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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(5): 496-502, sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368658

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate the effects of Calendula officinalis and Echinacea purpurea extracts in terms of growth parameters, antibacterial activity and phenolic profile in tomato infected by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (CmmT7). A significant difference was observed in E. purpuraextract, indicating the highest effects on plant height (27.25 cm), fresh plant weight (28.45 cm), root length (24.42 cm), and root weight (6.74 g) (p<0.05). Moreover, Calendula officinalis and Echinacea purpurea extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against CmmT7 (p<0.05). Among phenolic compounds, the only chlorogenic acid amounts were varied in the tomato seedlings leaves with C. officinalis extract (K3) + CmmT7, E. purpurea extract (E3) + CmmT7 and CmmT7 (p<0.01). Moreover, chlorogenic acid amount was approximately 9 times higher than in CmmT7-treated leaves when compared to control. The results showed that application of the extracts of these plants had a significant influence on bacterial canker and growth parameters.


Nuestro objetivo fue investigar los efectos de los extractos de Calendula officinalis y Echinacea purpurea en términos de parámetros de crecimiento, actividad antibacteriana y perfil fenólico en tomate infectado por Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (CmmT7). Se observó una diferencia significativa en el extracto de E. purpura, que indica los mayores efectos sobre la altura de la planta (27,25 cm), el peso de la planta fresca(28,45 cm), la longitud de la raíz (24,42 cm) y el peso de la raíz (6,74 g) (p<0,05). Además, los extractos de Calendula officinalis y Echinacea purpurea mostraron una actividad inhibidora significativa contra CmmT7 (p<0,05). Entre los compuestos fenólicos, las únicas cantidades de ácido clorogénico se variaron en las hojas de las plántulas de tomate con extracto de C. officinalis (K3) CmmT7, extracto de E. purpurea(E3) CmmT7 y CmmT7 (p<0.01). Además, la cantidad de ácido clorogénico fue aproximadamente 9 veces mayor que en las hojas tratadas con CmmT7 en comparación con el control. Los resultados mostraron que la aplicación de los extractos de estas plantas tuvo una influencia significativa sobre el cancro bacteriano y los parámetros de crecimiento.


Subject(s)
Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Calendula/chemistry , Echinacea/chemistry , Clavibacter/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Plant Diseases , Plants, Medicinal , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Solanum lycopersicum , Plant Leaves , Phenolic Compounds/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
2.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 51: 17-27, May. 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In order to produce an effective callus in Echinacea purpurea L.; determination of the explant type and growth regulators that best respond to callus induction and the optimization of the culture conditions to increase the amount of caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) in the obtained callus. CADs contents of callus cultures of E. purpurea were evaluated by establishing an effective callus induction system in vitro. RESULTS: Various medium containing different growth regulators were tested using leaf, petiole, cotyledon and root as the explants. The best callus development was achieved in MS medium with 1.0 mg l 1 2,4- D + 2.0 mg l 1 BAP in leaf, 1.0 mg l 1 NAA + 0.5 mg l 1 TDZ in petiole, 2.0 mg l 1 NAA + 1.0 mg l 1 TDZ in cotyledon and 0.5 mg l 1 NAA + 0.5 mg l 1 BAP in roots. Upon optimisation of callus growth, each type of explant was cultured for 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks in medium for the analyses of caftaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and chicoric acid contents. The highest amounts of caftaric acid (4.11 mg/g) and chicoric acid (57.89 mg/g) were found from petiole explants and chlorogenic acid (8.83 mg/g) from root explants at the end of the 10-week culture time. CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the present study, the production of caffeic acid derivatives was performed by providing the optimization of E. purpurea L. callus cultures. Effective and repeatable protocols established in this study may offer help for further studies investigating the production of caffeic acid derivatives in vitro.


Subject(s)
Caffeic Acids , Echinacea , Plant Growth Regulators , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Plant Roots/growth & development , Plant Leaves/growth & development , Cotyledon/growth & development , Culture Techniques
3.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 37: e37029, Jan.-Dec. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359544

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Echinacea purpurea (E.P.) on azathioprine (AZA)-induced immune deficiency in albino rats. Thirty six male albino rats were divided into six equal groups. The first group served as normal control, the second and third groups were treated with two doses of AZA (3 and 5mg/kg/b.w/day IP), respectively for six weeks. The fourth group was treated with 50 mg kg/b.wt/day of Echinacea. The fifth and sixth groups were treated with3 and 5 mg AZAm respectively followed by50 mg E.P. administration. At the end of the experimental period, both doses of AZA revealed a significant reduction in total body and spleen weights, increase in tissue total protein with a significant increase in serum total protein and albumin, a marked decrease in the number of WBCS associated with a decrease in the number of lymphocytes, a significant decrease in serum total anti-oxidant capacity. Also,concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) and interleukins (IL4 &IL6) showed a significant increase, while the level of IL10 decreased significantly in splenic tissue. The dose of AZA (5 mg /kg b.wt.) only resulted in a highly significant increase in serum level of T3 and T4. However, treatment with Echinacea purpurea extract had a significant influence on immune deficiency induced by azathioprine. These findings demonstrated that E.P. extract is a promising immunomodulatory agent with a potent therapeutic value in stimulating the immune response.


Subject(s)
Rats, Inbred Strains , Azathioprine , Immunoglobulins , Echinacea
4.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 7(3): 412-441, 26 de noviembre 2020. ^c27 cmilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, DIGIUSAC, LIGCSA | ID: biblio-1141472

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones respiratorias constituyen una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad a nivel mundial, incrementándose su relevancia ante la reciente infección por SARS-CoV-2, causante de la pandemia de COVID-19. Las opciones terapéuticas para esta infección respiratoria son escasas y sin eficacia comprobada. El objetivo de esta revisión fue buscar la información sobre plantas con actividad antiviral o viricida publicada en los últimos 10 años, en las bases de datos de Google Scholar, Scopus y PubMed. La búsqueda priorizó aquellas especies disponibles en Guatemala, la cual se complementó con la búsqueda de moléculas con actividad antiviral para finalmente postular aquellas que puedan prevenir la infección o aminorar la patogénesis del SARS-CoV-2. Se detectaron más de 170 especies con actividad antiviral y se organizó la información por país o región y tipo de actividad antiviral contra virus específicos. De las especies de mayor disponibilidad en Guatemala se seleccionaron 20. La revisión culmina con 15 artículos que proponen plantas o moléculas con potencial actividad específica en el manejo de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2. Se concluye que existen especies vegetales (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis y Eucalyptus globulus) y fitocompuestos vegetales (hesperidina, rutina, diosmina, apiina, aloe-emodina, piperina, capsaicina, curcumina, oleuropeina, rhamnetina y gallato de epicatequina) que podrían contribuir al manejo de la enfermedad. Se insta a académicos y autoridades a poner más atención a estas opciones terapéuticas que nos ofrece la naturaleza y que podrían contribuir a aliviar el colapso de los sistemas de salud prevalentes.


Respiratory infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, increasing their relevance by the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic options for this respiratory infection are scarce and without proven effectiveness. The objective of this review was the search for information on plants with antiviral or viricidal activity published in the last 10 years in the Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed databases. The search prioritized those species available in Guatemala, was completed with the search of molecules with potential to prevent infection or reduce the activity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. More than 170 species with antiviral activity were detected and the information organized in surveys by country or region, activity against specific viruses and antiviral information on the 20 most commonly available species in the country. It is complemented with a summary of 15 articles that proposed plants or molecules with potential specific activity in the management of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is concluded there are plant species (Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Psidium guajava, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus) and phytocompounds isolated from these species (hesperidin, rutin, diosmin, apiine, aloe-emodin, piperine, capsaicin, curcumin, oleuropein and epicatechin gallate) that could contribute to the management of the disease. Academics and authorities are urged to pay more attention to these therapeutic options that nature offer to us and could contribute to alleviate the collapse of the prevailing health systems in the country.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal/drug effects , Respiratory Tract Infections , Therapeutics , Catechin/therapeutic use , Echinacea , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Salvia officinalis , Psidium , Diosmin , Aloe , Eucalyptus , Betacoronavirus , Garlic , COVID-19 , Guatemala , Hesperidin
5.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 47: 17-28, sept. 2020. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cichoric acid (CA) is extracted from Echinacea purpurea. It is well known and widely used for its immunological function. However, the effect of CA on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from yaks is still unclear. This study investigated the potential influences of CA on the proliferation, cytokine induction, and apoptosis of PBMCs from Datong yak in vivo, and aimed to provide a basis for exploring the pharmacological activities of CA on yaks. RESULTS: In this study, CA promoted PBMCs proliferation by combining concanavalin A (Con A) and exhibited a dose-dependent effect as demonstrated by a Cell Counting Kit-8. The concentration of 60 µg/ml CA was the best and promoted the transformation from the G0/G1 phase to the S and G2/M phases with Con A. Furthermore, 60 µg/ml CA significantly increased IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ levels and PCNA, CDK4 and Bcl-2 expression levels, but it significantly inhibited the TP53, Bax, and Caspase-3 expression levels. Transcriptome analysis revealed a total of 6807 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the CA treatment and control groups. Of these genes, 3788 were significantly upregulated and 3019 were downregulated. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis revealed that DEGs were enriched in cell proliferation and immune function signaling pathways. The expression level of some transcription factors (BTB, Ras, RRM_1, and zf-C2H2) and genes (CCNF, CCND1, and CDK4) related to PBMCs proliferation in yaks were significantly promoted after CA treatment. By contrast, anti-proliferation-associated genes (TP53 and CDKN1A) were inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, CA could regulate the immune function of yaks by promoting proliferation and inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis of PBMCs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Succinates/pharmacology , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Echinacea/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Transcription Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/cytology , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Apoptosis/drug effects , Concanavalin A/pharmacology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Seq
6.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2013; 12 (45): 14-28
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126941

ABSTRACT

Applications of natural ingredients not only increase the shelf life of food but also omit the problems of synthetic preservatives compounds. Cinnamon verum essential oil [CVEO; 0.05, 0.1, 0.15%] and Echinacea purpurea extract [EPE; 0.25, 0.5, 0.75%] were added to Kolompe [a traditional cookie in Kerman-Iran] and their antioxidant and antimicrobial effects were compared with the samples of BHA [100 and 200 ppm] and control [without any antioxidant]. Peroxide and tiobarbituric acid values [PV and TBA] and total count, mold, yeast, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus cereus, positive Staphylococci -coagulase were measured for antioxidant and antimicrobial assessment, respectively. PV and TBA values of control were more than others and antioxidant effect of CVEO-0.05 was similar to BHA-0.01 [p<0.01]. The least PV and TBA values were for CVEO-0.1. Application of EPE-0.25 was too led more antioxidant effect [increased by increasing%] than BHA-0.01. All samples lacked aerobic microorganism, yeast and mold except EPE-0.25 [that was the same with control] in 30[th] day. The number of these microorganisms in EPE-0.5 was lower than control, BHA-0.01 and BHA-0.02. No microorganism was in EPE-0.75 that expressed strong antimicrobial effect of this level extract. Antioxidant effects for CVEO-0.1, CVEO-0.25, EPE-0.1 and EPE-0.25 were more than BHA. With increasing of concentration, PV and TBA values for pro-oxidant effect increased. Application of CVEO and EPE in Kolompe was strong effect in microbial properties and increase the shelf life of Kolompe


Subject(s)
Echinacea , Anti-Infective Agents , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts , Antioxidants
7.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3406-3410, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308645

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the content of polyphenol contained samples, in order to provide basis for comprehensive quality evaluation on Echinacea extracts.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>LC-MS was used for qualitative analysis on relevant compounds of the samples of Echinacea extracts. Optimized USP methods, RP-HPLC and QAMS (quantitative analysis of multi-components by single-marker) were used to determine the content of polyphenol. Meanwhile, UV method was adopted for comparative analysis on content according to international standard IS014502-1-2005.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The six batches of samples could not meet the export standard for polyphenol content by HPLC. UV showed four batches in line with the standard and two batches in inconformity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>UV method is generally adoptedfor the content determination of domestic Echinacea extracts, but shows results that are significantly different from that by HPLC method. it is suggested to use HPLC method to standardize quality of extracts and raise market access standards.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Echinacea , Chemistry , Quality Control
8.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3768-3772, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346841

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the effect of auxins 2,4-D,IAA,IBA,NAA on induction of adventitious roots as well as that of IBA concentrations on the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives, with test-tube seedling leaves Echinacea pallida as the explant, and cultivate adventitious roots in bioreactors.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>1.0 mg x L(-1) IBA was found the best for the induction of adventitious roots, with the numer of induced adventitious roots up to 22. 5 in each culture dish. Among different concentrations for suspension cultivation of IBA tested, 1.0 mg x L(-1) IBA was found the most suitable for the growth of adventitious roots and the accumulation of caffeic acid derivatives. In a 5 L balloon type bubble bioreactor, 8.98 g x L(-1) dry weight was achieved after one month, which was 2.05 times of 4.38 g x L(-1) dry weight cultivated in a triangular flask. The content of echinacoside cultivated in a bioreactor was 14.08 mg x g(-1) DW, which was 2.4 times of cultivated roots. The contents of chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid and total caffeic acid derivatives were 4.0-25.6 times of ultivated roots.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The study can provide high-quality biomedical drugs containing such caffeic acid derivatives as echinacoside for mass production of Echinacea purpurea medicines.</p>


Subject(s)
2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid , Pharmacology , Bioreactors , Caffeic Acids , Chemistry , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Echinacea , Metabolism , Indoleacetic Acids , Pharmacology , Indoles , Pharmacology , Naphthaleneacetic Acids , Pharmacology , Plant Growth Regulators , Pharmacology , Plant Leaves , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Seedlings , Metabolism , Tissue Culture Techniques , Methods
9.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2011; 10 (37): 61-72
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123923

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, there a growing demand for the natural antioxidants due to the harmful effects of synthetic antioxidants. Therefore, introduction of new natural antioxidants [especially those with plant origin] is very important. The present study explores the chemical constitution and antioxidant activity of leaf extract of Hyssopus officinalis L. and extract of aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea L., as two valuable natural antioxidants in soybean oil. Total phenolic content of the water extract of Hyssopus officinalis L. and Echinacea purpurea L. were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity [AOA] of these two extracts were evaluated with DPPH[*], ABTS[*+] and beta carotene bleaching [BCB] methods. Furthur, the oven tests including peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values were done at 70°C in soybean oil system. Total phenolic content of Hyssopus officinalis L. and Echinacea purpurea L. were 200 and 60 mg/g phenolic components [galic acid equivalent], respectively. In DPPH* test, EC[50] value of Hyssopus officinalis L. and Echinacea purpurea L. were 35.6 +/- 4.7 and 123.0 +/- 10.9 ppm, respectively. In the oven test [in soybean oil], AOA of all concentrations of HOE was comparable to BHT and BHA at the concentration of 100 ppm. AOA of EPE was comparable to BHT at concentrations of 100 and 200 ppm, but lower than that of BHA. In all three DPPH[*], ABTS[*+] and beta carotene bleaching tests, the antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis extract [HOE] was greater than that of Echinacea purpurea extract [EPE]. The antioxidant activity of both extracts improved with increase of the concentration. Further, HOE and EPE were able to reduce the oxidation rate of soybean oil under conditions of the oven test at 70°C. Thus, these two extracts could be appropriate natural alternatives to synthetic antioxidants


Subject(s)
Echinacea , Phytotherapy , Antioxidants , Plant Extracts , Soybean Oil
10.
Pesqui. homeopática ; 26(2): 32-39, 2011.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-645818

ABSTRACT

Este experimento clínico relata o resultado do tratamento de oito animais com tipos variados de neoplasias que foram tratados com uma combinação de medicamentos homeopáticos injetáveis, Arnica montana, Lachesis muta, thuya occidentalis, Echinacea e o Viscum album - um antineoplásico que estimula o sistema imune - e possuem efeitos citotóxicos, sendo uma alternativa ao tratamento convencional empregado nos animais domestícos. O resultado obtido no decorrer de 12 meses de acompanhamento indica que a medicação estuda auxilia na qualidade de vida demostrando ser uma possibilidade terapêutica auxiliando no controle da evolução da doença neoplásica em cães e gatos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Neoplasms/therapy , Viscum album , Arnica/therapeutic use , Echinacea , Lachesis muta/therapeutic use , Thuya occidentalis/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 26(4): 379-384, 2010. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-721799

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El Herpes Labial Recurrente supone una condición inmunológica alterada, tal como una hiperactividad de células T-reguladoras CD4+CD25+ (Treg). Éstas ejercen control sobre la tolerancia periférica y reducen el riesgo inmunopatológico, suprimiendo otras líneas celulares. Por ende, la supresión ejercida sobre la reacción inmune antiviral podría afectar negativamente el curso de la infección. Este contexto ha impulsado la búsqueda de nuevas alternativas inmunomoduladoras como la Equinácea purpúrea. Dada su propiedad inmunosupresora, se propone en el tratamiento del Herpes Labial Recurrente. Metodología: Estudio clínico prospectivo que analiza las subpoblaciones linfocitarias en 12 pacientes con Herpes Labial Recurrente, antes y después de recibir Equinácea purpúrea (30 gotas tres veces al día durante siete días).Resultados: En comparación con individuos sanos, los pacientes presentan una respuesta aumentada de células Treg. Esta condición se reduce significativamente tras recibir Equinácea purpúrea (515 + 145 y 432 + 113 cel/mm3 antes y después del tratamiento, respectivamente, p < 0,005). Conclusión: La hiperactividad de células Treg podría explicar el estado de inmunosupresión de estos pacientes y favorecería la persistencia viral. Se propone esta fitomedicina como una alternativa inmunoterapéutica beneficiosa.


Background: Recurrent Herpes Labialis patients may suffer from immunological alterations, such as CD4+CD25+Regulatory-T Cell (Treg) hyperactivity. These cells control peripheral tolerance and reduce immunopathology risk by suppressing other immunological cells. Hence, the Treg cell suppression on the antiviral immune reaction may perturb adversely the herpes infection outcome. This scenario has forced physicians to explore new immunomodulatory alternatives in Phytomedicine, such as Echinacea purpurea. Regarding the immunosuppressive property, it has been challenged to be employed in the Recurrent Herpes Labialis management. Methods: Clinical prospective study that analyzed lymphocytic subpopulation profile in twelve patients with Recurrent Herpes Labialis, before and after receiving E. purpurea (30 drops three times a day during seven days). Results: Comparing to healthy subjects, patients presented an enlarged Treg cell response. This condition became significantly reduced after receiving E. purpurea. (515 + 145 and 432 + 113 cel, before and after treatment respectively, p < 0.005). Conclusion: The intensified Treg cell activity may elucidate the immune suppression these patients undergo, aiding the viral persistence and survival. This proposes E. purpurea asa beneficial immunotherapeutic alternative.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Echinacea/therapeutic use , Echinacea/chemistry , Herpes Labialis/drug therapy , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Echinacea/pharmacology , Herpes Labialis/immunology , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Herpesvirus 1, Human , Immunomodulation , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Prospective Studies , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Recurrence/prevention & control , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
12.
Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2009; 8 (32): 37-45
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-125422

ABSTRACT

Poultry Meat is one of the major sources of human food. The cholesterol level in poultry productions could be monitored by feeding different medicinal plants. The medicinal plants have hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was comparison hypolipidemic effect, hematocrit percentage and hemoglobin concentration in broilers given three commercial herbal extracts and virginiamycin. A total four hundred and eighty 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to the basal diet [control] and 0.15% [V/V] virginiamycin, 0.1 [V/V] extracts of thyme [Thymus vulgaris], coneflower [Echinacea purpurea], garlic [Allium sativum] and blend of extracts with the same dose were added to water. Total cholesterol [TC], LDL cholesterol, triglycerides [TG], HDL cholesterol, hematocrit percentage and hemoglobin concentration were measured after 42 days. Garlic [Allium sativum]significantly reduced the levels of TC, LDL and TG and significantly increased the level of HDL. Thyme [Thymus vulgaris] improved hematocrit percentage and hemoglobin concentration, but not significantly. Herbal extracts could improve blood factors in comparison with the control and antibiotic fed birds


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Thymus Plant , Echinacea , Garlic , Lipids/blood , Virginiamycin , Hemoglobins
13.
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2009; 57 (4): 669-681
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145917

ABSTRACT

Foot and mouth disease [FMD] is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The goal of the present study was to increase the efficacy of FMD vaccines by coadministration of Echinacea [herbal medicine for enhancing the immune system]. Two dairy farms [1 and 11] containing 1620 cows and calves were firstly monitored by nonstructural proteins [NSPs] antibody test for identifying the previous or current infections. The non-infected calves of 4 months old were selected in the 2 farms and divided into 4 groups of 90 calves. Group A was vaccinated with imported FMD vaccine [Raksha-Ovac, India] alone. Group B was vaccinated with imported FMD vaccine associated with Echinacea. Group C was vaccinated with local FMD vaccine alone and, Group D was vaccinated with local FMD vaccine associated with Echinacea. The efficacy of such vaccine either alone or associated with Echinacea were evaluated by determination of the antibody titers in the sera of vaccinated animals by ELISA and SNT. The results of NSPs antibody test revealed that 12 animals out of 820 were infected in farm I while 10 out of 800 were infected in farm II. ELISA and SNT results showed that, the protective antibody level was higher in sera of group B than group A in farm I and in group D than group c in farm II. This level was generally higher in farm I than farm II and continued until the 32[nd] and 40[th] week post-vaccination in group A and B of farm I respectively while in farm II it continued until the 20th and 24th week post-vaccination in group C and D, respectively. The association of Echinacea significantly enhanced the efficacy of both FMD local and imported vaccines and this is the first paper, to our knowledge, that described the association of Echinacea with FMD vaccines in the veterinary field with its use in treatment of infected animals


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinacea/drug effects , Vaccines , Treatment Outcome , Adjuvants, Immunologic
14.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2718-2720, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315379

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To make microscopic identification research of three Echinacea-species roots recorded in the United States Pharmacopeia.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The root transverse section and powder of E. angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea were observed. The main microscopic features were photographed.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The main microscopic features of transverse section and powder in three Echinacea-species roots are basically similar, except for some diagnostic differences. The results provide reliable reference for the authentication of raw materials of western herbal studies.</p>


Subject(s)
Echinacea , Cell Biology , Microscopy , Plant Roots , Cell Biology , United States
15.
Arab Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2008; 3 (8): 69-76
in English, Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-85801

ABSTRACT

Ecbalium elaterium, Convolvulus piosellifollus, Cyperus bulbosus and Echinacea angustifolia were selected for studying their hepatoprotective effects against induced liver toxicity by CCI4 in rats. The extent of liver protection is reflected by measuring the biochemical parameters: serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase [SGOT], serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT], alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and total bilirubin that indicate the condition of liver cells. Extracts that showed good reduction in the biomarker levels were further subjected for histopathological study to explore the extent of protection of hapatocytes. Only the extract of Ecbalium elaterium was effective in reducing the elevated enzyme levels at the 500 mg/kg dose. However, in the histopathological study the extract failed to restore the normal appearance of hepatocytes. All the results were compared with silymarin, as a reference hepatoprotective drug


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Animals, Laboratory , Convolvulus , Cyperus , Echinacea , Rats, Wistar , Cucurbitaceae , Plant Extracts , Carbon Tetrachloride/toxicity , Silymarin
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 55(1): 113-119, Mar. 2007. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-501493

ABSTRACT

The effect of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea roots on the murine antibody response to Bothrops asper snake venom in vivo was studied. Three groups were used. Group #1, baseline control, was treated with snake venom plus PBS. Group #2 was treated with snake venom plus sodium alginate as adjuvant (routine method used at Instituto Clodomiro Picado), and group #3 or experimental group, was treated with snake venom plus aqueous extract ofE. purpurea root as adjuvant. In all groups, the first inoculation was done with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA). By the time of the second bleeding, mice in group #3 showed a remarkable increment in the level of anti-venom antibodies compared with those in groups #1 or #2. In vitro immune cell proliferation as a response to aqueous extract of E. purpurea root was studied using human lymphocytes activated with different lectins (Con A, PHA and PWM). In all cases, increase in percentage of lymphoproliferation was greater when E. purpurea root extract was used in addition to individual lectins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Bothrops , Echinacea/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antibody Formation , Crotalid Venoms/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Cellular/immunology
17.
Journal of Veterinary Science ; : 341-351, 2007.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117484

ABSTRACT

Echinacea (E.) purpurea herb is commonly known as the purple coneflower, red sunflower and rudbeckia. In this paper, we report the curative efficacy of an Echinacea extract in gamma-irradiated mice. E. purpurea was given to male mice that were divided into five groups (control, treated, irradiated, treated before irradiation & treated after irradiation) at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for 2 weeks before and after irradiation with 3 Gy of gamma-rays. The results reflected the detrimental reduction effects of gamma-rays on peripheral blood hemoglobin and the levels of red blood cells, differential white blood cells, and bone marrow cells. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) level, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSPx) activities and DNA fragmentation were also investigated. FT-Raman spectroscopy was used to explore the structural changes in liver tissues. Significant changes were observed in the microenvironment of the major constituents, including tyrosine and protein secondary structures. E. purpurea administration significantly ameliorated all estimated parameters. The radio-protection effectiveness was similar to the radio-recovery curativeness in comparison to the control group in most of the tested parameters. The radio-protection efficiency was greater than the radio-recovery in hemoglobin level during the first two weeks, in lymphoid cell count and TBARs level at the fourth week and in SOD activity during the first two weeks, as compared to the levels of these parameters in the control group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Antioxidants/isolation & purification , Blood Cell Count , DNA Fragmentation/drug effects , Echinacea/chemistry , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Gamma Rays , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Leukocytes/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Radiation-Protective Agents/isolation & purification , Random Allocation , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
18.
Rev. ADM ; 63(6): 205-209, nov.-dic. 2006. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-481232

ABSTRACT

Se llevó a cabo un estudio cuasi experimental, doble ciego, paralelo, controlado con placebo (agua destilada, alcohol 87° y colorante vegetal), sobre la acción de colutorios de Echinacea angustifolia 2D (1 mL = 20 gotas, diluidas en 10 mL de agua) en gingivitis simple, en 61 escolares; 30 mujeres y 31 hombres entre 8 y 13 años. Realizaron colutorios tres veces al día durante 14 días después de su cepillado dental, se indicó mantener esta solución en la boca por 60 segundos, no ingerir alimentos o bebidas 30 minutos posterior a su aplicación. Se logró una mejoría estadísticamente significativa en los grados de gingivitis y en el porcentaje de placa dentobacteriana (PDB). En comparación con el placebo la Echinacea angustifolia exhibió una superioridad, eliminó en 19 de 31 casos la gingivitis simple y disminuyó el grado de gingivitis en los 12 casos restantes, el grupo placebo no mostró cambios. Con respecto al porcentaje de PDB en el grupo experimental, disminuyó en un 47 por ciento, pasó del 80 al 33 por ciento, en el grupo placebo disminuyó en 11 por ciento, pasó de 78 por ciento inicial a 67 por ciento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Child , Female , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Echinacea/therapeutic use , Gingivitis/drug therapy , Toothbrushing/methods , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Data Interpretation, Statistical
19.
Homeopatia Méx ; 74(638): 149-162, sept.-oct. 2005. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-526461

ABSTRACT

Como sabemos, la placa dentobacteriana (PDB) contiene diversos microorganismos que son factores predisponentes de diversas patologías bucales como la enfermedad periodontal y la caries, sta última relacionada con el aumento principalmente de uno de los tres estreptococos considerados como cariogénicos; Streptococcus mutans [..] El objetivo de este proyecto es evaluar el efecto de las tinturas madres Calendula officinallis y Echinacea angustifolia, para que inhiban el desarrollo del Streptococcus mutans. La investigación es prospectiva, experimental, comparativa y longitudinal. Se estudia "in vitro" la cepa de Streptococcus mutans G536, obtenida en medios de cultivo como son: Gelosa Sangre (GS), KF con TTC al 1% con tinturas y diluciones homeopáticas a 1:1; 1:3, 1:6; A los medios de cultivo se les agregó la tintura madre substituyendo el agua en forma proporcional. El medio de cultivo con Calendula officinalis mostró un mayor efecto inhibitorio que el medio de cultivo de Echinacea angustifolia, sin embargo, ambas presentaron mayor inhibición en las diluciones 1/1 y 1/3 como se ha reportado en investigaciones anteriores con Streptococcus de la Placa Dentobacteriana y tinturas homeopáticas.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Calendula/adverse effects , Dentistry , Echinacea/adverse effects , Streptococcus mutans , Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Dental Caries , Homeopathy , Mother Tincture
20.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 779-788, 2005.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200166

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Echinacea, a traditional plant medicine has been used as immune-stimulant. Recent studies have revealed that extract of Echinacea has immunostimulatory effects on human blood mononuclear cells. This study was designed for the purpose of screening the genes associated with immunologic effects of Echinacea on monocytes and dendritic cells using a cDNA microarray chip. METHODS: CD14+monocyte cells were cultured for one day with Echinacea extract (final concentration: 50 microgram/mL) in experiment 1, but were cultured without Echinacea in experiment 2. The gene expression of these cultured monocytes was analyzed using the cDNA microarray chip. Dendritic cells produced from CD14+monocyte were cultured for five days with GM-CSF and IL-4, and then cultured for one day with Echinacea in experiment 3, but were done without Echinacea in experiment 4. RESULTS: In experiments 1 and 2, there were 17 significantly expressed genes with average expression ratios above 2.5, including interferon gamma-inducible protein 30 (IFI 30), CDC (cell-division-cylcle)-like kinase 2 (CLK 2), syndecan binding protein (syntenin), superoxide dismutase 2, etc. In experiments 3 and 4, there were 24 gene, with significantly expressed genes were 24 genes, which were insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A), methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3, IFI 30, small inducible cytokine subfamily A, member 22, etc. The genes encoding CD44, IFI 30, mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC 1), chemokine receptor 7 (CCR 7), CLK 2, syntenin and cytochrome C oxidase subunit VIII were significantly expressed in both monocytes and dendritic cells cultured with Echinacea. CONCLUSION: This study employed a cDNA microarray chip to elicit the immune-associated gene profile; the expression was enhanced by Echinacea in CD14+monocytes and dendritic cells. Thus we laid the basis for the quantitative and functional analysis of genes induced by Echinacea in monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carrier Proteins , Dendritic Cells , Echinacea , Electron Transport Complex IV , Gene Expression , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Interferons , Interleukin-4 , Mannose , Mass Screening , Monocytes , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Phosphotransferases , Plants , Superoxide Dismutase , Syndecans , Syntenins
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