbiota, indicating a potential correlation with IBD. Detailed analysis revealed that H. pylori infection increased the diversity of the intestinal microbiota, reduced the abundance of Bacteroidetes, augmented the abundance of Firmicutes, and produced short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria such as Akkermansia. All these factors may decrease vulnerability to IBD. Further studies investigating the H. pylori-intestinal microbiota metabolite axis should be performed to understand the mechanism underlying the development of IBD.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/microbiology , Microbiota
5.
Femina ; 49(10): 631-635, 20211031. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358197

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Revisar a implicação e a relação existente entre a microbiota intestinal e a síndrome do ovário policístico (SOP). Métodos: Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática de artigos das bases de dados PubMed, Cochrane e Science Direct dos últimos cinco anos, nos idiomas inglês, português e espanhol. Resultados: A disbiose da microbiota intestinal ativa o sistema imunológico do hospedeiro. Tal ativação interfere na função do receptor de insulina, causando hiperinsulinemia, o que aumenta a produção de androgênio ovariano e dificulta o desenvolvimento de um folículo saudável. Além disso, pacientes com SOP apresentam o perfil taxonômico alterado, o qual se associou inversamente com excesso de andrógenos e inflamação da SOP. Foi evidenciado que o uso de probióticos pode regular a resposta inflamatória, diminuir os níveis totais de testosterona e contribuir para que a SOP não prejudique uma possível gravidez. Conclusão: Essa revisão sugere que há íntima associação entre a disbiose microbiana e as alterações patológicas que ocorrem na SOP. Assim, a suplementação de probióticos em tais pacientes pode ter grandes benefícios, como melhora dos sintomas e redução das repercussões da doença.(AU)


Objective: To review the implication and the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles from the PubMed, Cochrane and Science Direct databases, from the last five years, in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota activates the host's immune system. Such activation interferes with the function of the insulin receptor, causing hyperinsulinemia, which increases the production of ovarian androgens and hinders the development of a healthy follicle. In addition, patients with PCOS have an altered taxonomic profile, which is inversely associated with excess androgens and PCOS inflammation. It was evidenced that the use of probiotics can regulate the inflammatory response, decrease the total testosterone levels and contribute so that PCOS does not harm a possible pregnancy. Conclusion: This review suggests that there is a close association between microbial dysbiosis and pathological changes that occur in PCOS. Thus, supplementation of probiotics in such patients can have great benefits, such as improving symptoms and reducing the repercussions of the disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Insulin Resistance , Databases, Bibliographic , Dysbiosis
6.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 168-174, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285319

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiota influences the appropriate function of the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal dysbiosis may be associated with a higher risk of esophageal lesions, mainly due to changes in gastroesophageal motility patterns, elevation of intra-abdominal pressure, and increased frequency of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal microbiota in individuals with erosive esophagitis and in healthy individuals using metagenomics. METHODS: A total of 22 fecal samples from adults aged between 18 and 60 years were included. Eleven individuals had esophagitis (eight men and three women) and 11 were healthy controls (10 men and one woman). The individuals were instructed to collect and store fecal material into a tube containing guanidine solution. The DNA of the microbiota was extracted from each fecal samples and PCR amplification was performed using primers for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using the Ion Torrent PGM platform and the data were analyzed using the QIIME™ software version 1.8. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test and the ANOSIM non-parametric method based on distance matrix. RESULTS: The alpha-diversity and beta-diversity indices were similar between the two groups, without statistically significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference in the phylum level. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in the abundance of the family Clostridiaceae (0.3% vs 2.0%, P=0.032) and in the genus Faecaliumbacterium (10.5% vs 4.5%, P=0.045) between healthy controls and esophagitis patients. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that reduced abundance of the genus Faecaliumbacterium and greater abundance of the family Clostridiaceae may be risk factors for the development of erosive esophagitis. Intervention in the composition of the intestinal microbiota should be considered as an adjunct to current therapeutic strategies for this clinical condition.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A doença do refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE) é uma das enfermidades mais comuns na prática clínica e possui fisiopatologia multifatorial. Disbiose da microbiota intestinal pode ter influência em mecanismos envolvidos nesta doença, como mudanças nos padrões motores gastrointestinais, elevação da pressão intra-abdominal e aumento da frequência de relaxamentos transitórios do esfíncter esofágico inferior. Contudo, a avaliação da microbiota intestinal, neste contexto, ainda é pouco documentada. OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a microbiota bacteriana intestinal, em indivíduos com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico erosivo e em indivíduos saudáveis, utilizando técnicas de metagenômica. MÉTODOS: Estudo incluiu amostras fecais de 22 adultos, com idades entre 18 e 60 anos: 11 com esofagite erosiva (oito homens e três mulheres) e 11 controles saudáveis (dez homens e uma mulher). Os pacientes foram orientados a coletar e armazenar o material fecal em tubo contendo solução de guanidina. O DNA da microbiota foi extraído das amostras de fezes e amplificação por PCR foi realizada usando iniciadores para a região V4 do gene 16S rRNA. Os amplicons foram seqüenciados usando a plataforma Ion PGM Torrent e os dados foram analisados usando o software QIIME™ versão 1.8 (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology). Análise de estatística foi realizada utilizando-se o teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney e o teste ANOSIM, método não paramétrico baseado em matriz de distância. RESULTADOS: Os índices de alfa-diversidade e beta-diversidade foram semelhantes entre os dois grupos, sem diferença estatisticamente significante. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante no nível de filo, classe e ordem. Entretanto, observou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na abundância da família Clostridiaceae (0,3% vs 2,0%, P=0,032) e no gênero Faecaliumbacterium (10,5% vs 4,5%, P=0,045) entre controles saudáveis e pacientes com DRGE erosiva, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que menor abundância do gênero Faecaliumbacterium e maior abundância da família Clostridiaceae, nos pacientes com DRGE, podem influenciar na fisiopatologia desta doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Esophagitis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Dysbiosis , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. ADM ; 78(1): 48-50, ene.-feb- 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178199

ABSTRACT

La homeostasis oral está regida por varias condiciones en la cavidad bucal, como la saliva, que está compuesta por diversas sustancias benéficas, y por la microbiota, que es un reservorio de microorganismos, y cuando estos se modifican se altera la homeostasis oral y se genera una disbiosis que puede conducir a enfermedades bucales como gingivitis, periodontitis y/o caries; también puede favorecer el desarrollo de enfermedades sistémicas ocasionadas por hongos, bacterias y virus como el SARS-CoV-2 (AU)


Oral homeostasis is governed by various conditions in the oral cavity such as saliva, which is composed of various beneficial substances, and by the microbiota, which is a reservoir of microorganisms, and when these are modified, homeostasis of the oral cavity is altered and dysbiosis is generated that They can lead to oral diseases such as gingivitis, periodontitis and/or caries and can also favor the development of systematic diseases caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses, like SARS-CoV-2 (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Homeostasis , Mouth Diseases/microbiology , Saliva , Oral Health , Chronic Disease , Dysbiosis , Betacoronavirus
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3820-3827, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921468

ABSTRACT

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a disease caused by vaginal microbiota dysbiosis. The conventional antibiotic treatment can aggravate microbial dysbiosis, alter the acid environment of the vagina and lead to drug resistance, thus shows low cure rate and high recurrence rate. This poses significant physiological and psychological burden to the BV patients. Vaginal microbiota transplantation (VMT) is a novel live biotherapeutic approach. It directly engrafts the whole vaginal microbiota from healthy women to the vaginal tract of patients to rapidly reconstruct the vaginal microbiota environment and restore the vaginal health. This article summarizes the development, present challenges, and future directions of using VMT, with the aim to explore new strategies for treatment of BV and promote the clinical use of VMT.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis/therapy , Female , Humans , Microbiota , Vagina , Vaginosis, Bacterial/therapy
11.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3789-3800, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921465

ABSTRACT

Lung microbiota and gut microbiota are closely related to lung cancer. Studies have shown that the dysbiosis, i.e., the significantly altered composition and structure of gut and lung microbiota, usually occurs in patients with lung cancer. With the introduction of "Gut-Lung Axis", an increasing attention has been paid to the close relationship between the lung and gut microbiota in human body. A deeper insight into this relationship would facilitate understanding the mechanisms behind the carcinogenesis and development of lung cancer. This article summarizes the composition of lung and gut microbiota in patients with lung cancer and the possible interaction mechanisms, highlighting the importance of the immune system in the Gut-Lung Axis. The effects of lung and gut microbiota on the clinical treatment of lung cancer were summarized, based on which the authors propose that the lung and gut microbiota can be used as novel targets for early diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Lung , Lung Neoplasms
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2922-2930, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921237

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent, most lethal cancers in the world. Increasing evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota is closely related to the pathogenesis and prognosis of CRC. The normal microbiota plays an essential role in maintaining gut barrier function and the immune microenvironment. Recent studies have identified carcinogenic bacteria such as enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) and Streptococcus gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus), as well as protective bacterial such as Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila), as potential targets of CRC treatment. Gut microbiota modulation aims to restore gut dysbiosis, regulate the intestinal immune system and prevent from pathogen invasion, all of which are beneficial for CRC prevention and prognosis. The utility of probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation and dietary inventions to treat CRC makes them novel microbe-based management tools. In this review, we describe the mechanisms involved in bacteria-derived colorectal carcinogenesis and summarized novel bacteria-related therapies for CRC. In summary, we hope to facilitate clinical applications of intestinal bacteria for preventing and treating CRC.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms/therapy , Dysbiosis , Fecal Microbiota Transplantation , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Prebiotics , Tumor Microenvironment
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2788-2798, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921187

ABSTRACT

A massive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes has been described in early and acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, leading to an imbalance between the human microbiome and immune responses. In recent years, a growing interest in the alterations in gut microbiota in HIV infection has led to many studies; however, only few studies have been conducted to explore the importance of oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals. Evidence has indicated the dysbiosis of oral microbiota in people living with HIV (PLWH). Potential mechanisms might be related to the immunodeficiency in the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals, including changes in secretory components such as reduced levels of enzymes and proteins in saliva and altered cellular components involved in the reduction and dysfunction of innate and adaptive immune cells. As a result, disrupted oral immunity in HIV-infected individuals leads to an imbalance between the oral microbiome and local immune responses, which may contribute to the development of HIV-related diseases and HIV-associated non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome comorbidities. Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant decrease in occurrence of the opportunistic oral infections in HIV-infected individuals, the dysbiosis in oral microbiome persists. Furthermore, several studies with the aim to investigate the ability of probiotics to regulate the dysbiosis of oral microbiota in HIV-infected individuals are ongoing. However, the effects of ART and probiotics on oral microbiome in HIV-infected individuals remain unclear. In this article, we review the composition of the oral microbiome in healthy and HIV-infected individuals and the possible effect of oral microbiome on HIV-associated oral diseases. We also discuss how ART and probiotics influence the oral microbiome in HIV infection. We believe that a deeper understanding of composition and function of the oral microbiome is critical for the development of effective preventive and therapeutic strategies for HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Microbiota , Mouth
14.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 11-32, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880942

ABSTRACT

The huge communities of microorganisms that symbiotically colonize humans are recognized as significant players in health and disease. The human microbiome may influence prostate cancer development. To date, several studies have focused on the effect of prostate infections as well as the composition of the human microbiome in relation to prostate cancer risk. Current studies suggest that the microbiota of men with prostate cancer significantly differs from that of healthy men, demonstrating that certain bacteria could be associated with cancer development as well as altered responses to treatment. In healthy individuals, the microbiome plays a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis of body metabolism. Dysbiosis may contribute to the emergence of health problems, including malignancy through affecting systemic immune responses and creating systemic inflammation, and changing serum hormone levels. In this review, we discuss recent data about how the microbes colonizing different parts of the human body including urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, oral cavity, and skin might affect the risk of developing prostate cancer. Furthermore, we discuss strategies to target the microbiome for risk assessment, prevention, and treatment of prostate cancer.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Dysbiosis , Humans , Male , Microbiota , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control
15.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(2): 109-117, 2021. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1361827

ABSTRACT

La microbiota intestinal es el conjunto de millones de microrganismos vivos ubicados en el tracto gastrointestinal. Es indispensable en múltiples funciones del organismo, regulación de la inmunidad, en aspectos nutricionales y procesos de inflamación sistémica entre otros. La disbiosis es la alteración del equilibrio de la microbiota normal, debido a cambios en la composición, funcionamiento, orden o su distribución; esto puede predisponer al individuo a la adquisición de enfermedades gastrointestinales, alérgicas y metabólicas, entre otras. El objetivo del presente artículo es realizar una revisión narrativa de la literatura sobre los conceptos claves de la microbiota intestinal, sus asociaciones fisiopatológicas con desórdenes gastrointestinales, alérgicos y metabólicos en pediatría.


ntestinal microbiota are the millions of living microbial communities that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. It is essential for multiple functions of the human organism, such as, immune-regulation, in nutritional aspects, and systemic inflammatory processes, among others. Dysbiosis refers to the alteration of the equilibrium of normal microbiota due to shifts in its composition, functioning, order or distribution; this can predispose the individual to develop gastrointestinal, allergic and metabolic diseases among others. The aim of this article was to conduct a narrative review of the literature on the key concepts of intestinal microbiota, and its pathophysiological associations with gastrointestinal, allergic and metabolic disorders in pediatrics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Gastrointestinal Tract , Dysbiosis , Microbiota , Allergy and Immunology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Diseases
16.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 342-346, set 24, 2020. fig, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358402

ABSTRACT

Introdução: a microbiota intestinal representa agrupamentos de micro-organismos encarregados de exercerem várias atividades indispensáveis para a regulação da homeostase. Esta, além da manutenção funcional do trato gastrointestinal (TGI), faz interferência na regulação do eixo de conexão entre o sistema nervoso entérico (SNE) com sistema nervoso central (SNC), denominado eixo intestino-cérebro, sendo uma comunicação bidirecional. Objetivo: identificar o papel da microbiota intestinal no processo de saúde e doença do hospedeiro humano, indispensável ao estudo de infecções e desordens do sistema nervoso entérico e sua relação com patologias neurológicas. Metodologia: foi realizado revisão integrativa da literatura nas bases de dados Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO) e Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), além da Medical Publisher (PubMed). Resultados: constatou-se que a microbiota intestinal exerce influência sobre a cognição, o comportamento e também sobre o desenvolvimento neural. Além disso, a perda da homeostase do eixo intestino-cérebro pode contribuir para o surgimento de doenças mentais. Conclusão: através do estudo do eixo intestinocérebro, fica evidente a atuação da microbiota intestinal na manutenção da homeostase do SNC, bem como o seu envolvimento em várias disfunções, afetando o sistema nervoso e os intestinos, evidenciando uma via de comunicação bidirecional. Esse mecanismo é efetuado através de um sistema complexo de vias envolvendo os diversos componentes do sistema nervoso, endócrino e imunológico.


Introduction: the intestinal microbiota represents clusters of microorganisms that perform various activities that are essential for regulating homeostasis. This, in addition to the functional maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), interferes in the regulation of the connection axis between the enteric nervous system (SNE) with the central nervous system (CNS), called the gut-brain axis, being a bidirectional communication. Objective: to identify the role of the intestinal microbiota in the health and disease process of the human host, indispensable for the study of infections and disorders of the enteric nervous system and its relation with neurological pathologies. Methodology: an integrative review of the literature was carried out in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences Information (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), as well as Medical Publisher (PubMed). Results: it was verified that the intestinal microbiota influences cognition, behavior and also neural development. In addition, the loss of intestinal-brain axis homeostasis may contribute to the onset of mental illness. Conclusion: through the study of the intestine-brain axis, the intestinal microbiota performance in the maintenance of CNS homeostasis is evident, as well as its involvement in various dysfunctions, affecting the nervous system and the intestines, evidencing a bidirectional communication pathway. This mechanism is effected through a complex system of pathways involving the various components of the nervous, endocrine and immune systems.


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Inflammation , Nervous System Diseases , Review , Database
17.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 52(2): 192-193, 20200630.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147388

ABSTRACT

Inúmeros estudos demonstram o papel da microbiota intestinal na aquisição e evolução do SARS-CoV-2. Atua diretamente inibindo a replicação viral, assim como indiretamente modulando a resposta imune. Alguns perfis bacterianos já foram associados com uma maior gravidade dos sintomas, baseado na já bem conhecida conexão intestino-pulmão,com a produção de metabólitos bacterianos e componentes da resposta imune. Sem dúvida, o intestino pode ser alvo de futuras intervenções, através de modulação intestinal,propiciando uma nova e promissora abordagem no manejo terapêutico dos pacientes comCOVID-19.


Numerous studies demonstrate the role of the intestinal microbiota in the acquisition and evolution of SARS-CoV-2. It acts directly by inhibiting viral replication, as well as indirectly modulating the immune response. Some bacterial profiles have already been associated with a greater severity of symptoms, based on the well-known intestinelung connection, with the production of bacterial metabolites and components of the immune response. Undoubtedly, the intestine can be the target of future interventions, through intestinal modulation, providing a new and promising approach in the therapeutic management of patients with COVID-19


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Probiotics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Dysbiosis
18.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(2): e1063, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126756

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Se actualiza la relación del eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro con enfermedades neurológicas y psiquiátricas, en particular en trastornos del comportamiento en la infancia y adultos postulados en años recientes. Objetivo: Analizar la participación del eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro con alteraciones del comportamiento humano, con preferencia en la infancia y el papel de la disbiosis como factor determinante. Métodos: Se revisaron las publicaciones sobre el tema en español e inglés en bases de datos de PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO y Latindex desde el 2015 hasta el 30 septiembre de 2019. Resultados: Se actualizaron los criterios sobre el papel del eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro, posibles vías de acción y asociación con disbiosis y otros factores, desencadenados por alteración de la microbiota intestinal y su influencia en los trastornos del comportamiento mental, representados por el espectro autista, hipoactividad/ hiperexcitabilidad, ansiedad y depresión. Consideraciones finales: Los conocimientos alcanzados en el último decenio en estudios experimentales en ratones y la aplicación de sus resultados en humanos, sobre el papel del eje bidireccional microbiota-intestino-cerebro y sus relaciones con el equilibrio y desequilibrio de la microbiota intestinal, argumentan la posible participación del eje referido en el neurodesarrollo, afectación cerebral y neuromodulación y en especial en trastornos de conducta, como el espectro autista y otras afecciones analizadas(AU)


Introduction: The microbiota-gut-brain axis´ relation with neurological and psychiatric diseases is updated, in particular in behavioral disorders in children and adults postulated in recent years. Objective: To analyze the participation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in alterations of human behavior, with a preference in childhood and the role of dysbiosis as a determining factor. Methods: It was reviewed the literature on the subject in Spanish and English in databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO and Latindex from 2015 until September 30, 2019. Results: The criteria were updated on the role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis, possible ways of action and association with dysbiosis and other factors triggered by alteration of the intestinal microbiota and its influence on mental behavior disorders represented by the autism spectrum, hypoactivity/ hyperexcitability, anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Knowledge achieved in the last decade in experimental studies in mice and the application of their results in humans, the role of the microbiota-gut-brain bi-directional axis and its relations with the balance and imbalance of the intestinal microbiota argue on the possible involvement of the referred axis in neurodevelopment, brain affectation and neuromodulation, and especially in behavioral disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders and other conditions analyzed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cerebrum/microbiology , Dysbiosis/complications , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Mental Disorders/complications
19.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 317-327, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115503

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La microbiota intestinal (MI) es considerada como un nuevo blanco para la prevención y manejo nutricional de las alteraciones inflamatorias y metabólicas asociadas a las enfermedades crónicas no-transmisibles. Los prebióticos son principalmente fibras solubles cuyo consumo favorece el crecimiento de poblaciones bacterianas beneficiosas de la MI e impacta favorablemente la salud del consumidor. Esta revisión presenta a los fitoquímicos dietarios, que incluyen a más de 8.000 compuestos, como una nueva clase de prebióticos debido a su capacidad de estimular poblaciones de Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia y de bacterias productoras de butirato en el colon, a expensa de bacterias potencialmente dañinas como C. histolyticum. Además, los fitoquímicos son transformados por la MI en múltiples metabolitos que ejercen actividades biológicas a veces más potentes que la molécula inicial de la cual provienen. Individuos con distintos metabotipos han sido descritos de acuerdo a su capacidad de responder al consumo de isoflavonas, lignanos o elagitaninos, dependiendo de la presencia en su MI de bacterias capaces de transformar dichos polifenoles en equol, enterolactona/enterodiol y urolitinas, respectivamente, los cuales exhiben actividades biológicas. Valerolactonas y ácidos aromáticos también son producidos por la MI a través del metabolismo de las proantocianidinas. El efecto prebiótico de los fitoquímicos contribuiría a explicar los efectos saludables del consumo de frutas y verduras ricos en fitoquímicos.


ABSTRACT Intestinal microbiota (IM) is considered as a new target for the prevention and nutritional management of inflammatory and metabolic alterations associated with non-transmissible chronic diseases. Prebiotics are mainly soluble fibers whose consumption favors the growth of beneficial bacterial populations of the IM and positively impacts health. This review discusses dietary phytochemicals, which include more than 8,000 compounds, as a new class of prebiotics due to its ability to stimulate populations of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia and butyrate producing bacteria in the colon at the expense of potentially harmful bacteria, such as C. histolyticum. In addition, phytochemicals are transformed by IM into a great array of metabolites exerting biological activities and are sometimes more potent than the initial molecule from which they are derived. Individuals with different metabotypes have been described according to their ability to respond to the consumption of isoflavones, lignans or ellagitannins, depending on the presence in their IM of bacteria capable of transforming these polyphenols into equol, enterolactone/enterodiol and urolithins, respectively, which exhibit biological activities. Valerolactones and aromatic acids are also produced by the IM through proanthocyanidin metabolism. The prebiotic effect of phytochemicals would help to explain the healthy effects associated with the consumption of fruits and vegetables rich in phytochemicals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prebiotics , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Biological Products , Diet , Polyphenols/classification , Polyphenols/metabolism , Polyphenols/chemistry , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome
20.
Actual. nutr ; 21(2): 65-70, Abril-Junio de 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282354

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad de Alzheimer es la forma más común de demencia, la cual se asocia con el deterioro pro-gresivo de las funciones cognitivas; se caracteriza por la for-mación de ovillos neurofibrilares y placas seniles conformadas por la sustancia ß-amiloide. Desarrollo: el eje microbiota-intestino-cerebro permite la co-municación entre el tracto gastrointestinal y el cerebro. La micro-biota intestinal sufre modificaciones por el envejecimiento como el incremento de la permeabilidad intestinal y la translocación bacteriana. En presencia de disbiosis, los cambios en la motilidad y la secreción gastrointestinal alteran las células neuroendocrinas y del sistema inmune, y afectan la liberación de neurotransmiso-res. Así, las modificaciones de la microbiota pueden ocasionar la neuroinflamación que se observa en la enfermedad de Alzhei-mer. Los productos prebióticos y cepas de probióticos demostra-ron ser beneficiosos a nivel neurológico en dicha enfermedad, detectándose expresión de neurotransmisores y mejoría en las funciones cognitivas. Conclusiones: se ha documentado el uso de prebióticos y pro-bióticos en la enfermedad de Alzheimer, y se refirió que ocasio-nan reducción de la inflamación intestinal y disbiosis, así como mejora de las funciones cognitivas en estos pacientes. Sin em-bargo, en el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Alzheimer aún no se contempla el uso de los probióticos y tampoco se ha consi-derado como manera preventiva dado que las investigaciones son recientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Probiotics , Prebiotics , Alzheimer Disease/diet therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diet therapy , Cognition , Dysbiosis/diet therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Brain-Gut Axis
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