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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): e342-e347, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas), BINACIS | ID: biblio-1117379

ABSTRACT

La escoliosis idiopática es la flexión y rotación anómala de los cuerpos vertebrales, que puede causar sintomatología respiratoria y alteración de función pulmonar. El síndrome de la espalda recta es una alteración caracterizada por una disminución del diámetro anteroposterior del tórax. Se presenta a una paciente de 13 años afectada de escoliosis idiopática que desarrolló disnea de esfuerzo progresiva, estridor inspiratorio y disminución importante de función pulmonar, secundaria a compresión extrínseca del bronquio principal derecho y tercio medio traqueal por cuerpos vertebrales torácicos. A su vez, tenía una disminución del diámetro anteroposterior del tórax, factor determinante en la aparición de los síntomas. Se intervino mediante fijación de vértebra torácica T3-T11, con posterior mejoría clínica y funcional respiratoria.La escoliosis asociada a alteración de función pulmonar y estridor debe hacer sospechar la existencia de compresión de la vía aérea, especialmente, en pacientes con reducción del diámetro anteroposterior del tóra


Idiopathic scoliosis is the abnormal flexion and rotation of the vertebral bodies, causing respiratory symptoms and altered pulmonary function. Straight back syndrome is a decreased in the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax. We present a 13-year-old patient with idiopathic scoliosis who developed progressive dyspnea, inspiratory stridor and a significant decrease in pulmonary function, because of extrinsic compression of the right main bronchus and the middle third of trachea by the thoracic vertebral bodies. She had also a decreased anteroposterior diameter of the thorax, being a determining factor in the appearance of symptoms. Surgery was performed by thoracic vertebra fixation T3 to T11, with subsequent clinical and functional respiratory improvement.Scoliosis associated with altered pulmonary function and stridor should make us suspect the existence of airway compression, especially in patients with reduction of the anteroposterior diameter of the thorax


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Scoliosis/surgery , Airway Obstruction , Congenital Abnormalities , Dyspnea
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(2): 53-55, jun. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1102484

ABSTRACT

Una de las características de la afección pulmonar por enfermedad por coronavirus (COVID-19) es la disociación entre la gravedad de la hipoxemia y el mantenimiento de una mecánica respiratoria relativamente conservada. En este contexto se ha establecido una teoría en relación con dos fenotipos de pacientes con síndrome de distrés respiratorio del adulto (SDRA): un fenotipo Low, caracterizado por baja elastancia y baja reclutabilidad, y un fenotipo High, con características de alta elastancia y alta reclutabilidad. Presentamos el caso de un paciente que cursó internación en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva de Adultos de nuestro hospital, con clínica, mecánica ventilatoria y patrón tomográfico compatible con el fenotipo Low de SDRA por COVID-19. (AU)


Dissociation between severity of hypoxemia and relative preserved respiratory mechanics is a characteristic observed in lung impairment due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Patients with COVID-19 that present adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are identified for one of two phenotypes according to a theory recently established. The Low phenotype is distinguished by low elastance and low recruitability; and the High phenotype, by high elastance and high recruitability. The case describes a patient admitted in the adult Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires with observed symptoms, ventilatory mechanics and tomographic pattern that are compatible with Low phenotype of ARDS due to COVID-19. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Phenotype , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult/genetics , Respiratory Mechanics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Hypertension/complications , Intensive Care Units , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Obesity/complications
3.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 64-70, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1090404

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo do estudo foi correlacionar a diferença entre capacidade vital lenta (CVL) e capacidade vital forçada (CVF) (CVL-CVF) com a atividade física na vida diária (AFVD) em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC); e verificar as diferenças na AFVD entre indivíduos com CVL maior ou menor do que a CVF. Vinte e oito indivíduos com DPOC (18 homens; 67±8 anos; VEF1: 40±13% previsto) tiveram a função pulmonar avaliada pela espirometria e foram divididos em dois grupos: CVL>CVF (n=17) e CVL≤CVF (n=11). Ademais, tiveram a AFVD avaliada objetivamente pelo monitor de atividade física DynaPort®, que quantifica na vida diária, dentre outros, o tempo gasto por dia andando, em pé, sentado e deitado. Não foram encontradas correlações significativas entre CVL-CVF e as variáveis da AFVD no grupo geral. No grupo CVL>CVF foi encontrada significância estatística na correlação entre a CVL-CVF e o tempo gasto por dia em pé (r=−0,56) e sentado (r=0,75). Já no grupo CVL≤CVF, houve correlação significativa somente com o tempo gasto por dia em pé (r=0,57) e deitado (r=−0,62). Ao comparar ambos os grupos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante para nenhuma das variáveis da AFVD (p>0,05 para todas). No grupo com CVL maior que a CVF houve correlação alta com o tempo gasto sentado, mas não com o tempo andando. Portanto, indivíduos com maior obstrução ao fluxo aéreo segundo a diferença CVL-CVF tendem a gastar mais tempo em atividades de menor gasto energético, que não envolvam caminhar.


RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de correlacionar la diferencia entre la capacidad vital lenta (CVL) y la capacidad vital forzada (CVF) (CVL-CVF) con la actividad física en la vida diaria (AFVD) de pacientes con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC); y verificar las diferencias de la AFVD entre individuos con CVL mayor o menor que la CVF. Se evaluaron la función pulmonar de veintiocho personas con EPOC (18 hombres; 67±8 años; VEF1: 40±13% esperado) mediante espirometría, y los dividieron en dos grupos: CVL>CVF (n=17) y CVL≤CVF (n=11). La AFVD también se evaluó objetivamente por el monitor de actividad física DynaPort®, el cual cuantifica el tiempo que se gasta en la vida diaria caminando, de pie, sentado y acostado. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre CVL-CVF y las variables de la AFVD en el grupo general. En el grupo CVL>CVF, se encontró una significación estadística en la correlación entre CVL-CVF y el tiempo que se gasta diariamente en pie (r=−0,56) y sentado (r=0,75). El grupo CVL≤CVF presentó una correlación significativa solo con el tiempo que se gasta diariamente en pie (r=0,57) y acostado (r=−0,62). La comparación entre ambos grupos no resultó en diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguna de las variables de AFVD (p>0,05 para todas). En el grupo con CVL mayor que la CVF, hubo una alta correlación con el tiempo que se gasta sentado, pero con el tiempo que se gasta caminando no se encontró este resultado. Se concluye que las personas con una mayor obstrucción del flujo de aire de acuerdo con la diferencia CVL-CVF tienden a gastar más tiempo en actividades con menos gasto de energía, las que no implican caminar.


ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to correlate the difference of vital capacity (VC) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (VC-FVC) with physical activity in daily life (PADL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); and investigate the differences in PADL in individuals with VC smaller or greater than FVC. Twenty-eight patients with COPD (18 men, 67±8 years; FEV1: 40±13% predicted) had their lung function assessed by spirometry and were divided into two groups: VC>FVC (n=17) and VC≤CVF (n=11). Furthermore, they had their PADL evaluated by a validated activity monitor which measures, among other variables, time spent/day walking, standing, sitting and lying. There were no correlations between VC-FVC and the variables of PADL in the general group. In the group VC>FVC there was statistically significant correlation between VC-FVC and the time spent/day standing (r=−0.56) and sitting (r=0.75). In the group VC≤CVF , VC-FVC was significantly correlated with time spent/day standing (r=0.57) and lying (r=−0.62). When comparing the groups, there was no statistically significant difference for any variable of PADL (p>0.05 for all). In conclusion, in patients with VC greater than FVC there was high correlation with time spent/day sitting, but not with time spent/day walking. Therefore, individuals with greater airflow obstruction according to the VC-FVC difference tend to spend more time in activities of lower energy expenditure, which do not involve walking.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Exercise/physiology , Vital Capacity/physiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests , Spirometry/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Monitoring , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Exercise Test/methods , Sedentary Behavior
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811297

ABSTRACT

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a rare condition characterized by extensive inflammation and fibrosis mainly involving the pulmonary interstitium or alveoli. Usually, patients with ILD clinically present with chronic cough and exertional dyspnea. ILD is classified into subtypes based on clinical characteristics, detailed history obtained from patients, and radiological, and/or histopathological features. The most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is a chronic progressive fibrosing ILD and is associated with poor prognosis. An exclusive diagnosis of IPF requires no known condition causing ILD and typical radiological and/or histopathological features of lung fibrosis. Fibrosis observed in this condition is attributable to repetitive epithelial injury with consequent abnormal wound healing in genetically susceptible and elderly individuals. Currently, pirfenidone and nintedanib are useful disease-modifying agents available to treat IPF. In this article, we review the concept, diagnosis, clinical course, and treatment of ILD.


Subject(s)
Aged , Cough , Diagnosis , Dyspnea , Fibrosis , Humans , Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Inflammation , Lung , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Prognosis , Wound Healing
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-811227

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the effects of nursing interventions based on the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior (ETPB) regarding self-efficacy for exercise (SEE), physical activity (PA), physical function (PF), and quality of life (QOL) in patients with lung cancer who have undergone pulmonary resection.METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between July 2015 and June 2018 in two university-affiliated hospitals. The intervention included pre-operative patient education, goal setting (action and coping planning), and feedback (behavior intention and perceived behavioral control). The intervention group (IG) (n=51) received nursing interventions from the day before surgery to 12 months after lung resection, while the comparison group (CG) (n=36) received usual care. SEE, PA, PF (dyspnea, functional status, and 6-minute walking distance [6MWD]), and QOL were measured before surgery and at one, three, six, and 12 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using the χ² test, Fisher's exact test, Mann–Whitney U test, t-test, and generalized estimation equations (GEE).RESULTS: There were significant differences between the two groups regarding SEE (χ²=13.53, p=.009), PA (χ²=9.51, p=.049), functional status (χ²=10.55, p=.032), and 6MWD (χ²=15.62, p=.004). Although there were no time or group effects, the QOL mental component (Z=−2.78, p=.005) of the IG was higher than that of the CG one month after surgery. Interventions did not affect dyspnea or the QOL physical component.CONCLUSION: The intervention of this study was effective in improving SEE, PA, functional status, and 6MWD of lung cancer patients after lung resection. Further extended investigations that utilize ETPB are warranted to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Dyspnea , Exercise , Humans , Intention , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Motor Activity , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Nursing , Patient Education as Topic , Quality of Life , Self Efficacy , Walking
6.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-782281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Korea, to investigate the casual relationship between humidifier disinfectant and lung disease, four rounds of investigation and judgment were conducted. During this investigation, two adults who performed lung biopsy were recognized for their relevance between humidifier disinfectants and lung disease. At first, we did not think of the relationship to humidifier disinfectant because chest computed tomography (CT) finding of 2 cases were improved. However, they performed lung biopsy and it showed typical humidifier disinfectant lung injury (HDLI) pathologic findings, they could be recognized as HDLI. We report these cases here.CASE PRESENTATION: We selected 2 cases from the fourth-round investigation at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Patient of case 1 used humidifier disinfectants since September 2010. The patient was admitted 6 months later to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to severe dyspnea. Pathology following a lung biopsy revealed typical HDLI finding which was determined to be due to humidifier disinfectant exposure. Patient of case 2 used humidifier disinfectant from 2001 to 2008 for about 3 months each winter. The patient's cough and sputum production symptoms began in December of 2007. The patient was admitted to the respiratory medicine department due to worsening dyspnea. Pathology following a lung biopsy revealed typical HDLI finding. This was determined to have been caused by humidifier disinfectant exposure.CONCLUSIONS: Because the typical radiologic findings associated with HDLI can improve over time, it is necessary to consider the revision of current diagnostic criteria that the presence of radiologic findings is important.


Subject(s)
Adult , Biopsy , Cough , Disinfectants , Dyspnea , Humans , Humidifiers , Intensive Care Units , Judgment , Korea , Lung Diseases , Lung Injury , Lung , Pathology , Pulmonary Medicine , Sputum , Thorax
7.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-810964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and is associated with poor outcomes. This study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of PH-specific therapeutic agents for IPF patients.METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCTs) without language restriction until November 2018. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality to end of study.RESULTS: We analyzed 10 RCTs involving 2,124 patients, 1,274 of whom received PH-specific agents. In pooled estimates, the use of PH-specific agents was not significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality to end of study compared with controls (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92, 1.06; P = 0.71; I² = 30%). When we performed subgroup analyses according to the type of PH-specific agent, sample size, age, forced vital capacity, diffusion lung capacity, and the extent of honeycombing, PH-specific agents also showed no significant association with a reduction in all-cause mortality. A small but significant improvement in quality of life, measured using the St. George Respiratory Questionnaire total score, was found in the PH-specific agent group (mean difference, −3.16 points; 95% CI, −5.34, −0.97; P = 0.005; I² = 0%). We found no significant changes from baseline in lung function, dyspnea, or exercise capacity. Serious adverse events were similar between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Although PH-specific agents provided small health-related quality-of-life benefits, our meta-analysis provides insufficient evidence to support their use in IPF patients.


Subject(s)
Diffusion , Dyspnea , Humans , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung , Lung Volume Measurements , Mortality , Quality of Life , Sample Size , Treatment Outcome , Vasodilator Agents , Vital Capacity
8.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-810957

ABSTRACT

Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a useful tool that is widely used in the emergency and intensive care areas. In Korea, insurance coverage of ultrasound examination has been gradually expanding in accordance with measures to enhance Korean National Insurance Coverage since 2017 to 2021, and which will continue until 2021. Full coverage of health insurance for POCUS in the emergency and critical care areas was implemented in July 2019. The National Health Insurance Act classified POCUS as a single or multiple-targeted ultrasound examination (STU vs. MTU). STU scans are conducted of one organ at a time, while MTU includes scanning of multiple organs simultaneously to determine each clinical situation. POCUS can be performed even if a diagnostic ultrasound examination is conducted, based on the physician's decision. However, the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service plans to monitor the prescription status of whether the POCUS and diagnostic ultrasound examinations are prescribed simultaneously and repeatedly. Additionally, MTU is allowed only in cases of trauma, cardiac arrest, shock, chest pain, and dyspnea and should be performed by a qualified physician. Although physicians should scan all parts of the chest, heart, and abdomen when they prescribe MTU, they are not required to record all findings in the medical record. Therefore, appropriate prescription, application, and recording of POCUS are needed to enhance the quality of patient care and avoid unnecessary cut of medical budget spending. The present article provides background and clinical guidance for POCUS based on the implementation of full health insurance coverage for POCUS that began in July 2019 in Korea.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Budgets , Chest Pain , Critical Care , Dyspnea , Emergencies , Heart , Heart Arrest , Insurance Coverage , Insurance , Insurance, Health , Korea , Medical Records , National Health Programs , Patient Care , Point-of-Care Systems , Prescriptions , Shock , Thorax , Ultrasonography
9.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(2): e002042, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1103530

ABSTRACT

Este artículo resume las diferentes formas de presentación clínica de la enfermedad COVID-19 causada por el virus SARS-Co-2 documentadas fundamentalmente en las tres principales revisiones sistemáticas disponibles. Entre las manifestaciones clínicas de frecuente aparición se destacan la fiebre (83 %), la tos (60 %) y la fatiga (38 %), seguidas por las mialgias (29 %), el aumento de la producción del esputo (27 %) y la disnea (25 %). Entre los hallazgos de laboratorio,predominan el aumento de los valores de proteína C reactiva (69 %), la linfopenia (57 %) y el aumento de los niveles de lactato-deshidrogenasa (52 %). Respecto de las manifestaciones radiológicas, tienen especial importancia las opacificaciones en vidrio esmerilado (80 %), la neumonía bilateral (73 %) y la afectación de tres lóbulos pulmonares o más (57 %).Si bien la evidencia sintetizada tiene limitaciones, permite una aproximación actualizada a los conocimientos disponibles sobre la clínica de esta nueva enfermedad en la población adulta. (AU)


This article summarizes the different forms of clinical presentation of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-Co-2 virus, synthesizing the information collected mainly by three published systematic reviews. Frequent clinical manifestations include fever(83 %), cough (60 %), and fatigue (38 %), followed by myalgia (29 %), increased sputum production (27 %) and dyspnea(25 %). Among the laboratory findings, the most common are the increase in C-reactive protein values (69 %), lymphopenia (57 %) and the increase in lactate dehydrogenase levels (52 %).. Most remarkable radiological features include ground glass opacifications (80 %), bilateral pneumonia (73 %) and the involvement of three or more lung lobes (57 %). Although the synthesized evidence has limitations, it allows an updated approach to the available knowledge about the clinical symptoms of this new disease in the adult population. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Sputum , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , China , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/physiopathology , Cough/blood , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Dyspnea/blood , Fatigue/diagnosis , Fatigue/physiopathology , Fatigue/blood , Pandemics , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/physiopathology , Fever/blood , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myalgia/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphopenia/blood
11.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(4): 149-152, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1099849

ABSTRACT

La presencia de tejido tiroideo ectópico en la base de la lengua es muy infrecuente, y la mayoría de los pacientes tienen hipotiroidismo. La indicación de tratamiento depende de la presencia o no de síntomas; la cirugía es la primera elección. Diversas técnicas quirúrgicas han sido descriptas, pero para nosotros el abordaje transoral con endoscopios constituye la mejor opción, por la buena exposición y la mínima morbilidad que produce. Se describe el caso clínico de una mujer que consultó por odinofagia, con diagnóstico de tiroides lingual y que fue tratada con éxito mediante un abordaje transoral con asistencia de endoscopios. (AU)


The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue at the base of the tongue is very rare, and most patients have hypothyroidism. The indication of treatment depends on the presence or not of symptoms, surgery being the first choice. Various surgical techniques have been described, being for us the transoral approach with endoscopes the best option, due to the good exposure, and minimum morbidity that it produces. The clinical case of a woman who consulted for odynophagia, with a diagnosis of lingual thyroid and who was successfully treated by a transoral approach with endoscopic assistance is described. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Tongue Neoplasms/surgery , Lingual Thyroid/surgery , Signs and Symptoms , Surgical Procedures, Operative/classification , Thyroxine/administration & dosage , Tongue Neoplasms/pathology , Tongue Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Enalapril/therapeutic use , Pharyngitis , Lingual Thyroid/physiopathology , Lingual Thyroid/therapy , Lingual Thyroid/epidemiology , Lingual Thyroid/diagnostic imaging , Dyspnea , Endoscopy/methods , Hemorrhage , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypothyroidism/complications
12.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(4): 293-303, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1092710

ABSTRACT

La fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) se caracteriza por presentar una capacidad funcional reducida, disnea e hipoxia inducida por el ejercicio, lo que disminuye su tolerancia al esfuerzo y limita su capacidad de realizar actividades diarias. Las comorbilidades son frecuentes y su presencia contribuyen al empeoramiento de la calidad de vida y aumento de la mortalidad. Por lo anterior, es que además de las terapias antifibróticas, los pacientes con FPI se benefician de un enfoque integral de la atención que puede incluir: pesquisa, diagnóstico y tratamiento de comorbilidades, ingreso a protocolos de investigación, manejo sintomático, cuidados paliativos, oxígeno suplementario, rehabilitación pulmonar, educación y apoyo por un equipo multidisciplinario.


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by reduced functional capacity, dyspnea and exercise-induced hypoxia, which decreases tolerance to exertion and limits the ability to perform daily activities. Comorbidities are frequent and their presence contribute to worsening quality of life and increased mortality. Therefore, in addition to antifibrotic therapies, patients with IPF benefit of a comprehensive approach to care that may include: screening, diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities, admission to research protocols, symptomatic management, palliative care, supplementary oxygen, pulmonary rehabilitation, education and support by a multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Patient Care Team , Comorbidity , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/complications , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy
13.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(4): 304-307, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1092711

ABSTRACT

La fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) se ha clasificado en enfermedad leve o temprana-moderada-severa o Avanzada, sin puntos de corte en parámetros clínicos, funcionales o imagenológicos. No existe aún consenso en cual es el principal parámetro que se debe medir. Si bien las variables funcionales como la capacidad vital forzada (CVF), capacidad de difusión de monóxido de carbono (DLCO) y test de caminata de 6 minutos se han utilizado de forma rutinaria en la practica clínica y en los principales estudios clínicos de tratamiento muchas veces no son representativos de la evolución clínica. Por lo anterior se han desarrollado, índices o puntajes compuestos como la escala GAP (Gender-Age-Physiology) que podrían ser útiles en el seguimiento de los pacientes.


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has been classified as mild or early - moderate - severe or advanced disease, with no cut-off points in clinical, functional or imaging parameters. There is no consensus yet on which is the main parameter to be measured although the functional variables such as forced vital capacity (FVC), carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) and 6-minute walk test, have been routinely used in clinical practice and in the main clinical studies of treatment, are often not representative of the clinical evolution. Therefore, composite indices or scores such as the GAP (Gender-Age-Physiology) scale have been developed that could be useful in the follow-up of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Clinical Evolution , Risk Assessment , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology
14.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 35(4): 264-265, dic. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1092703

ABSTRACT

La fibrosis pulmonar idiopática (FPI) es una enfermedad pulmonar de sintomatología inespecífica. La tos crónica y disnea progresivas en adultos mayores fumadores o exfumadores son los síntomas y características clínicas más frecuentes. Por lo tanto, es usual que el diagnóstico sea tardío. La atención primaria constituye el primer contacto del paciente con el sistema de salud. Por esto es necesaria la entrega de toda la información posible a los médicos, enfermeras y kinesiólogos que atienden adultos con problemas respiratorios, ya que sólo se diagnosticará FPI si se piensa en FPI.


Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disease of nonspecific symptomatology. Progressive chronic cough and dyspnea in older smokers or ex-smokers are the most frequent symptoms and clinical features. Therefore, it is usual for the diagnosis to be late. Primary care constitutes the patient's first contact with the health system. Therefore, it is necessary to deliver all possible information to physicians, nurses and physical therapists who care for adults with respiratory problems, since IPF will only be diagnosed if FPI is considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Cough/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis
15.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 22(3): e002021, nov. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1047108

ABSTRACT

Una joven de 23 años con asma leve intermitente se presenta a la consulta médica. Se plantea cuál es la mejor alternativa para su tratamiento: el uso de broncodilatadores de acción corta a demanda (SABA, por sus iniciales en inglés) o de broncodilatadores de acción rápida en asociación con corticoides inhalatorios (ICS/FABA, por sus iniciales en inglés) a demanda. Tras revisar la bibliografía se encontraron una revisión sistemática y dos ensayos clínicos que indican que los ICS/FABA serían superiores a los SABA; sin embargo este efecto fue solamente estudiado en casos de asma persistente.Es importante discutir estos hallazgos con los pacientes, junto a sus implicancias económicas, incorporando sus valores y preferencias a la hora de tomar una decisión terapéutica. (AU)


A 23-year-old woman with mild intermittent asthma comes to the doctor's office. The best alternative for treatment is considered: the use of short-acting bronchodilators on demand (SABA) or fast-acting bronchodilators in association with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS/FABA) on demand. After a literature search, a systematic review and two clinical trials werefound, which indicate that the ICS/FABA would be superior to the SABA; however, this effect was only studied in cases of persistent asthma. It is important to discuss these findings with the patients, alongside with their economic implications,incorporating their values and preferences when making a therapeutic decision.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant , Adult , Young Adult , Asthma/drug therapy , Bronchodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/etiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Socioeconomic Factors , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Bronchiolitis , Respiratory Sounds , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cough , Decision Making , Dyspnea , Medication Adherence
16.
Rev. am. med. respir ; 19(1): 101-104, mar. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1041683

ABSTRACT

Paciente de sexo masculino, 66 años de edad, no tabaquista. Consultó a principios del año 2017 por tos seca persistente de un mes de evolución, refractaria al tratamiento médico. El paciente negaba disnea


Subject(s)
Colonic Neoplasms , Dyspnea
17.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(1): 57-62, jan.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1003628

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a pontuação da escala Perme de mobilidade como preditor de funcionalidade e complicações no pós-operatório de pacientes submetidos a transplante hepático. Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 30 pacientes que realizaram transplante hepático. Os pacientes foram avaliados em dois momentos, a fim de verificar a percepção da dor, o grau de dispneia, a força muscular periférica e a funcionalidade do paciente de acordo com a escala Perme. Os dados coletados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial. Para comparar médias entre as avaliações, foi aplicado o teste t de Student para amostras pareadas. Em caso de assimetria, o teste de Wilcoxon foi utilizado. Na avaliação da associação entre as variáveis quantitativas, os testes de correlação de Pearson ou Spearman foram aplicados. Resultados: Foram incluídos 30 indivíduos que realizaram transplante hepático. Houve predomínio de pacientes do sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi 58,4 ± 9,9 anos. A patologia de base mais prevalente foi a cirrose por vírus C (23,3%). Foram registradas associações significativas entre o tempo de ventilação mecânica e a escala Perme na alta da unidade de terapia intensiva (r = -0,374; p = 0,042) e entre o número de atendimentos fisioterapêuticos (r = -0,578; p = 0,001). Quando comparados os resultados da avaliação inicial e na alta hospitalar, houve significativa melhora da funcionalidade (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Mobilidade funcional, força muscular periférica, percepção da dor e dispneia melhoram significativamente no momento da alta hospitalar em relação à admissão na unidade de internação.


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the Perme mobility scale score as a predictor of functional status and complications in the postoperative period in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Methods: The sample consisted of 30 patients who underwent liver transplantation. The patients were evaluated at two time points to determine their perception of pain, degree of dyspnea, peripheral muscle strength, and functional status according to the Perme scale. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. To compare the means between the evaluations, Student's t test for paired samples was applied. In case of asymmetry, the Wilcoxon test was used. In the evaluation of the association between the quantitative variables, the Pearson or Spearman correlation tests were applied. Results: A total of 30 individuals who underwent liver transplantation were included. The patients were predominantly male, and the mean age was 58.4 ± 9.9 years. The most prevalent underlying pathology was cirrhosis C virus (23.3%). Significant associations of the time on mechanical ventilation with the Perme scale score at discharge from the intensive care unit (r = -0.374; p = 0.042) and the number of physical therapy treatments (r = -0.578; p = 0.001) were recorded. When comparing the results of the initial evaluation and the evaluation at hospital discharge, there was a significant improvement in functional status (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Functional mobility, peripheral muscle strength, pain perception, and dyspnea are significantly improved at hospital discharge compared with those at inpatient unit admission.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation/methods , Physical Therapy Modalities/statistics & numerical data , Recovery of Function/physiology , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Prospective Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Mobility Limitation , Muscle Strength/physiology , Pain Perception/physiology , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged
19.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(1): e146549, jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1008027

ABSTRACT

Neuropathies of pharyngeal branches of glossopharyngeal and vagus are often associated with guttural pouches diseases; however, these branches of injury due to stylopharyngeus muscle compression are not reported. A case was reported of a quarter horse mare, 8 years old, 450 kg, presenting dyspnea and respiratory noise associated with weight loss. Clinical examination observed mixed dyspnea, tachycardia, dysphagia, sialorrhea, lung crackles and submandibular and parotid lymphadenopathy. Endoscopic exam showed right arytenoid chondritis, nasopharyngeal collapse, generalized larynx edema and dorsal displacement of the soft palate. Right guttural pouch evaluation showed swelling in the origin of stylopharyngeus muscle with consequent compression of the XII, X and IX cranial nerves. Tracheotomy, systemic treatment with corticosteroids, beta lactams and aminoglycosides antibiotics were performed. No resolution was observed and, after 16 days, the animal showed clinical worsening, developed pleuropneumonia, uveitis, severe sepsis, acute renal failure and was euthanized. The mixed neuropathy resulted in rapid clinical deterioration of the animal, due to the difficulty in swallowing and consequent associated respiratory processes. This report emphasizes the importance of evaluating stylopharyngeus muscle origin in cases of nasopharyngeal collapse associated with dysphagia in horses, given the possibility that structural changes in this muscle can result in laryngeal neuropathy.(AU)


As neuropatias do glossofaríngeo e vago são frequentemente associadas com enfermidade das bolsas guturais. A ocorrência desta lesão secundária a compressão pelo músculo estilofaríngeo não é reportada. Relata-se o caso de uma égua quarto de milha, 8 anos de idade, 450 kg, apresentando dispneia, ruído respiratório e perda de peso. No exame clínico observou-se dispnéia mista, taquicardia, disfagia, sialorréia, crepitação pulmonar e linfadenopatia submandibular e parotídea. Ao exame endoscópico identificou-se condrite aritenóide direita, colapso nasofaríngeo, edema generalizado da laringe e deslocamento dorsal do palato mole. Na avaliação da bolsa gutural direita identificou-se aumento de volume na origem do músculo estilofaríngeo com consequente compressão dos nervos cranianos XII, X e IX. Foi realizada traqueotomia, tratamento sistêmico com corticosteróides e antibióticos. Nenhuma resolução foi observada, após 16 dias o animal apresentou piora clínica, pleuropneumonia, uveíte, sepse grave, insuficiência renal aguda e foi submetido à eutanásia. A neuropatia mista resultou em rápida deterioração clínica do animal, devido à dificuldade de deglutição e processos respiratórios associados. Salienta-se a importância de se avaliar a origem do músculo estilofaríngeo em casos de colapso nasofaríngeo associado a disfagia em cavalos, dada a possibilidade de que alterações estruturais nesse músculo possam resultar em neuropatia laríngea.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Nasopharyngeal Diseases/veterinary , Horses/abnormalities , Dyspnea
20.
J. vasc. bras ; 18: e20180086, 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-984687

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo relata o caso de um paciente coronariopata de 86 anos submetido a cateterismo cardíaco via acesso radial à esquerda. Cerca de 16 meses após o procedimento, manifestou dispneia sem relação com esforço, associada a hipóxia noturna. Apresentava frêmito à palpação do punho esquerdo e foi diagnosticado com fístula arteriovenosa radiocefálica no punho esquerdo. Ao duplex scan apresentava alteração de padrão de onda e aumento da velocidade diastólica compatível com fístula arteriovenosa. Foi submetido a correção cirúrgica da fístula, apresentando melhora clínica e laboratorial após o procedimento. O acesso radial para cateterismo cardíaco tem sido cada vez mais utilizado, principalmente por causar complicações menos frequentes e menos deletérias em comparação ao acesso femoral. Entretanto, complicações como fístula arteriovenosa ocorrem e podem ser especialmente prejudiciais em pacientes octogenários


This article describes the case of an 86-year-old coronary disease patient who underwent cardiac catheterization via a left radial access. Around 16 months after the procedure, he presented with dyspnea, unrelated to effort, but associated with nocturnal hypoxia. There was a palpable thrill in the left wrist and he was diagnosed with a radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula in the left wrist. A duplex scan revealed an abnormal wave pattern and increased diastolic velocity compatible with arteriovenous fistula. The fistula was repaired surgically and the patient exhibited improvement in clinical and laboratory parameters after the procedure. Radial access is increasingly being used for cardiac catheterization, primarily because it is associated with fewer and less harmful complications than femoral access. However, complications such as arteriovenous fistula occur and can be particularly harmful in octogenarian patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Arteriovenous Fistula/surgery , Coronary Vessels , Echocardiography , Radial Artery , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Hypoxia
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