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1.
Rev. APS ; 25(Supl. 2): 21-39, 16/08/2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1393131

ABSTRACT

Em relação à última diretriz brasileira do Instituto Nacional do Câncer/Ministério da Saúde sobre a detecção precoce do câncer de mama, destacamos as incertezas sobre a tomada de decisão compartilhada relativas a benefícios e riscos do rastreamento mamográfico. Este artigo expressa as percepções de usuárias de serviços de Atenção Primária à Saúde sobre a decisão compartilhada nesse cenário, sendo resultado de uma pesquisa qualitativa que utilizou grupos focais, como instrumentos de produção de dados, e análise de conteúdo temática, para a sistematização de resultados. As participantes revelaram não participarem dedecisão compartilhada no rastreamento mamográfico, o que nos leva a ressaltar a importância de nortear os cuidados em saúde com base em tecnologias leves, ou seja, tecnologias relacionais, e a valorizar, também, a necessidade de implementação de certos aspectos conceituais e de princípios fundamentais, que precisam ser discutidos e realçados para que a decisão compartilhada seja implementada.


According to the latest Brazilian guidelines from the National Cancer Institute/Ministry of Health on early detection of breast cancer, we highlight the uncertainties about shared decision-making concerning the benefits and risks of mammographic screening. This article expresses the perceptions of users of Primary Health Care services concerning shared decision-making in this scenario. As a result of qualitative research, it used focus groups as an instrument for data production and thematic content analysis to systematize the results. The participants revealed that there is no shared decision-making concerning mammographic screening, which leads us to emphasize that health care guidelines should be based on light technologies,that is, relational technologies. They should also discuss and highlight related conceptual aspects and fundamental principles so that shared decision-making can be implemented.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Primary Health Care , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mammography , Mass Screening , Decision Making, Shared , Focus Groups , Qualitative Research , Early Detection of Cancer
2.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 73(2): 203-222, Apr.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1394964

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes A partir del 2014 en Colombia se incorporó la Tamización primaria con prueba de Virus del Papiloma Humano (VPH) desde los 30 hasta los 65 años, cuando la prueba es positiva se hace triage con citología para remisión a colposcopia. Actualmente se discute la conveniencia de iniciar la tamización con prueba de ADN de VPH a partir de los 25 años. De esta manera, el objetivo de esta evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias es analizar la evidencia disponible en torno a la seguridad, efectividad, costoefectividad, valores y preferencias, dilemas éticos y aspectos relacionados con la implementación para el contexto colombiano de la prueba ADN-VPH como estrategia de tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Dominios a evaluar Eficacia clínica y seguridad 1. Tasa acumulada de neoplasia intraepitelial cervical (NIC) grado 2 o más avanzado luego de 2 rondas de tamización. 2. Tasas acumuladas de cáncer invasor de cérvix luego de 2 rondas de tamización. 3. Seguridad: remisión a colposcopia. Costo-efectividad Costo efectividad para Colombia. Otros dominios considerados Aspectos éticos asociados a la tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Aspectos organizacionales y del individuo. Barreras y facilitadores relacionados con la implementación en el contexto colombiano de la tamización cervical en mujeres menores de 30 años. Métodos Evaluación de efectividad y seguridad clínicas Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura en MEDLINE, Embase y CENTRAL de revisiones sistemáticas y ensayos clínicos. Se calificó el cuerpo de la evidencia con la aproximación GRADE. Posteriormente, se convocó a un grupo interdisciplinario a una mesa de trabajo en donde se presentó la evidencia recuperada, dando paso a la discusión y a la construcción de las conclusiones, siguiendo los lineamientos de un consenso formal acorde a la metodología RAND/UCLA. Estudio económico Se hizo una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura de estudios que hubieran evaluado el costo-efectividad para Colombia. Resultados De 7.659 referencias recuperadas se incluyeron 8 estudios. Resultados clínicos Se realizó un análisis integrativo de 5 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que cumplieron con los citerios de inclusión. Cuando se compara frente a la citología, la tamización primaria con ADN-VPH en mujeres menores de 30 años, podría asociarse con una mayor frecuencia de detección de lesiones NIC2+ durante la primera ronda de cribado (RR: 1.57; IC: 1,20 a 2,04; certeza en la evidencia baja), con una menor incidencia de NIC2+ (RR:0,67; IC: 0,48 a 0,92; certeza en la evidencia baja) y se asocia con una menor frecuencia de carcinoma invasor al término del seguimiento (RR: 0,19; IC: 0,07 a 0,53; certeza en la evidencia alta). Resultados económicos Desde el punto de vista económico, la alternativa de ADN-VPH y triage con citología desde los 25 años quizás representa la alternativa más costo-efectiva para Colombia (razón costo-efectividad incremental $8.820.980 COP año 2013). Otras implicaciones Dos estudios sugieren que las barreras de implementación, atribuibles a circunstancias de intermediación, de orden público y de carácter geográfico, podrían ser solventadas por nuevas tecnologías o estrategias de cribado. Es importante considerar alternativas de forma de administración y de prestación de servicios para solventar algunas barreras de aceptabilidad y acceso. Todo programa de tamización cervical debe contemplar los principios éticos de no maleficencia, beneficencia, autonomía y equidad. Futuros estudios deben enfocarse en analizar nuevas tecnologías de cribado con énfasis en población menor de 30 años. Conclusiones El uso de la prueba ADN-VPH como estrategia de tamización en mujeres menores de 30 años es una intervención probablemente efectiva y costoefectiva para Colombia. Futuros estudios deben enfocarse en analizar nuevas tecnologías de cribado con énfasis en población menor de 30 años.


Background Primary screening with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing was introduced in Colombia in 2014 for individuals between 30 and 65 years of age. When the result is positive, cytology triage is performed for colposcopy referral. The convenience of initiating HPV-DNA testing for screening at 25 years of age is currently a subject of discussion. Therefore, the objective of this health technology assessment (HTA) is to analyze the available evidence regarding safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, values and preferences, ethical dilemmas and considerations pertaining to the implementation of the HPV-DNA test as a cervical screening strategy in women under 30 years of age in the Colombian context. Domains to be assessed Clinical efficacy and safety 1. Cumulative rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or high-er after 2 screening rounds. 2. Cumulative rates of invasive cancer of the uterine cervix after 2 screening rounds. 3. Safety: referral to colposcopy Cost-effectiveness Cost-effectiveness for Colombia. Other domains considered Ethical considerations associated with cervical screening in women under 30 years of age. Organizational and individual considerations. Barriers and facilitators pertaining to the implementation of cervical screening in women under 30 years of age in the Colombian context. Methods Clinical efficacy and safety assessment A systematic literature search of systematic reviews and clinical trials was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL. The body of evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. An interdisciplinary team was then convened to create a working group to review the retrieved evidence. This led to the discussion and construction of the conclusions following the guidelines of a formal consensus in accordance with the RAND/UCLA methodology. Economic study Systematic literature research of studies that had assessed cost-effectiveness for Colombia. Results Out of the 7,659 references retrieved, 8 studies were included. Clinical outcomes An integrative analysis of 5 randomized clinical trials that met the inclusion critera was performed. Compared with cytology, primary HPV-DNA testing in women under 30 years of age could be associated with a lower frequency of CIN+2 lesions during the first screening round (RR: 1.57; CI: 1.20 to 2.04; low evidence certainty), and a lower incidence of CIN+2 (RR: 0.67; CI: 0.48 to 0.92; low evidence certainty). Moreover, it is associated with a lower frequency of invasive carcinoma at the end of follow-up (RR: 0.19; CI: 0.07 to 0.53; high evidence certainty). Economic results From the financial point of view, the use of HPVDNA testing plus cytology-based triage starting at 25 years of age is perhaps the most cost-effective option for Colombia (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, COP 8,820,980 in 2013). Other implications Two studies suggest that barriers to implementation attributable to intermediation, public unrest and geographic considerations could be overcome with the use of new screening technologies or strategies. It is important to consider administration and service provision alternatives in order to overcome some acceptability and access barriers. Any cervical screening program must take into consideration ethical principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy and equity. Future studies should focus on analyzing new screening techniques with emphasis on the population under 30 years of age. Conclusions The use of HPV-DNA testing as a screening strategy in women under 30 years of age is a potentially efficacious and cost-effective intervention for Colombia. Future studies should focus on analyzing new screening technologies, with emphasis on the population under 30 years of age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Middle Aged , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Mass Screening , Human Papillomavirus DNA Tests , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia , Costs and Cost Analysis , Early Detection of Cancer , Neoplasms
3.
Más Vita ; 4(2): 178-195, jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1392173

ABSTRACT

El cáncer de mama es el tipo de cáncer más común, no restrictivo por edad, condición social, sexo, que afecta la condición de salud de alrededor de 2,3 millones de mujeres con resultados desfavorables. Este tipo de enfermedad afecta gravemente a la población y se estima que a nivel mundial la pérdida de la funcionalidad supera a las de otros tipos de cánceres. La información pertinente al tema se pudiera considerar como aporte en el nivel de conocimientos, estrategias válidas para la prevención y el despistaje oportuno de esta patología clínica Objetivo: Describir las estrategias de prevención y detección precoz del cáncer de mamá en atención primaria. Materiales y Métodos: Esta investigación es del tipo descriptiva, observacional y transversal. Se aplica una técnica de abordaje al tema con la extracción de datos bibliográficos y la intervención de la misma mediante el análisis sistemático, donde se emplea el método y diseño descriptivo. Resultados: El tipo de estudio busca la correlación estilo de vida saludable y no prevalencia de cáncer mediante una actuación temprana y oportuna como una conducta saludable. Conclusiones: La inspección y la técnica de palpación son de gran importancia para evaluar la aparición de un bulto y su reconocimiento por parte médica especializada. Cabe resaltar que no todo bulto en las mamas se considera cáncer, sin embargo, el diagnóstico médico oportuno y las pruebas diagnóstico especializadas para la detección son claves en la detección precoz y prevención(AU)


Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer, not restricted by age, social condition, sex, which affects the health condition of around 2.3 million women with unfavorable results. This type of disease seriously affects the population and it is estimated that worldwide the loss of functionality exceeds that of other types of cancers. The information pertinent to the topic could be considered as contribution in the level of knowledge, valid strategies for prevention and screening of this clinical pathology. Objective: To describe the strategies of prevention and Early detection of breast cancer in primary care. Materials and methods: This The research is descriptive, observational and cross-sectional. A technique is applied approach to the subject with the extraction of bibliographic data and the intervention of the same through systematic analysis, where the method and descriptive design are used. Results: The type of study seeks the correlation of healthy lifestyle and not prevalence of cancer through early and timely action as a behavior healthy. Conclusions: Inspection and palpation technique are of great importance to evaluate the appearance of a lump and its recognition by a specialized medical part. It should be noted that not every lump in the breast is considered cancer, however, the Timely medical diagnosis and specialized diagnostic tests for screening are keys to early detection and prevention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Primary Health Care , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Health Strategies , Early Detection of Cancer , Social Conditions , Prevalence , Diagnosis , Healthy Lifestyle
4.
Poblac. salud mesoam ; 19(2)jun. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, SES-SP, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1386962

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: el cáncer de cérvix es una de las enfermedades neoplásicas más frecuentes que afecta la salud de las mujeres en el mundo. Objetivo: determinar si existen diferencias entre regiones de Costa Rica en el uso del papanicoláu, con el fin de visualizar las inequidades relacionadas con la detección temprana del cáncer cérvico-uterino. Metodología: este estudio se realizó a partir de la Encuesta Nacional de Hogares de 2014, la cual es representativa en el ámbito nacional. Se utilizó R-Studio para estimar dos modelos de regresión multinomial que explican el tiempo transcurrido desde el último papanicoláu y las razones por las que las mujeres nunca se habían realizado uno. Se recurrió a datos del Registro Nacional de Tumores del Ministerio de Salud para evaluar la razón in-situ/invasor. Resultados: en comparación con las residentes de la región Central, las mujeres de las regiones Chorotega, Pacífico Central y Huetar Caribe son respectivamente un 80 % (OR=1,80; p<0,01), un 52 % (OR=1,52; p=0,031) y un 58 % (OR=1,58; p<0,01) más propensas a haberse realizado la citología vaginal por última vez hace 5 años o más que hace 1 o 2 años. Discusión: de acuerdo con los resultados de la presente investigación, la Región Chorotega presenta las condiciones más desventajosas en cuanto a la práctica de PAP, esto implica un mayor riesgo de desarrollar lesiones y cáncer de cérvix. Conclusiones: en busca de reducir las brechas y mejorar las condiciones de acceso, es necesario coordinar y articular esfuerzos institucionales tanto gubernamentales como no gubernamentales, incluyendo la participación y el protagonismo de las mujeres.


Abstract Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancer types that affects the health of women worldwide. Objective: To determine if there are differences in the use of Pap smears at the regional level in Costa Rica, in order to visualize the inequalities related to the early detection of cervical-uterine cancer. Methodology. This study was conducted based on information from the 2014 National Household Survey. This survey is representative at the national level. R-Studio was used to estimate two multinomial regression models. The first one was used to explain the time that has elapsed since the last time women had a Pap smear. The second one was used to explain the reasons why women had never had a Pap smear. Data on the incidence of cervical cancer, from the National Tumor Registry of the Ministry of Health, were used in order to estimate the in-situ/invasive ratio. Results: Women who participate less regularly in screening are those residing in the Chorotega, Central Pacific and Huetar Caribbean regions. Compared to women in the Central region, women in these three regions are 80% (OR=1.80; p<0.01), 52% (OR=1.52; p=0.031) and 58% (OR=1.58; p<0.01) respectively more likely to have had a Pap screening 5 or more years ago, as compared to 1 to 2 years ago. Discussion: According to the results of this research, the Chorotega Region presents the most disadvantageous conditions in terms of the use of PAP, which represents a higher risk for women to develop lesions and cervical cancer. Conclusions: In order to reduce gaps and improve conditions of access to prevention, it is necessary to coordinate institutional efforts, both governmental and non-governmental, as well as the participation and protagonism of women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Health Inequities , Costa Rica
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(2): 118-121, abril 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1363788

ABSTRACT

Se realizó un estudio observacional y prospectivo en el Hospital Garrahan, cuyos objetivos fueron conocer la portación asintomática del coronavirus de tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2, por su sigla en inglés) en niños oncológicos y/o en sus cuidadores al hospitalizarse para realizar quimioterapia, y describir el impacto en la continuación del tratamiento en aquellos con prueba positiva para SARS-CoV-2 o con síntomas compatibles con la infección por el virus durante la internación. Se incluyeron los pacientes con enfermedad oncohematológica y sus cuidadores, a quienes se les realizó una prueba de detección de SARS-CoV-2 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcripción inversa. Se analizaron 733 hospitalizaciones. La tasa de positividad para SARS-CoV-2 fue del 2,2 % (IC95%: 1,35-3,52). Todos los pacientes con prueba detectable completaron la quimioterapia. El 7,7 % de los pacientes presentó síntomas compatibles de caso sospechoso con prueba no detectable y el 77 % de ellos pudo continuar su tratamiento.


An observational, prospective study was carried out at Hospital Garrahan. Its objectives were to establishtherateofasymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among children with cancer and/or their caregivers during hospitalization for chemotherapy, and describe the impact of ongoing treatment among those positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with symptoms compatible with infection during hospitalization. Patients with onco-hematological disease and their caregivers were included. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was done. A total of 733 hospitalizations were analyzed. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was 2.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.35-3.52). All patients with a detectable test result completed chemotherapy. Also, 7.7% of patients developed symptoms compatible with a suspected case although they had an undetectable test result, and 77% of them were able to continue treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , COVID-19 , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Early Detection of Cancer , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization
6.
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 31(1): 3-5, 15/03/2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1368875

ABSTRACT

La detección temprana sigue siendo pilar fundamental en el control del cáncer ya que no mas de 30% de las neoplasias malignas se pueden prevenir mediante la intervención de sus factores de riesgo,[1] y adicionalmente, la enfermedad localizada sigue teniendo mayor supervivencia que los estados metastásicos, aún con la sustancial mejora del tratamiento sistémico. A pesar de ello, existe una controversia creciente acerca de la tamización, en donde juega papel central el sobrediagnóstico. La reducción de la mortalidad es el objetivo primordial de la tamización en cáncer y dada la frecuente manifestación tardía de síntomas, la búsqueda de la enfermedad en población asintomática reviste toda lógica; no obstante, esta lógica se basa en la definición de neoplasia maligna como el crecimiento anómalo de células con capacidad de invasión progresiva, capacidad que se determina por cambios morfológicos y no por la dinámica de la enfermedad. Hoy se sabe que los cambios morfológicos tienen espectro amplio con cursos naturales variables, incluyendo neoplasias que no progresan o que progresan muy lentamente sin que lleguen a manifestarse durante la vida del paciente.


Early detection remains a fundamental pillar in cancer control since no more than 30% of malignant neoplasms can be prevented by intervention of their risk factors,[1] and additionally, localized disease continues to have longer survival than metastatic stages, even with the substantial improvement in systemic treatment. Despite this, there is a growing controversy about screening, in which overdiagnosis plays a central role. The reduction of mortality is the primary objective of cancer screening and given the frequent late manifestation of symptoms, the search for the disease in an asymptomatic population is logical; however, this logic is based on the definition of malignant neoplasm as the abnormal growth of cells with progressive invasive capacity, a capacity that is determined by morphologic changes and not by the dynamics of the disease. It is now known that morphologic changes have a broad spectrum with variable natural courses, including neoplasms that do not progress or that progress very slowly without ever manifesting themselves during the patient's lifetime.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms , Early Detection of Cancer , Therapeutics , Mass Screening , Risk Factors , Colombia , Overdiagnosis , Neoplasms
7.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 478-485, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364331

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento A relação direta entre a doença arterial coronariana (DAC) e o câncer de pulmão não é bem conhecida. Objetivo Investigar a associação entre a gravidade anatômica da DAC e do câncer de pulmão. Métodos Trezentos pacientes, incluindo 75 recém-diagnosticados com câncer de pulmão e 225 pacientes correspondentes sem câncer, foram submetidos à angiografia coronária durante a internação, sem intervenção coronária percutânea (ICP) prévia nem enxerto de bypass da artéria coronária (CABG). O escore SYNTAX foi utilizado para avaliar a gravidade da DAC. Uma pontuação alta no escore foi definida como > 15 (o maior quartil do escore SYNTAX). O teste de tendência de Cochran-Armitage foi utilizado para verificar a distribuição dos escores dos pacientes. Uma análise de regressão logística foi utilizada para avaliar a associação entre a gravidade da DAC e o câncer de pulmão. Os valores de p foram estabelecidos quando o nível de significância era 5%. Resultados A tendência de distribuição dos escores SYNTAX dos pacientes por quartis foi diferente entre aqueles com câncer de pulmão e controles (do quartil mais baixo ao mais alto: 20,0%; 20,0%; 24,0%; 36,0% vs. 26,7%; 26,2%; 25,8%; 21,3%; p=0,022). A pontuação no escore SYNTAX foi mais alta em pacientes com câncer do que nos pacientes controle (36,0% vs. 21,3%, p=0,011).O maior quartil do escore demonstrou mais riscos de desenvolver câncer de pulmão em comparação ao quartil mais baixo (OR: 2.250, IC95%: 1.077 a 4.699 ; P -trend= 0,016). Após ajustes, os pacientes no maior quartil do escore SYNTAX tinham mais risco de desenvolver câncer de pulmão (OR: 2.1o49, IC95%: 1.008 a 4.584; P -trend= 0,028). Pacientes com escores SYNTAX alto (> 15) tinham 1.985 mais chances de ter câncer de pulmão (IC95%: 1.105-3.563, P= 0,022). Conclusão A gravidade anatômica da DAC está associada ao risco de câncer de pulmão, o que indica que um rastreamento completo deste tipo de câncer possa ser mais significativo entre pacientes com DAC.


Abstract Background The direct relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) and lung cancer is not well known. Objective To investigate the association between the anatomical severity of CAD and lung cancer. Methods Three-hundred study patients, including 75 recently diagnosed lung cancer patients and 225 matched non-cancer patients, underwent coronary angiography during hospitalization without previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The SYNTAX score (SXscore) was used to assess the severity of CAD. A high SXscore (SXhigh) grade was defined as SXscore > 15 (the highest quartile of the SXscore). The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to assess the distribution of patients' SXscores. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between the severity of CAD and lung cancer. P-values were set when significance level was 5%. Results The distribution trend of patients' SXscore by quartiles was different between lung cancer patients and control patients (from the lowest to the highest quartile: 20.0%, 20.0%, 24.0%, 36.0% vs. 26.7%, 26.2%, 25.8%, 21.3%, p=0.022). The SX high rate was higher in lung cancer patients than in control patients (36.0% vs. 21.3%, p=0.011).The highest quartile of the SXscore showed higher risk of lung cancer in comparison to the lowest quartile (OR: 2,250, 95%CI: 1,077 to 4,699 ; P-trend= 0.016). After adjustment, patients in the highest quartile of the SXscore had higher risk of lung cancer (OR: 2,149, 95%CI: 1,008 to 4,584; P-trend= 0.028). Patients with high SXscore (> 15) had 1,985 times more chances of having lung cancer (95%CI: 1,105-3,563, P= 0.022). Conclusions The anatomical severity of CAD is associated with the risk of lung cancer, which indicates that a thorough lung cancer screening may be significant among severe CAD patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Severity of Illness Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Angiography , Early Detection of Cancer , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
8.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(1): e00304820, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355972

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer screening is a multistage process, therefore access to both the primary test and subsequent diagnostic procedures is essential. Considering women undergoing screening on the public health system in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, we aimed to estimate the proportion of women accessing colposcopy within six months of an abnormal smear result. We retrieved records from two administrative databases, the Information System on Uterine Cervical Cancer (SISCOLO) that contains smear results and the Outpatient Information System of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SIA/SUS) that records colposcopies. A reference cohort consisted of women, aged 25 years or older, with an abnormal smear result between May 1, 2014, and June 30, 2014. We excluded prevalent cases. We linked the reference cohort and records in the SIA/SUS extending to December 31, 2014. After excluding prevalent cases, 1,761 women with abnormal cytology results were left. A total of 700 (39.8%) women were linked to a colposcopy record within the follow-up period; this dropped to 671 (38.1%) women when follow-up was censored at six months. We could notice a slightly higher attendance in women living in the metropolitan region of São Paulo compared with residents of the rest of the state. We found no association between colposcopy attendance and age or cytology class. These results emphasize that access to colposcopy in the public health system in São Paulo is limited. This compromises the quality of screening, and the issue needs to be prioritized in service planning.


A triagem do câncer de colo uterino é um processo que envolve múltiplas etapas. É essencial o acesso ao teste primário e aos procedimentos diagnósticos subsequentes. Com foco nas mulheres que fazem triagem no sistema de saúde pública no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, buscamos estimar a proporção daquelas que acessam a colposcopia dentro de seis meses após um resultado anormal no teste de Papanicolau. Recuperamos os registros de duas bases de dados administrativos: o Sistema de Informação do Controle do Câncer do Colo do Útero (SISCOLO), que contém os resultados de Papanicolau, e o Sistema de Informação Ambulatorial do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIA/SUS), com os registros das colposcopias. Uma coorte de referência foi constituída de mulheres com idade de 25 anos ou mais com Papanicolau anormal entre 1º de maio de 2014 e 30 de junho de 2014. Excluímos casos prevalentes. Relacionamos a coorte de referência aos registros no SIA/SUS, estendendo até 31 de dezembro de 2014. Após a exclusão dos casos prevalentes, restaram 1.761 mulheres com citologia anormal. Setecentas delas (39,8%) foram relacionadas a um registro de colposcopia dentro do período de seguimento; esse número diminuiu para 671 (38,1%) quando o seguimento foi censurado aos seis meses. Foi observada uma cobertura ligeiramente maior entre mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo, em comparação com mulheres residentes do interior do estado. Não houve associação entre realização de colposcopia e idade ou classe citológica. Os resultados destacam o acesso restrito à colposcopia no sistema público de saúde no Estado de São Paulo. O cenário compromete a qualidade da triagem, e a questão deve ser priorizada no planejamento dos serviços.


Las pruebas de detección del cáncer cervical forman parte de un proceso multietapa. El acceso a tanto el test primario, como a los subsiguientes procedimientos de diagnóstico, es esencial. Considerando a las mujeres que se realizan las pruebas de detección en el sistema público de la salud en el Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, el objetivo del estudio fue estimar la proporción de mujeres que acceden a una colposcopía dentro de los seis meses, tras el resultado anormal en una citología. Recuperamos los registros de dos bases de datos administrativas: el Sistema de Información del Cáncer de Cuello de Útero (SISCOLO), que contiene resultados citológicos, y el Sistema de Información Ambulatoria del Sistema Único de Salud (SIA/SUS), que registra colposcopías. La cohorte de referencia consistía en mujeres, con 25 años de edad o mayores, quienes recibieron un resultado anormal en su citología entre el 1º mayo de 2014 y el 30 de junio 2014. Excluimos los casos prevalentes. Vinculamos la cohorte de referencia y los registros en la SIA/SUS, extendiéndolos hasta el 31 de diciembre 2014. Tras excluir los casos prevalentes, quedaron 1.761 mujeres con resultados citológicos anormales; 700 (39.8%), vinculados a un registro de colposcopía dentro del periodo de seguimient. Esta cifra cayó a 671 (38.1%) cuando el seguimiento fue censurado a los seis meses. Se observó una participación ligeramente superior en mujeres que viven en la región metropolitana de la gran São Paulo, comparada con los residentes del resto del estado. No hubo asociación entre la participación en la colposcopía y edad o tipo de citología. Estos resultados resaltan que el acceso a la colposcopía en el sistema público de São Paulo es limitado. Esto compromete la calidad de las pruebas de detección por lo que se necesita darles prioridad en la planificación de los servicios sanitarios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Colposcopy , Vaginal Smears , Brazil/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Early Detection of Cancer
9.
São Paulo; s.n; 2022. 53 p. tab, ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1367245

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: O câncer de mama é a neoplasia mais incidente entre mulheres, representando 24,5% entre todos os tipos de câncer nesta população. Além disto, representa a maior causa de morte neste grupo, respondendo por 15,5% dos óbitos entres todos os tipos de cânceres femininos. A faixa etária a partir de 50 anos é mais acometida, sendo relativamente raro antes dos 35 anos. As estratégias de detecção precoce são a base da Política Nacional de Atenção ao Câncer de Mama através do rastreamento e o diagnóstico precoce. Entretanto, parte significativa das mulheres brasileiras recebem o diagnóstico em estágios mais avançados da doença, principalmente nas regiões menos desenvolvidas do país. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados e o impacto do programa de rastreamento e diagnóstico de câncer de mama, na Região de Saúde Juazeiro, Bahia (RSJ/BA), no período de 1998 a 2017. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo de serie temporal, avaliando as taxas de mortalidade por câncer de mama antes e após a implantação do serviço de diagnóstico do câncer na cidade de Juazeiro-BA, referência em diagnóstico de câncer na MSJ/BA, composta por dez cidades. As informações foram coletadas do Sistema de Informação de Mortalidade e Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, estabelecidas tendências temporais através do softwere JoinPoint e verificadas correlações entre distância e o IDH dos municípios através do teste de correlação de Pearson. Foram descritas características e perfil tumoral de todas as mulheres diagnosticadas no período de 2014 a 2018 através do softwere stata 11. RESULTADOS: As taxas de mortalidade aumentaram após implantação do serviço de diagnóstico, com tendência de crescimento da mortalidade, porém, com maior intensidade após a implantação do serviço. Houve correlação negativa entre as taxas de mortalidade e a distância das cidades e positiva com o IDH dos municípios. A maioria dos casos diagnosticados no serviço de referência (27%) ocorreu em 2018, na faixa etária de 50 a 69 anos (58%), CONCLUSÕES: A tendência de aumento da taxa mortalidade na RSJ/BA coincide com a implantação do serviço de rastreamento e diagnóstico precoce na cidade de Juazeiro ­ BA. Em todas as cidades atendidas pelo serviço, houve aumento das taxas de mortalidade, onde o acesso ao exame de MMG foi facilitado pela implantação do atendimento da unidade móvel de rastreamento e diagnóstico, principalmente nos municípios mais distantes, localizadas a mais de 200 km do centro de diagnóstico. As mulheres residentes em locais mais distantes dos serviços têm mais dificuldades para acessar o diagnóstico precoce e apresentam tumores maiores ao diagnóstico. Aprofundar o conhecimento e a compreensão das condições do acesso ao diagnóstico e tratamento é importante para melhorar as chances de prevenção e sobrevida das mulheres sertanejas.


INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm among women, representing 24.5% of all types of cancer in this population. In addition, it represents the major cause of death in this group, accounting for 15.5% of deaths among all types of female cancers. The age group from 50 years is more affected, being relatively rare before the age of 35 years. Early detection strategies are the basis of the National Breast Cancer Care Policy through screening and early diagnosis. However, a significant part of Brazilian women are diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease, especially in less developed regions of the country. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results and impact of the breast cancer screening and diagnosis program in the Juazeiro Health Region, Bahia (RSJ/BA), from 1998 to 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: a retrospective serial study was carried out temporal, evaluating breast cancer mortality rates before and after the implementation of the cancer diagnosis service in the city of Juazeiro-BA, reference in cancer diagnosis in MSJ/BA, composed of ten cities. The information was collected from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, temporal trends were established using the JoinPoint software and correlations between distance and the HDI of the municipalities were verified using Pearson's correlation test. Characteristics and tumor profile of all women diagnosed in the period from 2014 to 2018 were described using the software stata 11. RESULTS: Mortality rates increased after the implementation of the diagnostic service, with a tendency for mortality to increase, but with greater intensity after the implementation of the service. There was a negative correlation between mortality rates and distance from cities and a positive correlation with the HDI of municipalities. Most cases diagnosed in the referral service (27%) occurred in 2018, in the age group from 50 to 69 years (58%). CONCLUSIONS: The trend towards an increase in the mortality rate in RSJ/BA coincides with the implementation of a screening and early diagnosis service in the city of Juazeiro - BA. In all cities served by the service, there was an increase in mortality rates, where access to the MMG test was facilitated by the implementation of the mobile tracking and diagnosis unit, especially in the most distant municipalities, located more than 200 km from the center. of diagnosis. Women residing in locations further away from services have more difficulties in accessing early diagnosis and present larger tumors at diagnosis. Deepening the knowledge and understanding of the conditions of access to diagnosis and treatment is important to improve the chances of prevention and survival of sertaneja women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/mortality , Mass Screening , Early Detection of Cancer , Health Services Accessibility , Brazil , Retrospective Studies
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(7): e00041722, 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1384280

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a realização de exames de rastreamento e diagnóstico para o câncer de colo do útero entre mulheres de 25 e 64 anos, bem como o atraso para o início do tratamento no Brasil e suas regiões geográficas no período de 2013 a 2020. As informações sobre os procedimentos e as estimativas populacionais foram obtidas nos sistemas de informações do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e da Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar (ANS). Foram calculados indicadores de cobertura do exame de Papanicolau, os percentuais de exames citopatológicos e histopatológicos alterados, e o percentual de mulheres com diagnóstico de câncer do colo do útero tratadas com mais de 60 dias. Houve grande variação na cobertura do exame de Papanicolau entre as regiões brasileiras com tendência de declínio a partir de 2013, agudizada de 2019 para 2020. O número registrado de exames citopatológicos alterados foi 40% inferior ao estimado e a diferença entre o número registrado de diagnósticos de câncer e o estimado menor que 50%. O percentual das mulheres com diagnóstico de câncer invasivo do colo do útero que iniciaram o tratamento após 60 dias variou entre 50% na Região Sul a 70% na Região Norte, com diminuição a partir de 2018. Em 2020, houve retração do número de exames de rastreamento e de seguimento com diminuição da proporção de mulheres com atraso para o início do tratamento nas regiões Norte, Sudeste e Sul. A queda na cobertura do rastreamento e o seguimento inadequado de mulheres com resultados alterados indicam a necessidade de aprimorar as estratégias de detecção precoce da doença e estabelecer mecanismos de avaliação e monitoramento constante das ações.


This study analyzes the performance of screening and diagnosis tests for cervical cancer among women aged 25 to 64 years, as well as the delay for the initiation of treatment within Brazil and in its geographic regions, from 2013 to 2020. Information on populational procedures and estimates was obtained from the information systems of the Brazilian Unified National Health System and the Brazilian National Supplementary Health Agency. We calculated the coverage indicators of the Pap smear, the percentages of altered cytopathological and histopathological tests, and the percentage of women diagnosed with cervical cancer with over 60 days of treatment. There was great variation in the coverage of the Pap smear test among the Brazilian regions with a downward trend from 2013, which was aggravated from 2019 to 2020. The number of altered cytopathological tests was 40% lower than estimated, and the difference between the recorded number of cancer diagnoses and the estimated number of patients was below 50%. The percentage of women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, who started treatment after 60 days, ranged from 50% in the South to 70% in the North Region with a decrease from 2018. In 2020, there was a decrease in the number of screening and follow-up tests, reducing the proportion of women delayed in starting treatment in the North, Southeast, and South regions. The decline in screening coverage and inadequate follow-up of women with altered results indicate the need to improve early detection strategies for the disease and establish mechanisms for constant evaluation and monitoring of actions.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el desempeño de las pruebas de detección y diagnóstico de cáncer de cuello uterino entre mujeres de 25 a 64 años, así como el retraso en el inicio del tratamiento en Brasil y en sus regiones geográficas en el período entre el 2013 y el 2020. La información sobre los procedimientos y las estimaciones poblacionales se obtuvo de los sistemas de información del Sistema Único de Salud y de la Agencia Nacional de Salud Complementaria. Se calcularon indicadores de cobertura de la prueba de Papanicolaou, los porcentajes de exámenes citopatológicos e histopatológicos alterados y el porcentaje de mujeres con diagnóstico de cáncer de cuello uterino sometidas a tratamiento por más de 60 días. Hubo una gran variación en la cobertura de la prueba de Papanicolaou entre las regiones brasileñas, con tendencia a la disminución a partir del 2013, agudizada del 2019 al 2020. El número registrado de exámenes citopatológicos alterados fue un 40% inferior al estimado, y la diferencia entre el número registrado de diagnósticos de cáncer y el estimado fue menor al 50%. El porcentaje de mujeres diagnosticadas con cáncer de cuello uterino invasivo que comenzaron el tratamiento después de 60 días varió del 50% en la Región Sur al 70% en la Región Norte, con una disminución a partir del 2018. En el 2020, hubo una retracción en el número de exámenes de detección y seguimiento, con una disminución en la proporción de mujeres con retraso en el inicio del tratamiento en las regiones Norte, Sudeste y Sur. La reducción en la cobertura de la detección y el seguimiento inadecuado de las mujeres con resultados alterados indican la necesidad de mejorar las estrategias de detección temprana de la enfermedad y establecer mecanismos de evaluación y seguimiento constante de las acciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaginal Smears , Brazil/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Papanicolaou Test
11.
Rev. Bras. Cancerol. (Online) ; 68(3)Jul-Set. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1398700

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O câncer de mama no Brasil apresenta elevadas taxas de incidência e mortalidade apesar da tendência de redução da mortalidade em algumas Regiões. Objetivo: Descrever a tendência da cobertura de mamografias de rastreamento nas Macrorregiões e Estados brasileiros e identificar a influência de Políticas Nacionais voltadas ao controle do câncer de mama entre 2010-2019. Método: Foi calculada a razão entre mamografias de rastreamento na faixa etária de 50-69 anos por local de residência e subtraída a população das residentes com plano de saúde na faixa etária e no período referidos. A tendência foi avaliada pelo modelo de regressão Joinpoint. Resultados: A cobertura aumentou no Brasil de 2010-2014 e apresentou queda de 2014-2019, com aumento na proporção de exames realizados na população-alvo. Esse padrão foi observado nas demais Regiões, exceto na Centro-Oeste, porém com ano de mudança da tendência diferente. Foram identificados dois pontos de mudança no país: de 2010-2014, com tendência crescente (APC 8,7, IC 95% 6,2; 11,3), e de 2014-2019, com tendência decrescente (APC -4,2, IC 95% -5,7; -2,7), ambos significantes. A Região Nordeste foi a única com três pontos de mudança de tendência: 2010-2012 (APC 30,3, IC 95% 22,9; 38,2), 2012-2017 (APC 4,7, IC 95% 3,0; 6,4) e 2017-2019 (APC -14,9, IC 95% -19,7; -9,8). Não foi identificada tendência para a Região Centro-Oeste. Conclusão: Houve crescimento na proporção de mamografias de rastreamento realizadas na população-alvo no período, para Brasil e Regiões, e tendência de redução na cobertura da mamografia a partir de 2014. Esses resultados indicam priorização da população-alvo do programa nas ações de rastreamento


Introduction: Breast cancer in Brazil has high incidence and mortality rates despite the declining trend of mortality in some regions. Objective:To describe the trend of mammograms screening coverage in Brazilian macroregions and states and identify the influence of the national breast cancer control policies between 2010-2019. Method: The ratio of screening mammograms in the age group of 50-69 years per local of residence was calculated minus the population of health-insured residents in that age group and period. The trend was evaluated by the Joinpoint regression model. Results: Coverage raised in Brazil from 2010-2014 and declined from 2014-2019, with increase of the proportion of exams in the target population. This pattern was noticed in other regions, except the Midwest, but with different year of shifting trend. Two significant shifting points were identified in the country: from 2010-2014, with increasing trend (APC 8.7, 95%CI 6.2; 11.3), and from 2014-2019 with decreasing trend (APC -4.2, 95%CI -5.7; -2.7). The Northeast region was the only one with three points of shifting trend: from 2010-2012 (APC 30.3, 95%CI 22.9; 38.2), 2012-2017 (APC 4.7, 95%CI 3.0; 6.4) and 2017-2019 (APC -14.9, 95%CI -19.7; -9.8). No trend was identified for the Midwest region. Conclusion: There was an increase in the proportion of screening mammograms performed in the target population in the period for Brazil and macroregions, and a declining trend in mammograms coverage from 2014 onwards. These results indicate the priority given to the target population in the program of screening actions


Introducción: El cáncer de mama en Brasil tiene altas tasas de incidencia y mortalidad a pesar de tendencia a reducción de mortalidad en algunas regiones. Objetivo: Describir tendencia en cobertura de mamografías de cribado en Macrorregiones y Estados brasileños e identificar influencia de políticas nacionales de control del cáncer de mama entre 2010-2019. Método: Calculó la razón entre mamografías de detección en grupo de edad 50-69 años por residencia, menos la población de las residentes con seguro médico en ese grupo de edad y período. La tendencia se evaluó mediante modelo de regresión Joinpoint. Resultados: Cobertura aumentó en Brasil de 2010-2014 y disminuyó de 2014-2019, con aumento em proporción de pruebas realizadas em población objetivo. Este patrón se observó en otras regiones, excepto Medio Oeste, con diferente año de cambio de tendencia. Se identificaron dos puntos de cambio en país: 2010-2014, con tendencia creciente (APC 8,7, IC 95% 6.2; 11.3), y 2014-2019 con tendencia decreciente (APC -4,2, IC 95% -5,7; -2,7), ambos significativos. Región Nordeste fue única con tres puntos de cambio de tendencia: 2010-2012 (APC 30,3, IC 95% 22,9; 38,2), 2012-2017 (APC 4,7, IC 95% 3,0; 6,4) y 2017-2019 (APC -14,9, IC 95% -19,7; -9,8). No se identificó ninguna tendencia para Región Medio Oeste. Conclusión: Hubo un aumento en proporción de mamografías de detección realizadas en población en período, para Brasil y regiones, y una tendencia a reducción de cobertura mamográfica a partir de 2014. Estos resultados indican priorización de población del programa en acciones de cribado


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Health Evaluation , Breast Neoplasms , Time Series Studies , Health Status Indicators , Early Detection of Cancer
12.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 157-175, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929191

ABSTRACT

Cancer imposes a severe threat to people's health and lives, thus pressing a huge medical and economic burden on individuals and communities. Therefore, early diagnosis of cancer is indispensable in the timely prevention and effective treatment for patients. Exosome has recently become an attractive cancer biomarker in noninvasive early diagnosis because of the unique physiology and pathology functions, which reflects remarkable information regarding the cancer microenvironment, and plays an important role in the occurrence and evolution of cancer. Meanwhile, biosensors have gained great attention for the detection of exosomes due to their superior properties, such as convenient operation, real-time readout, high sensitivity, and remarkable specificity, suggesting promising biomedical applications in the early diagnosis of cancer. In this review, the latest advances of biosensors regarding the assay of exosomes were summarized, and the superiorities of exosomes as markers for the early diagnosis of cancer were evaluated. Moreover, the recent challenges and further opportunities of developing effective biosensors for the early diagnosis of cancer were discussed.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor , Biosensing Techniques , Early Detection of Cancer , Exosomes/pathology , Humans , Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Low dose computed tomography (LDCT) is the best method for early diagnosis of lung cancer. Even though it has been widely used in clinic, the selection of screening objects and the management scheme of pulmonary nodules are still not unified among research institutions. This study aims to evaluate the effect of LDCT in detection effect and follow-up process for pulmonary nodules in asymptomatic participants.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 600 asymptomatic participants (37 to 82 years old), who came from Yantian District People's Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology, received LDCT. The lung nodules were categorized into positive nodules and semi-positive nodules, and according to the density of positive nodules they were categorized into 4 types: solid nodules (SN), partial solid nodules (pSN), pure ground glass nodules (pGGN), and pleural nodules (PN). The number, detection rate, imaging findings, follow-up change of lung nodules, and the postoperative pathological results of positive nodules were recorded and analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Lung nodules were found in 221 cases by LDCT. The total detection rate of lung nodule was 13.8% (221/1 600), and the detection rate in positive nodules was 4.9% (79/1 600). The detected nodules were mainly single (173 cases), solid (133 cases) and semi-positive nodules (142 cases). Most of nodules (177 cases) had no change in the follow-up process. The enlargement and/or increased density of nodules (5 cases) were lung cancer. Pathological results were obtained in 10 cases, 8 cases were malignant (1 small cell lung cancer and 7 adenocarcinomas), 2 cases were benign (cryptococcal infection and alveolar epithelial dysplasia). The detection rate of lung cancer was 0.5% (8/1 600), and the proportion of early lung cancer was 75% (6/8).@*CONCLUSIONS@#LDCT screening can identify and increase the detection rate in the early lung cancer, which is an effective screening method. It is safe and feasible to take regular follow-up and re-examination for nodules with diameter less than 5 mm. When the size and or density of nodule increases, it indicates the malignant prognosis of the nodule and timely clinical intervention is needed.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-943043

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of high risk factors questionnaire (HRFQ), Asia-Pacific colorectal screening (APCS) score and their combinations with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in screening advanced colorectal neoplasia, in order to provide an evidence for further optimization of cancer screening program. Methods: A retrospective cohort study method was used to summarize and analyze the results of colorectal tumor screening in Jiashan County, Zhejiang Province from March 2017 to July 2018. Those with severe diseases that were not suitable for colonoscopy and those with mental and behavioral abnormalities who can not cooperate with the screening were excluded. Those who met any one or more of the followings in the HRFQ questionnaire were classified as high-risk people of HRFQ: (1) first-degree relatives with a history of colorectal cancer; (2) subjects with a history of cancer or any other malignant tumor; (3) subjects with a history of intestinal polyps; (4) those with two or more of the followings: chronic constipation (constipation lasted for more than 2 months per year in the past two years), chronic diarrhea (diarrhea lasted for more than 3 months in the past two years, and the duration of each episode was more than one week), mucus and bloody stools, history of adverse life events (occurring within the past 20 years and causing greater trauma or distress to the subject after the event), history of chronic appendicitis or appendectomy, history of chronic biliary disease or cholecystectomy. In this study, those who were assessed as high risk by HRFQ were recorded as "HRFQ (+)", and those who were not at high risk were recorded as "HRFQ (-)". The APCS questionnaire provided risk scores based on 4 risk factors including age, gender, family history and smoking: (1) age: 2 points for 50-69 years old, 3 points for 70 years old and above; (2) gender: 1 point for male, 0 point for women; (3) family history: 2 points for first-degree relatives suffering from colorectal cancer; (4) smoking: 1 point for current or past smoking, 0 point for non-smokers. The population was divided into low-risk (0-1 point), intermediate-risk (2-3 points), and high-risk (4-7 points). Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS were recorded as "APCS (+)", and those with intermediate and low risk were recorded as "APCS (-)". The hemoglobin threshold for a positive FIT was set to 100 μg/L. Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with positive FIT were recorded as "APCS+FIT (+)". Those who were assessed as high risk by APCS with negative FIT, those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle risk with positive FIT, and those who were assessed by APCS as low-middle with negative FIT were all recorded as "APCS+FIT(-)". Observation indicators in this study were as follows: (1) the screening compliance rate of the cohort and the detection of advanced colorectal tumors; (2) positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors; (3) comparison of the detection rate between HRFQ and APCS questionnaire for different colorectal lesions. Using SPSS 21.0 software, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to evaluate the clinical value of HRFQ and APCS combined with FIT in screening advanced colorectal tumors. Results: From 2017 to 2018 in Jiashan County, a total of 53 268 target subjects were screened, and 42 093 people actually completed the questionnaire, with a compliance rate of 79.02%. A total of 8145 cases underwent colonoscopy. A total of 3607 cases among HRFQ positive population (5320 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 67. 80%; 8 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 88 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. A total of 2977 cases among APCS positive population (11 942 cases) underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 24.93%; 17 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 148 cases were advanced colorectal adenoma. The positive rate of HRFQ screening was lower than that of APCS [12.6% (5320/42 093) vs. 28.4% (11 942/42 093), χ2=3195. 547, P<0.001]. In the FIT positive population (6223 cases), a total of 4894 cases underwent colonoscopy, and the colonoscopy compliance rate was 78.64%; 34 cases were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 224 cases were advanced adenoma. The positive predictive values of HRFQ and APCS and their combination with FIT for screening advanced colorectal tumors were 2.67%, 5.54%, 5.44%, and 8.56%; negative predictive values were 94.89%, 96.85%, 96.11% and 96.99%; sensitivity was 29.27%, 50.30%, 12.20 % and 39.02%; specificity was 55.09%, 64.03%, 91.11% and 82.51%, respectively. The ROC curves constructed by HRFQ, APCS, FIT, HRFQ+FIT and APCS+FIT indicated that APCS+FIT presented the highest efficacy in screening advanced colorectal tumors (AUC: 0.608, 95%CI: 0.574-0.642). The comparison of the detection rates of different colorectal lesions between HRFQ and APCS questionnaires showed that there were no significant differences in detection rate of inflammatory polyps and hyperplastic polyps between the two questionnaires (both P>0.05). However, as compared to HRFQ questionnaire, APCS questionnaire had higher detection rates in non-advanced adenomas [26.10% (777/2977) vs. 19.43% (701/3607), χ2=51.228, P<0.001], advanced adenoma [4.97% (148/2977) vs. 2.44% (88/3607), χ2=30.249, P<0.001] and colorectal cancer [0.57% (17 /2977) vs. 0.22% (8/3607), χ2=5.259, P=0.022]. Conclusions: APCS has a higher detection rate of advanced colorectal tumors than HRFQ. APCS combined with FIT can further improve the effectiveness of advanced colorectal tumor screening.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/diagnosis , Aged , Asia , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Constipation , Diarrhea , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Feces , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 634-666, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940928

ABSTRACT

Gastric cancer (GC) is a major digestive tract malignancy in China, which seriously threatens the health of Chinese population. A large number of researches have demons-trated that screening, early detection and early treatment are effective in reducing the incidence and mortality of GC. The development of the guideline for GC screening, early detection and early treatment in line with epidemic characteristics of GC in China will greatly promote the homogeneity and standardization, and improve the effect of GC screening. This guideline was commissioned by the Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention of the National Health Commission. The National Cancer Center of China initiated and convened a working group comprising multidisciplinary experts. Following the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development, this guideline combined the most up-to-date evidence of GC screening, China's national conditions, and practical experience in cancer screening. This guideline provided evidence-based recommendations with respect to the screening population, technology and procedure management, aiming to improve the effect of GC screening and provide scientific evidence for the GC prevention and control in China.


Subject(s)
Beijing , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Humans , Mass Screening , Stomach Neoplasms/prevention & control
16.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 531-539, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940919

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze and compare the distribution of the high-risk population of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer and the factors influencing the compliance rate of endoscopic screening in urban China and rural China. Methods: From 2015 to 2017, an epidemiological survey was conducted on residents aged 40-69 in two rural areas (Luoshan county of Henan province, Sheyang county of Jiangsu province) and two urban areas (Changsha city of Hunan province, Harbin city of Heilongjiang province). As a result, high-risk individuals were recommended for endoscopic screening. Chi-square χ(2) test was used to compare the high-risk rate of UGI cancer between urban and rural residents. In addition, the multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the factors influencing the compliance rate of endoscopic screening. Results: A total of 48, 310 residents aged 40-69 were enrolled in this study, including 22 870 (47.34%) residents from rural areas and 25 440 (52.66%) residents from urban areas. A total of 23 532 individuals were assessed with a high risk of UGI cancer, with an overall risk rate of 48.71%. A higher proportion of participants with high risk was observed in rural China (56.17%, 12 845/22 870) than in urban China (42.01%, 10 687/25 440). A total of 10 971 high-risk individuals with UGI cancer participated in endoscopic screening, with an overall compliance rate of 46.62% (10 971/23 532), 45.15% (5 799/12 845) in rural China, and 48.40% (5 172/10 687) in urban China. In rural population, the compliance rate of endoscopic screening was higher in those of females, aged 50-69 years, primary school education or above, high income, a family history of UGI cancer, history of gastric and duodenal ulcer, history of reflux esophagitis, and history of superficial gastritis, but lower in smokers (P<0.05). Among the urban population, the compliance rate of endoscopic screening was higher in those aged 40-49 years, uneducated, low income, family history of UGI cancer, history of reflux esophagitis, history of superficial gastritis, but lower in smokers (P<0.05). Conclusions: The proportion of participants with high risk of UGI cancer in rural areas is higher than that of urban areas. The compliance rates of endoscopic screening in urban and rural areas are low, and influencing factors of endoscopic screening exhibit some differences in rural China and urban China.


Subject(s)
China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Esophagitis, Peptic , Female , Gastritis , Gastrointestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Rural Population , Urban Population
17.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 491-522, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940918

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer (EC) is a major digestive tract malignancy in China, which seriously threatens the health of Chinese population. A large number of researches have demonstrated that screening and early detection are effective in reducing the incidence and mortality of EC. The development of the guideline for EC screening and early detection in line with epidemic characteristics of EC in China will greatly promote the homogeneity and standardization, and improve the effect of EC screening. This guideline was commissioned by the Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention of the National Health Commission. The National Cancer Center of China initiated and convened a working group comprising multidisciplinary experts. Following the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development, this guideline combined the most up-to-date evidence of EC screening, China's national conditions, and practical experience in cancer screening. This guideline provided evidence-based recommendations with respect to the screening population, technology and procedure management, aiming to improve the effect of EC screening and provide scientific evidence for the EC prevention and control in China.


Subject(s)
Beijing , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/prevention & control , Humans , Mass Screening
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935774

ABSTRACT

Objective: To provide scientific evidence for early lung cancer screening, to analyze the incidence of pulmonary nodules among petroleum company staffs in Sichuan-Chongqing Area. Methods: In January 2021 , 6002 petroleum company staffs in Sichuan-Chongqing Area which scanned by low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) of chest in medical examination center in 2020 were retrospectively collected as objects. Their imaging and clinical data were collected. χ(2) test was used to analyze the differences in the detection rates of lung nodules and suspected lung cancer nodules among workers in petroleum company staffs of different genders, ages and types of work. Results: Among the 6002 objects, 3853 (64.2%) were male and 2149 (35.8%) were female, with an average age of (47.25±12.13) years old. A total of 431 cases (7.2%) of pulmonary nodules and 57 cases (0.9%) of suspected lung cancer nodules were detected. 45 cases were followed up with surgical treatment, and 41 cases (91.1%) of lung cancer were diagnosed by postoperative pathology. There were significant differences in the detection rates of pulmonary nodules and suspected lung cancer nodules between different age groups (χ(2)=51.23, 18.81 , P<0.001). The detection rates of pulmonary nodules in the age groups 51-60 years old and ≥61 years old were higher than those in the age groups≤40 years old and 41-50 years old (P<0.05). The detection rate of suspected lung cancer nodules in the age group≥ 61 years old was higher than those in the age groups≤40 years old, 41-50 years old and 51-60 years old (P< 0.05) . And the detection rate of suspected lung cancer pulmonary nodules in oil workers was higher than that of ordinary workers (P<0.05) . Among female objects, the detection rate of pulmonary nodules in oil workers was higher than that in ordinary workers (χ(2)=8.09, P=0.004) . The detection rate of pulmonary nodules in oil workers aged ≥61 years old was higher than ordinary workers (χ(2)=37.94, P<0.001) . Among male objects, the detection rate of suspected lung cancer pulmonary nodules in oil workers was higher than that in ordinary workers (χ(2)=8.42, P=0.004) . The detection rates of suspected lung cancer pulmonary nodules in oil workers aged 51-60 years old and ≥61 years old groups were higher than those of ordinary workers (χ(2)=4.70, 8.74; P=0.030, 0.003) . Conclusion: LDCT is suitable for early lung cancer screening for petroleum company staffs. During the clinical screening process, LDCT should be used as a routine physical examination item for petroleum workers older than 51 years old.


Subject(s)
Adult , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Multiple Pulmonary Nodules/diagnostic imaging , Petroleum , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Spiral Computed
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935266

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the performance of point-of-care testing for cervical cancer and precancerous lesions screening. Methods: In September 2020, 197 and 273 women were selected by using simple random sampling method from "self-sampling" cohort and "physician-sampling" cohort established in Xiangyuan county, Shanxi Province, China, respectively. Cervical exfoliated cells were collected by women themselves or gynecologists. All samples were detected by POCT and women with positive result were directly referred for colposcopy. Subsequently, all the samples were detected by careHPV and PCR test. Colposcopy and punch biopsy were performed for women with POCT negative but careHPV or PCR test positive at another visit. Using histopathological diagnosis as the gold standard, we calculated sensitivity, specificity and drew the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The accuracy of POCT was analyzed and compared to that of careHPV and conventional PCR test in cervical cancer and precancerous lesions screening. Results: The median (Q1 , Q3) age of 470 women was 51 (45, 57) years old. Based on self-sampling, the sensitivity and specificity of POCT for CIN2+ were 100.00% (95%CI: 56.56%-100.00%) and 28.95% (95%CI: 22.97%-35.76%), respectively. Compared with POCT, POCT HPV16/18 test had similar sensitivity and higher specificity of 89.47% (95%CI: 84.30%-93.08%). Self-sampling POCT HPV16/18 test had an AUC of 0.947 (95%CI:0.910-0.985), which was higher than that of careHPV and PCR test. Physician-sampling POCT test had 100.00% sensitivity (95%CI: 64.57%-100.00%) and 55.85% specificity (95%CI: 49.83%-61.70%) for detecting CIN2+. POCT HPV16/18 test had lower sensitivity (71.43%, 95%CI: 35.90%-91.76%) and higher specificity (92.45%, 95%CI: 88.63%-95.06%). POCT HPV16/18 test generally showed similar AUC on both self-collected samples and clinician-collected samples (0.947 vs 0.819, P=0.217). Conclusion: POCT HPV16/18 test is an effective method with relatively high sensitivity and specificity for cervical cancer screening.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/diagnosis , Colposcopy , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18 , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Pregnancy , Sensitivity and Specificity , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
20.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 29-53, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935182

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the malignant tumors of the genitourinary system that occurs more often in elderly men. Screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of the PC high risk population are essential to improve the cure rate of PC. The development of the guideline for PC screening and early detection in line with epidemic characteristics of PC in China will greatly promote the homogeneity and quality of PC screening. This guideline was commissioned by the Bureau of Disease Control and Prevention of the National Health Commission. The National Cancer Center of China initiated and convened a working group comprising multidisciplinary experts. This guideline strictly followed the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development and combined the most up-to-date evidence of PC screening, China's national conditions, and practical experience in cancer screening. A total of fifteen detailed evidence-based recommendations were provided with respect to the screening population, technology, procedure management, and quality control in the process of PC screening. This guideline aimed to standardize the practice of PC screening and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of PC prevention and control in China.


Subject(s)
Aged , Beijing , China/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology
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