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1.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(6): 307-311, 20210000. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359098

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Presentar metodología diagnostica y resección atípica, con fines curativos de hepatocarcinoma. Caso clínico: Femenina de 82 años, con múltiples antecedentes entre el que se destaca, hepatitis a virus C de 15 años de evolución, que presenta por estudios complementarios alta sospecha de hepatocarcinoma, se realiza laparotomía exploradora con resección atípica de tumor en segmento 5 y 6 con radiofrecuencia quirúrgica y colecistectomía con colangiografía intraoperatoria. Cursa post operatorio sin complicaciones con alta sanatorial al 8vo dia. Conclusion: Hay que sospechar esta patología en pacientes con antecedentes de hepatopatía viral, plantear screening adecuado para un diagnóstico temprano y la mejor resolución adaptada a cada paciente. Dentro de las opciones terapéuticas encontramos la radiofrecuencia quirúrgica como una buena herramienta, con índice bajo de complicaciones


Objective: To present diagnostic methodology and atypical resection, for curative purposes of hepatocarcinoma. Clinical case: An 82-year-old female, with multiple history factors, among them, hepatitis C virus of 15 years of evolution, which presents high suspicion of hepatocarcinoma due to complementary studies, exploratory laparotomy is performed with atypical resection of tumor in segments 5 and 6 with surgical radiofrequency and cholecystectomy with intraoperative cholangiography. Post-operative course without complications with sanatorial discharge on the 8th day. Conclusion: This pathology must be suspected in patients with history of viral liver disease. We suggest an adequate screening for an early diagnosis and the best resolution adapted to each patient. Among the therapeutic options we find surgical radiofrequency as a good tool, with a low rate of complications


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Cholecystectomy/rehabilitation , Incidence , Aftercare/methods , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Laparotomy , Liver Neoplasms/therapy
2.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 109(1): 49-58, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281314

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Los desórdenes de mucosa bucal potencialmente malignos pueden presentar áreas displásicas. En estos casos, la biopsia es un procedimiento imprescindible para un correcto diagnóstico. La inspección visual y la palpación, como método de selección del área de biopsia, ofrecen sensibilidad y especificidad adecuadas pero mejorables. El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una serie de casos clínicos en los que se describen el empleo y la interpretación de la tinción vital con azul de toluidina como método complementario para contribuir a una mejor elección del área de biopsia. Casos clínicos: Se trata de siete casos de lesiones con sospecha de displasia epitelial en mucosa bucal. En cada uno se detalla la correlación de las áreas teñidas con las manifestaciones clínicas y con el diagnóstico de displasia. Además, se muestran patrones de tinción considerados falsos positivos. En la interpretación de la tinción positiva, se tuvieron en cuenta el aspecto superficial y el color de la lesión teñida. El empleo combinado de inspección, palpación y tinción vital podría constituir un procedimiento integral de utilidad para obtener mayor precisión en la determinación del sitio de biopsia en comparación con los mismos procedimientos aplicados de manera individual. En la interpretación de la tinción positiva con azul de toluidina deberían considerarse el aspecto superficial y el color de la lesión teñida (AU)


Aim: Potentially Malignant Disorders in the oral cavity can present dysplastic areas. In these cases, the biopsy is an essential procedure for a correct diagnosis. Visual inspection and palpation, are adequate methods to select the area for the biopsy, however there is margin for improvement. The objective of this article is to present a series of clinical cases in which the use and interpretation of vital staining with Toluidine Blue is described as a complementary method to contribute to a better choice of the biopsy area. Clinical cases: Seven clinical cases that presented lesions with suspected epithelial dysplasia in the oral mucosa were presented. The correlation of the stained areas with the clinical manifestations and with the diagnosis of dysplasia is detailed in each case. Staining patterns considered false positives are also shown. In the interpretation of the positive staining, the superficial appearance and color of the stained lesion were considered. The combined use of inspection, palpation and vital staining could constitute a useful comprehensive procedure to obtain greater precision in determining the biopsy site in relation to the same procedures applied individually. In the interpretation of the positive staining with Toluidine Blue, the superficial appearance and color of the stained lesion should be considered (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Precancerous Conditions/classification , Tolonium Chloride , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Palpation , Biopsy/methods , Lip Neoplasms/diagnosis , Clinical Diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck/diagnosis
4.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42: e20190384, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1289589

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the usability of a mobile application for early detection of pediatric cancer. Method A descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, evaluating the usability of the application "Fique Atento, pode ser câncer" by 19 oncology nurses at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Pernambuco, Brazil, using the validated System Usability Scale questionnaire. For analysis, Microsoft Excel and the support of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software were used. Results Through the application of the SUS questionnaire, the total value of the averages of all scores was 91.58%, the satisfaction rate was 88.6% and the efficiency rate 91.2%. Discussion The data demonstrated that the application has agreement and compliance with the principles of usability in the criteria of effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. Final considerations The application brings an important contribution to expand the construction and validation of technological tools that align both theoretical and practical knowledge.


RESUMEN Objetivo Evaluar la usabilidad de una aplicación móvil para la detección precoz del cáncer pediátrico. Método Estudio descriptivo, con enfoque cuantitativo, evaluando la usabilidad de la aplicación "Fique atento, pode ser câncer" por 19 enfermeras de oncología del Hospital Universitario Oswaldo Cruz, Pernambuco, Brasil, utilizando el cuestionario de la Escala de Usabilidad del Sistema validado. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó Microsoft Excel y el soporte del software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Resultados Al aplicar el cuestionario SUS, el valor totals de los promedios de todos los puntajes fue del 91,58%, la tasa de satisfacción fue del 88,6% y la tasa de eficiencia del 91,2%. Discusión Los datos demostraron que la aplicación tiene concordancia y cumplimiento con los principios de usabilidad en los criterios de efectividad, eficiencia y satisfacción del usuario. Consideraciones finales La aplicación aporta un importante aporte para expandir la construcción y validación de herramientas tecnológicas que alinean conocimientos teóricos y prácticos.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a usabilidade de um aplicativo móvel para detecção precoce do câncer pediátrico. Método Estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, de avaliação da usabilidade do aplicativo "Fique Atento, pode ser câncer" por 19 enfermeiros oncológicos do Hospital Universitário Oswaldo Cruz, Pernambuco, Brasil, utilizando o questionário validado System Usability Scale. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se o Microsoft Excel e o suporte do software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Resultados Mediante a aplicação do questionário SUS, o valor total das médias de todos os scores foi de 91,58%, o índice de satisfação foi de 88,6% e o de eficiência 91,2%. Discussão Os dados demonstraram que o aplicativo possui concordância e conformidade com os princípios de usabilidade nos critérios de efetividade, eficiência e satisfação do usuário. Considerações finais: O aplicativo traz uma importante contribuição para ampliação da construção e validação de ferramentas tecnológicas que alinham o conhecimento teórico ao prático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Child Health , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mobile Applications , Neoplasms , Nurses , Primary Health Care , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent Health , Medical Oncology
5.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(1): e002102, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222362

ABSTRACT

El cáncer colorrectal presenta un problema para la salud pública a nivel mundial. En Argentina, se diagnostican aproximadamente 13.500 casos cada año. El tamizaje como medida de prevención secundaria es una medida beneficiosa para lograr un abordaje temprano con mejores resultados. Los dos métodos más utilizados para el tamizaje son la videocolonoscopía y la prueba de sangre oculta en materia fecal, sobre todo la de tipo inmunoquímico que con el paso de los años fue reemplazando a la prueba de guayaco por su mayor practicidad. El primero es un método invasivo y que requiere anestesia, mientras que el segundo no tiene un efecto adverso directo pero debe realizarse con una cadencia mayor. El objetivo de los autores de este artículo fue evaluar la evidencia sobre la sensibilidad y especificidad de ambos métodos, como también sus beneficios y daños a partir de la consulta de un paciente a su médico de familia. Ninguna prueba parecería ser inferior para el tamizaje de cáncer colorrectal en una población de riesgo promedio, y ambas pueden usarse en programas de rastreo. Sin embargo, no existen estudios que comparen ambos métodos de manera directa, y toda prueba inmunoquímica fecal positiva debe ser seguida de una colonoscopía. La elección de la prueba puede depender de los valores y preferencias de los pacientes. (AU)


Colorectal cancer presents a public health problem worldwide. In Argentina, approximately 13,500 cases appear each year. Screening as a secondary prevention measure is a beneficial measure to achieve an early approach with better results. The two most used methods for screening are video colonoscopy and faecal immunochemical test, the former being invasiveand requiring anaesthesia, while the latter does not have a direct adverse effect but must be performed at a higher rate. The objective of this article was to evaluate the evidence for the sensitivity and specificity of both methods, as well as their benefits and harms. No test would appear to be inferior for colorectal cancer screening in an average-risk population, and both can be used in screening programs. However, there are no studies comparing both methods directly, and any positive faecal immunochemical test should be evaluated with a colonoscopy. The choice of the test may depend on the values and preferences of the patients. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colonic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Patient Participation , Mass Screening/methods , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Public Health , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colonoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/adverse effects , Secondary Prevention/methods , Patient Preference , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Occult Blood
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 172-176, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090671

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la prevalencia de lesiones orales malignas y potencialmente malignas (LPM) en funcionarios de la Universidad de Valparaíso y de Viña del Mar durante los años 2016 - 2017. Fueron citados 161 funcionarios, quienes accedieron a una encuesta que evaluaba factores de riesgo de cáncer oral (tabaco y alcohol) y si habían escuchado de la patología, sumado a un examen clínico. De los pacientes examinados, se diagnosticaron 121 lesiones de las cuales 2 fueron diagnosticadas como lesiones potencialmente malignas: Liquen plano y Leucoplasia, con una prevalencia de 1,7 %. El 50,3 % de los pacientes sabía de la existencia de cáncer oral. El Screening es una medida que permite dar a conocer a la población la existencia de cáncer oral y alertarlos sobre la importancia de su examen para su identificación de manera temprana.


The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of malignant and potentially malignant oral lesions (PML) in University of Valparaíso and Viña del Mar employees, during the years 2016 - 2017. We cited 161 employees, who accessed a survey evaluating risk factors for oral cancer (tobacco and alcohol) and if they had heard of the disease. In addition, a clinical examination was carried out. Of the patients examined, 121 lesions were diagnosed, of which 2 were diagnosed as potentially malignant lesions: Lichen planus and Leukoplakia, with a prevalence of 1.6 %. 50.3 % of patients knew of the existence of oral cancer. Epidemiological designs are needed to better establish causality between risk factors and malignant or, potentially malignant lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Precancerous Conditions/epidemiology , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Precancerous Conditions/diagnosis , Alcohol Drinking , Mouth Neoplasms/diagnosis , Health Behavior , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Tobacco Use
7.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e579, ene.-abr. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093133

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El paraganglioma es un tumor neuroendocrino poco frecuente que surge de los paraganglios autonómicos extraadrenales en diversos lugares del organismo. También se les conoce como feocromocitomas extraadrenales. Alrededor de 90 por ciento son benignos y se curan mediante la extirpación quirúrgica, el restante 10 por ciento son malignos, y pueden provocar metástasis a distancia. El diagnóstico es importante por su riesgo de malignidad, por las implicaciones de otras neoplasias asociadas y dada la posibilidad de realizar estudios genéticos para la detección de otros casos dentro de una misma familia. Objetivo: Exponer aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de esta enfermedad y las implicaciones perioperatorias concernientes a la conducta anestésica perioperatoria de estos pacientes. Caso clínico: Paciente femenina, de 56 años de edad con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial de más dos años de evolución y difícil control, diabetes mellitus e historia de cefalea, palpitaciones y sensación de calor. Diagnóstico imagenológico de una masa pararrenal sospechosa de paraganglioma que se confirmó por estudio histopatológico posterior a la exceresis. Conclusiones: La técnica anestésica para la resección de estos tumores es un desafío importante para el anestesiólogo que debe enfrentar dicha intervención quirúrgica, planteándose los riesgos de las etapas pre-, intra- y posoperatoria(AU)


Introduction: Paraganglioma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor that emerging from the extra-adrenal autonomic paraganglia and it may occur in several parts of the body. Paraganglioma is also named extra-adrenals pheochromocytomas. Roughly 90 percent of these tumors are benign and can be excised through surgery whereas 10 percent of them are malignant and cause distant metastasis. Paragangliomas are closely linked to pheochromocytomas because they cannot be differentiated at cell level and often share the same clinical manifestations such as hypertension, episodic headache, sweating and tachycardia. The diagnosis of these tumors is important because of risk of becoming malignant, the implications of other related neoplasias and the possibility of making genetic studies to detect other cases in the same family. Objective: To expose about epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests and perioperative management of these tumors by a presentation of a clinical case. Case Report: Female 56 years old, clinical history of 2 years of uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes mellitus, who presented with headache, palpitations and feeling of warm. She was diagnosed with a pararrenal mass suspected of paraganglioma associated with catecholamine hypersecretion, confirmed by histopathology. Conclusions: The treatment of these tumors requires a more complete surgical resection possible since the prognosis depends. Surgical management of pheochromocytoma needs special perioperative requirements. The anesthesiologist must observe this surgery, establish the risks of the phase pre-intra and postoperative(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Paraganglioma/surgery , Paraganglioma/diagnostic imaging , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Anesthesiologists
8.
Rev. cuba. estomatol ; 57(1): e2226, ene.-mar. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126484

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: El cáncer bucal es un problema de salud pública mundial, el cual constituye la sexta causa más común de muerte relacionada con el cáncer. El conocimiento y concientización de la población sobre esta enfermedad es importante para reducir su alta tasa de mortalidad. Objetivo: Determinar el nivel de conocimiento sobre cáncer bucal en pacientes adultos que acudieron a la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos el año 2017. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. La población estuvo compuesta por los pacientes que acudieron a la clínica de la Facultad de Odontología. La muestra fue de 223 pacientes y se obtuvo por un muestreo probabilístico aleatorio sistemático. El instrumento de evaluación fue una encuesta de 11 preguntas cerradas divididas en 5 dominios: conocimientos generales, factores de riesgo, signos y síntomas, repercusiones y prevención del cáncer bucal. El rango de calificación fue bajo, regular, alto. Resultados: El 56,5 por ciento (n= 126) de pacientes presentó un nivel de conocimiento bajo, 40,4 por ciento (n= 90) un nivel regular y 3,1 por ciento (n= 7) un nivel alto. El nivel de respuesta promedio fue 12,14 ± 2,90 (IC95 por ciento [10,17-14,89]). El sexo y la edad no tuvieron relación significativa con el nivel de conocimiento (p= 0,45 y p= 0,52, respectivamente); sin embargo, el nivel de educación sí tuvo relación significativa (p= 0,009). Conclusiones: En la población estudiada, el nivel de conocimiento sobre cáncer bucal es predominantemente bajo. El sexo y la edad no tienen influencia sobre el nivel de conocimiento de cáncer bucal, pero sí el nivel de educación(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Oral cancer is a world health problem. It constitutes the sixth leading cause of cancer-related death. Knowledge about and awareness of this disease among the population is important to reduce its high mortality rate. Objective: Determine the level of knowledge about oral cancer among adult patients attending the Dental School at the National University of San Marcos in the year 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted. The study population was the patients attending the Dental School clinic. The sample was 223 patients selected by systematic probabilistic random sampling. The evaluation tool was a survey containing 11 closed-ended questions divided into five domains: general knowledge, risk factors, signs and symptoms, repercussions and prevention of oral cancer. The grading scale was low, fair or high. Results: Of the patients surveyed, 56.5 percent (n= 126) had a low knowledge level, 40.4 percent (n= 90) a fair level and 3.1 percent (n= 7) a high level. Average answer level was 12.14 ± 2.90 (CI 95 percent [10.17-14.89]). Sex and age did not have a significant relationship to knowledge level (p= 0.45 and p= 0.52, respectively). However, educational level did have a significant relationship (p= 0.009). Conclusions: In the study population the level of knowledge about oral cancer is predominantly low. Sex and age do not have an influence on the level of knowledge about oral cancer, but educational level does(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Schools, Dental , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Knowledge , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Mouth Neoplasms/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Observational Studies as Topic
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 542-544, Jul.-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099331

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based early detection for prostate cancer is the subject of intense debate. Implementation of organized prostate cancer screening has been challenging, in part because the PSA test is so amenable to opportunistic screening. To the extent that access to cancer screening tests increases in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is an urgent need to thoughtfully evaluate existing and future cancer screening strategies to ensure benefit and control costs. We used Mexico's prostate cancer screening efforts to illustrate the challenges LMICs face. We provide five considerations for policymakers for a smarter approach and implementation of PSA-based screening.


Resumen : El uso del Antígeno Prostático Específico (APE) para tamizaje para cáncer de próstata sigue siendo tema de amplio debate. La implementación de estrategias de tamiz organizado de cáncer de próstata ha sido un reto en parte porque la prueba de APE se presta para detección oportunista. A medida que aumenta el acceso a las pruebas de detección de cáncer en los países de ingresos bajos y medianos (PIBM), existe la necesidad urgente de evaluar cuidadosamente las estrategias actuales y futuras de detección oportuna de cáncer para garantizar su beneficio y controlar sus costos. Utilizamos los esfuerzos de tamizaje de cáncer de próstata de México para ilustrar los retos para PIBM. Ofrecemos cinco consideracio nes dirigidas a tomadores de decisión que permitan contar con estrategias racionales de implementación de tamizaje para cáncer de próstata basado en el uso de APE.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Developing Countries , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Policy Making , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Health Education , Age Factors , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Mexico
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(4): 456-460, Jul.-Aug. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099321

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Cervical cancer has decreased significantly over the past 30 years in some countries. However, it remains among the leading causes of cancer deaths in low-income, and racial/ethnic minority women. Cervical cancer prevention technologies are not always available. Laboratories are often not well equipped to use them. HPV information has not been widely disseminated. WHO guidelines, and US and Latin American data provide context for strategies on effective interventions to reduce cervical cancer disparities. Systemic, personal and cultural barriers, combined with decision-making guidelines, and impactful messaging can accelerate reductions in cervical cancer health inequities in the Americas.


Resumen: El cáncer cervicouterino ha disminuido significativamente en los últimos 30 años, pero sigue siendo una de las principales causas de muerte entre mujeres de bajos recursos y minorías raciales/étnicas. Las tecnologías preventivas del cáncer cervicouterino no están siempre disponibles y los laboratorios no están siempre bien equipados para utilizarlas. La información sobre el VPH no ha sido difundida ampliamente. La OMS y datos de EEUU y Latinoamérica ofrecen estrategias para reducir el cáncer cervicouterino. El entendimiento de las barreras sistémicas, personales y culturales, dentro de un marco de toma de decisiones, y mensajes innovadores puede reducir las barreras asociadas con el cáncer cervicouterino en las Américas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , World Health Organization , Americas , Decision Trees , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/ethnology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Mass Screening/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Cultural Characteristics , Decision Making , Educational Status , Health Status Disparities , Consumer Health Information/methods , Language , Minority Groups
13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 478-485, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012323

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the trend of use of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) for screening of prostate cancer (PC) among Brazilian doctors, from the beginning of its regular availability in clinical laboratories. Material and Methods: A serial cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from a large database between 1997 and 2016. The general PSA screening trend during this period, adjusted for the total number of exams performed in men, was analyzed. Time-series analysis was performed through observation of the general regression curve using the generalized least squares method, and the impact of the recommendations was assessed with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Results: During the period studied 2,521,383 PSA determinations were done. The age of the participants ranged from 21 to 111 years, with an average of 56.7 ± 22.7 years. The relative number of PSA tests/100.000 exams in males showed a constant reduction since 2001, and this trend was more evident in the group aged 55-69 years. Although statistically significant, the impact of reduced PSA screening after the 2012 USPSTF publication was clinically irrelevant. Conclusions: Our results indicated a continuous reduction in the use of PSA screening over time, regardless of the publication of recommendations or clinical guidelines. The fact that this trend was more pronounced among those with a greater benefit potential (55-69 years), relative to groups with a greater damage potential due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment (aged >74 years and <40 years), is a matter of concern. Follow-up studies of these trends are advisable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Time Factors , Brazil , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Age Distribution , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Middle Aged
14.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(1): 41-44, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001321

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer. The prognosis is bleak in patients with advanced stages. Patients with early disease have a better prognosis than those with advanced stage. There are several techniques for the screening of premalignant and superficial lesions including chromoendoscopy. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to determine the effectiveness of chromoendoscopy with toluidine blue combined with Lugol's solution for diagnosis of esophageal premalignant and superficial neoplastic lesions in high risk patients. METHODS: Routine white light upper endoscopy was performed. Toluidine blue was sprayed from the gastroesophageal junction to 20 cm of the dental arch. Then the uptake dye areas were characterized. Later Lugol's solution was sprayed. Areas with less-intense staining were characterized. Biopsy of the toluidine blue capturing areas and areas with less-intense staining of Lugol's solution were taken. In the cases where lesions were not evidenced after application of dyes, biopsies four quadrants of the esophageal mucosa were taken. The samples were evaluated by a digestive pathologist. RESULTS: Barrett's esophagus was the most common premalignant lesion and the early neoplastic lesion was adenocarcinoma with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 85.7%, positive predictive value 30%, negative predictive value 100%, positive likelihood ratio 7 negative likelihood ratio 0. CONCLUSION: Chromoendoscopy with toluidine blue combined with Lugol's solution is a useful tool in the screening of esophageal premalignant lesions and superficial neoplasms.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer de esôfago é o oitavo câncer mais comum. O prognóstico é sombrio em pacientes com estágios avançados. Pacientes com doença precoce têm um melhor prognóstico do que aqueles com estágio avançado. Existem várias técnicas para a triagem de lesões pré-malignas e superficiais, incluindo cromoendoscopia. OBJETIVO: Este artigo objetivou determinar a efetividade da cromoendoscopia com azul de toluidina combinada com a solução de Lugol para o diagnóstico de lesões neoplásicas pré-malignas e superficiais esofágicas em pacientes de alto risco. MÉTODOS - A endoscopia de luz branca de rotina foi realizada de forma rotineira. O azul do toluidina foi pulverizado desde a junção gastroesofágica até 20 cm da arcada dentária. As áreas impregnadas pela tintura da tomada foram então caracterizadas. Mais adiante a solução de Lugol foi pulverizada. Áreas com coloração menos intensa foram caracterizadas. Foram realizadas biópsias das áreas de captura de azul de toluidina e áreas com coloração menos intensa da solução de Lugol. Nos casos onde as lesões não foram evidenciadas após a aplicação das tinturas, foram feitas biópsias em quatro quadrantes da mucosa esofágica. As amostras foram avaliadas por um patologista especializado. RESULTADOS: O esôfago de Barrett foi a lesão pré-maligna mais frequente e a lesão neoplásica precoce foi adenocarcinoma com sensibilidade de 100%, especificidade de 85,7%, valor preditivo positivo de 30%, valor preditivo negativo 100%, razão de verossimilhança positiva 7 e razão de verossimilhança negativa 0. CONCLUSÃO: A cromoendoscopia com azul de toluidina combinada com a solução de Lugol é uma ferramenta útil na triagem de lesões pré-malignas esofágicas e neoplasias superficiais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Precancerous Conditions/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophagoscopy/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Tolonium Chloride/administration & dosage , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Esophagitis, Peptic/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Coloring Agents/administration & dosage , Esophageal Mucosa/pathology , Esophageal Mucosa/diagnostic imaging , Iodides/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
17.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(6): e00183118, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011689

ABSTRACT

Estimaram-se parâmetros para planejamento e programação da oferta de procedimentos para rastreamento, investigação diagnóstica e tratamento de lesões precursoras do câncer do colo do útero e, com base nessas estimativas, avaliou-se a adequação da produção nacional dos procedimentos realizados pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em 2017. As estimativas foram calculadas utilizando como referencial as condutas preconizadas nas diretrizes nacionais para o rastreamento. Os dados referentes aos exames de rastreamento foram obtidos no Sistema de Informação do Câncer do Colo do Útero, e os dados de seguimento, em prontuários médicos de uma unidade de referência em patologia cervical. A produção nacional dos procedimentos foi obtida a partir de dados dos Sistemas de Informações Ambulatoriais e Hospitalares do SUS. Para cada cem mil mulheres na faixa etária alvo do rastreamento (25-64 anos), estimou-se a necessidade anual de 44.134 exames citopatológicos, 1.886 colposcopias, 275 biópsias, 236 excisões tipo 1 e 2 ambulatoriais, 236 excisões tipo 2 e 3 hospitalares e 39 encaminhamentos para alta complexidade para realização de cirurgia, quimioterapia e/ou radioterapia. Aplicando-se os parâmetros estimados ao número de mulheres rastreadas no Brasil em 2017, identificou-se déficit de todos os procedimentos para o seguimento adequado das mulheres com alterações, variando de 7% nas colposcopias a 74% nas excisões tipo 3. Os resultados apontam necessidade de ampliar e qualificar a oferta de procedimentos da linha de cuidado do câncer do colo do útero. Os parâmetros estimados poderão subsidiar gestores na programação e implementação de programas de rastreamento organizado.


The study estimated parameters for planning and programming the supply of procedures for screening, diagnostic workup, and treatment of precursor lesions of uterine cervical cancer. These estimates were used as the basis for assessing the adequacy of Brazil's production of procedures performed by the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) in 2017. Estimates were calculated using as the reference the recommended management in the national screening guidelines. Data on screening tests were obtained from the Information System on Uterine Cervical Cancer and the follow-up data from patient charts in a referral center for cervical pathology. Brazil's production of procedures was obtained from data in the Outpatient and Hospital Information Systems of the SUS. For every one hundred thousand women in the target age bracket for screening (25 to 64 years) there was an estimated annual need for 44,134 cytopathology tests, 1,886 colposcopies, 275 biopsies, 236 type 1 and 2 outpatient exicision procedures, 236 type 2 and 3 hospital exicision procedures, and 39 high-complexity referrals for surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiotherapy. Applying the estimated parameters to the number of women screened in Brazil in 2017, a deficit was identified in all the procedures for adequate follow-up of the women with altered test results, varying from 7% in colposcopies to 74% in type 3 excisions. The results point to the need to expand and upgrade the supply of line of care procedures for cervical cancer. The estimated parameters can support policymakers in programming and implementing organized screening programs.


Se estimaron parámetros para la planificación y programación de la oferta de procedimientos, con el fin de detectar, realizar investigación diagnóstica y tratar lesiones precursoras del cáncer de cuello uterino. En base a las mismas, se evaluó la adecuación del protocolo nacional de procedimientos realizados por el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) en 2017. Las estimaciones se calcularon utilizando como marco de referencia los procedimientos recomendados en las directrices nacionales para la detección de este tipo de cáncer. Los datos referentes a los exámenes de detección se obtuvieron en el Sistema de Información del Cáncer de Cuello de Útero, y los datos de seguimiento en registros médicos de una unidad de referencia en patología cervical. La producción nacional de los procedimientos se obtuvo a partir de datos de los sistemas de información ambulatoria y hospitalaria del SUS. De cada cien mil mujeres, en la franja de edad objetivo de la detección (25 a 64 años), se estimó una necesidad anual de 44.134 exámenes citopatológicos, 1.886 colposcopias, 275 biopsias, 236 escisiones tipo 1 y 2 ambulatorias, 236 escisiones tipo 2 y 3 hospitalarias y 39 derivaciones hacia centros hospitalarios de alta complejidad para la realización de cirugías, quimioterapia y/o radioterapia. Aplicando los parámetros estimados al número de mujeres a quienes se les realizó el examen en Brasil durante 2017, se identificó un déficit de todos los procedimientos para un seguimiento adecuado de las mujeres con alteraciones, variando de un 7% en las colposcopias, a un 74% en las escisiones tipo 3. Los resultados apuntan la necesidad de ampliar y dotar la oferta de procedimientos en la línea de cuidados del cáncer de cuello uterino. Los parámetros estimados podrán ayudar a los gestores en la programación e implementación de programas organizados de detección.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Biopsy , Brazil , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Women's Health , Colposcopy , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , National Health Programs
18.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 44(4): 1-5, oct.-dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093616

ABSTRACT

Los tumores Phylloides se originan del estroma de la glándula mamaria. La frecuencia es menor a 1 por ciento predominando en mujeres entre 35 a 55 años. Típicamente se presentan como nódulos móviles, redondeados, usualmente indoloros, y pueden tener crecimiento rápido. El tratamiento de elección es la escisión local de la lesión, tanto para formas benignas y malignas, con márgenes de al menos 1 cm. Presentar el caso de una paciente con Tumor Phylloides de mama y su evolución natural por retraso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento temprano. Paciente de sexo femenino, 42 años, nulípara, sin antecedentes familiares de Cáncer de mama que consulta presentando un tumor de gran tamaño, en cuadrante inferior interno de la mama izquierda, cuyo crecimiento fue progresivo hasta deformar la glándula mamaria. Se le realizó biopsia por Trucut, con diagnostico histopatológico de tumor Phylloides de bajo grado de malignidad y se somete a tratamiento radical mediante mastectomía de limpieza. Resultados: Se realizó mastectomía de limpieza, sin complicaciones postquirúrgicas, siendo la evolución clínica satisfactoria. Toda paciente con tumor de crecimiento progresivo después de los 30 años, debe de ser de estudiada de inmediato para determinar su estirpe histológica y el tratamiento adecuado, sin permitir que continúe con la evolución de la historia natural de enfermedad(AU)


Phylloides tumors originate from the stroma of the mammary gland. The frequency is less than 1percent predominantly in women aging 35 and 55 years. They typically present as mobile, rounded nodules, usually painless, and may grow rapidly. The treatment of choice is local excision of the lesion, both for benign and malignant forms, with margins of at least 1 cm. We present the case of Phylloides tumor of the breast and its natural evolution due to delay in diagnosis and early treatment with a 42-year-old female patient. She was nulliparous, with no family history of breast cancer who came to consultation presenting a large tumor in the inner lower quadrant of her left breast. The tumor grew progressively until the mammary gland was deformed. A trucut biopsy was performed with a histopathological diagnosis of Phylloides tumor of low grade of malignancy. This patient underwent radical treatment by mastectomy. Cleaning mastectomy was performed, without postoperative complications, and the clinical evolution was satisfactory. All patients with progressive growth after the age of 30 should be studied immediately to determine histological characteristics of the tumor, and the appropriate treatment to prevent the evolution of the natural history of the disease(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Phyllodes Tumor/surgery , Phyllodes Tumor/diagnostic imaging , Early Detection of Cancer/methods
19.
Rev. chil. cir ; 70(6): 523-528, dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978025

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer anal ha experimentado un aumento de incidencia en los últimos años. Está mediado por el VPH y precedido de cambios precancerosos planteando la posibilidad de dirigir los esfuerzos preventivos hacia los grupos de alto riesgo. Sigue siendo controvertida la indicación de cribado y los métodos de detección ideales. Objetivo: Validar las pruebas de cribado implementadas en la actualidad comparadas con la biopsia como "gold standard". Material y Métodos: Estudio transversal con recogida de datos prospectiva, en una cohorte de hombres VIH+ que tienen sexo con hombres, pertenecientes al Hospital Gregorio Marañón e Infanta Leonor en un periodo de 2 años. Resultados: Se seleccionaron 179 pacientes con 286 visitas a la consulta de screening en las que se llevaron a cabo 3 pruebas de cribado en paralelo (citología anal, genotipado del VPH y anoscopia de alta resolución (AAR) con toma de biopsia dirigida sobre zona sospechosa o aleatoria). La sensibilidad y especificidad para la detección de displasia de alto grado y cáncer y su grado de concordancia con la biopsia fue la siguiente: citología 3,23%/94,43% (k: 0,03), genotipado de VPH de alto riesgo 90,32%/27,45% (k: 0,05), AAR 32,26%/87,45 (k: 0, 17) siendo el rendimiento diagnóstico de las tres pruebas muy bajo. Conclusión: La citología presenta un rendimiento diagnóstico muy bajo comparado con el genotipado que representa el mayor. A la luz de nuestros resultados, los protocolos clínicos tal y como vienen desarrollándose en la actualidad deberían de ser abandonados.


Introduction: The incidence of anal cancer has increased in recent years. It is mediated by HPV and preceded by precancerous changes, raising the possibility of directing preventive efforts towards high-risk groups. The indication of screening remains controversial and which methods would be the ideal ones. Objective: To validate the screening tests established actually, comparing it with the biopsy considered as the "gold standard". Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed, with prospective data collection in a cohort of VIH+ patients, who have male homosexual anal relations, belonging to Gregorio Marañón and Infanta Leonor Hospitals in a period of 2 years. Results: A total of 179 patients were selected with 286 visits to the screening Outpatient Clinic in which 3 parallel screening tests were performed (anal cytology, HPV genotyping and high resolution anoscopy (AAR) with a biopsy directed on a suspicious or random area). The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of high-grade dysplasia and cancer and their degree of agreement with the biopsy was as follows: cytology 3.23%/94.43% (k: 0.03), high HPV genotyping. risk 90.32%/27.45% (k: 0.05), AAR 32.26%/87.45 (k: 0, 17), the diagnostic accuracy of the three tests being very low. Conclusion: Cytology shows a very low diagnostic accuracy compared to the genotype that represents the highest one. In light of our results, clinical protocols as they are currently being developed should be abandoned.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Anus Neoplasms/pathology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/pathology , Mass Screening/methods , Homosexuality, Male , Anal Canal/cytology , Anal Canal/pathology , Anal Canal/virology , Anal Canal/diagnostic imaging , Anus Neoplasms/virology , Papillomaviridae/genetics , Precancerous Conditions , Biopsy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/virology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Cytological Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , HIV Seropositivity , Proctoscopy/methods , Papillomavirus Infections/pathology , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Genotyping Techniques
20.
Medisur ; 16(6): 964-966, nov.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976221

ABSTRACT

En Cuba, al igual que en el resto de los países occidentales, el cáncer cérvico-uterino se encuentra en segundo lugar de morbilidad oncológica en mujeres de 20 a 30 años. También hay estudios que revelan información deficiente por parte de las adolescentes en cuanto a las infecciones de transmisión sexual y sus consecuencias, entre las que se encuentra el enfermar de cáncer. Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar acerca de la incidencia de esta enfermedad en edades tempranas, sin embargo el programa para su detección contempla la realización de pruebas citológicas a partir de los 25 años. Se impone entonces pensar en las medidas a tomar para que este flagelo no afecte a mujeres en edades tan tempranas.


In Cuba, as in other western countries, Cervical Uterine Cancer is in the second place of oncological morbidity in women from 20 to 30 years old. There also studies which show deficient information about adolescents regarding sexually transmitted diseases and their consequences, among them developing cancer. This article is aimed at reflecting about the incidence of this disease at early ages; however the program for its detection includes performing cytology starting at 25 year old. It necessary then, to think the measures to be taken so that this scourge does not affect young women.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
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