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1.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 59-66, Marzo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551217

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La infección por SARS-CoV-2 puede presentar síndrome de distrés res-piratorio agudo con requerimiento de ventilación mecánica prolongada y retraso en la realización de traqueostomía. Esto trae como consecuencia un incremento en casos de estenosis traqueal y la necesidad de métodos menos invasivos para su abordaje. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, desde marzo 2020 hasta diciem-bre 2021 en el Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia, en adultos con estenosis traqueal postintubación asociado SARS-CoV-2. Se realizó análisis univariado entre los grupos con infección o no por SARS-CoV-2 como control, y reintervención, grado de estenosis, uso de inyección intramucosa con dexametasona intratraqueal o múltiples estenosis como desenlaces de importancia. Se usó test exacto de Fisher, t Student y Man-Whitney según la naturaleza de variables. Se consideró p estadísticamente significativo menor a 0.05.Resultados: Se identificaron 26 pacientes, 20 tenían COVID-19 y 6 no. Se encontraron diferencias en edad (p=0,002), epilepsia (p=0,007) y estenosis múltiple (p= 0,04). En 85% de los casos se utilizó láser blue más dilatación con balón pulmonar, en 35% inyección intramucosa con dexametasona intratraqueal y reintervención en 35%, sin diferencias significativas entre grupos. Conclusiones: Se observó un incremento tres veces mayor de pacientes con estenosis múltiple en el grupo de infección por COVID-19, así mismo se encontró que el método más utilizado en este grupo para la recanalización fue el uso de láser blue más dilatación con balón pulmonar y la innovación en el uso de inyección intramucosa.


Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome with a prolonged need for mechanical ventilation and delayed tracheostomy, resulting in an increase in cases of tracheal stenosis and the necessity for less invasive approaches.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2020 to December 2021 at the Hospital Universitario Nacional de Colombia, focusing on adults with post-intubation tracheal stenosis associated with SARS-CoV-2. Univariate analysis was performed between groups with or without SARS-CoV-2 infection as a control, considering reintervention, degree of stenosis, use of intratracheal steroids, or multiple stenoses as important outcomes. Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whit-ney test were employed based on the nature of variables. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 26 patients were included, with 20 having COVID-19 and 6 without. Significant differences were found in age (p=0.002), epilepsy (p=0.007), and multiple stenosis (p=0.04). In 85% of cases, laser blue plus balloon pulmonary dilation was used, intratracheal dexamethasone in 35%, and reintervention in 35%, with no significant differences between groups.Conclusions: A threefold increase in subglottic stenosis was observed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with more instances of multiple stenosis and predominantly the use of laser blue plus balloon pulmonary dilation as a successful recanalization technique. There was a higher use of intratracheal dexamethasone in this group compared to oth-er pathologies causing tracheal stenosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Tracheal Stenosis/complications , Dyspnea , COVID-19/complications , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Tracheostomy/methods , Colombia , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 22 (2), 2023;22(2): 832, 16 octubre 2023. ilus, tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524835

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La disección de aorta es una patología poco frecuente, cuando se presenta, lo hace de una manera catastrófica manifestada por dolor torácico o lumbar intenso acompañado de compromiso hemodinámico agudo, un diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano suelen ser cruciales para evitar la muerte del paciente, así mismo, una disección de aorta puede ser secundario a un trauma torácico por desaceleración y se presenta en 1,5% a 2%, lo que induce sobre todo a un desgarro localizado en la región del istmo aórtico. CASO CLÍNICO. Paciente masculino de 35 años, con antecedente de accidente en vehículo motorizado que provocó un traumatismo cráneo encefálico moderado, hematoma epidural parietal derecho, con resolución quirúrgica hace 18 meses, se descartó lesiones a nivel de tórax con radiografía de tórax normal, además se realizó ecografía FAST en ventana perihepática, suprapúbica, periesplénica y subxi-foidea sin encontrar alteración. Acudió al servicio de emergencia por un cuadro de hemiparesia derecha más disartria de 4 horas de evolución, se realiza tomografía de cráneo sin encontrarse lesión, catalogándose como evento cerebrovascular isquémico con recuperación neurológica. Durante su estancia hospitalaria presenta un cuadro de disnea de grandes esfuerzos y tras realizar exámenes complementarios de control se llega a una conclusión de una cardiomegalia, por lo que es referido a consulta de cardiología donde se realiza ecocardiograma, en la cual se observa disección de aorta ascendente más aneurisma por lo que se decide su ingreso y se instaura tratamiento mediante medidas de soporte, con derivación a hospital de especialidades para cirugía cardiotorácica. CONCLUSIONES. La disección de aorta secundario a un traumatis-mo es poco frecuente, sin embargo, el diagnostico siempre debe estar presente en caso de trauma por desaceleración, ya que es vital para la supervivencia del paciente y su manejo oportuno.


INTRODUCTION. Aortic dissection is an infrequent pathology; when it occurs, it does so in a catastrophic manner manifested by intense thoracic or lumbar pain accompanied by acute he-modynamic compromise. Early diagnosis and treatment are usually crucial to avoid the patient's death; likewise, aortic dissection can be secondary to thoracic trauma due to deceleration and occurs in 1.5% to 2%, which mainly induces a localized tear in the region of the aortic isthmus. CLINICAL CASE. 35-year-old male patient, with a history of motor vehicle accident that caused a moderate head injury, right parietal epidural hematoma, with surgical resolution 18 months ago, chest injuries were ruled out with normal chest X-ray, and FAST ultrasound was performed in perihepatic, suprapubic, perisplenic and subxiphoid window without finding any alteration. She went to the emergency department for a picture of right hemiparesis and dysarthria of 4 hours of evolution, a cranial tomography was performed without finding any lesion, being clas-sified as an ischemic cerebrovascular event with neurological recovery. During his hospital stay he presented with dyspnea of great effort and after performing complementary control tests, a cardiomegaly was found, so he is referred to a cardiology clinic where an echocardiogram is per-formed, which showed dissection of the ascending aorta plus aneurysm, admission is decided and treatment is instituted through supportive measures, with referral to a specialty hospital for cardiothoracic surgery. CONCLUSIONS. Aortic dissection secondary to trauma is rare, however, the diagnosis should always be present in case of trauma due to deceleration, as it is vital for the survival of the patient and its timely treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Thoracic Surgery , Wounds and Injuries , Deceleration , Traffic Trauma Care , Dissection, Thoracic Aorta , Aneurysm , Chest Pain , Accidents, Traffic , Low Back Pain , Cardiomegaly , Dyspnea , Ecuador , Brain Injuries, Traumatic
3.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(3): [157-167], sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510520

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) es una enfermedad progresiva y cró-nica con muy mal pronóstico. Actualmente, existen dos fármacos para esta patología. El propósito de nuestro estudio es evaluar los efectos del tratamiento en los pacientes de una consulta en vida real.


Introduction: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive disease with a very poor prognosis. Two drugs are currently available for this disease. The purpo-se of our study is to evaluate the effects of treatment in patients in a real-life practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Dyspnea , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Antifibrotic Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Function Tests , Efficacy , Drug Tolerance
4.
Femina ; 51(8): 480-485, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512457

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar o uso dos contraceptivos hormonais em mulheres com asma e a escolha desses métodos contraceptivos para essa população, com avaliação de eventuais repercussões sobre novos episódios de asma e sibilos. Métodos: Foram selecionados estudos longitudinais, ensaios clínicos, revisões sistemáticas e metanálises. As plataformas consultadas foram PubMed, Embase, Cochrane e SciELO, com a utilização dos descritores: "contracepção", "contracepção hormonal", "sistema intrauterino liberador de levonorgestrel" e "asma". Resultados: Dois grandes estudos demonstraram que o uso de contraceptivos hormonais esteve associado à redução do risco de novos episódios de asma. Uma revisão sistemática concluiu que os resultados para o uso de contraceptivos hormonais para mulheres com asma foram mistos, com aumento ou redução dos seguintes riscos: novo episódio de asma e aumento da frequência das crises e dos sibilos. O uso da contracepção hormonal em pacientes obesas portadoras de asma é controverso. Conclusão: Os resultados para o uso de contraceptivos hormonais em mulheres com asma são inconsistentes, com relatos de aumento ou de redução do risco de novos episódios. O uso do método contraceptivo deve ser discutido individualmente, levando-se em consideração outros fatores de risco associados e o desejo da mulher. A paciente deverá ser orientada se houver piora dos sintomas clínicos de asma na vigência do uso de qualquer método contraceptivo hormonal.


Objective: To analyze the use of hormonal contraceptives in women with asthma and the choice of this contraceptive method for this population, evaluating possible repercussions on new episodes of asthma and wheezing. Methods: Longitudinal studies, clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were selected. Platforms consulted: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, SciELO, using the descriptors: "contraception", "hormonal contraception", "levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system" and "asthma". Results: Two large studies demonstrated that the use of hormonal contraceptives was associated with a reduced risk of new episodes of asthma. A systematic review concluded that the results for the use of hormonal contraceptives for women with asthma were mixed, with increased or decrease in the following risks: new asthma episodes, increased frequency and wheezing. The use of hormonal contraception in obese patients with asthma is controversial. Conclusion: The results for the use of hormonal contraceptives in women with asthma are inconsistent, with reports of increased or reduced risk of new episodes. The use of the contraceptive method should be discussed individually, taking into account other associated risk factors and the woman's desire. The patient will be advised if there is a worsening of the clinical symptoms of asthma while using any hormonal contraceptive method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma/complications , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/adverse effects , Contraceptive Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Progesterone/adverse effects , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Chest Pain/diagnosis , Menarche , Respiratory Sounds/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Estrogens , Systematic Review , Lung/physiopathology
5.
Femina ; 51(8): 491-496, 20230830. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512462

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o caso de mulher com síndrome de Meigs e apresentar a revisão narrativa sobre o tema. Paciente do sexo feminino, 30 anos, nulípara, encaminhada ao hospital por massa anexial e história prévia de drenagem de derrame pleural. Evoluiu com instabilidade hemodinâmica por derrame pleural hipertensivo à direita, sendo submetida a drenagem torácica, com citologia do líquido negativa. Após, foi submetida a laparotomia: realizada salpingo-ooforectomia esquerda. A congelação e a análise histopatológica diagnosticaram fibroma ovariano. A citologia ascítica foi negativa. CA-125 elevado, presença de derrames cavitários e exame de imagem suspeito podem mimetizar um cenário de neoplasia maligna de ovário em estágio avançado. Entretanto, na síndrome de Meigs clássica, o tratamento é cirúrgico, sendo o diagnóstico obtido por meio da análise histopatológica do tumor ovariano. O manejo da síndrome de Meigs clássica é cirúrgico e, após a remoção do tumor, o derrame pleural e a ascite desaparecem.


To describe a case of Meigs syndrome and present a narrative review of the condition. Female patient, 30 years old, nulliparous, referred to the hospital due to an adnexal mass and a previous drainage of pleural effusion. She developed hemodynamic instability due to a hypertensive right pleural effusion being submitted to chest drainage, with negative cytology of the fluid. She underwent laparotomy: Left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed and frozen section and histopathological analysis diagnosed an ovarian fibroma. Ascites cytology was negative. Elevated CA-125, presence of cavitary effusions, suspicious imaging exam can mimic a scenario of ovarian cancer at an advanced stage. However, in classical Meigs syndrome, treatment is surgical, and the diagnosis is obtained through histopathological analysis of the ovarian tumor. Classical Meigs syndrome' management is surgical. After tumor removal, pleural effusion and ascites resolve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Meigs Syndrome/surgery , Meigs Syndrome/diagnosis , Case Reports , Weight Loss , Anorexia/complications , Women's Health , Pelvic Pain , Cough/complications , Dyspnea/complications , Fatigue/complications , Abdomen/physiopathology
6.
Oncología (Guayaquil) ; 33(2): 143-152, 14 de agosto del 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451570

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo de los síntomas refractarios con dexmetomidina (DXM) es una alternativa en pacientes oncológicos en la atención al final de la vida (AFV) lo que puede convertirse en un gran desafío, ante la necesidad de iniciar sedación paliativa. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar el efecto de la DXM comparado con el midazolam (MDZ) en el control de síntomas refractarios en pacientes con cáncer avanzado AFV, como parte de una estrategia asistencial de sedación paliativa. Metodología: Estudio observacional, longitudinal, se revisaron los informes médicos en las historias clínicas de pacientes hospitalizados con diagnóstico de cáncer avanzado terminal y síntomas refractarios (dolor, disnea y delirio), que recibieron sedación paliativa con DXM o MDZ. Se utilizaron los registros de Escala de Evaluación de Síntomas de Edmonton - revisada (ESAS-r) para intensidad de síntomas y la Escala de Sedación/Agitación de Richmond (RASS) para respuesta a la sedación. Resultados: Un total de 35 pacientes recibieron DXM y 18 MDZ. El dolor (32 %) y delirio (30 %) fueron los síntomas refractarios más identificados. Dolor intenso en 89.3 % antes del inicio de DXM. A las 72 horas, el grupo DXM presentó disminución de la intensidad del delirio a leve y moderado, mientras que la mayoría de los pacientes del grupo MDZ fallecieron antes de las 72 horas. Conclusiones: El uso clínico de la DXM permite un enfoque multimodal, ampliando su utilidad en la atención al final de la vida para el manejo del dolor y delirio, ya que permite un estado de respuesta para la interacción con los miembros de la familia, función relevante en cuidados paliativos.


Introduction: Managing refractory symptoms with dexmedetomidine (DXM) is an alternative for cancer patients in end-of-life care (EOLC), which can become a great challenge, given the need to start palliative sedation. This study aims to determine the effect of DXM compared to midazolam (MDZ) in controlling refractory symptoms in patients with advanced EOLC cancer as part of a palliative sedation care strategy. Methodology: In this observational, longitudinal study, the medical reports in the medical records of hospitalized patients diagnosed with terminal advanced cancer and refractory symptoms (pain, dyspnea, and delirium) who received palliative sedation with DXM or MDZ were reviewed. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale-revised (ESAS-r) scores for symptom intensity and the Richmond Sedation/Agitation Scale (RASS) for response to sedation were used. Results: A total of 35 patients received DXM, and 18 received MDZ. Pain (32%) and delirium (30%) were the most identified refractory symptoms. Intense pain in 89.3% before DXM started; at 72 hours in 64.3%, the pain was reported as mild. Delirium was severe in 77.7%, DXM was used in 59.3%, and MDZ was used in 40.7%. At 72 hours, the DXM group presented a decrease in delirium intensity to mild and moderate, while most of the patients in the MDZ group died before 72 hours. Conclusions: The clinical use of DXM allows a multimodal approach, expanding its usefulness in end-of-life care for managing pain and delirium since it provides a state of response for interaction with family members, a function relevant in palliative care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Palliative Care , Dexmedetomidine , Cancer Pain , Pain , Midazolam , Delirium , Dyspnea
7.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(2): 88-93, jun2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437542

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es un trastorno res-piratorio caracterizado por síntomas clínicos y compromiso funcional que afecta la ca-pacidad aeróbica limitando las actividades cotidianas y la calidad de vida. La prueba de caminata de 6 minutos (C6M) es una prueba sencilla y de bajo costo que evalúa la capa-cidad de los pacientes para realizar sus actividades cotidianas. Objetivo: evaluar la re-lación entre la capacidad aeróbica medida por la distancia recorrida en la C6M y el se-xo, edad, disnea y comorbilidades cardiometabólicas en pacientes con EPOC. Material y métodos: estudio de corte transversal, descriptivo, basado en pruebas de caminatas de 6 minutos (C6M) realizadas en pacientes con EPOC. Resultados: se evaluaron 101 pacientes, hombres (63,4%), con una edad promedio de 74,1±8,7 años. Al correlacionar C6M con otras variables se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La distancia media recorrida fue mayor en hombres que en mujeres (DM: 58,3 metros, IC 95%; 16 - 100,6, p=0,007). Los pacientes < 75 años, sin comorbilidades y disnea < 2 tu-vieron mejor desempeño en la C6M que los > 75 años (DM; 62,012 metros IC 95% 21,5 - 102,4, p=0,003), con comorbilidades (DM: 42,2 metros, IC 95%, 0.003 - 84,4; p=0,050) y disnea ≥ 2 (DM: 65,8 IC 95% 23,9 - 107,6, p=0,002). Conclusiones: el sexo femenino, la presencia de comorbilidad cardiovascular y metabólica, y la edad se asocian con dis-minución en la capacidad física aeróbica y funcional en los pacientes con EPOC. (AU)


Introduction: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a respiratory disorder characterized by clinical symptoms and functional impairment that affects aerobic capacity, limiting daily activities and quality of life. The 6-minute walk test (C6M) is a simple, low-cost test that assesses a patient's ability to perform their daily activities. Objective: to evaluate the relationship between aerobic capacity measured by the distance covered in the C6M and gender, age, dyspnea and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with COPD. Materials and methods: cross-sectional, descriptive study, based on 6-minute walk tests (C6M) performed in patients with COPD. Results: 101 male patients (63.4%), with a mean age of 74.1 ± 8.7 years, were evaluated. When correlating C6M with other variables, statistically significant differences were found. The mean distance traveled was greater in men than in women (MD: 58.3 meters, 95% CI: 16 - 100.6, p=0.007). Patients <75 years old, without comorbidities and dyspnea <2 had better performance in the C6M than those >75 years old (MD; 62 meters CI 95% 21.5 - 102.4, p=0.003), with comorbidities (MD: 42.2 meters, 95% CI, 0.003 - 84.4; p=0.050) and dyspnea ≥ 2 (MD: 65.8, 95% CI 23.9 - 107.6, p=0.002). Conclusions: female sex, the presence of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidity, and age are associated with decreased aerobic and functional physical capacity in patients with COPD. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , Dyspnea/pathology , Walk Test/methods , Quality of Life , Comorbidity , Colombia , Age Groups
8.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(2): [113-127], jun2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437560

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) es la tercera causa de muerte en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, ante la falta de herramientas diagnósticas precisas en el primer nivel de atención médica, como la espirometría, es difícil determinar la prevalen-cia real de la EPOC.Por otro lado, la falta de una definición clara y precisa de las exacerbaciones de la EPOC hace que se subestime su impacto en la salud pública; habitualmente, los pacien-tes con EPOC que cursan una exacerbación retrasan la búsqueda de atención médica inmediata porque se acostumbran al deterioro asociado a la enfermedad o lo confun-den con cambios por la edad avanzada. Esto puede provocar un aumento de la mor-bilidad y la mortalidad, asimismo, mayor utilización de los recursos sanitarios y mayor carga económica. Por lo tanto, es importante sensibilizar sobre la importancia del diagnóstico temprano y el tratamiento adecuado de las exacerbaciones de la EPOC, del mismo modo que el mayor conocimiento público de los síntomas, las causas y los factores de riesgo de la EPOC. Con ello, se podrán aplicar estrategias de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento más eficaces que mejoren la calidad de vida de los pacientes y disminuyan la carga de la enfermedad para la sociedad.Esta revisión ofrece un análisis crítico de la definición más reciente y esboza las impli-caciones del comportamiento de las exacerbaciones, su impacto en los distintos ám-bitos del sistema sanitario, así como en las diferentes esferas de la vida de los pacien-tes con EPOC. (AU)


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a common disease and the third leading cause of death worldwide. However, due to the lack of accurate diagnostic tools at the first level of care, such as spirometry, the true prevalence of COPD is difficult to determine.In addition, the lack of a clear definition of COPD exacerbations means that its pub-lic health impact is underestimated. Patients with COPD often do not seek immediate medical attention because they become used to the deterioration associated with the disease. This can lead to increased patient morbidity and mortality, as well as increased utilization of healthcare resources and higher economic costs. Therefore, it is important to promote greater awareness of the importance of early di-agnosis and proper management of COPD exacerbations, as well as increased public awareness of COPD symptoms, etiologic agents, and risk factors.By better understanding COPD exacerbations, more effective prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients and reduce the burden of the disease on society.This review aims to provide a critical analysis of the most recent definition and to out-line the implications of the behavior of COPD exacerbations and their impact on the dif-ferent settings of the health care system, as well as on the different spheres of patients' lives. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Early Diagnosis , Mexico
9.
Acta neurol. colomb ; 39(2)jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1533486

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El compromiso respiratorio en la enfermedad de Pompe es una de sus manifestaciones más frecuentes, tiene un impacto negativo en la calidad de vida y facilita la aparición de múltiples complicaciones. Se puede presentar como parte evolutiva de la enfermedad o incluso ser el síntoma inicial de la patología. Contenidos: La presentación clínica del compromiso respiratorio en la enfermedad de Pompe se caracteriza por disnea, ortopnea, cefalea y tos, y sus cambios paraclínicos incluyen hipercapnia, policitemia, elevación del índice de apnea/hipopnea, así como disminución de la capacidad vital y de las presiones inspiratoria y espiratorias máximas. El compromiso respiratorio es causado principalmente por disfunción muscular (especialmente el diafragma) y alteración de la regulación del sistema nervioso central. Conclusiones: Es fundamental la valoración acuciosa inicial de los patrones respiratorios y por supuesto su seguimiento, el cual dependerá del tipo de progresión de la disfunción respiratoria (rápida o lenta) o del requerimiento específico para cada paciente (ventilación no invasiva o invasiva).


Introduction: Respiratory compromise in Pompe disease is one of the most frequent manifestations, which has a negative impact on quality of life and leads to multiple complications. This can occur as an evolutionary part of the disease, or even be the initial symptom of the pathology. Contents: Its clinical presentation is characterized by dyspnea, orthopnea, headache, and cough, and its paraclinical changes include hypercapnia, polycythemia, elevated apnea/hypopnea index, decreased vital capacity, and decreased maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures. Respiratory compromise is caused mainly by muscular dysfunction (especially the diaphragm) and alteration of regulation of the central nervous system. Conclusions: An initial careful assessment of respiratory patterns is essential, and of course their follow-up, that will depend of the type of progression of respiratory dysfunction (rapid or slow) or the specific requirement for each patient (non-invasive or invasive ventilation).


Subject(s)
Spirometry , Glycogen Storage Disease Type II , Vital Capacity , Noninvasive Ventilation , Apnea , Polysomnography , Dyspnea
10.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 36(1): e368, abr. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512933

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: As calcificações de artérias coronárias (CAC) mostram-se como fator preditivo de doenças cardiovasculares (DCV). A tomografia computadorizada (TC) de tórax com protocolo de aquisição de baixa dose apresenta acurácia na identificação de CAC e propicia achados incidentais dessas calcificações, que são comumente negligenciados. Este estudo analisará a prevalência de achados incidentais de calcificação em artérias coronárias em indivíduos não cardiopatas submetidos à TC de tórax. Métodos: Estudo transversal consecutivo de caráter analítico e descritivo. Foram incluídos indivíduos de ambos os sexos que realizaram TC de tórax por encaminhamento, acima de 18 anos e não cardiopatas. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de prontuários e ficha de anamnese auto aplicada. As variáveis referentes às CAC e à extensão do comprometimento foram obtidas a partir da reavaliação das imagens de TC de tórax disponíveis no sistema da instituição. Os exames foram anonimizados e avaliados por dois médicos radiologistas experientes. Considerou-se como estatisticamente significativo p≤0,05. Resultados: Foram analisados 397 exames. Encontrou-se prevalência de calcificações em 176 (44%) dos casos. A existência dessas calcificações coronárias está relacionada à idade (p<0,001). As calcificações possuem relação com o sexo (p = 0,03) com maior razão de chance de desenvolvimento em homens (odds ratio [OR] = 1,55). O tabagismo (p<0,001), o sedentarismo (p<0,001), a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (p<0,001), o diabetes mellitus (p = 0,04) e as dislipidemias (p<0,001) mostraram associação positiva. Conclusão: A prevalência de achados incidentais de CAC foi de 44%; variam em maior número entre leve e grave; maior razão de chance no sexo masculino e aumento da prevalência com a idade. Portanto, a TC de tórax mostra-se um efetivo método para avaliar as CAC, e juntamente com a história clínica do paciente pode ser utilizada para medir os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares e intervir no desfecho do quadro.(AU)


Introduction: Coronary artery calcifications (CAC) are shown to be a predictive factor of cardiovascular diseases. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest with a low-dose acquisition protocol is accurate in identifying CAC and provides incidental findings of these calcifications, which are commonly overlooked. This study will analyze the prevalence of incidental findings of calcification in coronary arteries in non-cardiac individuals undergoing chest CT. Methods: Consecutive cross-sectional study of an analytical and descriptive nature. Individuals of both genders who underwent chest CT by referral, over 18 years of age and without heart disease were included. Data collection was carried out using medical records and a self-applied anamnesis form. The variables referring to the CAC and the extension of the impairment were obtained from the reassessment of the chest CT images available in the institution's system. The exams were anonymized and evaluated by two experienced radiologists. P≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 397 exams were analyzed. A prevalence of calcifications was found in 176 (44%) of the cases. The existence of these coronary calcifications is related to age (p<0.001). Calcifications are related to gender (p = 0.03) with a higher odds ratio of development in men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55). Smoking (p<0.001), sedentary lifestyle (p<0.001), systemic arterial hypertension (p<0.001), Diabetes Mellitus (p = 0.04), and dyslipidemia (p<0.001) showed a positive association. Conclusion: The prevalence of incidental CAC findings was 44%; vary in greater numbers between mild and severe; higher odds ratio in males and increased prevalence with age. Therefore, chest CT proves to be an effective method to assess CAC, and together with the patient's clinical history, it can be used to measure risk factors for CVD and intervene in the outcome of the condition.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Incidental Findings , Vascular Calcification/physiopathology , Vascular Calcification/prevention & control , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Tobacco Use Disorder/etiology , Chest Pain/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Hemoptysis/etiology , Hypertension/etiology
12.
Av. enferm ; 41(1): 1-13, ene.2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1417407

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: validar o conteúdo do cenário de simulação clínica sobre assistência ao paciente idoso hospitalizado em cuidados paliativos com dispneia, como ferramenta de ensino para estudantes de graduação em enfermagem. Materiais e método: estudo metodológico desenvolvido em três fases: revisão integrativa da literatura; entrevista com enfermeiros da área de gerontologia e cuidados paliativos; e validação do conteúdo do cenário de simulação. A validação contou com cinco juízes especialistas na área de simulação, gerontologia e cuidados paliativos entre abril e maio de 2022. O cenário criado foi baseado no pressuposto da Fabri: objetivos, material de estudo prévio, preparação, desenvolvimento, debriefing e avaliação. Utilizaram-se estatística descritiva e índice de validade de conteúdo. Resultados: foi identificado que os itens "duração do cenário", "características do paciente", "descrição do caso clínico", "caracterização do ator", "prebriefing" e "avaliação" obtiveram 0,80. O cenário de simulação obteve um valor geral de 0,91. Foram realizados ajustes no cenário referente à clareza da redação, às funcionalidades e à pertinência segundo as sugestões dos juízes. Conclusões: o cenário validado é uma ferramenta que auxilia no ensino da graduação em enfermagem, proporcionando uma formação nas áreas de gerontologia e de cuidados paliativos com um olhar diferenciado, o que pode levar a uma assistência humanizada e de qualidade.


Objetivo: validar el escenario de simulación clínica sobre la asistencia al adulto mayor hospitalizado en cuidados paliativos con disnea como herramienta de enseñanza para estudiantes de pregrado en enfermería. Materiales y método: estudio metodológico desarrollado en tres fases: revisión integrativa de la literatura; entrevista con profesionales de enfermería en el área de gerontología y cuidados paliativos; y validación del escenario de simulación. La validación contó con la participación de cinco jueces expertos en el área de simulación, gerontología y cuidados paliativos, y se llevó a cabo entre abril y mayo de 2022. El escenario creado se basó en el referencial de Fabri: objetivos, material de estudio previo, preparación, desarrollo, debriefing y evaluación. Esta investigación acudió al uso de estadística descriptiva y el índice de validez de contenido. Resultados: se identificó que los ítems "duración del escenario", "características del paciente", "descripción del caso clínico", "caracterización del actor", "prebriefing" y "evaluación" obtuvieron un valor de 0,80. El escenario de simulación obtuvo un valor general de 0,91. Se incorporaron algunos ajustes al escenario con respecto a la claridad de la escritura, las funcionalidades y su relevancia, de acuerdo con las sugerencias de los jueces. Conclusiones: el escenario validado se constituye en una herramienta que contribuirá al proceso de enseñanza del estudiante de enfermería, particularmente a la formación en las áreas de gerontología y cuidados paliativos, proporcionando una mirada diferente que redundará en cuidados de calidad y humanizados.


Objective: To validate the content of a clinical simulation scenario on the care provided to elderly patients with dyspnea hospitalized in palliative care as a teaching tool for undergraduate nursing students. Materials and method: Methodological study developed in three phases, namely: integrative literature review; interviews with nurses in the gerontology and palliative care area; and validation of the simulation scenario content. The validation phased engaged five specialist judges in the area of simulation, gerontology, and palliative care, and was conducted between April and May 2022. The scenario created was based on Fabri's assumption: objectives, previous study material, preparation, development, debriefing, and evaluation. Descriptive statistics and the content validity index were used. Results: The items "duration of the scenario", "patient characteristics", "description of the clinical case", "characterization of the actors", "prebriefing" and "evaluation" obtained a score of 0.80. The simulation scenario obtained an overall value of 0.91. Adjustments on the clarity in writing, functionalities, and the relevance of the scenario were incorporated, according to the judges' suggestions. Conclusions: The validated scenario could become a tool in the training process of undergraduate nursing courses, providing a different perspective for gerontology and palliative care training and fostering humanized and quality care.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Aged , Nursing , Patient Simulation , Dyspnea
13.
The Filipino Family Physician ; : 263-286, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1005175

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dyspnea also referred to as shortness of breath or breathlessness is defined as “a subjective experience of breathing discomfort that consists of qualitatively distinct sensations that vary in intensity.” Dyspnea is a symptom of the disease, rather than a disease itself. Its etiology can be designated as arising from four primary categories: respiratory, cardiac, neuromuscular, psychogenic, systemic illness, or a combination of these.@*Objective@#The general objective in developing this guideline is to improve the quality and outcomes of care to adult patients with dyspnea or shortness of breath in primary care and outpatient setting.@*Methods@#The ADAPTE process was utilized in the development of the initial guideline recommendations where the following steps were followed: 1) definition of clinical questions, 2) searching, screening and appraisal of guidelines, 3) decision and selection of evidence and 4) iterative drafting of guideline recommendation was done. The retrieved guidelines were systematically evaluated for their quality and validity using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II Instrument, which is a tool developed to assess the methodological quality of practice guidelines. If the adopted guideline did not have recommendations for our clinical question, we developed the recommendations de novo using the GRADE approach. We prioritized retrieving systematic reviews and meta-analysis articles that are relevant to our clinical questions. In the development of recommendations, the guideline development team prioritized the interventions that address the following outcomes i.e., decrease in severity of dyspnea, resolution of dyspnea, improved quality of life and decrease mortality. Data from the articles were extracted and the evidence was then summarized and appraised based on the type of study. The recommendations were then developed by the team as the initial draft that was subjected to external review and consensus panel discussion for finalization.


Subject(s)
Outpatients , Dyspnea , Primary Health Care
14.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 322-327, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985870

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and the risk factors of severe human metapneumovirus (hMPV)-associated community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. Methods: A retrospective case summary was conducted. From December 2020 to March 2022, 721 children who were diagnosed with CAP and tested positive for hMPV nucleic acid by PCR-capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of nasopharyngeal secretions at the Yuying Children's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University were selected as the research objects. The clinical characteristics, epidemiological characteristics and mixed pathogens of the two groups were analyzed. According to CAP diagnostic criteria, the children were divided into the severe group and the mild group. Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney rank and contrast analysis was used for comparison between groups, while multivariate Logistic regression was applied to analyze the risk factors of the severe hMPV-associated CAP. Results: A total of 721 children who were diagnosed with hMPV-associated CAP were included in this study, with 397 males and 324 females. There were 154 cases in the severe group. The age of onset was 1.0 (0.9, 3.0) years, <3 years old 104 cases (67.5%), and the length of hospital stay was 7 (6, 9) days. In the severe group, 67 children (43.5%) were complicated with underlying diseases. In the severe group, 154 cases (100.0%) had cough, 148 cases (96.1%) had shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, and 132 cases (85.7%) had fever, 23 cases (14.9%) were complicated with respiratory failure. C-reactive protein (CRP) was elevated in 86 children (55.8%), including CRP≥50 mg/L in 33 children (21.4%). Co-infection was detected in 77 cases (50.0%) and 102 strains of pathogen were detected, 25 strains of rhinovirus, 17 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 15 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 12 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and 10 strains of respiratory syncytial virus were detected. Six cases (3.9%) received heated and humidified high flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, 15 cases (9.7%) were admitted to intensive care unit, and 2 cases (1.3%) received mechanical ventilation. In the severe group, 108 children were cured, 42 children were improved, 4 chlidren were discharged automatically without recovery and no death occurred. There were 567 cases in the mild group. The age of onset was 2.7 (1.0, 4.0) years, and the length of hospital stay was 4 (4, 6) days.Compared with the mild group, the proportion of children who age of disease onset <6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, the proportions of preterm birth, congenital heart disease, malnutrition, congenital airway malformation, neuromuscular disease, mixed respiratory syncytial viruses infection were higher (20 cases (13.0%) vs. 31 cases (5.5%), 32 cases (20.8%) vs. 64 cases (11.3%), 23 cases (14.9%) vs. 44 cases (7.8%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 18 cases (3.2%), 9 cases (5.8%) vs. 6 cases (1.1%), 11 cases (7.1%) vs. 12 cases (2.1%), 8 cases (5.2%) vs. 4 cases (0.7%), 10 cases (6.5%) vs. 13 cases (2.3%), χ2=0.42, 9.45, 7.40, 4.94, 11.40, 8.35, 3.52, 6.92, all P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that age<6 months (OR=2.51, 95%CI 1.29-4.89), CRP≥50 mg/L (OR=2.20, 95%CI 1.36-3.57), prematurity (OR=2.19, 95%CI 1.26-3.81), malnutrition (OR=6.05, 95%CI 1.89-19.39) were the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP. Conclusions: Severe hMPV-associated CAP is most likely to occur in infants under 3 years old and has a higher proportion of underlying diseases and co-infection. The main clinical manifestations are cough, shortness of breath and pulmonary moist rales, fever. The overall prognosis is good. Age<6 months, CRP≥50 mg/L, preterm birth, malnutrition are the independent risk factors for severe hMPV-associated CAP.


Subject(s)
Infant , Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Cough , Coinfection , Premature Birth , Respiratory Sounds , Metapneumovirus , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Dyspnea , Malnutrition
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 135-139, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To explore the application of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in the rapid clinical diagnosis of critically ill neonates.@*METHODS@#The critically ill neonates who admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Children's Hospital of Fudan University and underwent WGS from August to September, 2019 were enrolled in this prospective study. The genetic testing results and clinical outcome were analyzed with reference to the sequencing data and clinical features of the neonates.@*RESULTS@#A total of 15 neonates were tested, among whom there were 9 boys and 6 girls. The main reason for hospitalization included abnormal breathing in 7 neonates, poor response in 2 neonates, feeding difficulty in 2 neonates, fever in 1 neonate, hypothermia in 1 neonate, preterm birth in 1 neonate, and convulsion in 1 neonate. The mean turn-around time was 4.5 days for WGS. Finally a genetic diagnosis was obtained for 3 neonates, with a positive diagnostic rate of 20% (3/15). Among the 3 neonates, 2 neonates were withdrawn from the treatment due to severe conditions and 1 neonate died on the day when the sample was sent for genetic testing, whose etiology could be explained by the results of genetic testing.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WGS technique can provide a timely and effective diagnosis for critically ill neonates suspected of genetic diseases and provide genetic evidence for clinical treatment of critically ill cases.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Male , Child , Female , Humans , Critical Illness , Prospective Studies , Premature Birth , Dyspnea , Fever
16.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 337-351, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982591

ABSTRACT

The awake prone position plays an important role in the treatment of hypoxemia and the improvement of respiratory distress symptoms in non-intubated patients. It is widely used in clinical practice because of its simple operation, safety, and economy. To enable clinical medical staff to scientifically and normatively implement prone position for awake patients without intubation, the committees of consensus formulation, guided by evidence-based methodology and Delphi method, conducted literature search, literature quality evaluation and evidence synthesis around seven topics, including indications and contraindications, evaluation, implementation, monitoring and safety management, termination time, complication prevention and health education of awake prone position. After two rounds of expert letter consultation, Expert consensus on implementation strategy of awake prone positioning for non-intubated patients in China (2023) was formulated, and provide guidance for clinical medical staff.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Prone Position , Wakefulness , China , Dyspnea
17.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 935-940, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982366

ABSTRACT

Cryptogenic organic pneumonia (COP) refers to organic pneumonia that has not been identified a clear cause by current medical methods. A small proportion of COP can exhibit severe and progressive characteristics, while severe COP can cause systemic inflammatory storms and can be secondary to hemophilia. This article reported a case of acute severe COP secondary to hemophilia. A 67-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital due to cough, shortness of breath, and fever. At first, he was misdiagnosed as severe pneumonia, but failed to receive anti infection treatments. Sputum pathogenetic examination and Macrogene testing of alveolar lavage fluid were performed, and no etiology was found to explain the patient's condition. The condition was gradually worsened and hemophilia occurred to explain, suggesting that acute severe COP was relevant. After receiving hormone treatment, the condition gradually relieved and the absorption of lung lesions improved. Hemophilia secondary to COP is rare, and the specific mechanism needs further study.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Aged , Hemophilia A/complications , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Cough , Dyspnea/etiology
18.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 658-662, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982009

ABSTRACT

The female infant in this case study was admitted to the hospital 4 hours after birth due to preterm birth and respiratory distress. On the third day after birth, peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC) catheterization was performed. On day 42, thrombus was found at the entrance of the right atrium from the inferior vena cava during a cardiac ultrasound, and it was considered to be related to PICC placement. Low-molecular-weight heparin and urokinase were given. After two weeks of treatment, ultrasonic monitoring showed thrombus shrinkage. No bleeding or pulmonary embolism occurred during the treatment. The patient discharged after improvement. This article mainly introduces a multidisciplinary team approach to diagnosis and treatment of PICC-related thrombosis in neonates.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Infant , Humans , Female , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Premature Birth , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Catheterization, Peripheral
19.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 626-632, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982004

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical characteristics of plastic bronchitis (PB) in children and investigate the the risk factors for recurrence of PB.@*METHODS@#This was a retrospective analysis of medical data of children with PB who were hospitalized in Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January 2012 to July 2022. The children were divided into a single occurrence of PB group and a recurrent PB group and the risk factors for recurrence of PB were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 107 children with PB were included, including 61 males (57.0%) and 46 females (43.0%), with a median age of 5.0 years, and 78 cases (72.9%) were over 3 years old. All the children had cough, 96 children (89.7%) had fever, with high fever in 90 children. Seventy-three children (68.2%) had shortness of breath, and 64 children (59.8%) had respiratory failure. Sixty-six children (61.7%) had atelectasis and 52 children (48.6%) had pleural effusion. Forty-seven children (43.9%) had Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, 28 children (26.2%) had adenovirus infection, and 17 children (15.9%) had influenza virus infection. Seventy-one children (66.4%) had a single occurrence of PB, and 36 cases (33.6%) had recurrent occurrence of PB (≥2 times). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that involvement of ≥2 lung lobes (OR=3.376) under bronchoscopy, continued need for invasive ventilation after initial removal of plastic casts (OR=3.275), and concomitant multi-organ dysfunction outside the lungs (OR=2.906) were independent risk factors for recurrent occurrence of PB (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Children with pneumonia accompanied by persistent high fever, shortness of breath, respiratory failure, atelectasis or pleural effusion should be highly suspected with PB. Involvement of ≥2 lung lobes under bronchoscopy, continued need for invasive ventilation after initial removal of plastic casts, and concomitant multi-organ dysfunction outside the lungs may be risk factors for recurrent occurrence of PB.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Multiple Organ Failure , Retrospective Studies , Bronchitis/etiology , Dyspnea , Pleural Effusion , Pulmonary Atelectasis , Plastics , Respiratory Insufficiency
20.
Rev. venez. cir ; 76(1): 72-75, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1552968

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hernia diafragmática surge como resultado del movimiento de los órganos abdominales hacia el tórax a través de un defecto del diafragma resultante de varios tipos de lesiones, que a menudo representan un desafío diagnóstico y terapéutico. La hernia diafragmática traumática es una enfermedad infrecuente. El trauma diafragmático rara vez es aislado, la mayoría de las veces se acompaña de otras lesiones toracoabdominales, cerebrales o musculoesqueléticas, siendo estas comorbilidades más graves responsables del mal pronóstico y aumento de la mortalidad. Caso clínico: Anciana de 90 años de edad, hipertensa, quien inicia cuadro clínico 48 horas previas a su ingreso, cuando posterior a caída del plano de bipedestación presenta disminución del estado de consciencia, náuseas, vómitos y disnea en reposo. Rx de tórax evidencia asas intestinales en hemitórax derecho. Se realizó laparotomía exploradora. Conclusión: Las hernias diafragmáticas traumáticas son infrecuentes, con incidencia <3%, sintomatología inespecífica y relacionadas generalmente con lesiones asociadas al trauma. Siempre se debe sospechar de una HD ante un paciente con antecedente de trauma cerrado de alto impacto o penetrante, en función de la cinética y mecanismo de lesión. El diagnóstico supone un reto para el cirujano, debiendo apoyarse en una firme sospecha y estudios radiológicos. Su tratamiento es quirúrgico, debiendo ser individualizado, con abordajes torácicos o abdominales en función del caso. La técnica a emplear dependerá de las características del defecto, de la fase del diagnóstico y la experiencia del equipo quirúrgico(AU)


Introduction: Diaphragmatic hernia arises as a result of the movement of the abdominal organs towards the thorax through a defect in the diaphragm resulting from various types of injuries, which often represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Traumatic diaphragmatic hernia is a rare disease. Diaphragmatic trauma is rarely isolated, most of the time it is accompanied by other thoracoabdominal, brain or musculoskeletal injuries, these more serious comorbidities being responsible for the poor prognosis and increased mortality. Clinical case: A 90-year-old woman with hypertension , who began a clinical picture 48 hours prior to admission, when after falling from the standing plane he presented a decreased state of consciousness, nausea, vomiting, and dyspnea at rest. Chest x-ray shows intestinal loops in the right hemithorax. Exploratory laparotomy was performed. Conclusion: Traumatic diaphragmatic hernias are rare, with an incidence of <3%, non-specific symptoms, and generally related to injuries associated with trauma. HD should always be suspected in a patient with a history of high-impact or penetrating blunt trauma, depending on the kinetics and mechanism of injury. Diagnosis is a challenge for the surgeon, and must be based on a firm suspicion and radiological studies. Its treatment is surgical, and must be individualized, with thoracic or abdominal approaches depending on the case. The technique to be used will depend on the characteristics of the defect, the diagnostic phase and the experience of the surgical team(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Radiography, Thoracic , Patients , Signs and Symptoms , Unconsciousness , Vomiting , Dyspnea , Geriatrics
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