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Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20200974, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339656


Hypertrophic feline muscular dystrophy (HFMD), rarely reported in the literature, is a disease caused by a hereditary recessive dystrophin deficiency linked to the X chromosome, mainly affecting young male cats. Here, we presented the clinical aspects, food management, and clinical evolution of a seven-year-old mixed-breed cat diagnosed with HFMD, having a primary history of progressive tongue protrusion.

A distrofia muscular hipertrófica felina é uma doença causada por uma deficiência da distrofina com caráter hereditário recessivo ligado ao cromossomo X, com poucos registros de ocorrência na literatura, que acomete principalmente gatos machos jovens. Neste trabalho, são relatados os aspectos clínicos, manejo alimentar e evolução clínica de um gato, sem raça definida, de sete anos com histórico principal de protrusão progressiva da língua e diagnosticado com distrofia muscular hipertrófica felina.

Animals , Male , Cats , Dystrophin/genetics , Macroglossia/veterinary , Muscular Dystrophy, Animal/therapy , Biopsy/veterinary
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928424


OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis of a Chinese pedigree affected with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) with myalgia as the main feature.@*METHODS@#Clinical data of the patients and results of auxiliary examinations were retrospectively analyzed. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and high-throughput sequencing were used to detect potential variants. Sanger sequencing was used to verify the results.@*RESULTS@#The clinical manifestations of the proband included myalgia and elevated serum creatine kinase, which is similar to another patient from the pedigree. Genetic testing revealed that the two patients both harbored hemizygous deletions of exons 10 to 29 of the DMD gene, for which the mother was a carrier. The same deletion was not found in his father. Based on the guidelines from American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the deletion was predicted to be pathogenic (PVS1+PM2+PP1).@*CONCLUSION@#Myalgia with elevated serum CK may be atypical clinical manifestations of BMD and may be associated with variants in the rod domain of the DMD gene. The deletion of exons 10 to 29 of the DMD gene probably underlay the BMD in this pedigree.

China , Dystrophin/genetics , Female , Genetic Testing , Humans , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Myalgia/genetics , Pedigree , Retrospective Studies
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921958


OBJECTIVE@#To identify the etiology of a patient with severe symptoms of DMD and to trace its pathogenic gene, so as to provide a basis for genetic counseling and clinical intervention.@*METHODS@#Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was used to analyze exon deletion/repetitive variant of DMD gene, and further analysis was performed by chromosome G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and SNP array analysis.@*RESULTS@#The MLPA results of the proband showed that the exon 1-79 of DMD gene were deleted, the G-banding karyotype of blood sample was 46, XY, and the deletion of the short arm of X chromosome was found by FISH. SNP array results showed that 5.8Mb (29 628 158-35 434 714) deletion occurred in the Xp21.2p21.1 region of X chromosome, and the patient was diagnosed as the contiguous deletion syndrome involving the genes of IL1RAPL, MAGEB1-4, ROB, CXorf2, GM, AP3K7IP, FTHL1, DMD, FAM47A, TMEM47, and FAM47B.@*CONCLUSION@#The exact pathogenic site of this family is the deletion of 5.8 Mb (29 628 158-35 434 714) in the Xp21.2p21.1 region of X chromosome, which can be used for prenatal diagnosis. High resolution SNP array technique plays an important role in detecting potential chromosome abnormalities in patients.

Dystrophin/genetics , Exons , Female , Gene Deletion , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Pregnancy , Prenatal Diagnosis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879596


OBJECTIVE@#To establish a newborn screening system for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) through assessment of MM isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MM) activity.@*METHODS@#The CK-MM level was detected using dry blood spot filter paper from 10 252 male newborns. The results were grouped based on their gestational age, sampling time and intervals between the experiments. The threshold value for CK-MM necessitating genetic testing was determined. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was carried out for those with a CK-MM value over the threshold, and the result was verified by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA).@*RESULTS@#Based on the result of non-parametric rank sum test, the median CK-MM concentration has increased with the gestational age, and was inversely correlated with the age of the newborns among unaffected specimens. CK-MM on dry blood spot filter paper can be stable for 14 days at 2-8℃. Statistical analysis of CK-MM value of the 10 252 neonates suggested that the threshold may be set as 700 ng/mL. Exonic deletions were found in 2 confirmed cases, whose CK-MM level was greater than 2000 ng/mL.@*CONCLUSION@#Detection of CK-MM in dry blood spot filter paper has provided an effective method for newborn screening of DMD. This simple and inexpensive method can be used for large-scale screening, which is of great value to the early intervention and treatment of the disease.

Dystrophin/genetics , Exons , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Neonatal Screening
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879595


OBJECTIVE@#To summarize the result of genetic testing and therapeutic prospect of 2042 unrelated Chinese pedigrees affected with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) from a single center from 2005 to 2019.@*METHODS@#Peripheral blood samples of the pedigrees were collected for the detection of DMD gene variants with combined multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), next generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#DMD and BMD have respectively accounted for 78.60% and 21.40% of the pedigrees, which included 33 female probands. Variants of the DMD gene were detected in 1986 pedigrees (97.26%). Large deletions, duplications and small-scale mutations have respectively accounted for 71.85%, 8.76% and 19.39%. Common deletions and duplications have included deletion of exons 45-50 and duplications of exon 2, while no hot spot was found with small-scale mutations. For 1595 pedigrees affected with DMD, 935 (58.62%) were hereditary and 660 (41.38%) were de novo in origin. 34.28% (700/2042) of the patients had symptoms which could be relieved by gene therapy.@*CONCLUSION@#This has been the largest single-center study of DMD pedigrees, which has attained definite diagnosis in 97.26% of the patients. The results have enabled genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the affected families upon their subsequent pregnancies, enriched the spectrum of DMD gene variants, as well as facilitated study of the mechanism of DMD gene mutations and exploration of clinical treatment.

China , Dystrophin/genetics , Exons/genetics , Female , Gene Deletion , Genetic Testing , Humans , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/therapy , Mutation , Pedigree , Pregnancy
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.3): 77-81, set. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040555


La distrofia muscular de Duchenne es una enfermedad genéticamente determinada, ligada al cromosoma X y caracterizada clínicamente por producir debilidad muscular progresiva, con una incidencia de 1 por cada 3500-6000 varones nacidos. Es causada por la mutaciones en el gen DMD, el cual codifica la distrofina, una proteína sub-sarcolémica esencial para la estabilidad estructural del músculo. Los defectos genéticos en el gen DMD, se dividen en: deleciones (65%) duplicaciones (5-10%) y mutaciones puntuales (10-15%). Actualmente no se dispone de tratamiento curativo, el único fármaco que ha demostrado modificar la historia natural de la enfermedad (independientemente de la mutación genética) son los corticoides, los cuales están indicados en estadios tempranos de la enfermedad. En relación a los ensayos clínicos, en los últimos diez años se han experimentado grandes avances en el campo de las opciones terapéuticas, divididos en dos grandes dianas terapéuticas: 1) el área de las terapias génicas y 2) tratar de revertir o bloquear los procesos fisiopatológicos de la enfermedad, tales como inflamación, fibrosis, regeneración muscular, etc. Es probable que un tratamiento eficaz para la distrofia muscular de Duchenne requiera combinaciones que se apliquen tanto al defecto primario como las consecuencias fisiopatológicas secundarias.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetically determined disease, linked to the X chromosome, c haracterized clinically by producing progressive muscle weakness, with an incidence of 1 per 3500-6000 males born. It is caused by the mutation of the DMD gene, which encodes dystrophin, a sub-sarcolemmal protein essential for structural muscle stability. The genetic defects in the DMD gene are divided into: deletions (65%) duplications (5.10%) and point mutations (10-15%). At present there is no curative treatment, the only drug that has been shown to modify the natural history of the disease (independently of the genetic mutation) are corticosteroids, currently indicated in early stages of the disease. In relation to clinical trials, in the last ten years, has experienced great advances in the field of therapeutic options, divided into two major therapeutic targets: 1) the area of gene therapies and 2) trying to reverse or block the pathophysiological processes of the disease, such as inflammation, fibrosis, muscle regeneration, etc. It is likely that an effective treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy requires combinations of therapies that address both the primary defect and its secondary pathophysiological consequences.

Humans , Animals , Rabbits , Genetic Therapy/methods , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/therapy , Phenotype , Dystrophin/genetics , Mice, Inbred mdx , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Genotype
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 28(3): 173-180, mai.-jun. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-775239


Fundamentos: A forma de Duchenne é a mais comum e grave das distrofias musculares. De herança recessivaligada ao cromossoma X, acomete meninos e afeta os músculos estriados e o miocárdio. Origina-se de mutaçõesno gene da distrofina, o maior gene humano com 79 éxons. Objetivos: Verificar as alterações cardíacas iniciais em pacientes pediátricos com distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) e realizar o estudo molecular das alterações no gene da distrofina. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo incluindo pacientes pediátricos portadores de DMD, com avaliação clínica, medição do nível sérico de creatinofosfoquinase, eletrocardiograma, ecoDopplercardiograma e eletrocardiografia dinâmica e genotipagem do DNA, com amplificação dos 18 éxons mais acometidos.Resultados: Foram estudados 11 meninos de 6-14 anos de idade. Não havia alterações importantes ao exameclínico cardiológico. Observou-se aumento da creatinofosfoquinase em todos os pacientes. O eletrocardiogramamostrou alterações precoces, com ondas R altas em V1 (n=7), bloqueio de ramo direito (n=2), ondas delta e PR curto (n=1) e distúrbio da repolarização ventricular (n=1). Em 4 pacientes, o ecocardiograma evidenciou sinaisde disfunção sistólica. O eletrocardiograma dinâmico (Holter) mostrou alteração em 4 pacientes: com muitas extrassístoles (n=3) e com síndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White (n=1). Todas as crianças recebiam corticoterapia. Não houve correlação significativa entre a deleção do éxon 52 e arritmias (p=0,43). O estudo molecular evidenciou deleção do éxon 52 nos 4 pacientes com cardiomiopatia dilatada, sendo que em 2 havia deleção concomitante nos éxons 1 e 50, respectivamente. Nos outros 7 pacientes havia deleção nos éxons 48, 51, 52 e 57.Conclusões: O eletrocardiograma mostrou as primeiras alterações nos pacientes pediátricos com DMD. Nos casos com cardiomiopatia dilatada e arritmia, detectou-se deleção do éxon 52.

Background: Duchenne Dystrophy is the most common and severe form of muscular dystrophy. It has an X chromosome-linked recessiveinheritance and affects boys’ striated muscles and myocardium. It is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, the largest human gene, composed of 79 exons. Objectives: To check the early cardiac changes in pediatric patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and carry out the molecular study of changes in the dystrophin gene.Methods: Prospective study involving pediatric patients with DMD, with clinical assessment, measurement of serum levels of creatine phosphokinase, electrocardiogram, Doppler echocardiography and dynamic electrocardiography and DNA genotyping, with amplificationof the 18 most affected exons. Results: A group of 11 boys aged 6-14 years was studied. Clinical cardiological examination did not reveal any major changes. An increase in creatinine phosphokinase was detected in all patients. Electrocardiogram showed early changes, with high R waves in V1 (n=7) right bundle branch block (n=2), delta waves and short PR interval (n=1), and signs of disturbance of ventricular repolarization (n=1). Echocardiogramshowed signs of systolic dysfunction. Dynamic electrocardiogram (Holter) showed changes in 4 patients: with many extrasystoles (n=3) andWolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (n=1). All children received corticosteroid therapy. There was no significant correlation between exon52 deletion and arrhythmias (p=0.43). The molecular study revealed an exon 52 deletion in 4 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, of which2 had concomitant deletion of exons 1 and 50, respectively. Other 7 patients had deletions of exons 48, 51, 52 and 57. Conclusions: Electrocardiogram showed the first changes in pediatric patients with DMD. In cases with dilated cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, the deletion of exon 52 was detected.

Humans , Male , Child , Child , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Dystrophin/physiology , Dystrophin/genetics , Echocardiography, Doppler , Electrocardiography/methods , Genotype , Prospective Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73180


Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutation in dystrophin gene. We analyzed the results of a genetic test in 29 DMD/BMD patients, their six female relatives, and two myopathic female patients in Korea. As the methods developed, we applied different procedures for dystrophin gene analysis; initially, multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used, followed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Additionally, we used direct DNA sequencing for some patients who had negative results using the above methods. The overall mutation detection rate was 72.4% (21/29) in DMD/BMD patients, identifying deletions in 58.6% (17/29). Most of the deletions were confined to the central hot spot region between exons 44 and 55 (52.9%, 7/19). The percentage of deletions and duplications revealed by MLPA was 45.5% (5/11) and 27.2% (3/11), respectively. Using the MLPA method, we detected mutations confirming their carrier status in all female relatives and symptomatic female patients. In one patient in whom MLPA revealed a single exon deletion of the dystrophin gene, subsequent DNA sequencing analysis identified a novel nonsense mutation (c.4558G > T; Gln1520X). The MLPA assay is a useful quantitative method for detecting mutation in asymptomatic or symptomatic carriers as well as DMD/BMD patients.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA Mutational Analysis , Dystrophin/genetics , Exons , Female , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant , Ligase Chain Reaction , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Deletion
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 71(2): 151-157, mar.-abr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633835


La distrofia muscular de Duchenne/Becker (DMD/B) es una miopatía hereditaria grave y progresiva. Se relaciona con alteraciones en el gen DYS, ubicado en el cromosoma X, que codifica para la proteína distrofina. Distintas manifestaciones pueden observarse según el impacto de la alteración genética sobre la proteína. Los registros internacionales de mutaciones refieren una elevada frecuencia (65-70%) de deleciones/duplicaciones de uno o más exones del gen DYS. En este trabajo presentamos el estudio de alteraciones numéricas en los 79 exones del gen DYS. El estudio fue realizado en 59 individuos pertenecientes a 31 familias no relacionadas. La metodología utilizada fue Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). En los 31 casos independientes se estableció además el score clínico, se realizó el test de Raven y se determinaron los valores de creatininfosfoquinasa (CPK) en sangre. Nuestros datos revelan una frecuencia de alteraciones numéricas en el gen DYS del 61.3%, provocando un corrimiento del marco de lectura en el 100% de los casos. Se observó una región con mayor tendencia a presentar alteraciones que involucran un solo exón. La tasa de mutación de novo identificada fue del 35.2%. Se halló, a su vez, una asociación significativa entre afectados con alteraciones numéricas y valores del test de Raven de bajo rendimiento. Estos resultados aportan datos a los conocimientos regionales sobre las alteraciones genéticas y su impacto fenotípico en la enfermedad de Duchenne/Becker.

The Duchen ne/Becker muscular dystrophy is a hereditary miopathy with a recessive sex-linked pattern. The related gene is called DYS and the coded protein plays a crucial role in the anchorage between the cytoskeleton and the cellular membrane in muscle cells. Different clinical manifestations are observed depending on the impact of the genetic alteration on the protein. The global register of mutations reveals an enhanced frequency for deletions/duplications of one or more exons affecting the DYS gene. In the present work, numeric alterations have been studied in the 79 exons of the DYS gene. The study has been performed on 59 individuals, including 31 independent cases and 28 cases with a familial link. The applied methodology was Multiplex Ligation Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA). In the 31 independent cases clinical data were established: i.e. the clinical score, the Raven test percentiles, and the creatininphosphokinase (CPK) blood values. Our results reveal a 61.3% frequency of numeric alterations affecting the DYS gene in our population, provoking all of them a reading frame shift. The rate for de novo mutations was identified as 35.2%. Alterations involving a specific region of one exon were observed with high frequency, affecting a specific region. A significant association was found between numeric alterations and a low percentile for the Raven test. These data contribute to the local knowledge of genetic alterations and their phenotypic impact for the Duchenne/Becker disease.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dystrophin/genetics , Gene Deletion , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Dystrophin/metabolism , Gene Frequency , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/diagnosis , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135584


Background & objectives: Duchenne (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Genetic diagnosis of the proband becomes crucial, and forms the base for carrier analysis, genetic counselling, prediction of natural history and prognosis, and eligibility for therapeutic strategies. Traditional multiplex PCR assay is the common method used in India to detect DMD gene deletions, mainly in the hot-spot region. Deletions of exons outside the usual 18 or 21 exons in the hot-spot, duplications and carrier analysis are often left without precise genetic diagnosis and require efficient dosage/quantitative analysis. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of using multiplex PCR (mPCR) of 30 exons followed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), to study deletions and duplications in the DMD gene in patients clinically diagnosed as BMD/DMD. Methods: Using an algorithm of mPCR and MLPA which was less invasive and cost-effective, we performed retrospective and prospective analysis on 150 male patients. Results: Multiplex PCR could pick up deletions in 103 of the 150 cases. MLPA was able to detect deletions and duplications including nine additional mutations. Further, the borders of the deletions and duplications were more accurately defined by this recent methodology, which enables one to determine the effect of the mutation on the reading frame. In all, including the single exon deletions, MLPA was efficient in accurately confirming mutations in 35 per cent of all cases. Ten novel mutations were identified in this study. Overall, this approach confirmed mutations in 75 per cent of the patients in our study. Interpretations & conclusions: The systematic approach/algorithm used in this study offers the best possible economical mutation analysis in the Indian scenario.

Adolescent , Adult , Algorithms , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA Mutational Analysis/economics , DNA Mutational Analysis/methods , Dystrophin/diagnosis , Dystrophin/genetics , Exons/genetics , Gene Deletion , Humans , India , Male , Molecular Probe Techniques , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Mutation/genetics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
Indian J Pediatr ; 2009 Oct; 76(10): 1007-1012
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142394


Objective. To determine the pattern of deletions of the dystrophin gene, the major class of mutations among the Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients of eastern India and to analyze the carrier frequency of the female members of the proband’s family. Methods. Deletional mutations occurring in patients have been characterized by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Carrier state of mothers and sisters of probands were analyzed by either of two methods: 1) typing polymorphic short tandem repeat markers in or around the regions of deletion, by radioactive polymerase chain reaction and 2) quantitative real time amplification of the region of deletion. Results. Deletions were detected in 67 (62.04%) out of 108 male patients, about 76.12% of these being localized in the central hot spot region of the gene, i.e., between exon 42 to exon 53 and 17.91% at the proximal hot spot i.e., between exon 1 to exon 20. In the present study were found 43 types of deletions, out of which 25 (58%) were new deletions, which were not described earlier among the Indian patients. Distribution pattern of deletions in different hot spot regions has been compared with that of other countries and statistical analysis reveals significant difference between countries (p<0.001). Correlation of the pattern of deletion with clinical phenotype of patients has been discussed. Interesting case of germline mosaicism and its implications in counseling has also been discussed. Conclusion. About half the mothers of affected probands were not carriers of the deletion, underscoring the need to use real time techniques for carrier detection.

Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Age of Onset , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , DNA Mutational Analysis , Dystrophin/genetics , Female , Genetics, Population , Germ-Line Mutation/genetics , Health Surveys , Heterozygote , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/diagnosis , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/epidemiology , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Assessment , Sequence Deletion/genetics , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 79(5): 495-501, oct. 2008. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-518971


Background: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is an X-link recessive disorder that affects 1 per 3.500 males. Becker Muscular Dystrophy is less common, affecting approximately 1 per 30 000 males. Both diseases are the result of a mutation in the Xp21 gene that encodes for dystrophin. Objective: Describe the clinical manifestations of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in patients at our institution. Method: Observational and descriptive study, in which clinical records of 8 patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy were reviewed, with description of their clinical aspects. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 5 years-old. 6 boys presented developmental delay and 7 deambulation difficulties, being the main reason for medical attendance. 3 patients died during the study period. Conclusions: A multidisciplinary management is required to delay the disease evolution, while it does not have a curative treatment. It is necessary to know the clinical aspects representative of this disease, in order to perform an early diagnosis.

Introducción: La distrofia muscular de Duchenne es una alteración ligada al X recesiva que afecta 1 en 3 500 varones. La distrofia muscular de Becker es menos común, afectando aproximadamente 1 en 30 000 varones. Ambas resultan de la mutación de un gen localizado en Xp21, el cual codifica a la distrofina. Objetivos: Describir el comportamiento clínico de la distrofia muscular de Duchenne en pacientes evaluados en nuestra institución. Pacientes y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de tipo observacional y descriptivo, donde se revisaron las historias clínicas de ocho pacientes con el diagnóstico de distrofia muscular de Duchenne, donde se describieron los aspectos clínicos y paraclínicos de la entidad. Resultados: El promedio de la edad para el momento del diagnóstico fue de cinco años. Seis presentaron retardo del desarrollo psicomotor y la marcha se encontró alterada en siete pacientes siendo este el principal motivo de consulta junto a caídas frecuentes. Tres pacientes habían fallecido al final del período en estudio. Conclusiones: Se requiere de un tratamiento multidisciplinario para retrasar la evolución de la enfermedad, mientras no se disponga de un tratamiento curativo. Es necesario conocer los aspectos representativos de esta enfermedad para realizar su diagnóstico precoz.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/epidemiology , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/physiopathology , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/drug therapy , Dystrophin/genetics , Mutation , Venezuela/epidemiology
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39341


BACKGROUND: Exon deletions of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene account for most of the alterations found in DMD and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). This study was to evaluate the usefulness of dual priming oligonucleotide multiplex PCR (DPO PCR) in detection of exon deletions of DMD gene. METHODS: Thirty-seven DMD or BMD patients who had known exon deletions detected by conventional multiplex PCR (conventional PCR) and nine control subjects were enrolled in this study. When a discrepancy was shown between the results of conventional PCR and DPO PCR, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) technique was performed as a confirmation test. RESULTS: The same deletions previously identified by conventional PCR in 32 out of 37 subjects were also detected by DPO PCR. For the five subjects (13.5%) showing discrepant results between the conventional PCR and DPO PCR, MLPA was performed and its results were found to correlate better with those of DPO PCR. The discrepancies were due to false positive or false negative results of the conventional PCR. CONCLUSIONS: DPO PCR shows a high agreement of results with the conventional PCR and is considered an adequate method to be used as a primary genetic test for the diagnosis of DMD. Because of an improved accuracy, especially for determining the boundaries of DMD gene deletions, DPO PCR can be very useful as a supplement to the conventional PCR.

DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA Primers , Dystrophin/genetics , Female , Gene Deletion , Genetic Testing , Humans , Male , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Oligonucleotide Probes , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reproducibility of Results
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 65(1): 73-76, mar. 2007. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-446684


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. We studied 106 patients with a diagnosis of probable DMD/BMD by analyzing 20 exons of the dystrophin gene in their blood and, in some of the cases, by immunohistochemical assays for dystrophin in muscle biopsies. In 71.7 percent of the patients, deletions were found in at least one of the exons; 68 percent of these deletions were in the hot-spot 3' region. Deletions were found in 81.5 percent of the DMD cases and in all the BMD cases. The cases without deletions, which included the only woman in the study with DMD, had dystrophin deficiency. The symptomatic female carriers had no deletions but had abnormal dystrophin distribution in the sarcolemma (discontinuous immunostains). The following diagnoses were made for the remaining cases without deletions with the aid of a muscle biopsy: spinal muscular atrophy, congenital myopathy; sarcoglycan deficiency and unclassified limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin analysis by immunohistochemistry continues to be the most specific method for diagnosis of DMD/BMD and should be used when no exon deletions are found in the dystrophin gene in the blood.

As distrofias musculares de Duchenne (DMD) e de Becker (DMB) são doenças causadas por mutação no gene da distrofina. Foram estudados 106 casos com a suspeita diagnóstica de DMD/BMD com a analise de 20 exons do gene da distrofina no sangue e biópsia muscular com imuno-histoquímica para distrofina em alguns casos. Em 71,7 por cento dos casos foi encontrada deleção em pelo menos um dos exons, sendo que 68 por cento das deleções localizam-se na região 3' hot spot. Foram encontradas deleções em 81,5 por cento dos DMD e em todos os BMD, sendo que os sem deleção tinham deficiência de distrofina, incluindo a mulher com DMD. As portadoras sintomáticas não tinham deleções mas anormalidades na distribuição da distrofina no sarcolema. Os outros casos sem deleção, com auxilio da biópsia muscular tiveram outros diagnósticos (atrofia muscular espinhal, miopatia congênita, deficiência de sarcoglicanos, distrofia de cinturas-membros sem classificação). A análise imuno-histoquímica para distrofina na biópsia muscular continua sendo o método mais específico para diagnóstico de DMD/DMB e deve ser utilizado quando não são encontradas deleções do gene da distrophina no sangue.

Female , Humans , Male , Dystrophin/genetics , Exons/genetics , Gene Deletion , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , DNA , Dystrophin/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/metabolism , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/pathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
Neurol India ; 2006 Sep; 54(3): 310-1
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-120084


The most common genetic neuromuscular disease of childhood, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) is caused by deletion, duplication or point mutation of the dystrophin gene located at Xp 21.2. In the present study DNA from seventy unrelated patients clinically diagnosed as having DMD/BMD referred from different parts of West Bengal, a few other states and Bangladesh are analyzed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) to screen for exon deletions and its distribution within the dystrophin gene. Out of seventy patients forty six (63%) showed large intragenic deletion in the dystrophin gene. About 79% of these deletions are located in the hot spot region i.e, between exon 42 to 53. This is the first report of frequency and distribution of deletion in dystrophin gene in eastern Indian DMD/BMD population.

Age of Onset , Dystrophin/genetics , Exons , Female , Gene Deletion , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
Neurol India ; 2003 Sep; 51(3): 367-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-120661


The reading frame hypothesis has been proposed to explain the molecular basis of two allelic forms of muscular dystrophies, Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (D/BMD). To evaluate the hypothesis in Indian D/BMD patients, we analyzed deletion of dystrophin exons in 147 DMD and 19 BMD patients. Our studies showed deviation of more than 30% from the reading frame hypothesis in DMD patients (47/147). The present results implicate a need to reevaluate the reading frame hypothesis.

Child , Dystrophin/genetics , Frameshift Mutation , Gene Deletion , Genotype , Humans , Male , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Phenotype
Neurol India ; 2003 Jun; 51(2): 223-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-120723


The dystrophin gene was analyzed in 8 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and 10 Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) unrelated families (22 subjects: 18 index cases and 4 sibs) for the presence of deletions by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR; 27 exons) and Southern hybridization using 8 cDMD probes. Deletions were identified in 5 DMD and 7 BMD patients (6 index cases and 1 sib). The concordance between the clinical phenotype and "reading frame hypothesis" was observed in 11/12 patients (92%). The female relatives of DMD/BMD patients with identifiable deletions were examined by quantitative mPCR. Carriers were identified in 7 families. We also describe a variation in the HindIII pattern with cDNA probe 8 and 11-14. Molecular characterization of the dystrophin gene in this study has been helpful in advising the patients concerning the inheritance of the condition, and carrier diagnosis of female relatives, and should also prove useful for prenatal diagnosis.

Adolescent , Adult , Child , Dystrophin/genetics , Female , Gene Deletion , Genetic Carrier Screening , Humans , Male , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics
Indian J Med Sci ; 2003 Jan; 57(1): 1-6
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-66395


66 unrelated patients from Southern India with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) were studied for intragenic deletion in 18 exons and Pm region of the DMD gene using multiplex PCR. Of these 41 (62.1%) showed intragenic deletions. 78% of the deletions were located at the distal hotspot region (44-55 exons) and 22% of the deletions were located at the proximal region (exon 2-19). Exon 50 is most frequently deleted. Deletions in isolated cases were significantly more compared to familial cases. The lower incidence reported from South India compared to North India, is suggestive of variations in the Southern and Northern population.

Dystrophin/genetics , Gene Deletion , Humans , India/epidemiology , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/epidemiology