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Medicentro (Villa Clara) ; 27(4)dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1534854


El concepto de biopelículas ha surgido de forma paulatina durante un largo período; se presentan como estructuras tridimensionales compuestas por células sésiles de microorganismos que crecen y se adhieren irreversiblemente a superficies, tanto vivas como inertes. Su capacidad de desarrollarse, tanto en superficies bióticas como abióticas, es una característica que los relaciona directamente con la salud humana. Distintas infecciones óticas se han inculpado a la presencia de biopelículas en las mucosas como en la otitis media con efusión, de igual forma se manifiestan en la aparición y persistencia de la otitis media crónica. Las biopelículas afines con otitis media, generalmente, contienen uno o múltiples especies de bacterias otopatógenas primarias. La comprensión de la biopelicula auxiliará el progreso de nuevas terapias y estrategias de control, al evitar enfermedades infecciosas ya que las bacterias formadoras de biopelículas son una seria amenaza para la salud pública debido a su alta resistencia a los antimicrobianos.

The concept of biofilms has emerged gradually over a long period; they appear as three-dimensional structures composed of sessile cells of microorganisms that grow and adhere irreversibly to surfaces, both living and inert. Their ability to develop, both on biotic and abiotic surfaces, is a characteristic that directly relates them to human health. Different ear infections have been blamed on the presence of biofilms on the mucous membranes, such as otitis media with effusion, in the same way they manifest themselves in the appearance and persistence of chronic otitis media. Otitis media-related biofilms generally contain one or multiple species of primary otopathogenic bacteria. The understanding of the biofilm will help us refine new therapies and control strategies, by avoiding infectious diseases since biofilm-forming bacteria are a serious threat to public health due to their high resistance to antimicrobials.

Biofilms , Otitis Media, Suppurative , Ear
Acta otorrinolaringol. cir. cuello (En línea) ; 51(2): 150-154, 20230000. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1442517


Introducción: los quistes epidermoides son el tercer tumor más común del ángulo pontocerebeloso (APC). Es infrecuente detectar simultáneamente un colesteatoma infiltrativo del oído medio (OM). Caso clínico: paciente de 51 años acude a urgencias por cefalea hemicraneal intensa, pulsátil secundaria a hidrocefalia aguda, requirió ventriculostomía. En la resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral contrastada se reporta una masa en el APC sugestivo de quiste epidermoide y simultáneamente un colesteatoma infiltrativo del OM. La paciente fue intervenida primero con resección de colesteatoma del OM; en un segundo tiempo resección del quiste epidermoide del APC por vía translaberíntica. El posoperatorio la evolución clínica fue satisfactoria. Discusión: los quistes epidermoides del APC son histopatológicamente idénticos al colesteatoma del OM y pueden ser secundarios a estos. Conclusión: se debe individualizar el manejo sin descartar la posibilidad de tener las dos enfermedades de manera simultánea.

Introduction: cysts are the third most common tumor of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). It is rare to simultaneously detect an infiltrative cholesteatoma of the middle ear (OM). Clinical case: a 51-year-old patient attended the emergency department due to intense throbbing hemicranial headache secondary to acute hydrocephalus, requiring ventriculostomy. Contrast-enhanced cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reported a mass in the APC suggestive of an epidermoid cyst and simultaneously an infiltrative cholesteatoma of the OM. The patient underwent first surgery with resection of the OM cholesteatoma; in a second stage, resection of the epidermoid cyst of the APC through a translabyrinthine approach. The postoperative clinical evolution was satisfactory. Discussion: APC epidermoid cysts are histopathologically identical to OM cholesteatoma and may be secondary to them. Conclusion: management must be individualized without ruling out the possibility of having both diseases simultaneously.

Humans , Male , Female , Ear , Epidermal Cyst , Cerebellopontine Angle , Cholesteatoma , Headache
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 672-680, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986944


Objective: This study was to investigate the main characteristics and related factors of wideband absorbance (WBA) in children with normal hearing and to obtain age-specific reference range of WBA. Methods: 384 children between 0-12 years old (615 ears) who visited the Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University from October 2019 to February 2021 were enrolled, including 230 males (376 ears) and 154 females (239 ears), with totally 306 left ears and 309 right ears. Wideband tympanometry (WBT) was performed and normative WBA data were analyzed by SPSS 24.0 statistical software. Repeated measures and multivariate analysis of variance were applied to the data from 16 points at 1/3-octave frequencies (226, 324, 408, 500, 667, 841, 1 000, 1 297, 1 682, 2 000, 2 670, 3 364, 4 000, 5 339, 6 727 and 8 000 Hz) to evaluate the effects of frequency, age, external auditory canal pressures, gender and ear on WBA. Results: According to the WBT frequency-absorbance curve, the subjects were divided into seven groups: 1-month old group, 2-month old group, 3-month old group, 4-5 month old group, 6-24 month old group,>2-6 year old group and>6-12 year old group. The WBA of normal-hearing children underwent a series of developmental changes with age at both ambient pressure and tympanometric peak pressures. WBA results for 1-month group and 2-month old group exhibited a multipeaked pattern, with the peaks occurring around 2 000 and 4 897 Hz, and a notch around 3 886 Hz. WBA results for 3-month group and 4-5 month old group exhibited a single broad-peaked pattern, with the peak occurring between 2 000-4 757 Hz. The WBA of 1-month old group to 4-5 month old group decreased gradually at low frequency (226-408 Hz) and 6 727 Hz, and increased at middle to high frequency (2 670-4 000 Hz). The WBA of 6-24 month old group were significantly lower than that of 2-month old group to 4-5 month old group at all frequencies except 3 364 and 4 000 Hz. WBA results for 6-24 month old group,>2-6 year old group and>6-12 year old group exhibited a single-peaked pattern, and the peak frequency of WBA moved to the lower frequency successively. From 6-24 month old group to>6-12 year old group, the WBA gradually increased at low to middle frequencies (667-2 670 Hz) and 8 000 Hz, and decreased at middle to high frequencies (3 364-5 339 Hz). Among the 16 frequencies of all age groups, the difference between WBA under ambient pressure and tympanometric peak pressure were -0.09-0.06, and 43.75%-81.25% frequency points had statistically significant difference, which was mainly manifested in that WBA under ambient pressure were lower than that under tympanometric peak pressure at 226-1 682 Hz. There was no significant ear effect on all of the age groups. Similarly, there was no significant gender effect except for 3-month old group and 4-5 month old group. Conclusions: The WBA of normal-hearing children measured at ambient pressure and tympanometric peak pressure varied across the frequencies with age from 1 month to 12 years old, and different frequencies followed different change patterns (increase vs. decrease) in WBA. There was also significant external auditory canal pressures effect on all of the age groups. The establishment of age-specific reference range of WBA for 0-12 years old normal-hearing children in this study would be useful for clinical practice of determining normative data regarding WBT.

Male , Female , Humans , Child , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Acoustic Impedance Tests/methods , Ear , Reference Values , Ear Canal
Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 809-814, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1011048


Objective:To investigate the characteristics of wideband acoustic immittance(WAI) measurements in patients with unilateral Ménière's disease(MD) and evaluate the clinical value of WAI in diagnosis of MD. Methods:WAI was performed in 30 patients with unilateral MD(30 ears for symptomatic and 30 ears for asymptomatic) and in 26 healthy individuals(52 ears)(control group). The WAI measurements, including the frequency first appearing two peaks in energy absorbance(EA) tympanogram, resonance frequency(RF), the peak value of absorbance(PVA), the integral area of absorbance(IAA), EA curve at peak pressure, were analyzed. Results:①The occurrence of two peaks in EA tympanogram in both the MD symptomatic and asymptomatic ear was observed in 27 ears(84.4%), and 38 ears(70.4%) in the control group, with no significant difference in the frequency of first appearing in two peaks onset between the groups(all P>0.05). ②The RF of the MD symptomatic ears was significantly lower than that of the asymptomatic ears(t=-3.544, P=0.001) and that of the control subjects(t=2.084, P=0.041); there was no difference of RF between the MD asymptomatic ears and the control group(P>0.05). ③The PVA were significantly lower in both MD symptomatic(t=4.240, P<0.01) and asymptomatic ears(t=4.202, P=0.001) than in controls. ④The IAA in MD symptomatic(t=3.295, P=0.001) and asymptomatic ears(t=3.193, P=0.003) was significantly lower than in the control group. ⑤Comparison of the EA curve at peak pressure of the three groups: the EAs of MD symptomatic ears were lower than those of the control group at the range of 1 059-2 911 Hz(all P<0.05); the EAs of MD symptomatic ears were lower than those of MD asymptomatic ears within 1 000 Hz and 1 834-2 119 Hz(all P<0.05); the EAs of MD asymptomatic ears were lower than those of the control group at the range of 515-2 748 Hz(all P<0.05). Conclusion:Symptomatic ears in unilateral MD patients show alterations in some WAI measurements compared to asymptomatic ears and/or controls, suggesting that middle ear mechanical fuction of the affected side may be modified due to the endolymphatic hydrops. The clinical significance of WAI needs to be further explored in the context of evaluating MD.

Humans , Meniere Disease/diagnosis , Endolymphatic Hydrops/diagnosis , Ear , Hearing Tests , Acoustics
Cambios rev med ; 21(2): 859, 30 Diciembre 2022. tabs, grafs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1415514


INTRODUCCIÓN. La patología de oído es una enfermedad frecuente en nuestro medio, asociada a infecciones a repetición del oído, con la presencia de perforación timpánica y colesteatoma, que determinará la presencia de lesiones mucho más acentuadas en cuanto a la evolución auditiva o complicaciones locales o sistémicas. OBJETIVO. Determinar la asociación existente entre la presencia de colesteatoma y perforación timpánica en pacientes con otitis media crónica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio epidemiológico analítico retrospectivo. Población de 4 733 y muestra de 75 pacientes para casos y 75 para controles basados en historias clínicas tomadas del sistema informático AS 400, que acudieron a la consulta externa de torrinolaringología del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín en el periodo de enero de 2018 a diciembre de 2019; Criterios de inclusión para grupo de casos: Hombres y mujeres de 20 a 65 años de edad, diagnóstico de otitis media crónica, diagnóstico de colesteatoma ótico. Criterios de inclusión para grupo controles: Hombres y mujeres de 20 a 65 años de edad, no presentar diagnóstico de colesteatoma. RESULTADOS. Se observó una relación fuerte entre el poseer perforación timpánica y el desarrollo de colesteatoma con un valor de OR 33,14 con un IC al 95% de 31,94 ­ 34,34, con lo que se comprobó la hipótesis del estudio. Se determinó que la perforación timpánica es un factor de riesgo asociado con el desarrollo de colesteatoma en pacientes con otitis media crónica, la prevalencia de colesteatoma en relación a la edad estuvo en un 72% en pacientes de 41 a 65 años, con mayor predominancia en mujeres en un 57,3%. DISCUSIÓN. La presencia de perforación timpánica de acuerdo a lo observado es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de colesteatoma, ligado en su mayoría a cuadros de Otitis Media Crónica. CONCLUSIONES. Se confirmó que la perforación timpánica, es un factor de riesgo en el desarrollo del colesteatoma en los pacientes que tienen otitis media crónica, lo que demuestra la necesidad de manejo actualizado y continuo en pacientes con esta patología de oído. Se requieren estudios con muestras más amplias para determinar otros factores de riesgo como sexo, nivel de educación y edad que podrían influir en el desarrollo de colesteatoma.

INTRODUCTION. Ear pathology is a frequent disease in our environment, associated with repeated ear infections, with the presence of tympanic perforation and cholesteatoma, which will determine the presence of much more accentuated lesions in terms of auditory evolution or local or systemic complications. OBJECTIVE. To determine the association between the presence of cholesteatoma and tympanic perforation in patients with chronic otitis media. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Retrospective analytical epidemiological study. Population of 4 733 and sample of 75 patients for cases and 75 for controls based on clinical histories taken from the AS 400 computer system, who attended the Otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic of the Carlos Andrade Marín Specialties Hospital in the period from January 2018 to December 2019; Inclusion criteria for case group: Men and women aged 20 to 65 years, diagnosis of chronic otitis media, diagnosis of otic cholesteatoma. Inclusion criteria for controls group: men and women aged 20 to 65 years, no diagnosis of cholesteatoma. RESULTS. A strong relationship was observed between having tympanic perforation and the development of cholesteatoma with an OR value of 33,14 with a 95% CI of 31,94 - 34,34, thus proving the study hypothesis. It was determined that tympanic perforation is a risk factor associated with the development of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media, the prevalence of cholesteatoma in relation to age was 72% in patients aged 41 to 65 years, with greater predominance in women in 57,3%. DISCUSSION. The presence of tympanic perforation according to what was observed is a risk factor for the development of cholesteatoma, mostly linked to Chronic Otitis Media. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that tympanic perforation is a risk factor in the development of cholesteatoma in patients with chronic otitis media, which demonstrates the need for updated and continuous management in patients with this ear pathology. Studies with larger samples are required to determine other risk factors such as sex, education level and age that could influence the development of cholesteatoma.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Otolaryngology , Tympanic Membrane , Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear , Ear/pathology , Ear Diseases , Ear, Middle , Otitis Media , Tympanic Membrane Perforation , Earache , Ecuador
Revista Digital de Postgrado ; 11(3): 348, dic. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1416665


Introducción: La fístula salival es la comunicaciónde la glándula salival o el conducto parotídeo hacia la piel,debido a una lesión traumática del parénquima o del conducto deexcreción; no suele ser una complicación frecuente en parotiditisaguda. El objetivo de este trabajo es destacar la presentaciónatípica de un caso de parotiditis bacteriana asociado a fistulasalival hacia el conducto auditivo externo y cavidad oral, y aparálisis facial periférica. Caso clínico: Paciente masculino de15 años de edad, quien consulta por otalgia y otorrea derechaasociado a aumento de volumen en región parotídea ipsilateralde 5 días de evolución. Al examen físico se evidencia, caraasimétrica con desviación de comisura labial hacia la izquierda ycierre palpebral completo sin esfuerzo, con aumento de volumende parótida derecha con signos de flogosis, otorrea purulentaderecha . solución de continuidad en tercio medio de pisode conducto auditivo externo. Ecosonograma de piel y partesblandas, reveló cambios inflamatorios en glándula parótida concolección de 112 cc., Los hallazgos tomográficos de oído medioy mastoides corroboraron hallazgos del ecosonograma. se realizódrenaje quirúrgico del absceso y se trató con Clindamicina600 mg vía endovenosa cada 6 horas y Penicilina Cristalina200 mg/kg/ peso cada 6 horas y su evolución fue satisfactoria.Conclusión:Los abscesos parotídeos pueden presentarse demanera atípica o en raras ocasiones con drenaje a través delconducto auditivo externo(AU)

Introduction: Salivary fistula is the communicationof the salivary glands or the parotid duct to the skin, due toa traumatic injury to the parenchyma or the excretion duct; Itis not usually a frequent complication in acute parotitis. the eobjective of this work is to highlight the atypical presentation of acase of bacterial parotitis associated with salivary fistula towardsthe external auditory canal and oral cavity, and peripheralfacial paralysis. Clinical case: A 15-year-old male patient, whoconsulted due to otalgia and right otorrhea associated with anincrease in volume in the ipsilateral parotid region of 5 days ofevolution. On physical examination, an asymmetrical face withdeviation of the lip corner to the leth and complete palpebralclosure without effort, with increased volume of the rightparotid gland with signs of phlogosis, right purulent otorrhea and continuity solution in the middle third of the external auditory canal are evident. Ultrasound of the skin and so the tissues revealed inflammatory changes in the parotid glands with a collection of 112 cc. yhe tomographic findings of the middle ear and mastoids corroborated the findings of the echosonogram; Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed and he was treated with clindamycin 600 mg intravenously every 6 hours and crystalline penicillin 200 mg/kg/weight every 6 hours, and his evolution was satisfactory. Conclusion: Parotid abscesses can present atypically or rarely with drainage through the external auditory canal(AU)

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Parotitis , Salivary Gland Fistula , Ear Canal , Parotid Gland , Physical Examination , Clindamycin , Abscess , Ear , Parenchymal Tissue
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 82(2): 190-194, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389855


Resumen El plasmocitoma extramedular es una neoplasia de células plasmáticas poco frecuente, que se ubica en 80% a 90% de los casos en la cabeza o cuello. Esta neoplasia representa menos del 1% de toda la patología maligna de cabeza y cuello. Dada la poca frecuencia de la patología y la escasez de casos publicados, esta entidad presenta una gran dificultad clínica y terapéutica. El diagnóstico se basa en el análisis histológico con inmunohistoquímica de la muestra obtenida, y el tratamiento varía según la ubicación, donde se puede realizar radioterapia o cirugía. En este artículo presentamos el caso de una paciente de 56 años, con antecedentes de otorrea de larga data en oído derecho, al examen físico presentaba un tumor que obstruía todo el conducto auditivo externo. Se realizó exéresis tumoral y la biopsia evidenció un plasmocitoma.

Abstract Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare plasma cell neoplasm, affecting 80% to 90% of the head or neck. This neoplasm represents less than 1% of all malignant head and neck pathology. Given the infrequency of the pathology and the scarcity of published cases, this entity presents great clinical and therapeutic difficulty. Diagnosis is based on histology and immunohistochemistry and treatment varies depending on the location, where radiation therapy or surgery can be performed. In this article, we present the case of a 56-year-old patient with a history of long-standing otorrhea in the right ear. Physical examination presented a tumor that obstructed the entire external auditory canal. Tumor excision was performed, and the biopsy revealed a plasmacytoma.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Plasmacytoma/surgery , Plasmacytoma/pathology , Plasmacytoma/diagnostic imaging , Ear Neoplasms/surgery , Ear Neoplasms/pathology , Ear Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Plasma Cells , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Ear , Ear Canal
j.tunis.ORL chir. cerv.-fac ; 47: 48-52, 2022. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1433988


Etudier l'ampleur et les caractéristiques de l'automédication en consultation ORL. Méthode: Etude descriptive du 1er juin 2020 au 1er février 2021 dans le service d'ORL-CCF/ Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées. Ont été inclus tous les patients reçus en consultation ORL ayant déclaré avoir utilisé des substances actives sans prescription médicale pour soulager leur plainte actuelle. 6 Résultats: L'automédication a été retrouvée chez 373 patients soit une prévalence de 47,88%. La moyenne d'âge était 32,26 ans (02 mois et 80 ans). Les sujets âgés 0 à 20 étaient plus représenté (68,4%). La sex-ratio était de 0,86. Les professions libérales étaient plus représentées (30%). La quasi-totalité des patients (98%) a pu énumérer au moins deux effets nocifs de l'automédication. Les médicaments en cause étaient les médicament en vente libre OTC (80%). Les principales raisons ayant motivé l'automédication ont été le coût élevé des prestations médicales (41,3%) et le manque de temps (33,2%). Conclusion: L'automédication a été retrouvée chez des patients volontiers jeunes, de sexe féminin, porteurs d'affections rhinologiques. Les OTC étaient en cause dans huit cas sur dix. Les principales motivations à l'automédication ont été le coût élevé des prestations médicales et le manque de temps.

Humans , Patients , Pharynx , Self Medication , Nose , Ear , Hospitals
j.tunis.ORL chir. cerv.-fac ; 47(3): 45-52, 2022. tables
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1392603


Etudier l'ampleur et les caractéristiques de l'automédication en consultation ORL. Méthode: Etude descriptive du 1er juin 2020 au 1er février 2021 dans le service d'ORL-CCF/ Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées. Ont été inclus tous les patients reçus en consultation ORL ayant déclaré avoir utilisé des substances actives sans prescription médicale pour soulager leur plainte actuelle. 6 Résultats: L'automédication a été retrouvée chez 373 patients soit une prévalence de 47,88%. La moyenne d'âge était 32,26 ans (02 mois et 80 ans). Les sujets âgés 0 à 20 étaient plus représenté (68,4%). La sex-ratio était de 0,86. Les professions libérales étaient plus représentées (30%). La quasi-totalité des patients (98%) a pu énumérer au moins deux effets nocifs de l'automédication. Les médicaments en cause étaient les médicament en vente libre OTC (80%). Les principales raisons ayant motivé l'automédication ont été le coût élevé des prestations médicales (41,3%) et le manque de temps (33,2%). Conclusion: L'automédication a été retrouvée chez des patients volontiers jeunes, de sexe féminin, porteurs d'affections rhinologiques. Les OTC étaient en cause dans huit cas sur dix. Les principales motivations à l'automédication ont été le coût élevé des prestations médicales et le manque de temps

Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Self Medication , Pharyngitis , Ear
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 338-344, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936217


Objective: To investigate whether the contralateral normal external auditory canal (EAC) skin graft can maintain the ear canal health after EAC reconstruction in unilateral congenital aural atresia (CAA) cases. Methods: A Zelen design randomized controlled study was used to collect unilateral CAA patients for EAC reconstruction prospectively (clinical trial registration number: ChiCTR2000032103). The patients were randomly divided into the control group and the trial group. The trial group used the contralateral normal EAC skin graft group (transplant part of the contralateral normal EAC skin to repair the atresia side for unilateral CAA patients), the control group all used scalp blade thick skin. We observed the EAC health and hearing results of the two groups after EAC reconstruction. Results: A total of 13 cases were enrolled from July 2020 to August 2021. There were eight patients in the trial group, including six males and two females, with an average age of 22.3 years (14-36 years). There were two patients with CAA on the left and six patients on the right. The average follow-up time was 8.8 months (4-14 months). There were five patients in the control group, all cases were male with an average age of 16.2 years (12-20 years). There were four patients with CAA on the left and one patient on the right. The average follow-up time was 7.0 months (2-14 months). In the trial group, eight cases of reconstructed EAC epithelium were healthy, one patient had cicatricial stenosis of EAC opening and lateralization of the tympanic membrane. The other patient had cicatricial stenosis of reconstructed EAC, this case also had scar hyperplasia of the contralateral EAC opening but recovered after soft packing and triamcinolone acetonide injection treatment. The healthy side EAC of the rest trial group had no scarring stenosis or local bone hyperplasia during long-term follow-up. In the control group, one patient was lost to follow-up and the other four patients had dry ears of reconstructed EAC, but easily to form crusts and needed to be cleaned repeatedly, one patient had lateralization of the tympanic membrane, the EAC epithelium was not healthy for long-term follow-up. The incidence of complications related to EAC reconstruction was lower than previous studies (χ²=5.55, P=0.018), and the average postoperative Air-Bone Gap increased (18.8±10.0)dB. Conclusion: By optimizing the EAC reconstruction technology, the health of the reconstructed EAC is improved compared with the previous study. After active intervention and treatment, there should be no scarring stenosis or local bone hyperplasia on the contralateral side EAC.

Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Ear/surgery , Ear Canal/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Skin Transplantation , Tympanoplasty
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1261-1267, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405287


SUMMARY: The objective of the study was to provide a detailed anatomical description of the rat's ear anatomy that will prove insightful to different experimental otologic surgical procedures regardless of scope. Three male Wistar rats were enrolled in the study. Candidates were screened for systemic and otologic pathology. External ear canal endoscopy was carried out with a 30˚ rigid endoscope through an image capture system. Middle ear anatomical elements were analyzed under stereomicroscopy. 3D computer tomography image reconstruction was realized with a micro-CT to describe the anatomy. Image data from all three rats were analyzed. Anatomical annotations and surgical exposure recommendations were added for key elements. The most relevant images from all three rats were selected for representation. Detailed visualization of the structural elements of the tympanic cavity were clearly visible: promontory, round window, stapedial artery, stapes, incus, and tympanic membrane were all constant findings. We describe a step wise ventral surgical approach of the middle and inner ear for which we found that the clavotrapezius muscle was a reliable landmark. For the transtympanic approach the endoscopic transcanal access was an easy and reliable method for which a detailed anatomical representation was depicted. Further, anatomical similarities to humans were observed by stereomicroscopy and Micro-CT imaging reiterating that the rat model is suitable for otologic research. The endoscopic approach to the tympanic membrane is comfortable and less expensive than a microscope. The tendon of the clavotrapezius muscle can be a reliable landmark for discovering the tympanic bulla when considering a ventral approach. 3D Micro-CT reconstruction allows intact evaluation of the samples, simultaneously being a diagnostic and also a learning tool.

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este trabajo fue proporcionar una descripción anatómica detallada de la anatomía del órgano vestíbulococlear de la rata que resultará útil para diferentes procedimientos quirúrgicos otológicos experimentales, independientemente del alcance. En el estudio se usaron tres ratas Wistar macho. Los ejemplares fueron evaluados por patología sistémica y otológica. La endoscopía del meato acústico externo se realizó con un endoscopio rígido de 30˚ a través de un sistema de captura de imágenes. Los elementos anatómicos del oído medio se analizaron bajo estereomicroscopía. La reconstrucción de la imagen de tomografía computarizada en 3D se realizó con un micro-CT para describir la anatomía. Se analizaron los datos de imagen de las tres ratas. Se agregaron anotaciones anatómicas y recomendaciones de exposición quirúrgica para elementos clave. Las imágenes más relevantes de las tres ratas fueron seleccionadas para su representación. La visualización detallada de los elementos estructurales de la cavidad timpánica era claramente visible: promontorio timpánico, ventana coclear, arteria estapedial, estapedio, yunque y membrana timpánica eran hallazgos constantes. Describimos un abordaje quirúrgico ventral escalonado del oído medio e interno para el cual encontramos que el músculo clavotrapecio era un punto de referencia confiable. Para el abordaje transtimpánico, el acceso transcanal endoscópico fue un método fácil y confiable para el cual se describió una representación anatómica detallada. Además, se observaron similitudes anatómicas con los humanos mediante estereomicroscopía e imágenes Micro-CT, lo que reitera que el modelo de rata es adecuado para la investigación otológica. El abordaje endoscópico de la membrana timpánica es cómodo y menos costoso que un microscopio. El tendón del músculo clavotrapecio puede ser un punto de referencia fiable para descubrir la bulla timpánica cuando se considera un abordaje ventral. La reconstrucción 3D Micro- CT permite la evaluación intacta de las muestras, siendo simultáneamente una herramienta de diagnóstico y también de aprendizaje.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ear/anatomy & histology , Ear/surgery , Otologic Surgical Procedures , Rats, Wistar , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Ear/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography
Rev. Investig. Innov. Cienc. Salud ; 4(1): 154-170, 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1391854


Aim. Neuroauriculotherapy (NAT) is a branch of medicine, which, thanks to its diagnostic and therapeutic value, is a powerful tool at the service of both physician and patient. In our experience, as it is discussed in this article, neuroauriculotherapy can have successful applications in voice science and in phoniatrics. The aim of this article is to open a discussion about possible applications of neuroauriculotherapy in voice medicine. Introduction. From the diagnostic point of view, it is possible to explore, with a palpeur (i.e., a tool that provides a constant pressure) or a "spot-hunter", the presence of a perturbation into a particular organ or area, and its return to normal during treatment. Indeed, at the level of the ear auricle, representations of an organ, its in-nervation, its muscular components, etc., are fixed. These spots or voxels correspond absolutely to the respective sensory, motor, visceral, among other spots. Therefore, if any abnormal potential comes from the periphery, it will illuminate the spots both at the cortical level and in the pavilion ­a real display with a constantly active touch screen. The spot can be treated with needles in the context of a neurophysiological strategy to send a message to the brain.Reflection. NAT appears to be a good method to improve the treatment of voice problems, enhancing the results of other therapies based on drugs or rehab and in-ducing relaxation. In neuroauriculotherapy, the ear is used to give the brain orders in a process which has a logical basis in neurophysiology.Conclusion. Diseases of the vocal tract can be dysfunctional or organic. According to our clinical experience, we can say that neuroauriculotherapy can be used in both cases. Neuroauriculotherapy is also extremely effective in voice therapy, both alone and in combination with other therapies, as there is no conflict among them

Objetivo. La neuroauriculoterapia (NAT) es una rama de la medicina que, gracias a su valor diagnóstico y terapéutico, constituye una poderosa herramienta al servicio del médico y del paciente. En nuestra experiencia, como se comenta en este artículo, la neuroauriculoterapia puede tener aplicaciones exitosas en la ciencia de la voz y en foniatría. El objetivo de este artículo es abrir una discusión sobre las posibles aplica-ciones de la neuroauriculoterapia en la medicina de la voz.Introducción. Desde el punto de vista del diagnóstico, es posible explorar, con un palpeur (i.e., una herramienta que proporciona una presión constante) o un "spot-hunter", la presencia de una perturbación en un órgano o área en particular, y su retorno a la normalidad durante el tratamiento. En efecto, a nivel del pabellón auricular se fijan representaciones de un órgano, su inervación, sus componentes musculares, etc. Estos puntos o vóxeles corresponden absolutamente a los respectivos puntos sensoriales, motores, viscerales, entre otros. Por lo tanto, si algún potencial anormal proviene de la periferia, iluminará los puntos tanto a nivel cortical como en el pabellón ­una pantalla real con una pantalla táctil constantemente activa. El punto se puede tratar con agujas en el contexto de una estrategia neurofisiológica para enviar un mensaje al cerebro.Reflexión. NAT parece ser un buen método para mejorar el tratamiento de los problemas de voz, potenciando los resultados de otras terapias basadas en fármacos o rehabilitación e induciendo a la relajación. En neuroauriculoterapia se utiliza el oído para dar órdenes al cerebro en un proceso que tiene una base lógica en la neurofisiología.Conclusión. Las enfermedades del tracto vocal pueden ser disfuncionales u orgáni-cas. Según nuestra experiencia clínica, podemos decir que la neuroauriculoterapia se puede utilizar en ambos casos. La neuroauriculoterapia también es extremadamente eficaz en la terapia de la voz, tanto sola como en combinación con otras terapias, ya que no existe conflicto entre ellas

Voice Disorders , Ear/physiology , Auriculotherapy/methods , Neurophysiology , Voice , Voice Training , Volition , Brain , Apoptosis , Diagnosis , Cerebrum , Ear Auricle , Dysphonia , Auriculotherapy/trends
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 429-435, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285101


Abstract Background: Tacrolimus is used to prevent unaesthetic scars due to its action on fibroblast activity and collagen production modulation. Objectives: To evaluate the action pathways, from the histopathological point of view and in cytokine control, of tacrolimus ointment in the prevention of hypertrophic scars. Methods: Twenty-two rabbits were submitted to the excision of two 1-cm fragments in each ear, including the perichondrium. The right ear received 0.1% and 0.03% tacrolimus in ointment base twice a day in the upper wound and in the lower wound respectively. The left ear, used as the control, was treated with petrolatum. After 30 days, collagen fibers were evaluated using special staining, and immunohistochemistry analyses for smooth muscle actin, TGF-β and VEGF were performed. Results: The wounds treated with 0.1% tacrolimus showed weak labeling and a lower percentage of labeling for smooth muscle actin, a higher proportion of mucin absence, weak staining, fine and organized fibers for Gomori's Trichrome, strong staining and organized fibers for Verhoeff when compared to controls. The wounds treated with 0.03% tacrolimus showed weak labeling for smooth muscle actin, a higher proportion of mucin absence, strong staining for Verhoeff when compared to the controls. There was absence of TGF-β and low VEGF expression. Study limitations: The analysis was performed by a single pathologist. Second-harmonic imaging microscopy was performed in 2 sample areas of the scar. Conclusions: Both drug concentrations were effective in suppressing TGF-β and smooth muscle actin, reducing mucin, improving the quality of collagen fibers, and the density of elastic fibers, but only the higher concentration influenced elastic fiber organization.

Animals , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/pathology , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/prevention & control , Cicatrix, Hypertrophic/drug therapy , Ointment Bases , Rabbits , Wound Healing , Tacrolimus , Ear/pathology
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37030, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359880


The prevalence global of noncommunicable chronic diseases as diabetes and hypertension worldwide has been disregarded until recently by policy makers. In addition, these diseases have growing with the aging of the population. This study sought to identify changes in face shape from the frontal and side views in elderly people diagnosed with diabetes and hypertension. 205 individuals were studied, with 60 years or more, from both sexes, with different ethnicities, and cognition intact. With a digital camera, photos were taken of the front and side and based on these images landmarks for measurement were determined. For statistical analysis, ANOVA, Canonical Variates Analysis, Mahalanobis distance and Thin-Plate Spline were realized. Given sexual dimorphism, the sexes were analyzed separately. From the ANOVA, significant differences (p<0.01) for individuals with diabetes, hypertension, and patients with both or neither of the diseases were observed. The groups were separated by the Canonical Variates and Mahalanobis distance and independent of edentulism, sex or ethnicity. A morphofacial characteristics for the front and side views (especially in the ear region) that identified individuals with these chronic diseases was observed. This methodology can contribute in a specific manner to the identification of at risk populations and help to promote preventative measures for these conditions.

Anthropometry , Diabetes Mellitus , Ear/anatomy & histology , Hypertension
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 579-585, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942483


Objective: To study the characteristics of wideband tympanometry(WBT) and its application value in the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion(OME) in young children. Methods: We compared wideband acoustic energy absorbance(EA) under peak pressure in young children with OME(190 ears) and healthy control subjects(121 ears) from Ninth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine between January 2018 and June 2020. Both groups were divided into three groups, 1-6 months, 7-36 months and 37-72 months. SPSS 20.0 statistical software was used to analyze and compare the EA parameters between OME children of different months and the control group. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve was used to analyze the diagnostic value of WBT in young children with OME. Results: There were significant differences in EA among three OME groups from 500 Hz to 2 000 Hz(P<0.05).Compared with the control groups, EA of 1-6 m OME group decreased significantly below 4 000 Hz(P<0.05), EA of 7-36 m OME group decreased significantly at 545-1 600 Hz(P<0.05), EA of 37-72 m OME group decreased significantly above 545 Hz(P<0.05).ROC curve indicated that EA at 1 000 Hz had the greatest diagnostic value (AUC was 0.890), followed by 1 500 Hz and the range of 500-2 000 Hz (AUC was 0.883 and 0.881, respectively).EA at 1 000 Hz with a cutoff value of 0.55 had the best diagnostic sensitivity of 90.8%, which was higher than conventional tympanometry (85.8%). The maximum AUC (0.932) could be obtained by combining EA, peak pressure and admittance amplitude of 226 Hz tympanometry as predictors. Conclusions: EA is significantly decreased in young children with OME. Compared with the conventional single frequency tympanometry, WBT is more accurate in the diagnosis of OME in young children, and the prediction accuracy would be better if combined with 226 Hz tympanometry.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Acoustic Impedance Tests , China , Ear , Otitis Media , Otitis Media with Effusion/diagnosis
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 147-152, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056413


Dog ear is very important because of disease vulnerability. Therefore, gross anatomy and sectional anatomy on CT and MRI of the dog ear should be mastered by veterinarian. The purpose of this research was to present the digital atlases which high quality sectioned images and 3D models of detailed structures of dog ear could be displayed freely. In the sectioned images of a female beagle, ear structures were reconstructed by surface modeling to make 3D models. The sectioned images and 3D models were put into the browsing software and PDF file, respectively. Using the browsing software and the PDF file, gross and radiological anatomy of dog ear could be learned easily and accurately. The auditory tube of a dog was placed anterior to the tympanic cavity unlike human. The tensor tympani muscle of a dog was connected to the dorsal wall of the tympanic cavity with the malleus. No remarkable difference in the auditory ossicles, semicircular ducts, facial nerve, and endolymphatic duct was observed between dogs and humans. The software and the PDF file will be provided to other researchers freely to help contribute to veterinary research and education.

La oreja del perro es importante debido a la vulnerabilidad de enfermedad. Por lo tanto, el veterinario debe conocer plenamente la anatomía macroscópica y la anatomía seccional en la TC y la RM del oído del perro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue presentar los atlas digitales que podían mostrar imágenes seccionadas de alta calidad y modelos 3D de estructuras detalladas de orejas de perro. En las imágenes seccionadas de una hembra Beagle, las estructuras de las orejas se reconstruyeron mediante modelado de superficie con el objetivo de crear modelos 3D. Las imágenes seccionadas y los modelos 3D se colocaron en un software de navegación y un archivo PDF. El uso de software de navegación y el archivo PDF permiten un aprendizaje fácil y preciso de la anatomía macroscópica y radiológica de la oreja de perro. El músculo tensor del tímpano de un perro estaba conectado a la pared dorsal de la cavidad timpánica con el martillo. No se observaron diferencias notables en los huesecillos auditivos, los conductos semicirculares, el nervio facial y el conducto endolinfático entre perros y humanos. El software y el archivo PDF estarán disponibles libremente para los investigadores para ayudar en la investigación y educación veterinaria.

Animals , Dogs , Ear/diagnostic imaging , Software , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Ear/anatomy & histology , Visible Human Projects , Ear Auricle/diagnostic imaging
Codas ; 32(3): e20190040, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133494


RESUMO Objetivo: investigar a variabilidade do Teste Dicótico de Sentenças por meio do teste e reteste em indivíduos normo-ouvintes. Método: foram avaliados 36 indivíduos na faixa etária de 19 a 44 anos, destros e com limiares auditivos dentro da normalidade. Realizou-se a avaliação audiológica básica e aplicação dos Testes Dicótico de Dígitos e Dicótico de Sentenças. Teste e reteste foram realizados em duas sessões, com intervalo de 30 a 40 dias, no mesmo turno. Resultados: na tarefa de integração: houve vantagem da orelha direita em ambas as sessões de avaliação; não houve diferença significante entre as medidas obtidas na orelha direita, nas duas sessões de avaliação, enquanto na orelha esquerda foi constatada diferença significante. Na análise das diferenças por orelhas entre teste e reteste, verificou-se que 64% dos indivíduos mantiveram o mesmo resultado na orelha direita; já na esquerda, apenas 36% dos indivíduos mantiveram o mesmo resultado em ambas as etapas e 44% apresentaram diferença de 10% entre as duas avaliações. Observou-se correlação positiva moderada tanto para a orelha direita (r = 0,420) quanto para a esquerda (r = 0,550) com tendência de melhora dos escores no reteste. Na tarefa de separação, houve pequena variabilidade apenas na orelha esquerda, também com melhora dos escores no reteste. Conclusão: foi verificada diferença significante entre as medidas obtidas no teste e reteste apenas na tarefa de integração na orelha esquerda, porém houve correlação positiva moderada entre as medidas obtidas nas duas sessões de avaliação, mostrando tendência de melhora dos escores na segunda sessão de avaliação.

ABSTRACT Purpose: to investigate the variability of the Dichotic Sentence Test through the test and retest in normal-hearing adults. Method: We evaluated thirty-six individuals aged 19 to 44 years old, right-handed and with normal hearing thresholds. We performed the basic audiological evaluation and then we applied the Dichotic Digit Test and Dichotic Sentence Test. The test and retest had two sessions, with an interval from 30 to 40 days, in the same shift. Results: In the integration task, there was an advantage of the right ear in both evaluation sessions. There was no significant difference between the measures obtained in the right ear in the two evaluation sessions, while in the left ear, we found a significant difference. In the analysis of the differences in ears between the test and the retest, we found that 64% of the individuals kept the same result in the right ear, while in the left one, only 36% of the individuals kept the same result in both stages and 44% showed a 10% difference between the two evaluations. We observed moderate positive correlation for both the right ear (r=0.420) and the left ear (r=0.550), with a tendency to improve retest scores. In the separation task, there was a small variability only in the left ear, also with improved retest scores. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the measures obtained in the test and retest only in the integration task in the left ear, but there was a moderate positive correlation between the measures obtained in the two evaluation sessions, showing a tendency to improve scores in the second evaluation session.

Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Dichotic Listening Tests , Language , Ear , Face , Hearing , Functional Laterality