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1.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 143 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1537991

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Ainda que fundamental para acompanhamento e diagnóstico da situação alimentar e nutricional da população brasileira, o Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional (Sisvan) tem sido subutilizado, principalmente com relação aos registros de consumo alimentar. Objetivo: Investigar a tendência temporal da cobertura e estratégias para utilização de marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sistema de Vigilância Alimentar e Nutricional, entre 2015 e 2019, na Atenção Primária à Saúde do Sistema Único de Saúde. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa de caráter misto. Primeiramente, foi realizado estudo ecológico de séries temporais, para estimar a cobertura populacional e Taxa de Incremento Anual (TIA) do registro de marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sisvan nacionalmente, entre 2015 e 2019, segundo entrada de dados via Estratégia e-SUS APS e Sisvan Web. A TIA da cobertura foi calculada utilizando regressão de Prais-Winsten e sua correlação com IDH, PIB per capita e cobertura da APS foi avaliada. Sequencialmente, para explorar barreiras e facilitadores para utilização dos marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sisvan, elaborou-se um roteiro para grupos focais a partir da análise descritiva de respostas de profissionais da APS a um questionário eletrônico com perguntas objetivas e subjetivas sobre a temática. Conduziram-se 10 grupos focais em plataforma online envolvendo 34 profissionais em cargos de assistência à saúde e de gestão do Sisvan, de todas as macrorregiões brasileiras, cujas transcrições passaram por análise de conteúdo temática de caráter indutiva. O livro de códigos foi aplicado no corpus por dois pesquisadores e discordâncias foram discutidas, com concordância satisfatória (Kappa=0,87). Resultados: Houve aumento significante do registro de marcadores do consumo alimentar no país desde 2015 (TIA: +45,63%), mas a cobertura populacional ainda é incipiente (0,92% da população residente total em 2019), com diferenças relevantes entre grupos etários. As tendências foram consistentemente crescentes para a entrada de dados via e-SUS APS, em detrimento do Sisvan Web. A TIA da cobertura via e-SUS APS esteve positivamente correlacionada com IDH e PIB per capita em alguns recortes etários. A partir dos grupos focais, fatores como estrutura dos formulários, manuseio das plataformas digitais e infraestrutura dos serviços de saúde emergiram como barreiras ou facilitadores potenciais para uso dos marcadores. Dificuldades na interação com usuários, falta de sensibilização dos profissionais e insegurança alimentar e nutricional constituíram barreiras adicionais. Por outro lado, constatou-se que a utilização por qualquer profissional de saúde e as condicionalidades com políticas públicas facilitam a utilização dos marcadores. Os grupos focais mostraram-se espaço de troca de experiências entre profissionais e compartilhamento de estratégias para ampliação do uso dos formulários, incluindo matriciamento, técnicas para condução dos marcadores nos serviços de saúde, apoio profissional para digitação de formulários e ampliação da divulgação dos dados. Conclusões: A cobertura populacional do registro de marcadores do consumo alimentar do Sisvan ainda é baixa, mas o e-SUS APS parece ser uma via relevante para sua expansão. A abordagem de estratégias pode estimular o trabalho de equipes da APS, destacando-se a pertinência do compartilhamento de experiências entre contextos distintos para fortalecer o monitoramento do consumo alimentar no SUS.


Introduction: Although essential for monitoring and diagnosing the food and nutrition situation of the Brazilian population, the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (Sisvan) has been underutilized, especially with regard to food consumption records. Objective: To investigate the temporal trend of coverage and strategies for the use of food intake markers from the Food and Nutrition Surveillance System, between 2015 and 2019, in Primary Health Care (PHC) of the Unified Health System (SUS). Methods: This is a mixed-methods study. Firstly, an ecological time series study was conducted in order to estimate the population coverage and Annual Percentage Change (APC) of the Sisvan food intake markers registry nationally, between 2015 and 2019, according to data entry via the e-SUS PHC Strategy and Sisvan Web. The APC of coverage was calculated using Prais-Winsten regression and its correlation with HDI, GDP per capita and PHC coverage was evaluated. Sequentially, to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of Sisvan food intake markers, a script was drawn up for focus groups based on the descriptive analysis of responses from PHC professionals to an electronic questionnaire with objective and subjective questions on the subject. Ten focus groups were held on an online platform involving 34 professionals in health care and Sisvan management positions from all Brazilian macro-regions, the transcripts of which were subjected to inductive thematic content analysis. The codebook was applied to the corpus by two researchers and disagreements were discussed, with satisfactory agreement (Kappa=0.87). Results: There has been a significant increase in the recording of food intake markers in the country since 2015 (APC: +45.63%), however population coverage is still incipient (0.92% of the total resident population in 2019), with relevant differences between age groups. The trends were consistently increasing for data entry via e-SUS PHC, to the detriment of Sisvan Web. The APC of coverage via e-SUS PHC was positively correlated with HDI and GDP per capita in some age groups. From the focus groups, factors such as the structure of the forms, handling of the digital platforms and the infrastructure of the health services emerged as potential barriers or facilitators to the use of the markers. Difficulties in interacting with users, lack of sensitivity among professionals and food and nutritional insecurity were additional barriers. On the other hand, it was found that use by any health professional and conditionalities with public policies facilitate the use of the markers. The focus groups proved to be a space for professionals for exchanging experiences and sharing strategies for expanding the use of the forms, including matrix support, techniques for using the markers in health services, professional support for typing up the forms and expanding the dissemination of data. Conclusions: Population coverage of the Sisvan food intake marker registry is still low, but e-SUS PHC seems to be a relevant way of expanding it. The approach of strategies can stimulate the work of PHC teams, highlighting the relevance of sharing experiences between different contexts to strengthen the monitoring of food consumption in the SUS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Primary Health Care , Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Focus Groups , Health Information Systems , Time Factors , Brazil , Eating
2.
São Paulo; s.n; 2024. 106 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, Inca | ID: biblio-1537993

ABSTRACT

Introdução - O desenvolvimento das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT) em idosos está relacionado, dentre outros fatores, à desregulação da expressão de microRNAs (miRNAs), a qual pode ser modulada por fatores ambientais, incluindo o padrão alimentar. Objetivo - Avaliar o perfil de expressão plasmática de miRNAs e suas relações com biomarcadores cardiometabólicos e dieta em idosos do estudo de base populacional ISA Capital. Métodos - Estudo transversal, com subamostra de 200 indivíduos idosos participantes do ISA Nutrição. Foi avaliado o perfil de expressão de 21 miRNAs plasmáticos. Os indivíduos foram avaliados quanto às medidas antropométricas e à pressão arterial sistêmica; biomarcadores glicêmicos, do perfil lipídico e inflamatórios; e ao consumo alimentar. Calculou-se o escore de inflamação crônica e de baixo grau (SIS) a partir das concentrações de 10 biomarcadores inflamatórios. A expressão plasmática dos miRNAs circulantes foi analisada a partir do método Fluidigm. Os indivíduos avaliados foram distribuídos em dois grupos de acordo com a presença ou não de síndrome metabólica (SM), e o teste ajustado de Wald foi utilizado para comparar a expressão dos miRNAs entre os grupos. A partir do coeficiente tau-a de Kendall estimou-se as correlações entre a expressão dos miRNAs e variáveis de interesse. O teste de Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para determinar as diferenças no SIS em indivíduos de acordo com o sexo e a presença de SM. O teste de correlação de Spearman estimou as correlações entre o SIS, concentrações de leptina, miRNAs e demais variáveis de interesse. Além disso, utilizou-se modelos lineares generalizados (MLGs) para aprofundar as associações encontradas. As análises foram realizadas nos softwares Stata/SE (versão 17.0) e R (versão 4.2.3), considerando nível de significância de 0,05. Resultados - A amostra final deste estudo consistiu em 193 indivíduos (69,1 (0,5) anos), sendo 50,4% do sexo feminino, e 64,7% com SM. A expressão plasmática dos miR-30a e miR-122 foi maior em indivíduos com SM do que naqueles sem SM, e sua expressão se correlacionou à glicemia e insulinemia em jejum, HOMA1-IR, HDL-c, VLDL-c, LDL-c, colesterol não-HDL e triacilgliceróis. Além disso, associações negativas entre cinco miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363, miR-532), concentração de leptina e/ou SIS foram observadas. Ainda, o consumo de diversos grupos alimentares influenciou a expressão plasmática dos miRNAs. O consumo diário de 100 g de frutas se relacionou à redução na expressão dos miR-16, miR-30a, miR-126, miR-130b, miR-363, miR-375, miR-486 e miR-532. Contudo, o consumo de carne vermelha se associou ao aumento na expressão plasmática de quatro miRNAs (miR-126, miR-150, miR-223 e miR-376a). Ainda, observou-se que o consumo diário de 100 g de hortaliças se associou a uma chance 7 vezes maior de os indivíduos avaliados não apresentarem SM. Conclusões - O aumento da expressão plasmática dos miR-21, miR-30a e miR-122 sugere maior risco cardiometabólico, ao passo que a redução na expressão dos miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363 e miR-532 sugere menor risco cardiometabólico em idosos. Ainda, os resultados encontrados enfatizam a importância da adoção de hábitos alimentares saudáveis na regulação da expressão dos miRNAs e, consequentemente, na redução do risco de desenvolvimento de DCNT.


Introduction: The development of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) in older adults is related, among other factors, to the dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression, which can be modulated by environmental factors, including dietary patterns. Objectives: To assess the plasma expression profile of miRNAs and its relationships with cardiometabolic biomarkers and diet of older adults participating in the ISA Capital population-based study. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with a sub-sample of 200 older adults participating in ISA Nutrition. The expression profile of 21 plasma miRNAs was evaluated. Subjects were evaluated for anthropometric measurements and systemic blood pressure; glycemic, lipid and inflammatory biomarkers; and food consumption. Furthermore, the chronic and low-grade inflammation score (SIS) was calculated based on the concentrations of 10 inflammatory biomarkers. The plasma expression of circulating miRNAs was analyzed using the Fluidigm method. The evaluated individuals were distributed into two groups according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the adjusted Wald test was used to compare the expression of miRNAs between the groups. Using Kendall's tau-a coefficient, correlations between miRNAs expression and variables of interest were estimated. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to determine differences in SIS based on the distribution of individuals according to sex and the presence of MetS. The Spearman correlation test estimated correlations between SIS, leptin concentrations, miRNAs and other variables of interest. Furthermore, generalized linear models were used to deepen the associations found. All analyzes were performed using Stata/SE (version 17.0) and R (version 4.2.3) software, considering a significance level of 0.05. Results: The final sample of this study consisted of 193 individuals, (69.1 (0.5) years), 50.4% of whom were female, and 64.7% with MetS. Plasma expression of miR-30a and miR-122 was higher in individuals with MetS than in those without MetS, and their expression correlated with fasting glycemia and insulinemia, HOMA1-IR, HDL-c, VLDL-c, LDL-c, non-HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerols. Furthermore, negative associations between five miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363, miR-532), leptin concentration and/or SIS were observed. In addition, the consumption of different food groups influenced the plasma expression of miRNAs. Daily consumption of 100 g of fruits was related to a reduction in the expression of miR-16, miR-30a, miR-126, miR-130b, miR-363, miR-375, miR-486, miR-532. On the other hand, red meat consumption was associated with an increase in the plasma expression of four miRNAs (miR-126, miR-150, miR-223 and miR-376a). Furthermore, it was observed that the daily consumption of 100 g of vegetables was associated with a 7 times greater chance of the individuals evaluated not having MetS. Conclusions: The increase in the plasma expression of miR-21, miR-30a and miR-122 suggests a greater cardiometabolic risk, while the reduction in the expression of miR-15a, miR-16, miR-223, miR-363 and miR-532 suggests lower cardiometabolic risk in the elderly. Furthermore, the results found emphasize the importance of adopting healthy eating habits in regulating the expression of miRNAs and, consequently, in reducing the risk of developing NCD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Aging , Metabolic Syndrome , Eating , Noncommunicable Diseases , Circulating MicroRNA , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 1038-1046, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425178

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of acute cases of Chagas disease notified in the State of Amazonas between the period from 2010 to 2020. Data were obtained from the portal of the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação- SINAN, considering the number of cases per municipality of notification. 140 cases of Acute Chagas Disease were notified, distributed in 23 of the 62 municipalities of the State of Amazonas, 82 (59%) were male individuals, with a greater predominance in the age group of 20-39 years old, having 45 (32.1%) cases. As for the race/color variable, the highest number was among brown people with 101 (72.1%) notifications. The oral route prevailed as the main form of disease transmission with 93 (66.4%) records. Infection by the oral route of T. cruzi is the most important route of transmission of CD in the State of Amazonas, the occurrence of transmission is associated in most cases with the consumption of foods such as açaí juice and has been reported frequently over the years between municipalities.


este estudo se propôs a investigar a epidemiologia dos casos agudos de Doença de Chagas notificados no Estado do Amazonas no período de 2010 a 2020. Os dados foram obtidos no portal do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN, considerando o número de casos por município de notificação. Foram notificados 140 casos de Doença de Chagas Aguda, distribuídos em 23 dos 62 municípios do Estado do Amazonas, 82 (59%) eram indivíduos do sexo masculino, com maior predominância na faixa etária de 20-39 anos de idade com 45 (32,1%) casos. Quanto a variável raça/cor, a maior registro foi entre pardos com 101(72,1%) notificações. A via oral, prevaleceu como a principal forma de transmissão da patologia com 93 (66,4%) registros. A infecção pela via oral do T. cruzi, é a mais importante via de transmissão de DC no Estado do Amazonas, a ocorrência da transmissão está associada na maioria das vezes ao consumo de alimentos como o suco de açaí, e tem sido reportada com frequência ao longo dos anos entre os municípios.


Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la epidemiología de los casos agudos de la enfermedad de Chagas notificados en el Estado de Amazonas en el período de 2010 a 2020. Los datos fueron obtenidos del portal del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación - SINAN, considerando el número de casos por municipio de notificación. Se notificaron 140 casos de Enfermedad de Chagas Aguda, distribuidos en 23 de los 62 municipios del Estado de Amazonas, 82 (59%) fueron individuos del sexo masculino, con mayor predominio en el grupo etario de 20 a 39 años con 45 (32,1%) casos. En cuanto a la variable raza/color, el mayor número fue entre los morenos con 101 (72,1%) notificaciones. La vía oral predominó como principal vía de transmisión de la enfermedad con 93 (66,4%) registros. La infección por vía oral de T. cruzi es la vía de transmisión más importante de la EC en el Estado de Amazonas, la ocurrencia de la transmisión está mayoritariamente asociada al consumo de alimentos como el jugo de açaí, y ha sido reportada con frecuencia a lo largo de los años entre municipios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Chagas Disease/transmission , Euterpe/poisoning , Notification/statistics & numerical data , Eating/radiation effects , Health Information Systems/organization & administration , Health Services Research/statistics & numerical data
4.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(4): 197-99, out-dez/2023. fig. 1
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1532351

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) é um método clínico de detecção de disfagia, entendida como dificuldade na deglutição. Em pesquisa realizada no Brasil, foi observado que 9,5% de indivíduos saudáveis assintomáticos têm resultados do teste compatível com disfagia. Objetivo: Avaliar os possíveis fatores que influenciam o resultado anormal do teste em indivíduos saudáveis. Método: Estudo transversal realizado na Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto (FMRP-USP) em 358 voluntários sem doenças e sem sintomas, nos quais foi aplicado o teste EAT-10. Resultados: Em 316 o resultado nos 10 itens do teste foi zero, e em 42 os resultados da somatória dos 10 itens foi igual ou superior a 3, considerado indicativo de disfagia. O resultado ≥ 3 ocorreu em 10 homens entre 144 (7%) e 32 mulheres entre 214 (15%), (P = 0,01). A mediana (limites) de idades daqueles com resultado zero foi de 39 (20-84) anos, e com resultado ≥ 3 foi de 32 (20-83) anos (P = 0,04). O índice de massa corporal (IMC) não apresentou diferença entre pessoas com e sem indicação de disfagia. O máximo escore possível para o item 5 (dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos) foi o que obteve o maior percentual (43,9%) de máximo escore possível, sendo o fator mais importante para o resultado anormal. Discussão: Em indivíduos saudáveis, a dificuldade em ingerir medicamentos foi o fator que mais influenciou a ocorrência de resultado do teste EAT-10 indicativo de disfagia. Conclusão: Dificuldade na ingestão de medicamentos sólidos deve ser considerada quando da interpretação do teste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Deglutition Disorders , Deglutition , Eating , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Critical Pathways , Drug Utilization
6.
Medisan ; 27(5)oct. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1528998

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una nutrición adecuada es clave para desarrollar inmunidad, protección contra las enfermedades e infecciones, y apoyar la recuperación. Objetivo: Identificar las características del consumo de alimentos y la cultura alimentaria en convalecientes de COVID-19. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, desde mayo hasta diciembre del 2020, de 67 pacientes mayores de 20 años de edad convalecientes de la COVID-19, con resultados negativos en la prueba de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa durante un mes, quienes pertenecían a un área de salud de La Habana. Se analizaron variables sociodemográficas, dietéticas y de estado nutricional. Resultados: La enfermedad se presentó con mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino (59,7 %) y el grupo etario de 20 a 39 años (47,8 %). Se identificó un alto porcentaje de sobrepeso global (59,7) y los alimentos de mayor consumo y preferencia fueron los energéticos en el horario de la tarde-noche (89,6 %), así como aquellos productos fritos y la piel de aves (38,8 %). La ingestión de vegetales y frutas resultó escasa (29,9 y 40,3 %, respectivamente) y la alimentación, poco variada (86,4 %), pues no consumían diariamente alimentos de los 7 grupos básicos, aunque la mayoría (70,0 %) realizaba las 3 comidas principales del día. Conclusiones: Los sujetos estudiados poseían una cultura alimentaria deficiente expresada por conocimientos escasos o errados, lo que advierte sobre la necesidad de disponer de un instrumento educativo para la adopción de actitudes y prácticas alimentarias saludables que conduzcan a la restauración de la inmunidad.


Introduction: An appropriate nutrition is the key to develop immunity, protection against diseases and infections, and support the recovery. Objective: To identify the characteristics of foods consumption and alimentary culture in COVID-19 convalescent persons. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out, from May to December 2020, of 67 patients over 20 years convalescent from COVID-19, with negative results in the polymerase chain reaction test for a month, who belonged to a health area of Havana city. Some sociodemographic, dietary and nutritional state variables were analyzed. Results: The disease was presented more frequently in male sex (59.7%) and the 20 to 39 age group (47-8%). A high percentage of general overweight was identified (59.7), and the most consumed and preferred foods were the energy-giving in the afternoon-night time (89.6%), as well as those fried products and poultry skin (38.8%). The consumption of vegetables and fruits was low (29.9 and 40.3%, respectively) and there was a poor variety in the diet (86.4%), since they didn't consume foods from the 7 basic groups daily, although most of them (70.0%) had 3 meals a day. Conclusions: The studied individuals possessed a poor alimentary culture expressed by limited or wrong knowledge, what is a warning about the necessity of having an educational instrument for the adoption of attitudes and healthy alimentary habits leading to the restoration of immunity.


Subject(s)
Eating , Feeding Behavior
7.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 173-179, sept 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1512072

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El confinamiento debido a COVID-19 influenció el estilo de vida de la población mundial. En México, se ha reportado que esta influencia fue mayoritariamente negativa. Sin embargo, existen muy pocos estudios que reporten el impacto en poblaciones de alta marginación como el estado de Oaxaca, donde ya antes de la pandemia presentaban altas tasas de malnutrición. Objetivo. Analizar los efectos del aislamiento por COVID-19 sobre el consumo alimentario de la población del sur de México. Materiales y métodos. Estudio longitudinal, con una muestra (autoseleccionada) de adultos reclutados mediante un link a una página en LimeSurvey. El primer requisito fue el consentimiento informado. Se preguntaron datos sociodemográficos y se aplicó un cuestionario cuantitativo de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos (raciones/día) recomendables (carnes, cereales, leguminosas, verduras, frutas) y no recomendables (gaseosas, superfluos, azúcares y bebidas alcohólicas). Los participantes respondieron la encuesta al comienzo de la reclusión (marzo'2019) y en enero de 2021. Los datos se analizaron con SPSS'23. Resultados. Se observó un descenso significativo en el consumo de raciones/día (p<0.001) de carnes, cereales, leguminosas y verduras y por otro lado, el consumo de todos los alimentos no recomendables analizados (gaseosas, superfluos, azúcares y bebidas alcohólicas) aumentó significativamente (p<0.001). Conclusiones. Durante el aislamiento por COVID-19 la población oaxaqueña aumentó el consumo de alimentos no saludables y disminuyó el de saludables. Considerando que la situación de salud previa a la pandemia ya no era la esperada, estos resultados aportan un panorama alarmante que requiere intervención(AU)


Introduction. The isolation due to COVID-19 influenced the lifestyle of the world population. In Mexico, it was reported that this influence was mostly negative. However, there are few studies that report this impact in highly marginalized populations such as Oaxaca, which before the pandemic already had high malnutrition figures. Objective. To analyze the effects of isolation by COVID-19 on the food consumption of the population of southern Mexico. Materials and methods. Longitudinal study, with a (self-selected) sample of adults recruited through a link to a page in LimeSurvey. The first requirement was informed consent. Sociodemographic data were recolected and a quantitative questionnaire was applied on the frequency of consumption of recommended (meat, cereals, legumes, vegetables, fruits) and non-recommended (soda, miscellaneous group, sugar, and alcoholic beverages) foods (servings/ day). The participants answered the survey at the beginning of the isolation (March'2019) and in January 2021. The data was analyzed with SPSS'23. Results. A significant decrease was observed in the consumption of servings/day (p<0.001) of meat, cereals, legumes and vegetables and on the other hand, the consumption of all non-recommended foods analyzed (soda, miscellaneous group, sugar and alcoholic beverages) increased exponentially (p<0.001). Conclusions. During the isolation due to COVID-19, the Oaxacan population increased the consumption of unhealthy foods and decreased that of healthy ones. Considering that the health situation prior to the pandemic was no longer as expected, these results provide an alarming panorama that requires intervention(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Eating , COVID-19 , Life Style , Social Isolation , Diet , Red Meat , Diet, Healthy
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(3): 233-250, sept 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1518901

ABSTRACT

La región latinoamericana ha sido pionera en la implementación del etiquetado frontal de advertencia nutricional (EFAN), mismo que ha demostrado su eficacia y efectividad para identificar correctamente cuando un producto contiene cantidades excesivas de nutrientes asociados a Enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT). Sin embargo, ningún país del Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (SICA); que incluye a Belice, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá y República Dominicana, lo ha adoptado. Por esta razón, el Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panamá, convocó a un grupo de expertos de la academia y la sociedad civil con el objetivo de establecer una postura técnica, basada en la mejor evidencia científica, en relación al etiquetado frontal para los nutrientes críticos de alimentos y bebidas pre- envasados en la región centroamericana. Se presenta evidencia específica de la región del SICA que demuestran la superioridad del EFAN frente a otros etiquetados como las Guías Diarias de Alimentación (GDA), el semáforo y el Nutriscore para seleccionar opciones más saludables. Dentro del marco de los derechos de la niñez y de los consumidores, se brindan argumentos y se hace un llamado a los gobiernos para la pronta adopción del EFAN como una política costo-efectiva para la prevención de ENT. Además, se proveen recomendaciones para su monitoreo y evaluación, así como recomendaciones de otras políticas costo-efectivas como la regulación de la publicidad de alimentos no saludables dirigido a la niñez y adolescencia, entre otros, para la prevención de las ENT y la creación de ambientes y sistemas alimentarios más saludables y sostenibles(AU)


The Latin American region has been a pioneer in the implementation of a front- of-pack warning labeling system (FOPWL), which has demonstrated its efficacy and effectiveness in correctly identifying when a product contains excessive amounts of nutrients associated with Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). However, countries of the Central American Integration System (SICA); which includes Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama and the Dominican Republic, have no adopted it. For this reason, the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama convened a group of experts from academia and civil society with the aim of establishing an evidence-based technical position, in relation to front-of-pack labelling for critical nutrients of pre-packaged foods and beverages in the Central American region. Specific evidence from the SICA region demonstrating the superiority of FOPWL over other labels such as the Guideline Daily Amount (GDA), the traffic light and Nutriscore to select healthier choices is presented. Within the framework of children's and consumer rights, arguments are provided, and a call is made to governments for the prompt adoption of FOPWL as a cost-effective policy for the prevention of NCDs. In addition, recommendations for its monitoring and evaluation are provided, as well as recommendations for other cost-effective policies such as the regulation of unhealthy food advertising aimed at children and adolescents, among others, for the prevention of NCDs and the creation ofhealthier and more sustainable environments and food systems(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Eating , Food Labeling , Noncommunicable Diseases , Food, Processed , Cardiovascular Diseases , Overnutrition , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Obesity
9.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 73-83, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532926

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La circunferencia de cintura (CC) es indicador de obesidad abdominal y riesgo cardiovascular en adultos. En Perú, la obesidad ha aumentado a diferente magnitud por área de residencia y poco se sabe de la influencia del consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados (AUP) sobre este fenómeno en población adulta. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación entre ingesta de AUP y circunferencia de cintura en adultos peruanos por área de residencia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal de datos secundarios de 745 adultos con información de ingesta dietaria (un recordatorio de 24 horas) de la Encuesta Nacional Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional por Etapas de Vida 2017-2018. Los AUP fueron caracterizados según la clasificación NOVA. La ingesta AUP como el porcentaje relativo de la ingesta energética total (%), dividida en terciles. La CC medida como punto medio entre última costilla y cresta iliaca. Se usó regresión lineal múltiple ponderada y análisis estratificado según área de residencia. Resultados. La edad promedio fue 37,2 años. La ingesta de AUP promedio fue 14,7% (IC95%: 14,2 ­ 15,3). Comparado con adultos en el menor tercil de ingesta de AUP, aquellos en tercil medio tuvieron mayor CC ( 0,73; IC95%: 0,22 ­ 1,24; valor p= 0,007). Al estratificar por área de residencia, adultos rurales del tercil medio tuvieron mayor CC en comparación con primer tercil ( : 1,85; IC95%: 1,17 ­ 2,53, valor p < 0,001). Conclusiones. En adultos peruanos, la ingesta de AUP se asoció a CC en áreas rurales, aunque no de forma lineal. Más estudios son necesarios para entender la naturaleza de esta asociación(AU)


Introduction. Waist circumference (WC) is an abdominal obesity and cardiovascular risk indicator among adults. In Peru, obesity prevalence has been increasing unequally between residence areas, and the influence of ultra- processed food (UPF) consumption on WC in Peruvian adults remains unclear. Objective. Evaluate the association between UPF consumption and waist circumference by residence setting among Peruvian adults. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of dietary intake data (single 24-hour recall) from 745 adults aged 18 and 59 years old from the "Vigilancia Alimentaria y Nutricional por Etapas de Vida 2017-2018" National Surveys was performed. The NOVA system was used to characterize the UPFs, and the exposure was the percentage of total energy consumed from UPF per day (%), in quantiles. WC (cm) was assessed at the middle point between the last rib and the iliac crest. Weighted linear regression analysis stratified by residence areas were conducted. Results. The mean age was 37.2 years. The mean percent of total energy consumed from UPF was 14.7% (95%CI: 14.2 ­ 15.3). Those in the middle tertile of UPF consumption, had higher WC ( 0.73; 95%CI: 0.22 ­ 1.24; p-value = 0.007) compared with those in the lower tertile. In the stratified analysis, those in the second tertile in rural areas have more WC compared with the first tertile ( 1.85; 95%CI: 1.17 ­ 2.53, p-value< 0.001). Conclusions. In rural areas, UPF consumption was associated with waist circumference, but it does not follow a linear association. Further studies are needed to understand the rationale behind these results(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Waist Circumference , Obesity, Abdominal , Food, Processed , Rural Population , Cardiovascular Diseases , Nutrition Surveys , Eating
10.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 35-46, sept. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532828

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The intake of energy-dense unhealthy food at school could influence the overall energy intake of children. Objective: To characterize the patterns of buying a snack at school and to analyze the association of these patterns with the source of the school snack (brought from home or bought at school) and screen time. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2018 until May 2019 among school children (9 to 12-year-olds) from Cuenca-Ecuador. Intake of energy-dense unhealthy food groups, the source of the school snack, and screen time were assessed using questionnaires. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify intake patterns of unhealthy food groups, and logistic regression to assess the association between intake of energy-dense unhealthy food groups (FG) with the school snack source. Results: Among 1,028 children recruited 63%, 42%, 30% and 22% of the children reported consuming sweets/confiture, savory snacks, fast food, and pastry products, respectively, at least two days per week. Around 39% of the children were classified as "Frequent consumers of energy-dense unhealthy FG". Buying the snack at school was associated with a more frequent intake of sweets/confiture (OR=1.56, CI 95% =1.05-2.32) and fast food (OR=2.01, CI 95% =1.15-3.50) during the week, as well as with being classified in the "frequent consumer of energy-dense unhealthy FG" (OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.40-2.82). Conclusions: Ecuadorian children still consume prohibited unhealthy foods at school. These results reinforce the importance of evaluating, monitoring, and adapting strategies to promote a balanced diet(AU)


Introducción. La ingesta de alimentos poco saludables con alto contenido energético en la escuela podría influir en la ingesta energética total de los niños. Objetivo: Caracterizar los patrones de compra de snacks en el colegio y analizar la asociación de estos patrones con la procedencia del snack escolar (de la casa o comprada en el colegio) y el tiempo de pantalla. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal (octubre 2018-mayo 2019) en escolares (9-12 años) Cuenca- Ecuador. La ingesta de grupos de alimentos (FG) no saludables altos en energía, la fuente del snack escolar y el tiempo de pantalla se evaluaron mediante cuestionarios. Se utilizó análisis de correspondencias múltiples para identificar patrones de ingesta de FG poco saludables y la regresión logística para evaluar asociación entre la ingesta FG no saludables con la fuente del snack escolar. Resultados: En 1.028 niños 63%, 42%, 30% y 22% declararon consumir dulces/golosinas, aperitivos salados, comida rápida y productos de pastelería, respectivamente, al menos dos/días/ semana. Un 39% fueron clasificados como "Consumidores frecuentes de FG poco saludables de alta densidad energética". La compra de los snacks en el colegio se asoció con una ingesta más frecuente de dulces/golosinas (OR=1,56; IC95%=1,05-2,32) y comida rápida (OR=2,01; IC95%=1,15-3,50) durante la semana y con la clasificación en el grupo" consumidores frecuentes de FG poco saludables de alta densidad energética" (OR=1,99; IC95%=1,40- 2,82). Conclusiones: Los niños ecuatorianos aún consumen alimentos no saludables prohibidos en la escuela. Estos resultados refuerzan la importancia de evaluar, monitorear y adaptar estrategias para promover una dieta balanceada(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Eating , Candy
11.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 47-57, sept. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1532857

ABSTRACT

Introduction. There is growing consensus globally that the consumption of ultra- processed food (UPF) can negatively affect the nutritional status of children. Objective. The present study aims to evaluate associations between the consumption of UPF and the nutritional status in a sample of Uruguayan and Brazilian preschoolers belonging to two studies: the ENDIS Study and the Pelotas 2015 Birth Cohort. Materials and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis. The main outcome measure was obesity defined as BMI for age and sex ≥ +3 z-scores. The score of UPF consumption was the main exposure measured. Each positive answer of habitual intake was added up to create a UPF score ranging from zero to six or more UPF. Crude and adjusted logistic regressions were performed for the associations between UPF consumption and nutritional status in preschoolers. Results. The final sample consisted of 8,687 preschool children, 50.8% belonging to the Uruguayan study, while the remaining 49.2% belonged to the Brazilian study. Nearly 5% of the sample of young children were obese. We didn't observe a relationship between the score of UPF consumption and obesity, the odds ratio (OR) was 1.04 (95% CI, 1.00­1.09). Adjustments resulted in modest attenuation of the relationship and a lack of statistical significance. However, in children under 48 months, the score of UPF consumption was directly associated with childhood obesity. Conclusions. Results suggest that higher consumption of UPF is associated with obesity in Uruguayan and Brazilian preschool children under 4 years of age. These findings suggest that actions to reduce ultra- processed food consumption could lead to diminish obesity patterns and bring important public health benefits(AU)


Introducción. Existe creciente consenso a nivel mundial de que el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados puede afectar negativamente el estado nutricional de los niños. Objetivo. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar asociaciones entre el consumo de ultraprocesados y el estado nutricional en una muestra de preescolares uruguayos y brasileños pertenecientes a dos estudios: el Estudio ENDIS y la Cohorte de Nacimiento de Pelotas 2015. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un análisis transversal. La principal medida de resultado fue la obesidad definida como el IMC/edad y sexo ≥ +3 puntuaciones z. La puntuación del consumo de ultraprocesados fue la principal exposición. Cada respuesta positiva de la ingesta habitual se sumó para crear una puntuación de ultraprocesados que oscilaba entre cero y seis o más. Se realizaron regresiones logísticas crudas y ajustadas. Resultados. La muestra final estuvo constituida por 8.687 niños, de los cuales el 50,8% pertenecía al estudio uruguayo, mientras que el 49,2% restante pertenecía al estudio brasileño. Casi el 5% de la muestra de niños pequeños eran obesos. No observamos relación entre la puntuación del consumo de ultraprocesados y la obesidad, el odds ratio (OR) fue de 1,04 (IC 95%, 1,00-1,09). Los ajustes dieron lugar a modesta atenuación de la relación y falta de significación estadística. Sin embargo, en menores de 48 meses la puntuación de consumo de ultraprocesados se asoció directamente con la obesidad infantil. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren que un mayor consumo de ultraprocesados se asocia con obesidad en prescolares uruguayos y brasileños menores de 4 años. Estos hallazgos sugieren que las acciones para reducir el consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados podrían conducir a una disminución de los patrones de obesidad y traer importantes beneficios para la salud pública(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Nutritional Status , Eating , Food, Processed , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Consensus , Child Nutrition , Obesity
12.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 84-91, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537117

ABSTRACT

Introdução. A COVID-19 impactou a garantia de uma alimentação adequada e saudável, inclusive entre universitários, que parecem constituir um grupo suscetível à Insegurança Alimentar (IA). Objetivo. Verificar a associação entre IA e marcadores de consumo alimentar em universitários durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Materiais e métodos. Estudo transversal com 5407 estudantes de instituições de ensino superior de todas as regiões do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados entre agosto/2020 e fevereiro/2021. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por marcadores de alimentação saudável utilizados num inquérito nacional de saúde (VIGITEL). Os níveis de IA foram classificados pela Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar em Segurança Alimentar (SA) e IA leve, moderada e grave. A associação entre IA e marcadores de consumo foi avaliada por meio de regressão logística, considerando frequência semanal de consumo < 3 dias e ≥ 3 dias. Resultados. 37% dos universitários estavam em algum grau de IA. Verificou-se maior chance de baixa frequência de consumo de feijão (OR 1,81), verduras e legumes (OR 4,76), frutas (OR 3,99), lácteos (OR 3,98) e carnes (OR 3,41), e maiores chances de maior consumo de frango (OR 1,14) e ovos (OR 2,04) entre aqueles em IA (p<0,05). Em sua maioria, os valores foram mais expressivos quanto maior o grau de IA. Conclusões. Maiores níveis de IA mostraram-se associados a uma menor chance de consumo alimentar saudável por universitários. Instituições de ensino superior podem executar papéis importantes no combate e assistência à IA nessa população(AU)


Introduction. COVID-19 has impacted access to an adequate and healthy diet, including university students, who seem to constitute a group susceptible to Food Insecurity (FI). Objective. To verify the association between FI and food consumption markers in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods. We conducted a cross- sectional study with 5407 students from higher education institutions from all regions of Brazil. Data were collected between August/2020 and February/2021. We evaluated food consumption using the healthy eating markers from a Brazilian national health survey (VIGITEL). We classified the FI levels according to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale into Food Security (FS) and mild, moderate, and severe FI. We evaluated the association between FI and consumption markers using logistic regression, considering the weekly frequency of consumption of < 3 days and ≥ 3 days. Results. 37% of the university students had in some degree of FI. We found a greater chance of lower frequency of consumption of beans (OR 1.81), vegetables (OR 4.76), fruits (OR 3.99), dairy products (OR 3.98), and meat (OR 3. 41), and greater chances of increased consumption of chicken (OR 1.14) and eggs (OR 2.04) among those in FI (p<0.05). Overall, the values were more expressive the higher the degree of FI. Conclusions. Higher FI levels were associated with a lower chance of healthy food consumption in university students. Higher education institutions can play a relevant role in addressing and administering the FI in this population(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Eating , Food Insecurity
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 140-150, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537269

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las máquinas expendedoras de bebidas y alimentos (MEBA) ganan presencialidad en universidades, lo que potencia aumento de peso en adultos jóvenes. Objetivo. reconocer la configuración de las MEBA para la construcción del ambiente alimentario saludable en una universidad de Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Diseño descriptivo multimodos, con aproximación empírica de: entrevista a tomadores de decisión (n=6) de la institución educativa; análisis de ventas durante un año (n=12.955) en las MEBA (n=12); caracterización por densidad nutricional de la oferta (n=152) y rastreo a comunicaciones circulantes asociadas con alimentación. El análisis consideró cuatro momentos: I-Relaciones; II-Canal MEBA; III-Nutrición y IV-Interacción. Los I y II se enfocaron en los componentes político, sociocultural, físico y económico. El III estudió el aporte nutricional de bebidas y alimentos para integrar resultados en el IV. Resultados. La ausencia de política sobre alimentación institucional como la visibilización comunicativa parecen potenciar condiciones sociales que refuerzan lógicas de: "mal necesario", "perfil de consumo ya existente", "ausencia de ejercicios académicos" y "experiencias negativas con alimentación saludable". Cimientos para ofertar con mayor demanda bebidas como refrescos y agua y, en alimentos, chocolate en diferentes formulaciones. En la clasificación por densidad nutricional se encontró que las bebidas fueron clasificadas como "no saludable" (51,6%); "algo saludable" (28,1%) y "saludable" (20,3%). Los alimentos "algo saludable" (44,9%); "no saludable" (32,2%) y "saludable" (22,9%). Conclusiones. la universidad, espacio de formación, requiere realizar esfuerzos de comprensión sociocultural, gerencia alineada a normativas de promoción de salud para incidir en la calidad nutricional ofertada a la comunidad universitaria(AU)


Introduction. Food and beverage vending machines (MEBA) are gaining presence in universities, which promotes weight gain in young adults. Objective. to recognize the configuration of the MEBA for the construction of a healthy food environment in a university in Colombia. Materials and methods. multimodal descriptive design, with an empirical approach of: interview with decision makers of the educational institution (n=6); analysis of sales during one year (n=12,955) in the MEBAs (n=12); characterization by nutritional density of the offer (n=152) and tracking of circulating communications associated with food. The analysis considered four moments: I-Relationships; II-MEBA Channel; III-Nutrition and IV-Interaction. I and II focused on the political, sociocultural, physical and economic components. The III studied the nutritional contribution of drinks and foods to integrate results in the IV. Results. the absence of a policy on institutional food such as communicative visibility seems to enhance social conditions that reinforce logics of: "necessary evil", "already existing consumption profile", "absence of academic exercises" and "negative experiences with healthy eating". Foundations to offer with greater demand drinks such as soft drinks and water and, in food, chocolate in different formulations. In the classification by nutritional density, it was found that the drinks were classified as "unhealthy" (51.6%); "something healthy" (28.1%) and "healthy" (20.3%). "Somewhat healthy" foods (44.9%); "unhealthy" (32.2%) and "healthy" (22.9%). Conclusions. the university, a training space, requires efforts at sociocultural understanding, management aligned with health promotion regulations to influence the nutritional quality offered to the university community(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Quality , Eating , Food Dispensers, Automatic
14.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(supl. 2): 112-122, sept. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1537254

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 y las restricciones sanitarias afectaron la disponibilidad, acceso y consumo de alimentos, impactando la alimentación y el estado nutricional. Objetivo. Determinar el efecto de la pandemia SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 sobre el cumplimiento de las Guías Alimentarias Basadas en Alimentos de Chile, en una comunidad universitaria, antes y durante la pandemia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva con 427 participantes. Se aplicó una encuesta online con preguntas basadas en los mensajes de las GABA. La encuesta se validó por juicio de expertos y análisis psicométrico, evaluando la concordancia con el estadístico de Kappa (K=89,95) y la confiabilidad con el coeficiente Alfa de Cronbach (=0,97). Se fijó como período antes de la pandemia al tiempo anterior a marzo del año 2020, y durante la pandemia, entre marzo del 2020 y octubre del 2021. Para medir los cambios antes y durante la pandemia se aplicó el test de simetría considerando un p <0,05 con un intervalo de confianza del 95%, mediante el software estadístico STATA versión 16. Resultados. Se observaron cambios estadísticamente significativos antes y durante la pandemia en los mensajes relacionados con el estado nutricional (p=0,000), consumo semanal de: productos de pastelería (p=0,0040), cecinas y embutidos (p=0,0034), frituras (p=0,0070), legumbres (p=0,0000), aguas (p=0,0000) y lectura e información nutricional de los productos (p=0,0000). Conclusiones. La pandemia de SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 generó cambios en la alimentación y estado nutricional respecto a los mensajes de las guías. Se precisan políticas alimentarias y estrategias educativas en alimentación y en nutrición para emergencias sanitarias(AU)


Introduction. The SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, as well as health restrictions, impacted food availability, access and consumption, affecting dietary habits and nutritional status. Objective. To determine the effect of the SARS-CoV-2/ COVID-19 pandemic on the adherence to Chilean Food-Based Dietary Guidelines, within a university community, both before and during the pandemic. Materials and methods. A retrospective cohort study involving 427 participants was conducted. An online survey was administered, with questions based on the FBDGs' messages. The survey was validated through expert judgment and psychometric analysis, and agreement was assessed using the Kappa statistic (K = 89.95) while reliability was determined using the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient ( = 0.97). The period before the pandemic was defined as the time prior to March 2020, and the pandemic period was set between March 2020 and October 2021. Changes before and during the pandemic were measured using the symmetry test, considering a p value of <0.05 and a 95% confidence level, using the STATA 16 statistical software. Results. Statistically significant changes were observed before and during the pandemic in messages related to nutritional status (p = 0.000), weekly consumption of bakery products (p = 0.0040), cold meats (p = 0.0034), fried foods (p = 0.0070), legumes (p = 0.0000), water (p = 0.0000), and messages related to reading and nutrition information of products (p = 0.0000). Conclusions. The pandemic led to dietary changes in relation to FBDGs messages. Food policies and food and nutrition education strategies are required to address health emergency contexts(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Food Guide , COVID-19 , Eating
15.
Distúrb. comun ; 35(2): 58068, 02/08/2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452388

ABSTRACT

O envelhecimento acarreta mudanças em todos os aspectos da vida, sendo caracterizado por uma modificação nas funções sociais, mentais e corporais. No Sistema Estomatoglossognático, é possível observar alterações significativas, começando pela fase preparatória da deglutição e da função de mastigação, decorrente da perda dos dentes, a qual é responsável pela trituração do alimento, formação do bolo alimentar e perda do tônus dos músculos que são responsáveis pelos movimentos mastigatórios. Esta pesquisa observou como as alterações dentárias em idosos podem repercutir na sua alimentação. Foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal, com amostra de 33 idosos frequentadores da Igreja Evangélica Assembleia de Deus em Alagoas, no município de Coqueiro Seco. Foi feita aplicação de um instrumento de coleta, o qual possuía perguntas baseadas no MBGR e na escala EAT-10. Os resultados mostraram que há um grande número de idosos que fazem uso de prótese dentária, refletindo na execução da função mastigatória, escolha da consistência alimentar e aspectos socioemocionais. As próteses dentárias, quando bem adaptadas, podem gerar um ganho significativo ao paciente, permitindo uma alimentação que não interfere na sua postura social, nem em suas questões emocionais. (AU)


Aging causes changes in all aspects of life, being characterized by a change in social, mental and bodily functions. In the Stomatoglossognathic System, it is possible to observe significant changes, starting with the preparatory phase of swallowing and the chewing function, resulting from the loss of teeth; which is responsible for crushing food, formation of food bolus and loss of muscle tone that are responsible for masticatory movements. This research observed how dental changes in the elderly can affect their diet. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out, with a sample of 33 elderly people attending the Evangelical Assembly of God Church in Alagoas, in the municipality of Coqueiro Seco. A collection instrument was applied, which had questions based on the MBGR and the EAT-10 scale. The results showed that there is a large number of elderly people who use dental prosthesis, reflecting on the performance of masticatory function, choice of food consistency and socio-emotional aspects. Dental prostheses, when well adapted, can generate a significant gain for the patient, allowing a diet that does not interfere with their social posture, nor with their emotional issues. (AU)


El envejecimiento provoca cambios en todos los aspectos de la vida, caracterizándose por un cambio en las funciones sociales, mentales y corporales. En el Sistema Estomatoglosognático, es posible observar cambios significativos, a partir de la fase preparatoria de la deglución y de la función masticatoria, resultantes de la pérdida de dientes; que se encarga de triturar los alimentos, formación de bolos alimenticios y pérdida de tono muscular que son responsables de los movimientos masticatorios. Esta investigación observó cómo las alteraciones dentales en los adultos mayores pueden afectar su alimentación. Se realizó un estudio observacional transversal, con una muestra de 33 ancianos asistentes a la Iglesia Evangélica Asamblea de Dios de Alagoas, en el municipio de Coqueiro Seco. Se aplicó un instrumento de recolección, el cual contó con preguntas basadas en el MBGR y la escala EAT-10. Los resultados mostraron que existe un gran número de ancianos que utilizan prótesis dental, reflexionando sobre el desempeño de la función masticatoria, elección de la consistencia de los alimentos y aspectos socioemocionales. Las prótesis dentales, bien adaptadas, pueden generar una ganancia importante para el paciente, permitiendo una alimentación que no interfiere con su postura social, ni con sus problemas emocionales. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , Dentition , Feeding Behavior , Social Isolation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Restoration Failure , Eating/psychology
16.
J. Health NPEPS ; 8(1): e10925, jan - jun, 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1451576

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the lifestyle and eating habits of bank workers in Mozambique. Method: a cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach, with 32 employees from three bank branches, selected through convenience sampling, in 2021. A food frequency questionnaire and a lifestyle questionnaire were applied. Descriptive statistics were employed for data treatment using SPSS v.25, presenting the data as absolute and relative frequencies. Results: in terms of lifestyle, 65.6% of participants were physically active, 100% were non-smokers, and 40.6% preferred fruits and vegetables instead of sweet and savory foods. Regarding food consumption frequency, the bread and equivalents group had the highest daily intake, with French bread (44%) being the most consumed, followed by the fruit and vegetable group with lettuce leading consumption (44%). The third group was meat and equivalents with the most consumed food in that category being fried egg (28%). The least consumed food group was oils and sauces with the most consumed in the category being salad dressings (19%). Conclusion: more healthy lifestyles and eating habits were evidenced.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Eating , Feeding Behavior , Life Style
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 845-850, jun. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514299

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare dietary intake to published recommendations and to analyze the potential relationship between body composition and dietary intake in collegiate athletes. Eighteen healthy male middle- and long- distance runners (age 20.11 ± 2.72 y; height, 174.7 ± 6.1 cm; body mass, 64.0 ± 7.7 kg), were recruited from a Mexican university track and field team at the beginning of the general preparation phase for national competitions. Participants completed three 24-hour dietary recalls, which were used to estimate dietary intake. Body composition was measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Athletes displayed high body fat values. Protein intake was significantly higher than published recommendations. Iron, zinc, sodium, and vitamin C intake were significantly higher than recommended values, while potassium and calcium intake were below established recommendations. No significant correlations between body composition variables (i.e body fat, lean body mass, bone mineral content) and dietary intake (i.e energy, macronutrients and selected vitamins and minerals) could be found. These findings suggest that coaches and practitioners should pay close attention to dietary intake and body composition of endurance athletes starting general preparation for competition. Future studies on changes of dietary intake and body composition during off-season and competitive phase, which also track physical activity, are warranted.


El objetivo de este estudio transversal fue comparar la ingesta dietética con las recomendaciones publicadas y analizar la relación potencial entre la composición corporal y la ingesta dietética en corredores universitarios. Dieciocho atletas masculinos sanos de media y larga distancia (edad 20,11 ± 2,72 años; altura, 174,7 ± 6,1 cm; masa corporal, 64,0 ± 7,7 kg), fueron reclutados de un equipo de atletismo de una universidad mexicana al comienzo de la fase de preparación general de competiciones nacionales. Los participantes completaron tres recordatorios dietéticos de 24 horas, que se utilizaron para estimar la ingesta dietética. La composición corporal se midió mediante absorciometría de rayos X de energía dual (DXA). Los atletas mostraron altos valores de grasa corporal. La ingesta de proteínas fue significativamente mayor que las recomendaciones publicadas. La ingesta de hierro, zinc, sodio y vitamina C fue significativamente superior a los valores recomendados, mientras que la ingesta de potasio y calcio estuvo por debajo de las recomendaciones establecidas. No se encontraron correlaciones significativas entre las variables de composición corporal (es decir, grasa corporal, masa corporal magra, contenido mineral óseo) y la ingesta dietética (es decir, energía, macronutrientes y vitaminas y minerales seleccionados). Estos hallazgos sugieren que los entrenadores y los practicantes deberían prestar mucha atención a la ingesta dietética y la composición corporal de los atletas de resistencia que comienzan la preparación general para la competencia. Se justifican estudios futuros sobre los cambios en la ingesta dietética y la composición corporal durante la fase fuera de temporada y competitiva, como también un seguimiento de la actividad física.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Running , Body Composition , Diet , Eating , Students , Universities , Absorptiometry, Photon , Adipose Tissue , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutrition in Sport
18.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(2): 144-153, jun. 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1512068

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Nutritional profiling systems (NPS) are mainly used in front-end labeling policies in order to make the purchase and consumption choice conscious and healthy. Objetive. This study systematically reviewed evidence from interventions on the effect of NPS in the front-of- package on food purchases. Materials and methods. A bibliographic search was carried out in electronic sources from Medline, Elsevier, Scielo and Lilacs, of experimental studies and intervention between 2012 and 2022. A total of 14 articles were included in the review. They were analyzed according to the intervention modality used: 4 studies analyzed the effect of NPS in a real purchase situation and 10 evaluated purchase perception/intention. Results. According to the modality of intervention, the 6 studies that analyzed the NPS-warning system, all recorded healthier purchases compared to the control groups. While for the NPS-NutriScore, Health Star Rating and Multiple Traffic Lights were effective in the decision to purchase healthier foods, in 5 of 7 studies for the first NPS, in 4 of 7 for the second and in 4 of 8 for the third, compared with control groups. Conclusions. Findings of this study suggest that NPSs may be effective for healthy purchase choices, even so it is necessary to strengthen the system and policies with nutritional food education campaigns(AU)


Introducción. Los sistemas de perfilado nutricional (SPN) son utilizados principalmente en políticas de etiquetado frontal con la finalidad de que la elección de compra y consumo sea consciente y saludable. Objetivo. Este estudio revisó sistemáticamente la evidencia de las intervenciones sobre el efecto de SPN en el frente del paquete en las compras de alimentos. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en fuentes electrónicas de Medline, Elsevier, Scielo y Lilacs, de estudios experimentales e intervenciones entre 2012 y 2022. Se incluyeron un total de 14 artículos en la revisión. Fueron analizados según la modalidad de intervención utilizada: 4 estudios analizaron el efecto de los SPN en una situación de compra real y 10 evaluaron percepción/intención de compra. Resultados. Según la modalidad de intervención, los 6 estudios que analizaron el SPN-sistema de advertencia, todos registraron compras más saludables en comparación con grupo controles. Mientras que para los SPN-NutriScore, Estrellas de Salud y Semáforo Tricolor Múltiple fueron efectivas en la decisión de compra de alimentos más saludables, en 5 de 7 estudios para el primer SPN, en 4 de 7 para el segundo y en 4 de 8 para el tercero, comparados con grupo controles. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos de este estudio sugieren que los SPN pueden ser efectivos para elecciones de compras saludables, aun así, es necesario reforzar el sistema y las políticas con campañas de educación alimentaria nutricional(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Eating , Food Labeling , Food, Processed , Chronic Disease , Noncommunicable Diseases , Obesity
19.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 64(1): 12-23, jun. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1444454

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar el consumo de alimentos en mujeres embarazadas, mujeres que dan de lactar y niños de 0 a 5 años, atendidos en Centros de Salud de Primer Nivel en la ciudad de La Paz en el mes de septiembre de 2018. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudió transversal descriptivo correlacional en 126 mujeres embarazadas, 120 mujeres que dan de lactar, 105 niños de 0 a 5 meses y 117 niños de 6 a 60 meses, que asistieron a consulta en Centros de Salud. Se aplicó el método de Recordatorio de 24 Horas (R24H) para determinar el consumo de alimentos, método antropométrico para la evaluación nutricional. RESULTADOS: La ingesta promedio en mujeres embarazadas 1999 kcal y mujeres que dan de lactar 1943 Kcal, es menor a la recomendada; inadecuada en grasas, calcio y zinc; suficiente en proteínas, hidratos de carbono, vitaminas A y C; el hierro es deficiente en embarazadas. Los niveles de adecuación de la dieta en niños de 6 a 23 meses en calcio 88,3%, hierro 75%. De 24 a 60 meses en: calorías 86,3%, grasas 46,9% y zinc 50,6%. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo promedio observado en mujeres y niños es inferior a las recomendaciones nutricionales. El estado nutricional no corresponde al exceso o déficit en la ingesta. La ingesta deficiente de micronutrientes, es debida al consumo insuficiente de verduras y frutas.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Eating , Breast Feeding , Pregnant Women
20.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 8-18, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1427673

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Frequent use of ultra-processed foods (UPF) leads to poor health outcomes, and the population must avoid their consumption. Objective. To assess the occurrence of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) in culinary lunch menus from various institutional food services. Materials and methods. Over one month, the five institutional food services analyzed served 1,128 culinary preparations; and a total of 3,863 ingredients were classified according to the extent and purpose of processing using the NOVA classification system. Associations between the occurrence of UPFs and the type, size, and management of food service establishments were analyzed. Five institutional food services in three municipalities (Bauru, Limeira, and Campinas), Brazil. Results. We found 8.4 % up to 12.6 % UPF ingredients used in culinary preparations. The highest frequency of UPFs was associated with private cafeterias (p = 0.002). Most UPFs were part of the recipe or the main ingredient in protein dishes and desserts (p < 0.05) and in university and hospital food services, respectively. UPF use was associated with food service size and type of management (p ≤ 0.003) and was more prevalent in protein dishes (p = 0.003) and large-size institutional food services (28.8 %). Self-managed units (p = 0.03) also use high amounts of UPFs in protein dishes (20.3 %). Conclusions. The presence of UPF rounded 10%; the validity of this value needs further studies. There are no comparative data in the scientific literature regarding the use of these ingredients in institutional food service culinary preparations. Therefore, it is necessary to stimulate reflection to promote healthy food habits and adequate nutrition for diners(AU)


Introducción. El uso frecuente de alimentos ultraprocesados (UPF) conduce a complicaciones de salud, y la población debe evitar su consumo. Objetivo. Evaluar la presencia de alimentos ultraprocesados (UPFs) en los menús de almuerzos de diversos servicios de alimentación institucionales. Materiales y métodos. Durante un mes, los cinco servicios de alimentación institucionales analizados sirvieron 1.128 preparaciones culinarias; y se clasificaron un total de 3.863 ingredientes según el alcance y el propósito del procesamiento, utilizando el sistema de clasificación NOVA. Se analizaron las asociaciones entre la ocurrencia de UPFs y el tipo, tamaño y gestión de los establecimientos de servicio de alimentos. Cinco servicios institucionales de alimentación en tres municipios (Bauru, Limeira y Campinas), Brasil. Resultados. Se encontró entre un 8,4 % hasta un 12,6 % de ingredientes UPF utilizados en las preparaciones culinarias. La mayor frecuencia de UPF se asoció a cafeterías privadas (p = 0,002). La mayoría de los UPFs formaban parte de la receta o eran el ingrediente principal en platos proteicos y postres (p < 0,05) y en los servicios de alimentación universitarios y hospitalarios, respectivamente. El uso de UPFs se asoció con el tamaño del servicio de alimentación y el tipo de gestión (p≤ 0,003) y fue más frecuente en platos proteicos (p = 0,003) y servicios de alimentación institucional de gran tamaño (28,8 %). Las unidades autogestionadas (p = 0,03) también utilizan altas cantidades de UPF en platos proteicos (20,3 %). Conclusiones. La presencia de UPF ronda el 10 %; la validez de este valor necesita más estudios. No existen datos comparativos en la literatura científica sobre el uso de estos ingredientes en las preparaciones culinarias de los servicios de alimentación institucional. Por ello, es necesario estimular la reflexión para promover hábitos alimentarios saludables y una adecuada nutrición de los comensales(AU)


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Food Services , Food, Processed , Diet , Eating , Habits
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