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1.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039734

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Obesity Agents/therapeutic use , Sericins/therapeutic use , Obesity/drug therapy , Time Factors , Triglycerides/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Weight Gain/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Cholesterol/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Obesity Agents/pharmacology , Sericins/pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Liver/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Obese , Obesity/etiology , Obesity/physiopathology
2.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(8): e7299, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951744

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common disease associated with metabolic syndrome and can lead to life-threatening complications like hepatic carcinoma and cirrhosis. Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist antidiabetic drug, has the capacity to overcome insulin resistance and attenuate hepatic steatosis but the specific underlying mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of exenatide therapy on NAFLD. We used in vivo and in vitro techniques to investigate the protective effects of exenatide on fatty liver via fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) in a high-fat (HF) diet-induced NAFLD animal model and related cell culture model. Exenatide significantly decreased body weight, serum glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels in HF-induced obese rabbits. Histological analysis showed that exenatide significantly reversed HF-induced lipid accumulation and inflammatory changes accompanied by decreased FTO mRNA and protein expression, which were abrogated by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. This study indicated that pharmacological interventions with GLP-1 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for NAFLD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Peptides/pharmacology , Venoms/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Fatty Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/drug effects , Blood Glucose/analysis , Body Weight/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Morpholines/metabolism , Chromones/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Fatty Liver/pathology , Diet, High-Fat , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Exenatide , Insulin/blood , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Obesity/metabolism
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(6): 1516-1522, nov.-dez. 2016. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-827921

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos anos, tem-se observado um aumento no consumo de alimentos diet e light por adolescentes ou por aqueles que estão à procura de uma alimentação com baixo teor calórico, surgindo, assim, diversos edulcorantes, como o aspartame. Porém, seu consumo ainda gera polêmica, devido a muitos dados contraditórios e inconclusivos. Diante disso, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de aspartame sobre ingestão alimentar, parâmetros físicos, bioquímicos e histopatológicos em 18 ratos machos da linhagem Wistar, com cinco semanas de vida (ratos jovens), tratados durante 21 dias. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo controle (GC) - tratados com água destilada por gavagem, e o grupo aspartame (GA) - tratados diariamente com 2mL/100g/dia de aspartame. Todos os animais receberam ração comercial (Essence(r)) e água ad libitum. O controle da ingestão alimentar foi registrado semanalmente. Foram aferidos os parâmetros físicos por meio da análise do peso corporal, da circunferência toráxica, da circunferência abdominal, do comprimento vértice-cóccix, da gordura abdominal total e do cálculo do índice de massa corporal; os parâmetros bioquímicos foram analisados por meio da glicemia, da lipoproteína de alta densidade e dos triglicerídeos; além de tais análises, foi realizado o estudo histopatológico do fígado. Durante todo o experimento, os ratos tratados com aspartame apresentaram um aumento significativo no peso corpóreo e na ingestão alimentar quando comparados ao grupo controle. Não houve diferença nas demais análises tanto físicas, quanto bioquímicas e histopatológicas comparando-se o GA com o GC (P<0,05). Com base nos resultados obtidos, é possível inferir uma maior chance de desenvolvimento da obesidade, oriunda do consumo regular desse tipo de adoçante, já que ele comprovou ser capaz de estimular o consumo de alimentos e, consequentemente, o ganho de peso corpóreo.(AU)


Recent years have seen an increase in consumption of diet and light foods by teenagers or those who are looking for a low-calorie diet, thus resulting in several sweeteners such as aspartame. However, their consumption still generates controversy due to many contradictory and inconclusive data. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aspartame supplementation on dietary intake, physical, biochemical, and histopathological parameters in 18 male Wistar rats, at five weeks old (young mice) treated for 21 days. The animals were randomly assigned into two groups: control group (CG) - treated with distilled water by gavage and aspartame group (GA) - treated with 2ml/100g/day of aspartame. All animals received commercial feed (Essence (r)) and water ad libitum. The control of food intake was recorded weekly. The physical parameters were measured by analyzing the body weight, chest circumference, waist circumference, vertex-coccyx length, total abdominal fat and calculating the body mass index; biochemical parameters were analyzed by glucose, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Apart from such analysis the histopathological study of the liver was conducted. Throughout the experiment the rats treated with aspartame showed a significant increase in body weight and food intake compared to the control group. There was no difference in other analyzes such physical, biochemical, and histopathological comparing GA to GC (P<0.05). From the results we can infer a greater chance of developing obesity, coming from the regular consumption of this type of sweetener, as it proved able to stimulate food intake, and hence the gain of body weight.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Aspartame/analysis , Eating/drug effects , Weight Gain , Reference Parameters/analysis
4.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 62(7): 659-663, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829516

ABSTRACT

Summary Objective: To compare nutritional risk in adult patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the beginning, middle, and end of oncologic treatment. Method: This prospective, comparative study included 83 adult patients, 44 undergoing chemotherapy (CT group) and 39 undergoing radiotherapy (RT group) at an oncology treatment center. Nutritional risk was determined by NRS-2002 in the beginning, middle, and end of therapy. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 8.0 software. Results: No differences in food intake or body mass index were observed between the CT (24.6±4.8 kg/m²) and RT groups (25.0±5.9 kg/m², p=0.75). Weight loss in the preceding 3 months was detected in 56.8% of CT group and 38.5% of RT group (p=0.09). The weight loss percentage compared with the usual weight within 3 months was greater (p<0.001) in the CT (11.4±6.5%) than in the RT group (3.9±6.8%). In the beginning of treatment, we observed high percentages of patients at moderate (18.2 vs. 15.4%, p=0.73) and high nutritional risk (61.4 vs. 48.7%, p=0.25), with no statistical difference between the CT and RT groups, respectively. During therapy, the nutritional risk remained unaltered in both groups. In the end of therapy, the majority of patients were at moderate (18.2 vs. 12.8%, p=0.50) or severe nutritional risk (50.0 vs. 51.3%, p=0.91), in the CT and RT groups, respectively, regardless of the type of oncologic treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of patients at moderate or high nutritional risk in the beginning of treatment indicates the need for an early and continuous follow-up of the nutritional status of patients undergoing oncologic treatment.


Resumo Objetivo: comparar o risco nutricional de pacientes adultos submetidos a quimio e radioterapia no início, no meio e ao término do tratamento oncológico. Método: estudo prospectivo e comparativo conduzido com 83 pacientes adultos de um centro de tratamento oncológico, sendo 44 sujeitos sob quimioterapia (grupo QTx) e 39 sob radioterapia (grupo RTx). O risco nutricional foi determinado pelo questionário NRS-2002 no início, ao meio e ao término da terapia. A análise estatística foi feita com o software Statistica 8.0. Resultados: não houve diferença no padrão de ingestão alimentar e no IMC (24,6±4,8 vs. 25±5,9 kg/m²; p=0,75) nos grupos QTx e RTx, respectivamente. Perda de peso nos 3 meses precedentes ocorreu em 56,8% dos pacientes sob quimioterapia e em 38,5% daqueles sob radioterapia (p=0,09). Os pacientes do grupo QTx apresentaram maior porcentagem de perda de peso em relação ao habitual em 3 meses (11,4±6,5 vs. 3,9±6,8%; p<0,001). No início do tratamento, houve alta taxa de risco nutricional moderado (18,2 vs. 15,4%; p=0,73) e grave (61,4 vs. 48,7%; p=0,25), sem diferença estatística entre os grupos QTx e RTx, respectivamente. No meio do tratamento, o risco nutricional foi mantido em ambos os grupos. Ao término da terapia, mais da metade dos pacientes apresentava risco nutricional moderado (18,2 vs. 12,8%; p=0,50) ou grave (50 vs. 51,3%; p=0,91), independentemente da modalidade de tratamento oncológico. Conclusão: a alta prevalência de risco nutricional moderado ou grave no início do tratamento aponta para a necessidade de abordagem nutricional precoce e permanente durante a terapia oncológica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Radiotherapy/adverse effects , Risk Assessment/methods , Malnutrition/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/complications , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Weight Loss , Nutrition Assessment , Nutritional Status , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Eating/drug effects , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/radiotherapy
5.
Ciênc. cuid. saúde ; 15(1): 101-108, 07/06/2016.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1120734

ABSTRACT

Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória -desenvolvida em 2012 e 2013 -em uma unidade de reabilitação para dependentes químicos no Paraná, com objetivo de verificar o impacto do uso de drogas na saúde física e mental do dependente químico. Foram entrevistados vinte dependentes químicos em tratamento. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevista semiestruturada e tratados com a técnica de análise categorial temática. Os resultados demonstraram impactos na condição física do dependente químico relacionados à intoxicaçãopor drogas, estado de abstinência, alterações de alimentação, sono, higiene e aparência pessoal. Em relação ao impacto das drogas na saúde mental, os resultados apontaram a presença de comorbidades psiquiátricas, como: esquizofrenia e transtorno afetivo bipolar, bem como alterações de pensamento, percepção, memória, cognição e comportamento. Conclui-se que as drogas ocasionam graves impactos na saúde física e mental dos dependentes químicos a partir de consequências nocivas na condição física, no autocuidado, no pensamento, na cognição e no comportamento.


This is a qualitative study of exploratory method, developedin2012 and 2013,in a rehab unity to drug addicts, Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil, its aim is verify the drug use impact in addicts' physical and mental health. Twenty drug addicts in treatment were interviewed.Data collected by through of semi-structured interviews andprocessed using the categorical thematic analysis.The results showed impacts on physical medical condition related to drug poisoning, the state of abstinence, changes on feed, sleep, rest, hygiene and personal appearance.Regarding the impact of substance abuse in mental health, the results indicated the presence of psychiatric comorbidies as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, thought changes, perception, memory and cognition, also behavioral changes. As conclusion, drugs are responsible for huge impacts in addicts' physical and mental health considering the harmful consequences in the physical conditions, self-care, thought, cognition and in the behavior.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Mental Health , Drug Users , Psychiatry , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Sleep/drug effects , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/complications , Thinking/drug effects , Behavior/drug effects , Comorbidity , Hygiene , Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Crack Cocaine/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Eating/drug effects , Binge Drinking , Hallucinations , Memory/drug effects
6.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 122-129, Jan-Mar/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity. .


OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura atual a respeito dos efeitos do exercício físico sobre diferentes variáveis metabólicas da obesidade infantil. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa foi feita nas bases de dados Pubmed e Web of Science. Os descritores usados foram: obesity, children obesity, childhood obesity, exercise e physical activity. A pesquisa eletrônica foi feita com base nos estudos publicados de abril de 2010 a dezembro de 2013, em idioma inglês. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: O rastreamento dos estudos com os descritores encontrou 88.393. Após cruzamento entre os descritores, obtiveram-se 4.561. Desses, depois da análise dos títulos, foram cogitados 182 relevantes referências, submetidos então aos critérios de inclusão/exclusão, e totalizaram, no fim, 39. A maioria dos estudos relacionou a prática de exercícios físicos aeróbicos e resistidos à melhoria da composição corporal, à regulação do perfil lipídico e metabólico e ao estado inflamatório de crianças e adolescentes obesos. Entretanto, a magnitude dos efeitos está associada ao tipo, à intensidade e à duração da prática. CONCLUSÕES: O exercício físico, independentemente do tipo, mostra-se capaz de promover adaptações positivas sobre a obesidade infantil, principalmente por atuar na restauração da homeostase celular e sistema cardiovascular, na melhoria da composição corporal e também aumento da ativação metabólica. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Eating/drug effects , Opioid Peptides/pharmacology , Receptors, Opioid/agonists , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Electric Stimulation , Injections, Intraventricular , Ligands , Molecular Conformation , Opioid Peptides/administration & dosage , Opioid Peptides/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship
7.
Biol. Res ; 48: 1-9, 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the hepatoprotective potential and invitro cytotoxicity studies of whole plant methanol extract of Rumex vesicarius L. Methanol extract at a dose of 100 mg/kg bw and 200 mg/kg bw were assessed for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by monitoring activity levels of SGOT (Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), ALP (Alkaline phosphatase), TP (Total protein), TB (Total bilirubin) and SOD (Superoxide dismutase), CAT (Catalase), MDA (Malondialdehyde). The cytotoxicity of the same extract on HepG2 cell lines were also assessed using MTT assay method at the concentration of 62.5, 125, 250, 500 µg/ml. RESULTS: Pretreatment of animals with whole plant methanol extracts of Rumex vesicarius L. significantly reduced the liver damage and the symptoms of liver injury by restoration of architecture of liver. The biochemical parameters in serum also improved in treated groups compared to the control and standard (silymarin) groups. Histopathological investigation further corroborated these biochemical observations. The cytotoxicity results indicated that the plant extract which were inhibitory to the proliferation of HepG2 cell line with IC50 value of 563.33 ± 0.8 Mg/ml were not cytotoxic and appears to be safe. CONCLUSIONS: Rumex vesicarius L. whole plant methanol extract exhibit hepatoprotective activity. However the cytotoxicity in HepG2 is inexplicable and warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Rats , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cytotoxins/pharmacology , Rumex/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Silymarin/pharmacology , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Tetrazolium Salts , Bilirubin/metabolism , Carbon Tetrachloride , Catalase/metabolism , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Methanol , Drinking/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Hep G2 Cells , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Formazans , Liver/drug effects , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1165-1172
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153807

ABSTRACT

Meclizine and caffeine combination is used for the treatment of morning sickness. Both compounds are teratogenic and caffeine is known to possess anti-fertility activity also. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive toxic effect of meclizine and caffeine combination. Three doses were taken for the study; low dose (LD; meclizine 3.7 mg/kg and caffeine 3 mg/kg) was selected from commercially available formulation, middle dose (MD; meclizine 37 mg/kg and caffeine 30 mg/kg) and high dose (HD; meclizine 370 mg/kg and caffeine 300 mg/kg). The mixture was administered 1-7 days and 8-14 days for fertility and embryotoxic studies respectively. Laparotomy was done on 10th day of gestation period. Number of implants and corpora lutea were counted, pre and post-implantation losses were determined. In embryo toxicity study fetuses were evaluated for external, skeletal and visceral examination. High dose was removed from both fertility and embryotoxicity studies due to its severe toxicity to the dam. Significant anti-fertility activity was observed at middle dose. Embryotoxicity study showed significant reduction in fetal body weight, body length and body mass index, dam body weight gain on gestation day 14. Absolute kidney weight in MD and absolute and relative spleen weight in both LD and MD were significantly reduced. There was no increase in external or internal congenital anomalies at both LD and MD. The, results suggest that prescription of meclizine and caffeine for morning sickness in early pregnancy should be reviewed carefully.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/etiology , Administration, Oral , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Caffeine/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Combinations , Eating/drug effects , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Female , Fertility/drug effects , Fetal Weight/drug effects , Gestational Age , Histamine H1 Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine H1 Antagonists/toxicity , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/pathology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Male , Meclizine/drug effects , Meclizine/toxicity , Organ Size/drug effects , Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Spleen/drug effects , Spleen/pathology , Weight Gain/drug effects
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Oct; 52(10): 989-995
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153793

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose/drug effects , Body Weight/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Male , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sapindaceae/chemistry , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(9): 780-788, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719321

ABSTRACT

Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) has been indicated as an efficient medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. It remains unclear if its effects are due to an improvement of the insulin signaling cascade, especially in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of GbE on insulin tolerance, food intake, body adiposity, lipid profile, fasting insulin, and muscle levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP-1B), and protein kinase B (Akt), as well as Akt phosphorylation, in diet-induced obese rats. Rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or a normal fat diet (NFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD group was divided into two groups: rats gavaged with a saline vehicle (HFD+V), and rats gavaged with 500 mg/kg of GbE diluted in the saline vehicle (HFD+Gb). NFD rats were gavaged with the saline vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, the rats were anesthetized, insulin was injected into the portal vein, and after 90s, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed. The quantification of IRS-1, Akt, and Akt phosphorylation was performed using Western blotting. Serum levels of fasting insulin and glucose, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol, and LDL and HDL fractions were measured. An insulin tolerance test was also performed. Ingestion of a hyperlipidic diet promoted loss of insulin sensitivity and also resulted in a significant increase in body adiposity, plasma triacylglycerol, and glucose levels. In addition, GbE treatment significantly reduced food intake and body adiposity while it protected against hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diet-induced obesity rats. It also enhanced insulin sensitivity in comparison to HFD+V rats, while it restored insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, increased IRS-1, and reduced PTP-1B levels in gastrocnemius muscle. The present findings suggest that G. biloba might be efficient in preventing and treating obesity-induced insulin signaling impairment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Adiposity/drug effects , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Ginkgo biloba/chemistry , Obesity/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Blood Glucose/analysis , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dyslipidemias/metabolism , Eating/drug effects , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hypoglycemia/blood , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins/analysis , Insulin Resistance/physiology , Insulin/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry , Obesity/etiology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1/analysis , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Triglycerides/blood
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(10): 721-727, Oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-687746

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess weight changes in rats fed diets with different ratios of omegas 3, 6 and 9 submitted to colonic carcinogenesis induced by Azoxymethane (AOM). METHODS: Sixty rats with three weeks of life were distributed into five groups of specific diets containing 12 animals each: GI- Standard diet without adminstration of AOM, GII- Standard diet with adminstration of AOM; GIII- Hyperlipidic diet with adminstration of AOM; GIV-Normolipidic diet with adminstration of AOM; GV- Hypolipidic diet with adminstration of AOM. The weight and food intake of each group were assessed four times in each week throughout the experiment until euthanasia at 36th week. RESULTS: GI and GII had no significant difference in weight. GI showed a significant increase when compared to GIII, GIV and GV. GII also showed a significant increase when compared to GIII, GIV and GV. When comparing intake of GI as compared to GII no significant difference was found, however such groups had higher intake than groups III, IV and V. There were found no difference in weight when comparing amoung rats with and without cancer within each groups: GII, GIII, GIV and GV. CONCLUSIONS: Diets rich in omega 3, 6 and 9 reduced food intake and weight. Rats with colorectal cancer had no decrease in weight as compared to those without this condition in the same group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Body Weight/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Eating/drug effects , Food, Fortified , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/administration & dosage , Azoxymethane , Carcinogens , Colonic Neoplasms/chemically induced , /administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Oleic Acids/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
12.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013; 26 (3): 511-516
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142611

ABSTRACT

Being rich in polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, green tea is suggested to be a potential candidate for the treatment of obesity, stress, depression, Parkinson's and other disorders. Since serotonin has an important role in the pathophysiology of these disorders, present study was designed to monitor the effects of green tea in rats. Green tea extract was provided to the male Albino Wistar rats for 5 weeks, and effects on behaviors were monitored. Results show a decrease in food intake after 5th week but not before. An increase in locomotive activities of the animals was observed, as monitored in novel as well as in familiar environment. Anxiolytic effects were observed in elevated plus maze but not in light dark activity box. An increase in dopamine and serotonin turnover was observed. Our results suggest that beneficial effects of green tea drinking might be due to alteration of serotonin and/or dopamine metabolism. We thereby propose that in further experiments, green tea should be administered in animal model of learned helplessness and effects on the development of adaptation to stress should be monitored. Neurochemical estimations of catecholamine and indoleamine in these animal models of stress exposed to green tea would help in understanding the anxiolytic effects of green tea


Subject(s)
Male , Animals, Laboratory , Maze Learning/drug effects , Motor Activity/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Serotonin/metabolism , Tea/chemistry , Rats, Wistar , Dopamine/metabolism , Eating/drug effects , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects
13.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1127-1136, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-198364

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in islets has been reported, the major contributor to the protective effect of rimonabant on islet morphology is unknown. We determined whether the protective effect of rimonabant on pancreatic islet morphology is valid in established diabetes and also whether any effect was independent of decreased food intake. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After diabetes was confirmed, Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats, aged 32 weeks, were treated with rimonabant (30 mg/kg/d, rimonabant group) for 6 weeks. Metabolic profiles and islet morphology of rats treated with rimonabant were compared with those of controls without treatment (control group), a pair-fed control group, and rats treated with rosiglitazone (4 mg/kg/d, rosiglitazone group). RESULTS: Compared to the control group, rats treated with rimonabant exhibited reduced glycated albumin levels (p<0.001), islet fibrosis (p<0.01), and improved glucose tolerance (p<0.05), with no differences from the pair-fed control group. The retroperitoneal adipose tissue mass was lower in the rimonabant group than those of the pair-fed control and rosiglitazone groups (p<0.05). Rimonabant, pair-fed control, and rosiglitazone groups showed decreased insulin resistance and increased adiponectin, with no differences between the rimonabant and pair-fed control groups. CONCLUSION: Rimonabant had a protective effect on islet morphology in vivo even in established diabetes. However, the protective effect was also reproduced by pair-feeding. Thus, the results of this study did not support the significance of islet CB1 receptors in islet protection with rimonabant in established obesity-associated type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin/metabolism , Adiposity/drug effects , Animals , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diet therapy , Eating/drug effects , Glucose Intolerance/diet therapy , Insulin Resistance , Insulin-Secreting Cells/drug effects , Male , Piperidines/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Rats , Rats, Inbred OLETF , Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1/physiology , Thiazolidinediones/therapeutic use
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(11): 1141-1147, Nov. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604272

ABSTRACT

This study examined the food intake changes evoked by intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a selective agonist (BRL37344, 2 and 20 nmol) or antagonist (SR59230A, 10 and 50 nmol) of β3-adrenergic receptors in 24-h fasted rats (adult male Wistar rats, 200-350 g, N = 6/treatment). The animals were also pretreated with saline icv (SAL) or SR59230A (50 nmol) followed by BRL37344 (20 nmol) or SAL in order to determine the selectivity of the effects evoked by BRL37344 on food intake or the selectivity of the effects evoked by SR59230A on risk assessment (RA) behavior. The highest dose of BRL37344 (N = 7) decreased food intake 1 h after the treatment (6.4 ± 0.5 g in SAL-treated vs 4.2 ± 0.8 g in drug-treated rats). While both doses of SR59230A failed to affect food intake (5.1 ± 1.1 g for 10 nmol and 6.0 ± 1.8 g for 50 nmol), this treatment reduced the RA frequency (number/30 min) (4 ± 2 for SAL-treated vs 1 ± 1 for 10 nmol and 0.5 ± 1 for 50 nmol SR59230A-treated rats), an ethological parameter related to anxiety. While pretreatment with SR59230A (7.0 ± 0.5 g) abolished the hypophagia induced by BRL37344 (3.6 ± 0.9 g), BRL37344 suppressed the reduction in RA frequency caused by SR59230A. These results show that the hypophagia caused by BRL37344 is selectively mediated by β3-adrenergic receptors within the central nervous system. Moreover, they suggest the involvement of these receptors in the control of anxiety.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , /pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Ethanolamines/pharmacology , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , /administration & dosage , /administration & dosage , /pharmacology , Anxiety/metabolism , Ethanolamines/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraventricular , Models, Animal , Propanolamines/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Risk Assessment
15.
Acta Medica Iranica. 2011; 49 (12): 669-775
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-146506

ABSTRACT

Stachys lavandulifolia is used as the herbal tea and its wide and potent medical effects have been reported for the extract in animal studies. This study aimed to find the safety profile of the extract to find the appropriate doses for further human studies. The aerial parts of the plant were air-dried and the hydroalcoholic extract was obtained and concentrated by percolation method with 140 mg/ml concentration. To assess the toxicity profile of this extract, 60 female mice [30 cases, 30 controls, 24.8 +/- 2.1 g, 4-6 weeks] were administered the extract by oral gavages in acute [24 hrs], subacute [14 days] and subchronic [45 days] models. All clinical, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes were assessed in appropriate midpoints and endpoints and compared with control group. Doses up to 140 mg/kg were recognized as maximum tolerated dose in subchronic model. Abnormal changes in kidney and liver weight in treatment groups as well as the significant elevation of biochemical parameters in 45 days study has suggested the possible hepatic and renal toxicity potentials of this extract with doses upper than 140mg/kg. Doses up 70 mg/kg could be considered as no observable adverse effect level [NOAEL] and could be used in further clinical trials on the possible therapeutic effects of this plant


Subject(s)
Female , Animals, Laboratory , Toxicity Tests, Subchronic , Plant Extracts/toxicity , Toxicity Tests, Acute , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Mice , Organ Size/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drinking/drug effects , Eating/drug effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-187632

ABSTRACT

Lysimachia foenum-graecum has been used as an oriental medicine with anti-inflammatory effect. The anti-obesity effect of L. foenum-graecum extract (LFE) was first discovered in our screening of natural product extract library against adipogenesis. To characterize its anti-obesity effects and to evaluate its potential as an anti-obesity drug, we performed various obesity-related experiments in vitro and in vivo. In adipogenesis assay, LFE blocked the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 2.5 microg/ml. In addition, LFE suppressed the expression of lipogenic genes, while increasing the expression of lipolytic genes in vitro at 10 microg/ml and in vivo at 100 mg/kg/day. The anti-adipogenic and anti-lipogenic effect of LFE seems to be mediated by the inhibition of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha expression as shown in in vitro and in vivo, and the suppression of PPARgamma activity in vitro. Moreover, LFE stimulated fatty acid oxidation in an AMPK-dependent manner. In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice (n = 8/group), oral administration of LFE at 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day decreased total body weight gain significantly in all doses tested. No difference in food intake was observed between vehicle- and LFE-treated HFD mice. The weight of white adipose tissues including abdominal subcutaneous, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue was reduced markedly in LFE-treated HFD mice in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of LFE also greatly improved serum levels of obesity-related biomarkers such as glucose, triglycerides, and adipocytokines leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. All together, these results showed anti-obesity effects of LFE on adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in vitro and in vivo and raised a possibility of developing LFE as anti-obesity therapeutics.


Subject(s)
3T3-L1 Cells , Adipogenesis/drug effects , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Anti-Obesity Agents/administration & dosage , Body Weight/drug effects , CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha/genetics , Cell Differentiation/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression/drug effects , Lipid Metabolism/drug effects , Lipids , Lipogenesis/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity/prevention & control , PPAR gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Primulaceae/chemistry
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180901

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor on muscle weight and myofibrillar protein content of affected and unaffected hindlimb muscles in rats with neuropathic pain induced by unilateral peripheral nerve injury. METHODS: Neuropathic pain was induced by ligation and cutting of the left L5 spinal nerve. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: The NOSI group (n=19) had NOS inhibitor (L-NAME) injections daily for 14 days, and the Vehicle group (n=20) had vehicle injections daily for 14 days. Withdrawal threshold, body weight, food intake and activity were measured every day. At 15 days all rats were anesthetized and soleus, plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles were dissected from hindlimbs. Muscle weight and myofibrillar protein content of the dissected muscles were determined. RESULTS: The NOSI group showed significant increases as compared to the Vehicle group for body weight at 15 days, muscle weight and myofibrillar protein content of the unaffected soleus and gastrocnemius. The NOSI group demonstrated a higher pain threshold than the vehicle group. CONCLUSION: NOSI for 14 days attenuates unaffected soleus and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy in neuropathic pain model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Eating/drug effects , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Hindlimb , Male , Muscle Fibers, Skeletal/drug effects , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Muscular Atrophy/drug therapy , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester/administration & dosage , Neuralgia/etiology , Nitric Oxide Synthase/antagonists & inhibitors , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 25(6): 518-524, nov.-dez. 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-567282

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate whether polydextrose stimulates iron absorption in rats submitted to partial gastrectomy and sham operated. METHODS: The rats were submitted to partial gastrectomy (Billroth II) or laparotomy (sham-operated control), in groups of 20 and 20 each respectively. The animals were fed with a control diet (AIN-93M) without polydextrose or a diet containing polydextrose (50g/Kg of diet) for eight weeks. They were divided into four subgroups: sham-operated and Billroth II gastrectomy and with or without polydextrose. Two animals died during the experiment. All rats submitted to gastrectomy received B-12 vitamin (intramuscular) each two weeks. The hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were measured at the start and on day 30 and 56 after the beginning of the experimental period. At the end of the study, the blood was collected for determination of serum iron concentration. RESULTS: The diet with polydextrose reduced the excretion of iron. Apparent iron absorption was higher in the polydextrose fed groups than in the control group. The haematocrit and haemoglobin concentration were lower after Billroth II gastrectomy rats fed the control diet as compared to the polydextrose diet groups. CONCLUSION: Polydextrose increase iron absorption and prevents postgastrectomy anemia.


OBJETIVO: Investigar se a polidextrose estimula a absorção de ferro em ratos submetidos à gastrectomia parcial e sham operados. MÉTODOS: Os ratos foram submetidos à gastrectomia parcial (Billroth II) e à laparotomia (controle sham-operados) em grupos de 20 e 20 cada, respectivamente. Os animais foram alimentados com uma dieta controle (AIN-93M), sem polidextrose ou uma dieta contendo polidextrose (50g/kg de dieta) durante oito semanas. Foram divididos em quatro grupos: sham-operados e com gastrectomia BII e com ou sem polidextrose. Dois animais morreram durante o experimento. Todos os ratos com gastrectomia receberam vitamina B-12 (intramuscular) a cada duas semanas. O hematócrito e a hemoglobina foram dosados no início e nos dias 30 e 56 após o início do período experimental. No final do estudo, o sangue foi coletado para determinação da concentração de ferro sérico. RESULTADOS: A dieta com polidextrose reduziu a excreção de ferro e a absorção de ferro aparente foi maior nos grupos alimentados com polidextrose do que no grupo controle. As dosagens de hematócrito e hemoglobina foram menores em ratos com gastrectomia alimentados com a dieta controle em relação aos grupos de dieta com polidextrose. CONCLUSÃO: A polidextrose aumenta a absorção do ferro e previne a anemia pós-gastrectomia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Diet , Feces/chemistry , Gastrectomy/methods , Glucans/administration & dosage , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Iron/blood , Analysis of Variance , Body Weight/drug effects , Eating/drug effects , Prebiotics , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 43(8): 759-766, Aug. 2010. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-554955

ABSTRACT

Estradiol participates in the control of energy homeostasis, as demonstrated by an increase in food intake and in body weight gain after ovariectomy in rats. In the present study, female Wistar rats (200-230 g, N = 5-15 per group), with free access to chow, were individually housed in metabolic cages. We investigated food intake, body weight, plasma leptin levels, measured by specific radioimmunoassay, and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic neuropeptides, determined by real-time PCR, in ovariectomized rats with (OVX+E) and without (OVX) estradiol cypionate treatment (10 µg/kg body weight, sc, for 8 days). Hormonal and mRNA expression were determined at pre-feeding and 4 h after food intake. OVX+E rats showed lower food intake, less body weight gain and lower plasma leptin levels. In the OVX+E group, we also observed a reduction of neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus and a decrease in orexin A in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). There was an increase in leptin receptor (LepRb), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R), CART, and mainly corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus and LepRb and CART mRNA in the LHA. These data show that hypophagia induced by estradiol treatment is associated with reduced hypothalamic expression of orexigenic peptides such as NPY, AgRP and orexin A, and increased expression of the anorexigenic mediators MC4-R, LepRb and CRH. In conclusion, estradiol decreases food intake, and this effect seems to be mediated by peripheral factors such as leptin and the differential mRNA expression of neuropeptides in the hypothalamus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Eating/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Estrogens/pharmacology , Hypothalamus/drug effects , Neuropeptides/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Hypothalamus/chemistry , Neuropeptides/genetics , Ovariectomy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats, Wistar
20.
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 54(1): 45-51, fev. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-544031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of consumption of different protein sources on food intake and energy expenditure in normal weight subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Breakfast preparations (casein, soy protein, whey protein or control) were ingested during seven consecutive days. Appetite, food intake, and energy expenditure were assessed. RESULTS: Casein consumption led to a lower energy intake than whey protein. There was lower energy intake on day 7 than on day 1 of the casein session. Soy protein preparations resulted in higher diet induced thermogenesis (DIT) than in control preparations. The respiratory quotient (RQ) obtained in the whey protein session was lower than the control and soy protein sessions. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the consumption of different protein types leads to distinct effects on satiety (casein), DIT (soy protein), and/or RQ (whey protein).


OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os efeitos do consumo de diferentes fontes proteicas na ingestão alimentar e gasto energético em indivíduos eutróficos. SUJEITOS E MÉTODOS: Preparações (caseína, proteína da soja, proteína do soro de leite ou controle) foram ingeridas no desjejum, durante sete dias consecutivos. RESULTADOS: A caseína resultou em menor ingestão calórica do que o soro de leite. Houve uma menor ingestão calórica no último dia da sessão da caseína em relação ao primeiro dia. Preparações contendo proteína da soja resultaram em maior termogênese induzida pela dieta (TID) em comparação às preparações controle. O cociente respiratório (CR) obtido na sessão do soro de leite foi menor que na sessão controle e da proteína da soja. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados sugerem que o consumo de diferentes tipos de proteínas resulta em efeitos distintos na saciedade (caseína), TID (proteína da soja) e/ou CR (proteína do soro).


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Appetite/drug effects , Dietary Proteins/pharmacology , Eating/drug effects , Energy Intake/drug effects , Energy Metabolism/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Caseins/pharmacology , Dietary Proteins/classification , Dietary Proteins/standards , Milk Proteins/pharmacology , Obesity/prevention & control , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Statistics, Nonparametric , Satiation/drug effects , Soybean Proteins/pharmacology , Thermogenesis/drug effects , Young Adult
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