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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(2): 166-172, June 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287267

ABSTRACT

Resumen La hidatidosis, causada por el parásito Echinococcus granulosus, es una zoonosis endémica en la provincia de Santa Cruz asociada a áreas de producción ganadera. El hombre puede permanecer asintomático durante un largo período luego de la infección. Una vez desarrollada, la enfermedad representa un importante problema de salud pública debido a la complejidad y el costo de su tratamiento. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron determinar la prevalencia de contaminación ambiental por E. granulosus en zona rural y periurbana de la localidad de Los Antiguos, mediante la detección de antígenos específicos en heces caninas, e identificar factores de riesgo de transmisión. Entre mayo-2016 y abril-2017, se visitaron 38 chacras periurbanas y estancias rurales, definidas como "unidades epidemiológicas". Se analizaron 144 muestras de heces de caninos con téc nica copro-ELISA. Se realizó una encuesta epidemiológica de los pobladores rurales sobre patrones culturales relacionados a la hidatidosis. Se encontró un índice de contaminación ambiental del 17.3% y el 44.7% de las unidades epidemiológicas fueron positivas. Se identificaron prácticas de riesgo como faena domiciliaria (34.2%), alimentación de caninos con vísceras crudas (52.6%), y ausencia de desparasitación de perros (86.8%). Alrededor de la mitad de la población encuestada desconocía las formas de contagio y las medidas de prevención de la enfermedad. Este trabajo muestra un índice alto de contaminación y establece una línea de base para realizar comparaciones a futuro. También refuerza la necesidad de implementar medidas de educación, prevención y control de hidatidosis a nivel local de acuerdo a los programas nacionales.


Abstract Hydatidosis − caused by the parasite Echinococcus granulosus − is a zoonosis endemic to the province of Santa Cruz, associated with areas of livestock production. Once infected, man may remain asymptomatic for a prolonged pe riod but the disease has an important impact on public health owing to the complexity and costs of its treatment. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of environmental E. granulosus infection in rural and peri-urban areas of the town of Los Antiguos, through the detection of antigens in scattered canine feces, and to identify risk factors for transmission. From May-2016 to April-2017, 38 peri-urban and rural farms, defined as "epidemio logical units", were visited; 144 samples of canine feces were analyzed with the copro-ELISA technique. Rural settlers were enrolled in an epidemiological survey on cultural patterns related to hydatidosis. An environmental contamination index of 17.3% was found and 44.7% of the epidemiological units were positive. Risk practices were found, such as domiciliary slaughter (34.2%), canine feeding with raw viscera (52.6%), and lack of dog de worming (86.8%). In turn, about half of the surveyed population ignored the modes of transmission of the infection and the measures to prevent it. This work shows a high infection index in the area and establishes a baseline for future comparisons. It also reinforces the need to implement education, prevention, and control activities at the local level − according to national program guidelines − in order to reduce the prevalence of environmental contamination of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Echinococcus granulosus , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/prevention & control , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Feces
2.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(2): e1060, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280224

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hidatidosis es una zoonosis de distribución mundial con alta incidencia en Argentina, Uruguay, Australia, Grecia y Portugal. Dada la escasa sintomatología que habitualmente produce la enfermedad hidatídica, su diagnóstico se realiza de manera casual por estudios radiológicos fortuitos o durante una laparotomía por otras causas. Por otra parte, la volvulación del colon transverso es un evento raro en la población mundial. Objetivo: Analizar, basados en la literatura relacionada, un caso portador de ambas entidades simultáneamente. Caso clínico: Paciente de sexo masculino de 64 años con condiciones de vida deficientes, que acude a consulta por presentar cuadro clínico de oclusión intestinal mecánica. Los estudios preoperatorios muestran un quiste hidatídico en pulmón derecho. En el acto operatorio se encuentra otro quiste hidatídico en el lóbulo izquierdo del hígado y el colon transverso volvulado como causa de la oclusión. Conclusiones: Pocas veces coinciden 2 condiciones médicas infrecuentes en un mismo paciente. Ambas entidades suponen un reto terapéutico cuando se abordan en situaciones de urgencia como en el reporte. En zonas endémicas debe tenerse una alta sospecha clínica con el fin de obtener un diagnóstico adecuado y poder ofrecer un manejo oportuno. La cirugía, en la mayor proporción de pacientes, es prioritaria(AU)


Introduction: Hydatidosis is a worldwide distribution zoonosis with high incidence in Argentina, Uruguay, Australia, Greece and Portugal. Given the scarce symptoms usually produced by hydatid disease, its diagnosis is made inadvertently by fortuitous radiological studies or during laparotomy for other causes. On the other hand, transverse colon volvulus is a rare event in the world population. Objective: To analyze, based on the related literature, the case of a patient with both entities simultaneously. Clinical case: A 64-year-old male patient with poor living conditions came to the medical office due to a clinical picture of mechanical intestinal obstruction. Preoperative studies show a hydatid cyst in the right lung. During the operative act, another hydatid cyst is found in the left lobe of the liver, apart from the transverse colon volvulus due to the occlusion. Conclusions: Rarely do two infrequent medical conditions coincide in the same patient. Both entities pose a therapeutic challenge when they are approached in emergency situations, as they have been reported here. In endemic areas, a high clinical suspicion must be considered, in order to obtain an adequate diagnosis and be able to offer timely management. Surgery, in the largest proportion of patients, is a priority(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colon, Transverse/surgery , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/diagnostic imaging , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Laparotomy/methods , Review Literature as Topic
3.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 591-598, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058085

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En Chile, la hidatidosis, endémica a lo largo de todo el país e hiperendémica en algunas regiones, sigue siendo un problema de salud pública desatendido y poco abordado por el Estado. En la Región del Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, los casos reportados y los egresos hospitalarios aún muestran valores elevados, siendo esta zona representativa de riesgo medio. Objetivo: Estimar el riesgo de hidatidosis humana en esta región, estudiando la relación de las notificaciones y egresos con factores sociales y ambientales, tales como población, índice de pobreza, índice de escolaridad, alfabetización, temperatura media, precipitación media y masa ganadera ovina. Metodología: Se utilizaron regresiones de Poisson para estudiar los factores asociados a enfermedades de notificación obligatoria y egresos y el modelo Besag-York-Mollie para el riesgo relativo. Resultados: Los factores más relacionados con el riesgo absoluto fueron el índice de escolaridad como factor protector y las temperaturas medias como factor potenciador. La población ovina fue también un factor relevante especialmente al analizar la distribución del riesgo relativo. Las zonas de mayor riesgo en la región fueron La Estrella, Marchigüe, Litueche, Santa Cruz y Lolol según egresos, agregando a Pumanque y Peralillo según notificaciones. Éstas revelan una distribución de las zonas de riesgo de hidatidosis hacia la cordillera de la costa en esta región. Conclusiones: En esta región los principales predictores de riesgo de hidatidosis son el índice de escolaridad, la temperatura y la población ovina.


Background: In Chile, hydatidosis is endemic throughout the country and hyperendemic in some regions. It continues to be a public health problem that has been neglected and little addressed at the national level. In the Region of Libertador Bernardo O'Higgins, reported cases and hospital discharges still show high values, this area being representative of medium risk. Aim: To estimate the risk of human hydatidosis in this region, studying the relationship of notifications and hospital discharge rates with social and environmental factors such as population, poverty index, schooling, literacy, average temperature, average rainfall and sheep population size. Methods: Poisson regressions were used to study the factors associated with reported cases and hospital discharge rates and the BYM model for relative risk. Results: We found that the factors most related to absolute risk were the schooling index as a protective factor and the average temperatures as an enhancing factor. The sheep population size was also a relevant factor, especially when analyzing the distribution of relative risk. The areas of greatest risk in the region were La Estrella, Marchigue, Litueche, Santa Cruz and Lolol according to discharge rates, adding Pumanque and Peralillo according to notifications. These reveal a distribution of the zones of risk of hydatidosis towards the coastal mountain range in this region. Discussion/Conclusion. The more relevant factors associated to hydatidosis were schooling index, temperature an sheep population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Echinococcosis/etiology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Rain , Socioeconomic Factors , Temperature , Time Factors , Sheep , Linear Models , Poisson Distribution , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Geography
4.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 599-606, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058086

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las zoonosis son enfermedades o infecciones causadas por todo tipo de agentes etiológicos transmisibles desde animales vertebrados a humanos. Durante las últimas décadas, el riesgo para la salud ocasionado por diferentes zoonosis, ha sido generado por la distribución natural de los distintos agentes etiológicos y por la emergencia y reemergencia de estas enfermedades. Objetivo: Estudiar la distribución del riesgo de mortalidad de las cuatro principales zoonosis en Chile continental, basados en datos nacionales de mortalidad, con el objetivo de visualizar geográficamente donde focalizar los esfuerzos de control de estas enfermedades. Metodología: Se estima el riesgo relativo de las principales zoonosis en Chile, mediante estadística Bayesiana. Resultados: Se obtuvo la distribución de las cuatro principales zoonosis de Chile. Discusión/Conclusión: Se obtuvo la distribución de las cuatro principales zoonosis de Chile. Los mapas de riesgo obtenidos muestran una enfermedad parasitaria transmitida por vectores de alto riesgo en el norte, la enfermedad de Chagas; una enfermedad parasitaria de comunidades biológicas en que el hombre es un hospedero accidental, asociada a zonas ganaderas, prevalente en el sur, la hidatidosis; una enfermedad bacteriana transmitida por vertebrados, especialmente por roedores, donde el agua es un vehículo importante, dominante en el centro, la leptospirosis; y una enfermedad viral transmitida por roedores, muy dominante en el sur, la infección por hantavirus.


Background: Zoonoses are infections caused by all types of etiological transmissible agents from vertebrate animals to humans. During the last decades, the risk to health caused by different zoonoses has been a consequence of the natural distribution of the different etiological agents and by the emergence and reemergence of these diseases. Aim: To study the distribution of the risk of mortality of the four main zoonoses in continental Chile, based on national mortality data, with the objective of visualizing geographically where to focus the control efforts of these diseases. Methods: Relative risk was estimated by means of Bayesian Statistics. Results: The distribution in Chile of the main zoonoses was obtained. Discussion/Conclusion: The risk maps obtained show a parasitic disease transmitted by high-risk vectors in the north, Chagas disease; a parasitic disease of biological communities in which man is an accidental host, associated with livestock areas, more prevalent in the south, hydatidosis; a bacterial disease transmitted by vertebrates, especially by rodents, where water is an important vehicle, dominant in the center, leptospirosis; and a viral disease transmitted by rodents, very dominant in the south, the hantavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Zoonoses/etiology , Chile/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Chagas Disease/etiology , Risk Assessment , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/etiology , Echinococcosis/etiology , Geography , Leptospirosis/etiology
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(10): 1918-1922, out. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976376

ABSTRACT

Hydatidosis and cysticercosis are parasitoses caused by the larval forms of the cestodes Equinococcus spp. and Taenia spp., which belong to the Taeniidae family. Their definitive hosts are canids and humans, respectively, with ruminants as the intermediate hosts and humans as an accidental host of both diseases. These parasites are responsible for large economic losses in slaughterhouses due to condemnation of carcasses and by-products. The present study reports the mean incidence rates of hydatidosis and cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. The incidence rates observed between 2013 and 2016 were 19.96% and 0.9%, respectively, with decreased tendency of occurrence of both diseases in those years. Despite the downward tendency of the diseases, hydatidosis presented high incidence. Hydatidosis performance over the years was characterized by significant increase in the number of cases, followed by marked decrease. Cysticercosis presented a decrease in number of cases at the beginning and the end of each year. These diseases have a significant socioeconomic impact as they are responsible for large losses in the livestock industry, due to reduced productivity and carcass condemnation, and represent a risk to public health.(AU)


Hidatidose e cisticercose são parasitoses causadas pelas formas larvais dos cestódeos Equinococcus spp. e Taenia spp., pertencentes a família Taeniidae, possuem como hospedeiros definitivos canídeos e o homem respectivamente, sendo os ruminantes os hospedeiros intermediários, e o homem um hospedeiro acidental, em ambas as doenças. Estas parasitoses são responsáveis por grandes perdas econômicas em frigoríficos, devido a condenações de carcaças e subprodutos. O presente artigo relata que a incidência média de hidatidose e cisticercose em bovinos abatidos na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, entre os anos de 2013 e 2016, foi de 19,96% e 0,9% respectivamente, sendo avaliada uma tendência de queda no número de casos de ambas as doenças ao longo dos anos analisados. Apesar da tendência de queda das doenças, a hidatidose apresentou uma alta incidência. O comportamento da hidatidose ao longo dos anos foi caracterizado por aumentos significativos no número de casos da doença, seguidos por acentuadas quedas. Já a cisticercose apresentou uma diminuição no número de casos no início e no final de cada ano. Estas doenças apresentam grande impacto socioeconômico, pois são responsáveis por grandes perdas na pecuária, por redução na produtividade e condenações, além de representarem um risco à saúde pública.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cysticercosis/veterinary , Cysticercosis/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/epidemiology
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 116(3): 476-481, jun. 2018. mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-950031

ABSTRACT

La hidatidosis es una zoonosis parasitaria causada por Echinococcus granulosus. Es endémica en Argentina y en la Provincia de Buenos Aires, especialmente al sur de la cuenca del río Salado. Durante 2014 y 2016, se notificaron al Departamento de Zoonosis Rurales 479 casos de hidatidosis; el 12,1% fueron casos confirmados en menores de 18 años de edad. El 59% correspondió al sexo masculino y el grupo de 13 a 17 años fue el más prevalente (47%). El 64% tuvo afectación hepática; 22%, pulmonar; 5%, hepatopulmonar; 5%, esplénica y 4%, cerebral. El 33% de los casos fueron asintomáticos. El 60% residía en el área urbana y, de estos, un 20% no presentó nexo epidemiológico. Esta es una enfermedad de denuncia obligatoria y existen programas provinciales y nacionales que contemplan acciones gratuitas tendientes a controlarla, pero, a pesar de esto, continúa siendo un problema de difícil solución.


Hydatidosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It is endemic in Argentina and in the province of Buenos Aires, especially to the south of the Rio Salado basin. During 2014 and 2016, the Department of Rural Zoonoses was notified of479 cases of hydatidosis, with 12.1% confirmed in children under 18 years of age. Fifty-nine percent corresponded to males and the group of 13 to 17 years was the most prevalent one (47%). Sixty-four percent had liver involvement, 22% pulmonary involvement, 5% hepatopulmonary involvement, 5% splenic involvement and 4% cerebral involvement. Thirty-three percent of the cases were asymptomatic. Sixty percent resided in urban areas and of these 20% did not present an epidemiological link. This is a disease of mandatory reporting and there are provincial and national programs that contemplate free actions tending to control it, but despite this, it continues to be a difficult problem to solve.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Echinococcus granulosus/isolation & purification , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Zoonoses/parasitology , Prevalence , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Animals
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 77(6): 469-474, dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894523

ABSTRACT

In urban populations of South America, dogs with free access to public areas represent a public health concern. The primary consequence of roaming dogs on human health is the transmission of infectious and parasitic diseases mainly through feces contamination. The main diseases likely to be transmitted are hydatidosis or echinococcosis, larva migrans, and giardiasis. In Argentina, hydatidosis ranks among the most prevalent zoonosis. Although it is considered a rural disease, the circulation of this parasite in urban areas has been documented. The aim of this work was to survey intestinal parasites in canine feces from two low-income urban neighborhoods of Bariloche city, Argentina, and to assess their seasonal variation. During 2016, 188 fresh dog feces were collected from sidewalks in 40 randomly selected blocks from the neighborhoods. Each sample was processed by Sheater flotation and tested for a coproantigen (CAg) by ELISA. The percentage of parasitized feces was 65.3% (95% CI: 55.9%-73.8%). Eleven parasite species were found, 3 protozoan, 3 cestodes, and 5 nematodes. Echinococcus sp. was present in 9.3% of the samples (95% CI: 4.7%-16.1%). Canine echinococcosis rates resulted similar to rates found previously in other neighborhoods of the city. The life cycle of Echinococcus sp. is sustained in urban areas by the entry of parasitized livestock, domiciliary slaughtering, and inadequate deposition of offal. The risk of Echinococcus sp. transmission to people in these neighborhoods is very high, due to high density of free-roaming dogs and high percentages of infected feces, similar to percentages observed in rural areas.


En las poblaciones urbanas de América del Sur, los perros con acceso libre a áreas públicas representan un problema de salud pública. La principal consecuencia es la transmisión de enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias a través de la contaminación por heces. Las principales enfermedades que pueden transmitirse son hidatidosis, larva migrans y giardiasis. En Argentina, la hidatidosis es una de las zoonosis más prevalentes y aunque es considerada una enfermedad rural, algunos estudios muestran la circulación de este parásito en zonas urbanas. El objetivo fue registrar los parásitos intestinales en heces caninas de dos barrios de bajos ingresos de la ciudad de Bariloche, Argentina, y evaluar su variación estacional. Durante 2016, se recolectaron 188 heces frescas de perros en 40 manzanas seleccionados aleatoriamente. Las heces se procesaron mediante flotación de Sheater y una prueba ELISA de coproantigeno (CAg). El porcentaje de heces parasitadas fue del 65.3% (IC 95%: 55.9%-73.8%). Se encontraron 11 especies de parásitos, 3 protozoos, 3 cestodes y 5 nematodes. Echinococcus sp. estuvo presente en el 9.3% de las heces (IC 95%: 4.7% -16.1%). La equinococosis canina mostró valores similares a estudios previos en otros barrios de la ciudad. El ciclo de vida Echinococcus sp. se mantiene en las zonas urbanas por entrada de ganado parasitado, faena domiciliaria y deposición inadecuada de vísceras. El riesgo de transmisión de Echinococcus sp. en estos barrios es alto, debido a la alta densidad de perros sueltos y al alto porcentaje de heces infectadas, similar al de las zonas rurales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Protozoan Infections, Animal/parasitology , Cestode Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Nematode Infections/veterinary , Nematode Infections/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Seasons , Urban Population , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cestode Infections/diagnosis , Cestode Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis
8.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 34(3): 227-234, jun. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899705

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydatidosis is an endemic zoonosis in different areas of Chile, including the Region of Coquimbo, this is linked to the slaughter of cattle and presence of dogs. Objective: To identify risk factors related to hydatidosis in the home of high school students of Punitaqui. Material: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done by the application of a self-administered questionnaire to 274 students of high school. The information was analyzed by urban/rural area in five dimensions: knowledge, basic sanitation, keeping dogs, vegetable growing and cattle slaughtering and possession. Results: 84.6% of urban students reported not having received hydatidosis education. In rural areas, 93.5% reported owning dogs, with an average of 2.95 dogs/home (p < 0.001). In urban areas 44.4% of the dogs had not been dewormed and 60.3% (p < 0.001) was fed with viscera in rural areas. The 66.2% of cattle were goats and sheep and 64.5% (p < 0.001) of rural households did slaught. The main way to eliminate viscera was feeding the dogs. Conclusions: Risk factors that favor the presence of the parasite were present in relation to keeping dogs and cattle breeding and slaughter, which occurred mostly in rural areas, but being also present in urban areas.


Introducción: La hidatidosis es una zoonosis endémica en diferentes zonas de Chile y en la Región de Coquimbo, ligada a la faena de ganado y presencia de perros. Objetivo: Identificar factores de riesgo relacionados con hidatidosis en hogares de estudiantes de enseñanza media de la comuna de Punitaqui. Material: Se realizó un estudio transversal, descriptivo, aplicándose un cuestionario auto-administrado a 274 estudiantes de enseñanza media. Se analizó según zona urbana/rural en cinco dimensiones: conocimientos, saneamiento básico, tenencia de perros, cultivo de vegetales y, tenencia y faena de ganado. Resultados: El 84,6% de los estudiantes urbanos manifestó no haber recibido educación sobre hidatidosis. En zonas rurales, 93,5% señaló poseer perros, promediando 2,95 perros/vivienda (p < 0,001) y 60,3% (p < 0,001) era alimentado con vísceras. En zonas urbanas, 44,4% de los perros no había sido desparasitado. El 66,2% del alumnado declaró poseer ganado caprino y ovino y 64,5% (p < 0,001) de hogares rurales faenaba. La eliminación de vísceras era destinada principalmente para alimentación de perros. Conclusiones: Se presentaron factores de riesgo que favorecen la presencia del parásito, relacionados a la tenencia de perros y crianza y faena de ganado, los que fueron mayoritarios en sectores rurales siendo igualmente altos en zonas urbanas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Students/statistics & numerical data , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Urban Population , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(3): 282-286, jun. 2017. ilus, tab, mapas
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1038372

ABSTRACT

La hidatidosis es una zoonosis con una amplia distribución en Argentina y en el mundo. Se adquiere en la infancia, pero se presenta, más frecuentemente, en la edad adulta. La población pediátrica representa el 10%-20% del total de los casos. Se presentan 47 niños con diagnóstico de hidatidosis durante un período de 20 años. La mediana de edad fue de 8 años (rango: 3-17) y, en su mayoría, tenían algún antecedente epidemiológico orientador, como la procedencia de un área endémica, rural y/o la tenencia de perros alimentados con visceras. El 85% fueron quistes únicos localizados en un solo parénquima. Las localizaciones quísticas pulmonares y hepáticas fueron las más frecuentemente encontradas. El tratamiento fue médico-quirúrgico en 45 pacientes (96%). Trece (28%) presentaron alguna complicación posterior, que fue más frecuente en aquellos con localización pulmonar. Tres (6%) recayeron entre el mes y los 24 meses, y requirieron una nueva cirugía. Ninguno falleció a causa de la enfermedad parasitaria.


Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely spread across Argentina and worldwide. It is acquired during childhood but it is more common during adulthood. The pediatric population accounts for 10-20% of all cases. This study included 47 children diagnosed with echinococcosis over a 20-year period. Their median age was 8 years old (range: 3-17); most patients had some epidemiological history, such as having lived or living in an endemic or rural area and/or having dogs that are fed with viscera. Findings included 85% of single cysts in only one parenchyma. Cysts were most commonly located in the liver and lungs. Medical/surgical treatment was carried out in 45 patients (96%). Subsequent complications were observed in 13 patients (28%), which were more common in those with lung cysts. Three patients (6%) relapsed 1-24 months later and required a new surgery. No patient died as a result of the parasitic disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Echinococcosis/diagnosis , Echinococcosis/therapy , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 145(5): 603-609, mayo 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902518

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coquimbo Region in Chile has the highest incidence of hydatidosis in central and northern Chile. Aim: To analyze the incidence of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) in the Coquimbo Region between 2008 and 2012. Material and Methods: Official records of reported cases were analyzed. The association of the location, age and sex with the presence/absence of CE was analyzed by means of logistic regressions. The incidence was reported as cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Results: The mean annual incidence was 2.6 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which ranged from 3.1 (2010) to 1.9 (2012) cases. The districts with higher incidence were Punitaqui (21.2 cases), Paihuano (9 cases), Rio Hurtado (8 cases), Canela (8.1 cases), Monte Patria (7.9 cases), Vicuña (6.9 cases) and Combarbalá (6.9 cases). The incidence in these locations was significantly higher than elsewhere in the region. Males had a significantly higher incidence than females (3.3 and 1.8 respectively). Incidence increased significantly with age, notably increasing after 45 years of age. Conclusions: Rural locations had the highest incidences of CE in the Coquimbo Region. The disease was reported more commonly in adults and mainly in men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Chile/epidemiology , Incidence
11.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 51(1): 133-137, mar. 2017. map, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886107

ABSTRACT

La echinococcosis es un serio problema para la salud pública en Argentina. Es una zoonosis producida por el cestode de la familia Taeniidae, Echinococcus granulosus, siendo el perro el principal hospedador definitivo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la echinococcosis en perros en la zona de alta montaña de la provincia de Tucumán. La principal actividad económica en esta zona es la cría de ganado para consumo familiar, sobre todo ovino. Las condiciones climáticas, las distancias y la falta de movilidad adecuada hacen difícil el acceso a los servicios de salud y a los establecimientos educativos. Se evaluaron seis parajes en un primer estudio con 103 muestras de materia fecal canina y se encontró que el 39,8% (41/103) fueron positivas. El estudio se repitió en dos localidades después de desparasitar a los perros mensualmente durante dos años. En estas áreas se observó una disminución de muestras con resultado positivo; en Chaquivil la variación fue del 57,1% al 10,0% y en San José de Chasquivil, fue del 47,1% al 11,1%. Estos resultados llevan a la conclusión de que es necesario realizar y planificar las actividades de control. Sería de suma importancia realizar la evaluación en otras localidades.


Canine echinococcosis is a serious public health problem in Argentina. It is a parasite zoonosis produced by a cestode of the Taeniidae family, Echinococcus granulosus, the dog being the principal definite host. The objective of this work was to evaluate echinococcosis in dogs in the high mountain area of the province of Tucumán. The main economic activity in this area is livestock breeding, mostly sheep, for family consumption. Climate conditions, distances and the lack of adequate mobility make it difficult to access to health services and educational facilities. Six places of the region were evaluated. The first study was carried out with 103 samples of canine faeces, 39.8% (41/103) being positive. The study was repeated in two localities, after deworming dogs monthly for two years. In these areas, a decrease of positive specimens was obtained: in Chaquivil, variation was 57.1% to 10.0% and in San José de Chasquivil, it was 47.1% to 11.1%. These results lead to the conclusion that it would be necessary to conduct and plan control activities. The assessment of other locations would be of utmost importance.


A equinococose é um problema sério para a saúde pública na Argentina. É uma zoonose produzida pelo cestode da família Taeniidae, Echinococcus granulosus, sendo o cão o principal hospedeiro definitivo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a equinococose em cães na zona de alta montanha da Província de Tucumán. A atividade econômica principal nesta zona é a criação de gado para consumo familiar, principalmente o ovino. As condições climáticas, as distâncias e a falta da mobilidade adequada tornam difícil o acesso aos serviços da saúde e aos estabelecimentos educacionais. Seis lugares da região foram avaliados num primeiro estudo com 103 amostras da matéria fecal canina, sendo que 39.8% (41/103) foram positivas. O estudo foi repetido em duas localidades, depois de desverminar os cães mensalmente durante dois anos. Nessas áreas foi observada uma diminuição de amostras com resultado positivo; em Chaquivil a variação foi de 57.1% para 10.0% e em San José de Chasquivil, foi 47.1% para 11.1%. Estes resultados levam à conclusão de que é necessário realizar e planejar as atividades do controle. Seria de extrema importância fazer a avaliação em outras localidades.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/parasitology , Echinococcus granulosus/parasitology , Argentina , Dog Diseases , Echinococcus granulosus/microbiology , Zoonoses
12.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 33(4): 419-427, ago. 2016. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-830112

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in humans and livestock in the Los Ríos region during the years 1999-2009. Methods: A retrospective survey of all discharge records of patients undergoing removal of cysts produced by Echinococcus granulosus during the period 1999-2009 in the Hospital Clinico Regional of Valdivia was conducted. With the information provided incidence rate, mortality rate and fatality rate were calculated. Additionally, with the aim of determining prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock (i.e. cattle, sheep and pigs) official records of slaughtered animals for the same period from the Ministry of Health of Los Ríos region were searched. Results: During the ten-year period 238 new human cases were recorded, the average incidence rate for the period was 6.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, the mortality rate was 0.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the fatality rate was 1.3%. The most affected class group was the 15-64 years old with a 70% of cases. The districts more affected were Valdivia and Río Bueno. Most cases (54%) were from patients from rural areas, while the occupation more affected was housekeeping (29%). The liver (56%) and lungs (33%) were the localization where cysts were most frequently found. On 55% of cases, patients did not show any complication; meanwhile, infected cyst (11%) and unspecified complicated (8%) were the more frequent complication. Overall, 89% of cases recovered totally after surgery. Finally, the average in patient time was 14.7 bed-days. Prevalence of hydatidosis in livestock was 23% in cattle, 23% in sheep and 12% in pigs. The highest prevalence was found in slaughter houses in the districts of Panguipulli and San José de la Mariquina. Discussion: Human and animal hydatidosis is highly prevalent in humans and livestock in Los Ríos region compared to national and international records. Further research is recommended to assess risk factors for human infection and improving record-keeping and trazability of slaughtered animals to implement control measures at the farm level to help to stop the life cycle of the parasite and thus reduce human infections.


Objetivos y Métodos: Para determinar la prevalencia de hidatidosis humana y animal en la Región de Los Ríos durante los años 1999-2009, se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de las fichas clínicas de operados por esta enfermedad en el Hospital Clínico Regional de Valdivia. Se cuantificó morbilidad, mortalidad y letalidad y se determinaron algunas características epidemiológicas de la enfermedad. Adicionalmente, para determinar la prevalencia de equinococosis quística en el ganado, se analizaron los registros oficiales sobre la frecuencia de presentación de quistes en vísceras decomisadas en bovinos, ovinos y porcinos faenados en mataderos de la región durante el mismo período, obtenidos de la SEREMI de Salud. Resultados: Se registraron 238 casos nuevos en humanos con una tasa de incidencia promedio de 6,1 por 100 mil habs., una tasa de mortalidad de 0,1 por 100 mil habs. y una tasa de letalidad de 1,3%. En total, 53% de los casos fueron hombres y 47% mujeres. El grupo de edad entre 15 y 64 años fue el más afectado (70% del total). Las comunas con mayor número de casos fueron Valdivia y Río Bueno. Se detectaron más casos (54%) en zonas rurales que urbanas (46%). Por otro lado, la ocupación más afectada correspondió a dueñas de casa. La localización más frecuente fue hepática exclusiva (56%). Un 55% de los pacientes no mostró complicación de los quistes tratados. Después de la operación, 89% de los casos se recuperó totalmente, mientras que el período de hospitalización promedio fue de 14,7 días-cama por paciente. La prevalencia de equinococosis en ganado fue de 23% en bovinos, 23% en ovinos y 12% en porcinos. Las mayores prevalencias se reportaron en mataderos de Panguipulli y San José de la Mariquina. Discusión: La hidatidosis humana y animal son altamente prevalentes en la Región de Los Ríos comparadas con el resto del país y otras naciones. Se recomienda la realización de estudios avanzados para determinar factores de riesgo para la infección en humanos y realizar mejoras en la trazabilidad de los animales sacrificados para implementar medidas de control a nivel del predio y de esa forma cortar el ciclo del parásito y ayudar a reducir la infección en humanos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Swine , Sheep , Zoonoses/mortality , Chile/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Incidence , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Echinococcosis/mortality , Echinococcosis/veterinary , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(6): 372-377, June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784254

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis is a highly endemic parasitic zoonosis that is present in the Southern Cone countries of America. For several decades, various prevention and control programmes have been implemented in different countries and regions, with varying results. In Uruguay, a new control programme was implemented in 2006 that employed new strategies for canine diagnosis and treatment, dog population control, diagnosis in humans, epidemiological surveillance, and health education, including community participation. The control programme in Uruguay addresses the control and surveillance of the disease from a holistic perspective based on Primary Health Care, which has strengthened the community’s participation in developing and coordinating activities in an interdisciplinary manner. Similarly, the control programme that is currently implemented is based on a risk-focused approach. The surveillance and control measures were focused on small villages and extremely poor urban areas. In this study, the strategies used and the results obtained from 2008-2013 are analysed and discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Echinococcosis/prevention & control , Dog Diseases/parasitology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/veterinary , National Health Programs , Uruguay/epidemiology
14.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 6(3): 152-155, 2016. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1258745

ABSTRACT

Hydatidosis or hydatid cyst is a prevalent zoonosis all over the world due to larval forms of the tapeworm of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus is the most frequent form of echinococcal infection in humans. The disease generally results from an oral ingestion of the parasite ova eliminated with feces of dogs leading to the emergence of hydatid cysts.Hydatidosis is a health problem that may remain asymptomatic for several years. This disease is endemic in Morocco and is recorded to be a serious problem that requires great caution


Subject(s)
Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcus granulosus , Morocco , Parasites , Review
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116156

ABSTRACT

Hydatidosis has become a real concern for health care institutions and animal rearers in Tunisia. The Tunisian endemicity is aggravated by the growing number of dogs and the difficulty of getting rid of contaminated viscera because of the lack of equipment in most slaughterhouses. Therefore, microscopic and molecular tools were applied to evaluate the role of slaughterhouses in canine infection and Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) egg dissemination. Exposure risk to E. granulosus s. l. eggs in urban and rural areas was explored in order to implant preventive and adapted control strategies. Microscopic examinations detected taeniid eggs in 152 amongst 553 fecal samples. The copro-PCR demonstrated that 138 of 152 taeniid samples analyzed were positive for E. granulosus s. l. DNA. PCR-RFLP demonstrated that all isolated samples belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.). An important environmental contamination index (25.0%) by E. granulosus s. l. eggs was demonstrated. The average contamination index from the regions around slaughterhouses (23.3%; 95% CI: 17.7-28.9%) was in the same range as detected in areas located far from slaughterhouses (26.0%, 95% CI: 21.3-30.8%). Echinococcosis endemic areas were extended in both rural (29.9%, 95% CI: 24.8-34.9%) and urban locations (18.1%, 95% CI: 13.0-22.9%). The pathogen dissemination is related neither to the presence/absence of slaughterhouses nor to the location in urban or rural areas, but is probably influenced by human activities (home slaughtering) and behavior towards the infected viscera.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs/standards , Animals , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dogs , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcus granulosus/physiology , Environmental Exposure , Rural Population , Tunisia/epidemiology , Urban Population
17.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 421-424
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162393

ABSTRACT

Cystic echinococcosis (hydatid disease) arising from infestation with a larval or adult form of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm is endemic in certain states of India, but affecting interventricular septum (IVS) solitarily is a scarce phenomenon. We present a rare case of transesophageal echocardiography guided management of IVS hydatid cyst even during cardiopulmonary bypass, which presented with a rather unusual complaint of repeated syncope.


Subject(s)
Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/therapy , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/statistics & numerical data , Female , Heart Septum , Humans , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(2): 158-166, abr. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-747518

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydatidosis is mainly a slowly developing disease, so its appearance in children and adolescents means a relatively recent acquisition; its quantification at this age groups is an indirect mechanism for the evaluation of a prevention and control program. Objective: To characterize human hydatidosis in children aged 0 to 18 years in Chile. Material: Data from the Disease Notification System (2001-2009), hospital discharges (2001-2008), Deaths (2001-2008) and Years of Potential Life Lost (2001-2008) were used. Results: The incidence rate for the period was 4.4 cases per 100.000 inhabitants, male dominated. Hospital discharges rate for the period was 40.3 discharges per 100.000 inhabitants. The mortality rate for the period was 0.13 deaths per 100 000 inhabitants. Conclusions: The incidence rates of cases reported, hospital discharges and mortality tend to decrease. However, each new infection reflects the failure of prevention and control, which suggested to incorporate surveillance system tracking and monitoring of cases particularly children's domiciled contacts.


Introducción: La hidatidosis es mayoritariamente una afección de desarrollo lento y, por lo tanto, infecciones en la infancia y adolescencia traducen infecciones relativamente recientes; su cuantificación a estas edades es, indirectamente, un mecanismo de evaluación del sistema de prevención y control de la misma. Objetivo: Caracterizar epidemiológicamente la hidatidosis humana en pacientes entre 0 y 18 años de edad en Chile. Material: Se utilizaron datos del Sistema de Notificación Obligatoria (2001-2011), Egresos Hospitalarios (2001-2011), Defunciones (2001-2011) y Años de Vida Potencialmente Perdidos (2001-2011). Resultados: La tasa de incidencia para el período fue 4,4 casos por 100 mil habts., con predominio masculino. La tasa de egresos hospitalarios para el período fue 40,3 egresos por 100 mil habts. La tasa de mortalidad para el período fue de 0,13 defunciones por 100 mil habts. Conclusiones: Las tasas de incidencia de casos notificados, egresos hospitalarios y mortalidad tienden a disminuir. Sin embargo, cada nueva infección refleja el fracaso de las medidas de prevención y control. Se sugiere incorporar al sistema de vigilancia un seguimiento y monitoreo de casos contactos particularmente de menores de edad que compartan domicilio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Disease Notification , Echinococcosis/mortality , Hospitalization , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Sex Distribution
19.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 54(1): 69-81, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-754889

ABSTRACT

La hidatidosis o equinococosis hidatídica existe ampliamente en el mundo, pero no se encuentra en Cuba. El objetivo de la presente revisión es informar los resultados obtenidos en el tratamiento quirúrgico de la enfermedad hidatídica. Es un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo en el cual se estudiaron 19 pacientes portadores de quistes hidatídicos. Se analizó: localización, número, procedimiento quirúrgico utilizado, complicaciones y mortalidad de los pacientes operados en tres años y tres meses de trabajo en el Hospital Universitario Al Wahda en Thamar, Yemen (2006-2009). Realizamos una detallada revisión bibliográfica de los aspectos básicos de la enfermedad hidatídica en su presentación clínica y localización, los aspectos esenciales del diagnóstico y las variantes de técnicas quirúrgicas y médicas. Los quistes únicos localizados en el lóbulo derecho del hígado predominaron seguidos de la pulmonar, los cuales son mayormente únicos. La cistectomía y pericistectomía parcial fue la operación mayormente realizada y la bilirragia externa, la fístula broncopleural precoz y la sepsis del sitio quirúrgico fueron las complicaciones encontradas en estos pacientes. No se presentó reacción anafiláctica durante el acto quirúrgico en ninguno de los casos; pero falleció un paciente. La hidatidosis quística debe ser conocida por los cirujanos cubanos que presten sus servicios en zonas donde esta afección aparezca o sea endémica para manejar adecuadamente estos pacientes(AU)


Hydatidosis or hydatidechinococcosis is widely spread worldwide except for Cuba. Nineteen patients who had hydatid cysts were studied. Design, retrospective and descriptivestudy. There were analyzed location, number, surgical procedure, complications and mortality rate among the patients operated on in three years and three months of operation of Al Wahda university hospital in Thamar, Yemen, from August 2006 to August 2009. A detailed literature review was made on the basic aspects of the hydatid disease, its clinical presentation and location, the essential aspects of diagnosis and the surgical and medical variants as well as the description of the surgical aspects seen in 19 patients with hydatid cysts.Single cysts located in the right lobe of the liver predominated followed by pulmonary location, mostly single ones. Cystectomy and partial pericystectomy was the most used surgery whereas external bilerrhagia, early pleural bronchial fistula and surgical site sepsis were the most observed complications in these patients. There was no anaphylactic reaction during the surgical act in any case. Just one patient died.Cystic hydatidosis should be known by the Cuban surgeons who render their services in areas where this disease is present or endemic in order to properly manage these patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Echinococcosis, Hepatic/surgery , Echinococcosis, Pulmonary/surgery , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/surgery , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-19163

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease imposing serious threat on human health and great loss in livenotstock pastoralism remains a major public health problem in western China. To assess and monitor the effect of control program on transmission dynamics, we used the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep at slaughterhouse as an indicator during the period of 2007 to 2013 in Emin County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The results showed a significant decline trend of prevalence in all age groups during the 7 years when the control program was implemented; particularly, the rate was reduced by 72% after first 3 years. Among the sheep slaughtered, the age distribution evidenced that the prevalence increased significantly as the sheep grew older. The baseline data indicated that the rate was 4.5% at the age or =4 years. Earlier response to the intervention pressure was seen in the sheep at the younger age. Significant decline started from 2008 at the age or =4. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep may be used as an indicator to assess and monitor the transmission status during and after control program providing information for betterment of performance to sustain control strength.


Subject(s)
Abattoirs/statistics & numerical data , Animals , China/epidemiology , Echinococcosis/epidemiology , Female , Male , Prevalence , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology
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