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Clinics ; 74: e776, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989643


OBJECTIVES: To compare signs and symptoms of dysphagia in individuals with cervical dystonia (CD) before and after application of botulinum toxin (BTX). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 20 patients diagnosed with CD with indications for BTX application. We selected 18 patients who met the study inclusion criteria. All individuals were patients from the Movement Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Federal University of São Paulo. BTX was applied in the cervical region at the necessary dose for each individual. To identify signs/complaints of changes in swallowing, we used a specific questionnaire that was completed by patients and/or their companions on the day of BTX injection and repeated 10 to 15 days after BTX injection. RESULTS: Among the 18 study subjects, 15 (83.3%) showed primary and three (16.7%) showed secondary cervical dystonia. The most frequent dystonic movements were rotation (18), tilt (5), forward shift (3), backward shift (7), shoulder elevation (12), shoulder depression (2), and cervical tremor (6). The main complaints reported before BTX application were voice changes in 10 (55.6%), need for adjustment of eating position in 10 (55.6%), coughing and/or choking while eating in nine (50%), and increased eating time in nine (50%) individuals. The main complaints reported after BTX application were coughing and/or choking while eating in 11 (61.1%), voice changes in nine (50%), sensation of food stuck in the throat in eight (44%), and increased eating time in eight (44%) individuals. CONCLUSION: The administration of a swallowing-specific questionnaire to individuals with CD before and after BTX application enabled the identification of possible dysphagia symptoms prior to drug treatment resulting from CD, which are often subsequently interpreted as side effects of the drug treatment. Thus, dysphagia can be managed, and aspiration symptoms can be prevented.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/pharmacology , Deglutition/drug effects , Dystonia/congenital , Neuromuscular Agents/pharmacology , Perception , Deglutition Disorders/psychology , Deglutition Disorders/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Dystonia/psychology , Dystonia/drug therapy , Eating/psychology , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use
Rehabil. integral (Impr.) ; 11(1): 40-51, jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869329


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of oral pharmacologic therapy in improving postural control and functionality in patients with DCP, with less than 20 years old, compared with any therapy or placebo. Methods: Randomized clinical trials and quasi-experimental with no restriction in publication date or language were included. The search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Virtual Health Library (LILACS, SCIELO), and Opengrey. The risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Interventions Systematic Reviews. Results: 3 cross over studies were included, according to the established criteria. The three drugs that were analyzed were: levodopa, and trihexyphenidyl and tetrabenazine, compared to placebo. No study had significant favorable results for the use of the drug over placebo. Conclusion: At the moment there is no evidence to support the use of oral medication in patients with DCP, based on the small number of high quality studies found, it is necessary to increase research on oral pharmacologic therapy in this group of patients.

Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad del tratamiento farmacológico oral destinado a mejorar el control postural y la funcionalidad en pacientes con parálisis cerebral disquinética (PCD) menores de 20 años comparado con cualquier terapia o placebo. Métodos: Se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados y cuasi experimentales sin restricción de fecha de publicación o lenguaje. La búsqueda se realizó en Pubmed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Biblioteca Virtual de la Salud (LILACS, SCIELO), y Opengrey. El riesgo de sesgo fue evaluado de acuerdo al Manual Cochrane de Revisiones Sistemáticas de Intervenciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron 3 estudios cross-over de acuerdo a los criterios establecidos. Los tres fármacos analizados fueron: levodopa, tetrabenazina y trihexifenidilo, comparados con placebo. Ningún estudio tuvo resultados favorables de manera significativa para el uso del medicamento sobre placebo. Conclusión: Por el momento no existe evidencia que sustente el uso de la medicación oral en los pacientes con PCD en base al escaso número de estudios de alta calidad encontrados, siendo necesario que se aumente la investigación sobre el tratamiento farmacológico oral en este grupo de pacientes.

Humans , Child , Dopamine Agents/administration & dosage , Levodopa/administration & dosage , Cerebral Palsy/drug therapy , Tetrabenazine/administration & dosage , Trihexyphenidyl/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Dystonia/drug therapy , Postural Balance
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 51(2): 115-125, abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-682330


Botulinum neurotoxin is widely used to treat a variety of movement disorders, especially dystonia and spasticity. There botúlica different preparations of botulinum type A, that because biologics are difficult to compare. AbobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport ®) has recently been introduced in Chile for treating dystonia and spasticity. The aim of this paper is to provide a review by experts on the existing evidence and propose a practical guide to the use of the drug. Methods and Results: A group of Chilean experts met on 6 and 7 July 2012 to review AbobotulinumtoxinA doses along with injection protocols for dystonia, spasticity and other movement disorders. We worked in two groups, one composed of neurologists who reviewed the on dystonias and other by physiatrists who reviewed the indications for spasticity. Conclusions: Finally, there is a proposal in terms of dose, injection points and recommendations for dystonia and spasticity...

La neurotoxina botulínica es ampliamente usada para tratar una variedad de trastornos del movimiento, especialmente la distonía y la espasticidad. Existen diferentes preparados de toxina botúlica tipo A, que por ser productos biológicos resultan difícilmente comparables. La abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®) ha sido introducida en Chile recientemente para el tratamiento de la distonía y la espasticidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es entregar una revisión hecha por expertos sobre la evidencia existente y plantear una guía práctica para el uso del medicamento. Métodos y Resultados: Un grupo de expertos chilenos se reunieron el 6 y 7 julio de 2012 para revisar las dosis abobotulinumtoxin A, junto con los protocolos de inyección para la distonía, la espasticidad y otros trastornos del movimiento. Se trabajó en dos grupos, uno compuesto por neurólogos que revisaron las indicaciones en distonías y otro por fisiatras que revisaron las indicaciones para espasticidad. Conclusiones: Finalmente, se realiza una propuesta en cuanto a dosis, puntos a inyectar y recomendaciones para la distonia y espasticidad...

Humans , Dystonia/drug therapy , Muscle Spasticity/drug therapy , Neuromuscular Agents/administration & dosage , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/administration & dosage , Chile , Consensus , Evidence-Based Medicine , Neuromuscular Agents/adverse effects , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/adverse effects
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 71(6): 364-367, nov.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662729


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia do resfriamento da pele com gelo no alívio da dor desencadeada pela injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo prospectivo, 13 pacientes receberam injeção de toxina botulínica tipo A em região glabelar (m. prócero) e periocular (m. orbicular) para tratamento de distonia facial. Antes das aplicações, um lado da região glabelar foi resfriado com gelo durante 5 minutos, enquanto no outro lado foi aplicada pomada Epitezan®, funcionando como placebo. A aplicação foi feita primeiramente no lado resfriado. Após a aplicação em cada um dos lados os pacientes foram instruídos a dar uma nota para a dor desencadeada pela injeção, em uma escala de 0 a 10 onde 0 era ausência de dor e 10 a dor mais intensa. RESULTADOS: A média das notas dadas pelos pacientes à dor desencadeada pela injeção no lado onde foi aplicado placebo foi 3,92 ± 3,28. No local onde foi aplicado gelo a média das notas foi de 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166). A média da diferença entre notas dos dois grupos foi de 1,0. CONCLUSÃO: No presente estudo o resfriamento da pele com gelo foi eficaz no alívio da dor desencadeada pela aplicação de toxina botulínica tipo A na região periocular em pacientes portadores de distonia facial.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of skin cooling with ice on pain relief in periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A in patients with facial dystonias. METHODS: In this prospective study, 13 patients received botulinum toxin type A injection in glabela (procerus m.) and periocular region (orbicular m.) for facial dystonias treatment. Before the injections, one side of the glabela was submitted to a 5-minute cooling period, while the opposite side had Epitezan® cream applied, as a placebo. The application was done at the cooled side first. After the application on each side the patients were instructed to rate the pain associated with the injection on a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating no pain and 10 the worst pain. RESULTS: The average pain score on the side where cold was applied was 3,92 ± 3,28, while on the control side the average pain score was 2,92 ± 2,18 (p < 0,0166). CONCLUSION: In this study, skin cooling with ice cubes was efficient in pain relief in periocular botulinum toxin injections in patients with facial dystonias.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cryotherapy , Dystonia/drug therapy , Neuromuscular Agents/adverse effects , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use , Ice , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/adverse effects , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 71(6): 368-371, nov.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-662730


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a medida da fenda palpebral em pacientes com blefaroespasmo essencial benigno (BEB) e espasmo hemifacial (EHF) após a aplicação periocular de toxina botulínica tipo A. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados pacientes portadores de BEB e EHF submetidos à injeção periocular de toxina botulínica tipo A pela técnica inner orbital de aplicação. Os pacientes foram fotografados em PPO antes da aplicação e catorze dias depois dela. A fenda palpebral foi mensurada nestas imagens por meio de processamento computadorizado de imagens, utilizando o programa ImageJ. As alterações da fenda palpebral foram observadas comparando-se as medidas obtidas no pré e pós-aplicação. RESULTADOS: Comparando-se as imagens obtidas com o programa ImageJ, houve aumento estatisticamente significante (p<0,001) da fenda palpebral em 14 olhos (51,8%) após a aplicação de injeção periocular da toxina botulínica e nenhuma das imagens analisadas apresentou diminuição da fenda palpebral. CONCLUSÃO: No presente estudo, os pacientes portadores de distonias faciais apresentaram aumento de fenda palpebral estatisticamente significante após aplicação periocular de toxina botulínica tipo A.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the measurement of palpebral fissure in patients with facial dystonias before and after periocular injection with botulinum toxin type A. METHODS: We studied patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm underwent periocular injection of botulinum toxin type A by the inner orbital technique of application. Patients were photographed 14 days before and after application. The palpebral fissure was measured in these images by means of computerized image processing using the program ImageJ. The palpebral fissure changes were observed by comparing the measurements obtained before and after application. RESULTS: Comparing the images obtained with the program ImageJ, there was a statistically significant increase (p <0.001) of the palpebral fissure in 14 eyes (51,8%) after the application of periocular injection of botulinum toxin and the images analyzed showed no decrease of the palpebral fissure. CONCLUSION: In this study, patients with facial dystonias showed increased palpebral fissure periocular statistically significant after application of botulinum toxin type A.

Humans , Blepharospasm/drug therapy , Dystonia/drug therapy , Hemifacial Spasm/drug therapy , Neuromuscular Agents/adverse effects , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use , Weights and Measures , Eyelids , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/adverse effects , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(6): 407-409, June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-626279


We have reported a case series of five patients with jaw-opening oromandibular dystonia secondary to Wilson's disease (WD), in which the patients were treated with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A). In all cases, dystonia score was partially reduced three weeks after injections. The most common side effect was transient mild dysphagia. This preliminary study showed that jaw-opening oromandibular dystonia in WD may be partially responsive to the use of BTX-A.

Relata-se uma série de cinco casos de distonia oromandibular com abertura da boca, secundária à doença de Wilson, em que os pacientes foram tratados com toxina botulínica tipo A. Em todos os casos, a distonia oromandibular com abertura da boca foi parcialmente reduzida três semanas após as injeções. O efeito adverso mais comum foi a disfagia leve e transitória. Este estudo preliminar mostrou melhora parcial da distonia oromandibular com abertura da boca.

Adult , Female , Humans , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Dystonia/drug therapy , Hepatolenticular Degeneration/complications , Mandibular Diseases/drug therapy , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use , Dystonia/etiology , Injections, Intramuscular , Mandibular Diseases/etiology , Treatment Outcome
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(4): 271-272, Apr. 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622597


Paroxysmal dyskinesias (PD) are thought to be rare movement disorders. The overwhelming majority of reported cases are primary. Secondary PD has seen reported to occur in some conditions, mainly in multiple sclerosis and head trauma. The anatomic origin of the lesion is also rarely seen at the spinal cord. Our objective was to describe four patients with paroxysmal dystonia secondary to spinal lesions during the recovering phase of a neuromyelitis optica (NMO) bout. In the reviewed literature, we do not find any report of PD related to NMO.

Discinesias paroxísticas (DP) são distúrbios do movimento raros. A maioria dos casos relatados é de origem primária. DP secundárias têm sido relatadas em algumas condições, principalmente na esclerose múltipla e no trauma craniano. A origem anatômica da lesão também é raramente observada na medula. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever quatro pacientes com distonia paroxística secundária a lesões medulares, ocorrida durante a fase de recuperação do surto de neuromielite óptica (NMO). Na literatura consultada, não encontramos qualquer relato de DP secundárias à NMO.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Dystonia/complications , Neuromyelitis Optica/complications , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Carbamazepine/therapeutic use , Dystonia/diagnosis , Dystonia/drug therapy
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 74(6): 414-416, nov.-dez. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-613440


OBJETIVO: Avaliar as aberrações ópticas de alta ordem em pacientes com distonias faciais tratados com toxina botulínica tipo A. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de espasmo hemifacial ou blefaroespasmo essencial em atividade foram submetidos ao exame biomicroscópico e à análise de frente de ondas através do aberrômetro Alcon LADARvision®, sob midríase medicamentosa. A seguir, foram tratados com injeções de toxina botulínica tipo A. Após um mês, a análise de frente de ondas foi repetida da mesma forma e pelo mesmo oftalmologista. As aberrações de alta ordem foram comparadas antes e após o tratamento. O teste T pareado foi utilizado para comparar os valores numéricos antes e após o tratamento. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos no estudo um total de 11 pacientes, 6 com blefaroespasmo essencial (54,5 por cento) e 5 com espasmo hemifacial (45,5 por cento). Nos pacientes com espasmo hemifacial foram analisados apenas o lado acometido, totalizando 17 olhos com espasmo. A idade variou de 50 a 72 anos, com média de 65,9 ± 8,2 anos. Oito pacientes eram do sexo feminino (72,7 por cento), sendo a relação masculino/feminino de 1:2,6. A média do "root mean square" (RMS) das aberrações de alta ordem foi 0,68 antes e 0,63 após um mês do tratamento (p=0,01). A média da aberração esférica foi de 0,23 e 0,17 antes e após o tratamento respectivamente (p=0,01). Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes nos demais tipos de aberrações de alta ordem após o tratamento (p>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento com toxina botulínica A pode diminuir as aberrações esféricas em pacientes com distonias faciais.

PURPOSE: To analyze the ocular wavefront aberrations in patients with facial dystonia treated with botulinum toxin A. METHODS: Patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm in activity underwent slit lamp examination and bilateral wavefront analysis under pharmacologic mydriasis using Alcon LADARvision® wavefront aberrometry system. After that, all patients were treated with botulinum toxin A injections performed by the same ophthalmologist. After one month, the wavefront analysis was performed in the same way and by the same examiner. The main outcome measure was the change in ocular wavefront aberrations. Paired T-test was used to compare pre and post-injection numeric wavefront values. RESULTS: From a total of 11 patients enrolled in this study, 6 (54.5 percent) had essential blepharospasm and 5 (45.5 percent) had hemifacial spasm. The fellow eyes of patients with hemifacial spasm were not included, totalizing 17 eyes with spasm. Eight patients were female (72.7 percent) and three were male (27.3 percent), the male:female ratio was 1:2.6. The age ranged from 50 to 72 years old with a mean of 65.9 ± 8.2 years. The mean of high order root mean square (RMS) wavefront aberrations was 0.68 before and 0.63 one month after the treatment (p=0.01). Before the treatment, the mean of spherical aberration was 0.23 and decreased to 0.17 one month after the treatment (p=0.01). There was no significant difference in the other higher-order aberrations before and after the treatment (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: The treatment with botulium toxin may decrease spherical aberrations in patients with facial dystonia.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blepharospasm/drug therapy , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Corneal Wavefront Aberration/drug therapy , Dystonia/drug therapy , Hemifacial Spasm/drug therapy , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use , Blepharospasm/physiopathology , Dystonia/physiopathology , Hemifacial Spasm/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
Indian J Med Sci ; 2009 Nov; 63(11) 512-516
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145464


Opisthotonus is known to occur in tetanus, rabies, cerebral malaria, neurosyphilis, acute cerebral injury and other medical conditions. Opisthotonus, so far, has not been reported in any major psychiatric disorder. Authors report a case of recurrent opisthotonus presenting concurrently with other catatonic signs which showed dramatic response to combination of lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Clinicians should consider the possibility of catatonia in the differential diagnosis of opisthotonus since catatonia can be treated easily with benzodiazepines and ECT.

Adult , Catatonia/complications , Catatonia/diagnosis , Catatonia/drug therapy , Catatonia/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Dystonia/diagnosis , Dystonia/drug therapy , Dystonia/etiology , Dystonia/therapy , Electroconvulsive Therapy , GABA Modulators/therapeutic use , Humans , Lorazepam/therapeutic use , Male , Muscle Spasticity , Recurrence , Risk Factors
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 27(1): 110-114, mar. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-511875


OBJETIVO: Descrever dois casos de distonia aguda após uso de bromoprida em crianças e realizar revisão da literatura em relação aos mecanismos fisiopatológicos de indução de liberação extrapiramidal, sua sintomatologia e tratamento. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Caso 1: adolescente de 13 anos com quadro de dor e hipertonia cervical associados a febre, náuseas e vômitos, com hipótese inicial de meningite. A investigação subsequente revelou que o quadro iniciou-se após ingestão de uma única dose de bromoprida. O paciente apresentou boa resposta ao tratamento com difenidramina, sem necessidade de coleta de líquor. Caso 2: Lactente de seis meses que desenvolveu sintomas graves de liberação extrapiramidal relacionados à superdosagem de bromoprida, com reversão rápida dos sintomas após administração de biperideno. COMETÁRIOS: Este é o primeiro relato de distonia aguda após uso de bromoprida em crianças. Embora muito utilizada no Brasil como agente pró-cinético e antiemético, nenhum estudo clínico até o momento demonstrou melhor perfil de segurança da bromoprida em relação aos demais antieméticos antagonistas da dopamina. Até que tais estudos sejam realizados, sugere-se cautela na prescrição de bromoprida. Medidas não-farmacológicas devem ser recomendadas no tratamento de vômitos e da doença do refluxo gastresofágico. Quando o tratamento farmacológico for indispensável, deve-se dar preferência a drogas com perfil de segurança mais bem estabelecido.

OBJECTIVE: To report the case of two patients with acute dystonia induced by bromopride in children, followed by a review of the mechanisms of induction of movement disorders by antidopaminergic anti-emetic drugs, its clinical symptoms and treatment. CASE DESCRIPTION: Case 1: a 13 years old teenager who developed acute hypertonia and neck pain associated to fever and vomiting, suggestive of meningitis. Further investigation revealed that symptoms were associated with the ingestion of a single dose of bromopride. The symptoms stopped after administration of diphenidramine, preventing a spinal tap. Case 2: six months old infant who developed extrapyramidal movement disorder related to bromopride overdose, with prompt resolution of symptoms after treatment with biperiden. COMMENTS: This seems to be the first report of acute dystonia after the use of bromopride in children. Although frequently used in Brazil as an anti-emetic and prokynetic agent, no clinical study has showed that bromopride has a better safety profile than other antidopaminergic anti-emetic drugs. While such studies are not available, caution is needed in the context of pediatric prescription of bromopride. Non pharmacological measures should be adopted in the management of vomiting and gastroesophageal reflux. If medical treatment cannot be avoided, one would rather use medications with a better established safety profile.

Humans , Male , Infant , Adolescent , Dopamine Antagonists , Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced , Dystonia/drug therapy , Antiemetics/adverse effects
Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Medical Sciences) ; (6): 118-21, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-635064


The clinical characters, diagnosis and differential diagnosis of paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis (PKC), and efficacy of the anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) were investigated. Thirty-one patients with PKC were collected, and the clinical characters and change of EEG were analyzed. The average age of the first attack was 16.8 years old and the pinnacle was 10 to 20 years old. There were definite causes for every attack and the sudden movement was the most common one (92%). Time for the whole attack was always less than 1 min. The attack presented with muscle tension disturbance (83.9%), movement like dancing (16.1%), abnormal movement of mouth and face and other symptoms (16.2%). The attack tended to be very frequent and 71% patients were beyond once per day. The EEG examination and image scan of primary PKC were normal in most patients. Low dosage of AEDs could control the attack of 50%-77.3% patients. It was concluded that PKC was a common disease of movement disorder. The therapy by AEDs was very effective. PKC should be differentiated from epilepsy and the relationship between PKC and epilepsy needs further research.

Young Adult , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Dystonia/diagnosis , Dystonia/drug therapy , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/diagnosis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 66(4): 800-804, dez. 2008. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-500557


BACKGROUND: The association between Dystonia and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been well described especially for foot and hand dystonia. There is however few data on dystonic postures in patients with atypical parkinsonism. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency and pattern of dystonia in a group of patients with atypical parkinsonism (multiple system atrophy - MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy - PSP, and corticobasal degeneration - CBD) and to investigate whether dystonia could be the first presenting symptom at disease onset in those patients. METHOD: A total of 38 medical charts were reviewed (n=23/MSA group; n=7/CBD group; n=8/PSP group) and data values were described as means/standard deviations. The variables evaluated were sex, age at onset, disease duration, first symptom, clinical features of dystonia and other neurological signs, response to levodopatherapy, Hoehn&Yahr scale >3 after three years of disease, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. RESULTS: The overall frequency of dystonia in our sample was 50 percent with 30.4 percent (n=7) in the MSA group, 62.5 percent (n=5) in the PSP group, and 100 percent (n=8) in the CBD group. In none of these patients, dystonia was the first complaint. Several types of dystonia were found: camptocormia, retrocollis, anterocollis, blepharoespasm, oromandibular, and foot/hand dystonia. CONCLUSION: In our series, dystonia was a common feature in atypical parkinsonism (overall frequency of 50 percent) and it was part of the natural history although not the first symptom at disease onset. Neuroimaging abnormalities are not necessarily related to focal dystonia, and levodopa therapy did not influence the pattern of dystonia in our group of patients.

INTRODUÇÃO: A associação de distonia e doença de Parkinson (DP) já foi bem estabelecida, principalmente para distonia focal em pé ou mão. Entretanto, há poucos dados quanto a distonia em pacientes com parkinsonismo atípico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência e o padrão da distonia em um grupo de pacientes com parkisnonismo atípico (atrofia de múltiplos sistemas - AMS; paralisia supranuclear progressiva - PSP; degeneração corticobasal - DCB) e investigar se a distonia pode ser a manifestação inicial neste grupo. MÉTODO: Um total de 38 prontuários médicos foi revisado (n=23/grupo AMS; n=8/grupo PSP; n=7/grupo PSP) e os dados foram apresentados em médias/desvios padrões. As variaveis avaliadas foram: sexo, idade de início, duração da doença, primeiro sintoma, características clínicas da distonia e outros sinais neurológicos, resposta ao tratamento com levodopa, escala de Hoehn & Yahr >3 em 3 anos de doença, e achados de ressonância magnética. RESULTADOS: A frequência total de distonia em nosso grupo foi 50 por cento, sendo 30,4 por cento (n=7) no grupo AMS, 62.5 por cento (n=5) no grupo PSP e 100 por cento (n=8) no grupo DCB. Em nenhum dos pacientes, distonia foi o primeiro sintoma. Várias apresentações de distonia foram observadas: camptocormia, anterocólis, retrocólis, distonia oromandibular, em pé e mão. CONCLUSÃO: Em nossa série, distonia foi uma característica comum em pacientes com parkinsonismo atípico (freqüência de 50 por cento) e fez parte da história natural em todos os grupos, embora não tenha sido o sintoma inicial em nenhum deles. Anormalidades no exame de neuroimagem não necessariamente estão relacionadas a distonia focal, e o tratamento com levodopa não influenciou o padrão da distonia em nosso grupo de pacientes.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dystonia/etiology , Parkinsonian Disorders/complications , Antiparkinson Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebral Cortex/pathology , Dystonia/drug therapy , Levodopa/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Multiple System Atrophy/complications , Nerve Degeneration/complications , Parkinsonian Disorders/drug therapy , Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive/complications
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 65(4b): 1224-1227, dez. 2007. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-477776


Dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) is an inherited metabolic disorder now classified as DYT5 with two different biochemical defects: autosomal dominant GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) deficiency or autosomal recessive tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency. We report the case of a 10-years-old girl with progressive generalized dystonia and gait disorder who presented dramatic response to levodopa. The phenylalanine to tyrosine ratio was significantly higher after phenylalanine loading test. This condition had two different heterozygous mutations in the GCH1 gene: the previously reported P23L mutation and a new Q182E mutation. The characteristics of the DRD and the molecular genetic findings are discussed.

Distonia dopa-responsiva (DRD), classificada como DYT5, é um erro inato do metabolismo que pode ser causado por dois diferentes tipos de defeito bioquímico: deficiência de GTP ciclo-hidrolase 1 (GCH1) (autossômica dominante) ou de tirosina hidroxilase (autossômica recessiva). Descrevemos o caso de menina de 10 anos com distonia generalizada progressiva e alteração da marcha com importante melhora após uso de levodopa. A relação fenilalanina/tirosina estava aumentada após teste de sobrecarga com fenilalanina. O estudo molecular mostrou que o paciente apresenta uma combinação hererozigótica de mutação no gene GCH1: a já conhecida mutação P23L e uma nova mutação Q182E. Discutem-se as características da DRD e as alterações genéticas possíveis.

Child , Female , Humans , Dopamine Agents/therapeutic use , Dystonia/drug therapy , Dystonia/genetics , GTP Cyclohydrolase/genetics , Levodopa/therapeutic use , Mutation, Missense/genetics , Dystonia/blood , Heterozygote , Phenylalanine/blood , Tyrosine/blood
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 73(2): 278-283, mar.-abr. 2007. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-453370


A forma respiratória da distonia laríngea é rara, de difícil diagnóstico e provoca restrição respiratória de graus variados. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um caso de distonia respiratória envolvendo laringe e faringe e sua evolução em relação à intensidade dos espasmos e seu controle. ESTUDO DE CASO: Paciente de 24 anos, sexo masculino, acompanhado por 5 anos: diagnóstico por nasofibroscopia e eletromiografia e tratamento com toxina botulínica conforme necessidade de controle dos sintomas. CONCLUSÃO: O difícil manejo se deve ao fato do desconhecimento da etiologia e a pouca opção de tratamento, bem como do envolvimento da função respiratória.

Respiratory dystonia is a rare and difficult to diagnose disorder, that causes breathing restriction of various degrees. The objective of the study is to report the case of a patient with respiratory dystonia involving the larynx and the pharynx and its evolution concerning spasms intensity and control. CASE REPORT: A 24 year-old-man has been followed for 5 years. The diagnosis was made by means of nasofibroscopy and electromyography. Treatment was carried out with laryngeal and pharyngeal Botulin toxin injections, as it became necessary for symptoms control. CONCLUSION: The difficult management can be secondary to the lack of knowledge on the etiology and physiopathology of the impairment, and because of the limitations in the treatment of associated respiratory symptoms.

Adult , Humans , Male , Botulinum Toxins/therapeutic use , Dystonia/drug therapy , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use , Respiration Disorders/drug therapy , Electromyography
Rev. bras. otorrinolaringol ; 72(3): 425-427, maio-jun. 2006. tab
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-436299


Distonia laríngea, ou disfonia espasmódica, é caracterizada por contrações involuntárias e inapropriadas da musculatura responsável pela fonação, sendo a do tipo adutora a mais comum. Caracteriza-se por quebras fonatórias, sendo seu diagnóstico confirmado por videolaringoestroboscopia. O tratamento de escolha é feito com a aplicação direta de toxina botulínica nos músculos responsáveis pelo movimento incoordenado. O objetivo desse trabalho é relatar o caso de uma paciente com diagnóstico de distonia laríngea do tipo adutora, tratada com toxina botulínica e discutir as vantagens e observações descritas na literatura a respeito desse tratamento.

Laryngeal dystonia or spasmodic dysphonia is characterized by involuntary and innapropiate spasms of vocal muscles, having the adductor type as the most common one. It is chacterized by strain-strangled voice with pitch breaks. Diagnosis is made by means of videolaryngostroboscopic exam. The treatment of choice is done with botulinum toxin directly injected in the muscles responsible for the mismatched movement. The aim of this study is to report on an adductor- type dysphonia patient and to discuss the advantages and observations about this treatment reported in the literature.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Agents/therapeutic use , Dystonia/complications , Voice Disorders/etiology , Laryngeal Muscles/drug effects , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use , Dystonia/diagnosis , Dystonia/drug therapy , Voice Disorders/diagnosis , Voice Disorders/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 63(3B): 745-747, set. 2005. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-445154


Blinking is a normal human phenomenon involving trigeminal and facial pathways. To gain understanding on the neurobiology of blinking, five normal subjects were investigated before and after application of transdermal capsaicin at the forehead for two weeks. No effects of topical capsaicin were detected in eye blink rates. However, when capsaicin was applied to a female subject with blepharospasm, she showed a dramatic restoration of her vision subsequent to blinking modification. Deactivation of abnormal A-to-C fibers cross talks at the trigeminal-facial pathways seems to be the most likely mechanism of such improvement.

El parpadeo es un fenómeno normal en los humanos que involucra las vías trigéminas faciales. Con el fin de conocer un poco más la neurobiología de este fenómeno estudiamos cinco individuos normales antes y después de aplicar capsaicina trasdérmica en la frente de cada uno de ellos, por dos semanas. La frecuencia de parpadeo no se alteró con la aplicación de capsaicina tópica. Sin embargo, cuando la misma sustancia se aplicó a una paciente con blefaroespasmo hubo dramática restauración de su visión, la cual fue secundaria a la modificación de la actividad muscular palpebral. La desactivación del cruce patológico de información que pasa de las fibras A a las fibras C, pertenecientes a las vías trigémino-faciales, parece ser el mecanismo de acción relacionado con la aplicación de capsaicina, el que estaría directamente relacionado con la recuperación clínica observada en la paciente con blefaroespasmo.

Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Blepharospasm/drug therapy , Capsaicin/therapeutic use , Dystonia/drug therapy , Blinking/drug effects , Chi-Square Distribution , Capsaicin/pharmacology , Blinking/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
Neurol India ; 2003 Dec; 51(4): 455-60
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-121826


Botulinum toxins are, as a group, among the most potent neuromuscular toxins known, yet they are clinically useful in the management of conditions associated with muscular and glandular over-activity. Botulinum toxins act by preventing release of acetylcholine into the neuromuscular junction. While botulinum toxin type A is commonly available, different manufacturers produce specific products, which are not directly interchangeable and should not be considered as generically equivalent formulations. Type B is also available in the market. Each formulation of botulinum toxin is unique with distinct dosing, efficacy and safety profiles for each use to which it is applied. Botulinum toxin type A is the treatment of choice based on its depth of evidence in dystonias and most other conditions. Botulinum toxin type A is established as useful in the management of spasticity, tremors, headache prophylaxis and several other neurological conditions. Active research is underway to determine the parameters for which the type B toxin can be used in these conditions, as covered in this review. Botulinum toxin use has spread to several fields of medicine.

Anti-Dyskinesia Agents/therapeutic use , Botulinum Toxins/therapeutic use , Dystonia/drug therapy , Humans , India , Tremor/drug therapy