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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786636

ABSTRACT

We identified the echinostome metacercariae in Chinese mystery snails, Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata, from Xiengkhuang Province, Lao PDR with morphologies of adult worms recovered. Total 20 snails were examined with artificial digestion method and then the collected metacercariae were orally infected to a mouse and a rat. Adult worms recovered from experimental animals were observed with a light microscope and a SEM. The metacercariae were round, 125×123 μm in average size, with a moderately thick cyst wall, collar spines distributed in the head collar and excretory granules in 2 canals of excretory tube. Adult flukes (3-week-old in a rat) were elongated, ventrally curved and 5.310×1.023 mm in average size. Head collar distinct, bearing 43 collar spines with 5 end group ones on each side. Oral sucker subterminal, prepharynx very short, pharynx well developed, and esophagus relatively short. Cirrus sac well developed, with a saccular seminal vesicle, and ventral sucker very large. Ovary round and on the median line of the body. Testes tandom and elongated. Eggs operculated, elliptical and 90×57 μm in average size. In the SEM observation, the head crown prominent, with 43 collar spines resembled with horns of younger stag. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the surface between the head collar and ventral sucker, and their densities were decreased posteriorly. Conclusively, the metacercariae detected in C. chinensis malleata from Lao PDR were identified as those of Echinostoma macrorchis based on the morphological characteristics of adult worms.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Asians , Crowns , Digestion , Echinostoma , Eggs , Esophagus , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Metacercariae , Methods , Mice , Ovary , Ovum , Pharynx , Rats , Seminal Vesicles , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786633

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). All fishes collected in 5 lakes were examined with the artificial digestion method. More than 10 species, i.e., Metagonimus spp., Pygidiopsis summa, Centrocestus armatus, Metorchis orientalis, M. taiwanensis, Clinostomum complanatum, Echinostoma spp., Stictodora spp., Diplostomum sp. and Diplostomid No. 1. by Morita (1960), of DTM were detected in fishes from 5 coastal lakes in Gangwon-do. Metagonimus spp. metacercariae were found in 52 (41.3%) out of 126 sea rundace, Tribolodon hakonensis, from 5 lakes, and their density was 14.6 per fish infected. P. summa metacercariae were detected in 48 (84.2%) out of 57 mullets from 5 lakes, and their density was 316 per fish infected. C. armatus metacercariae were detected in 7 (14.6%) T. hakonensis and 3 (15.0%) Tridentiger brevispinis from Hyang-ho, and 5 (19.2%) Acanthogobius flavimanus from Gyeongpo-ho. Stictodora spp. metacercariae were found in 4 fish species, i.e., Tridentiger obscurus, Tridentiger trigonocephalus, Chelon haematocheilus, and Acanthogobius lactipes, from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 15 C. complanatum metacercariae were detected in 2 (9.1%) crucian carp, Carassius auratus, from Songji-ho. M. taiwanensis metacercariae were found in T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho and Gyeongpo-ho and in Pseudorasbora parva from Gyeongpo-ho. Total 11 M. orientalis metacercariae were detected in 3 (6.3%) T. hakonensis from Hyang-ho. From the above results, it was confirmed that various species of DTM are infected in fishes from coastal lakes in Gangwon-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Carps , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Goldfish , Heterophyidae , Korea , Lakes , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea , Smegmamorpha
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761742

ABSTRACT

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from 2 representative visiting sites of migratory birds in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A totaly 220 freshwater fishes (7 species) were collected from Junam-jeosuji (reservoir), and 127 fishes (7 species) were also collected from Woopo-neup (swamp) in June and October 2017. As the control group, total 312 fish (22 spp.) from Yangcheon in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do were also collected in June and October 2017. All fishes collected in 3 sites were examined with the artificial digestion method. In the fishes from Junam-jeosuji, more than 4 species, i.e., Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Diplostomum spp. and Cyathocotyle orientalis, of DTM were detected and their endemicy was very low, 0.70. More than 6 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Metorchis orientalis, Clinostomum complanatum, Diplostomum spp. and C. orientalis, of DTM were found in the fishes from Woopo-neup, and their endemicy was low, 5.16. In the fishes from Yangcheon, more than 8 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Metagonimus spp., Centrocestus armatus, C. complanatum, C. orientalis, M. orientalis, Echinostoma spp., and Diplostomum spp., of DTM were detected, and their endemicity was relatively high, 95.48. The percentages of avian trematode metacercariae (ATM) were 99.6% and 94.7% in fishes from Junam-jeosuji and Woopo-neup whereas it was 74.1% in the control site, Yangcheon. The above findings suggested that migratory birds partly affect in endemicity of DTM in the fish in the 2 visiting sites in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.


Subject(s)
Birds , Clonorchis sinensis , Digestion , Echinostoma , Fishes , Fresh Water , Heterophyidae , Korea , Metacercariae , Methods , Republic of Korea
4.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(1): 41-50, Jan.-Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899316

ABSTRACT

Abstract Helminth parasites have been studied as potential accumulators for different pollutants. Echinostoma paraensei is a foodborne trematode whose vertebrate host, the rodent Nectomys squamipes, is naturally exposed to environmental pesticides. However, little information exists regarding the pesticide's effects on helminths. This study investigated the morphological effects on the trematode, E. paraensei, after experimental Roundup® herbicide exposure, in concentrations below those recommended for agricultural use. After two hours of exposure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed changes to the tegument, such as furrowing, shrinkage, peeling, spines loss on the peristomic collar, and histopathological evidence of altered cells in the cecum and acinus vitelline glands with vacuoles and structural changes to the muscular layers. Glycidic content was decreased, primarily in the connective tissue. As E. paraensei is an intestinal parasite of the semi-aquatic wild rodent, N. squamipes, it is predisposed to pesticide exposure resulting from agricultural practices. Therefore, we emphasize the need to evaluate its impact on helminth parasites, due to their pivotal role in regulating host populations.


Resumo Helmintos parasitos tem sido estudados como acumuladores potenciais para diferentes poluentes. O trematódeo E. paraensei tem como hospedeiro vertebrado o roedor Nectomys squamipes naturalmente exposto a pesticidas no meio ambiente. No entanto, pouca informação está disponível sobre os efeitos dos pesticidas em helmintos parasitos. O presente estudo investigou, em condições experimentais, os efeitos morfológicos no trematódeo E. paraensei após a exposição ao herbicida Roundup®, em concentrações abaixo das recomendadas para a utilização agrícola. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) mostrou após duas horas de exposição, alterações no tegumento, como enrugamento, contração e descamação com perda de espinhos no colar peristômico e análise histopatológica evidenciou células do ceco alteradas, as glândulas vitelínicas com vacúolos e mudanças estruturais nas camadas musculares. Diminuição do conteúdo glicídico, principalmente no tecido conjuntivo, também foi observado. Considerando a predisposição à exposição a pesticidas agrícolas de N. squamipes infectado por E. paraensei, são necessários estudos para avaliar o impacto de tais resíduos frente aos helmintos e seus hospedeiros.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostoma/drug effects , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Herbicides/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Echinostoma/ultrastructure , Glycine/pharmacology
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742285

ABSTRACT

Present study was performed to survey on infection status of Isthmiophora hortensis (formerly Echinostoma hortense) metacercariae (IhMc) in dark sleepers, Odontobutis spp., from some water systems of the Republic of Korea. A total of 237 Odontobutis spp. was collected in the water systems of 5 rivers, i.e., Mangyeong-gang (gang means river), Geum- gang, Tamjin-gang, Seomjin-gang, and Nakdong-gang. They were all examined with artificial digestion method for 5 years (2013–2017). A total of 137 (57.8%) Odontobutis spp. were infected with 14.8 IhMc in average. The prevalence was the highest in Nakdong-gang areas (62.9%) and followed by in Mangyeong-gang (57.1%), Geum-gang (56.3%), Tamjingang (54.8%), and Seomjin-gang (53.9%) areas. Metacercarial densities were 28.1 (Geum-gang), 13.9 (Mangyeong-gang), 13.3 (Nakdong-gang), 13.1 (Tamjin-gang), and 2.3 (Seomjin-gang) per infected fish. Especially, in case of Yugucheon (cheon means stream), a branch of Geum-gang, IhMc were detected in all fish (100%) examined and their density was about 48 per fish. By the present study, it was confirmed that the infection status of IhMc is more or less different by the surveyed areas and the dark sleepers, Odontobutis spp., are suitable fish hosts of I. hortensis.


Subject(s)
Digestion , Echinostoma , Metacercariae , Methods , Prevalence , Republic of Korea , Rivers , Water
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742219

ABSTRACT

Adult specimens of Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) were recovered from 2 riparian people who resided along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. In fecal examinations done by the Kato-Katz technique, they revealed echinostome eggs together with eggs of Opisthorchis viverrini (and minute intestinal fluke eggs) and hookworms. To recover the adult flukes, they were treated with praziquantel 30–40 mg/kg in a single dose and purged with magnesium salts. A total of 658 adult fluke specimens were recovered from the 2 people; 456 from case 1 and 202 from case 2. Specimens from case 1 consisted of 335 echinostomes (301 E. ilocanum and 34 species undetermined), 120 O. viverrini, and 1 Haplorchis taichui, and those from case 2 consisted of 36 E. ilocanum, 134 O. viverrini, and 32 H. taichui. Thus, the number of E. ilocanum specimens was 337 in total (average per person, 168.5). From this study, it is suggested that foodborne intestinal flukes and liver flukes are highly prevalent along the Mekong River in Savannakhet Province. The present report describes for the first time human infections with E. ilocanum in Lao PDR.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ancylostomatoidea , Echinostoma , Echinostomiasis , Eggs , Fasciola hepatica , Humans , Magnesium , Opisthorchis , Ovum , Praziquantel , Rivers , Salts , Trematoda
7.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2018. xxiv, 175 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046285

ABSTRACT

O uso de agrotóxicos na agricultura é motivo de preocupação devido a seu impacto no ambiente, saúde humana e animal. No Brasil, entre os herbicidas convencionais, o mais comercializado é o glifosato, representando a formulação comercial do Roundup®. Nesse estudo, relatamos os efeitos biológicos, morfológicos e na relação parasito-hospedeiro intermediário, após exposição do trematódeo Echinostoma paraensei a diferentes concentrações do herbicida Roundup® Original, em condições experimentais. Foram identificados efeitos biológicos significativos no que se refere a mortalidade in vitro dos estádios de miracídio, cercária, larva recém desencistada, helminto jovem e adulto de E. paraensei, bem como efeitos na taxa de desencistamento de metacercárias in vitro e na eclosão de miracídios. Efeitos morfológicos foram observados, como inchaço do tegumento com perda de espinhos no colar peristômico, descamação, presença de vesículas e contração muscular. Vacuolização de células do ceco com dano epitelial, ruptura do parênquima testicular, desorganização de ácinos de glândulas vitelínicas e tegumento alterado, com estruturas reduzidas e danificadas e camadas musculares desorganizadas, também foram constatados


Pela análise de citometria de fluxo, diferenciação morfológica e viabilidade de hemócitos de Biomphalaria glabrata infectado com E. paraensei e/ou exposto ao herbicida, foram observadas alterações no sistema interno de defesa do molusco. Três subpopulações de hemócitos foram definidas por granularidades diferentes (baixa, média e alta), e um aumento significativo de morte celular no grupo infectado e tratado pelo Roundup® Original. Pela análise de diferenciação morfológica, foi observado três tipos celulares distintos: células blásticas, hialinócitos e granulócitos, sendo os hialinócitos as células mais numerosas encontradas em todos os grupos experimentais, e o único tipo celular a mostrar diferenças entre todos os grupos. Os achados do presente estudo mostram que os estádios de E. paraensei foram afetados biologicamente e morfologicamente, pela exposição ao Roundup® Original em condições experimentais, assim como ocasionou um maior comprometimento do sistema imune do hospedeiro intermediário, provavelmente modificando essa interação. (AU)


Subject(s)
Agrochemicals , Pesticide Exposure , Echinostoma , Herbicides
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180608

ABSTRACT

A survey was performed to know the infection status of echinostome metacercariae in Cipangopaludina chinensis malleata snails from Korea. Total 75 snails collected in 5 localities, i.e., Imsil-gun, Jeollabuk-do, Hwasun-gun and Shinan-gun (Aphae and Jido), Jeollanam-do, and Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, were examined for metacercariae by the artificial digestion method. Infection rates of metacercariae were 80.0%, 66.7%, 100%, 60.0%, and 73.3%, and their densities were 39, 32, 183, 19, and 30 per snail infected, respectively. The metacercariae were round, 105–118×105–118 μm in size, with a thin cyst wall, collar spines on the head collar, and excretory granules in 2 canals of excretory tube. Adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, and 5,167×939 μm in average size. Head collar distinct, bearing 45 collar spines with 5 end groups on each side. Oral sucker subterminal, pharynx well developed, and esophagus somewhat short. Cirrus sac well developed, with a saccular seminal vesicle, and ventral sucker very large. Ovary elliptical and on the median line of the body. Testes tandem and slightly lobed. Eggs operculated, elliptical, and 90–103×55–60 μm in size. By scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent with 45 collar spines resembling horns of younger stags. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the body surface between the head collar and ventral sucker. Conclusively, it has been first confirmed that the life cycle of E. macrorchis is indigenously maintained in Korea, and C. chinensis malleata snails are popularly infected with the metacercariae of this echinostome.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Digestion , Echinostoma , Eggs , Esophagus , Female , Head , Horns , Humans , Korea , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae , Methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Ovary , Ovum , Pharynx , Rats , Seminal Vesicles , Snails , Spine , Testis , Trematoda
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69358

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma cinetorchis is an oriental intestinal fluke causing significant pathological damage to the small intestine. The aim of this study was to determine a full-length cDNA sequence of E. cinetorchis endoribonuclease (RNase H; EcRNH) and to elucidate its molecular biological characters. EcRNH consisted of 308 amino acids and showed low similarity to endoribonucleases of other parasites (<40%). EcRNH had an active site centered on a putative DDEED motif instead of DEDD conserved in other species. A recombinant EcRNH produced as a soluble form in Escherichia coli showed enzymatic activity to cleave the 3′-O-P bond of RNA in a DNA-RNA duplex, producing 3′-hydroxyl and 5′-phosphate. These findings may contribute to develop antisense oligonucleotides which could damage echinostomes and other flukes.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Catalytic Domain , DNA, Complementary , Echinostoma , Endoribonucleases , Escherichia coli , Intestine, Small , Oligonucleotides, Antisense , Parasites , Ribonuclease H , Ribonucleases , RNA , Trematoda
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-207495

ABSTRACT

Paleopathologists have begun exploring the pathoecology of parasitic diseases in relation to diet and environment. We are summarizing the parasitological findings from a mummy in the site of Lapa do Boquete, a Brazilian cave in the state of Minas Gerais. These findings in context of the archaeology of the site provided insights into the pathoecology of disease transmission in cave and rockshelter environments. We are presenting a description of the site followed by the evidence of hookworm, intestinal fluke, and Trypanosoma infection with resulting Chagas disease in the mummy discovered in the cave. These findings are used to reconstruct the transmission ecology of the site.


Subject(s)
Ancylostomatoidea , Archaeology , Brazil , Chagas Disease , Diet , Echinostoma , Ecology , Mummies , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases , Trematoda , Trypanosoma
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57434

ABSTRACT

Echinostoma hortense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) is one of the intestinal flukes with medical importance in humans. However, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of this fluke has not been known yet. The present study has determined the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense and assessed the phylogenetic relationships with other digenean species for which the complete mt genome sequences are available in GenBank using concatenated amino acid sequences inferred from 12 protein-coding genes. The mt genome of E. hortense contained 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 1 non-coding region. The length of the mt genome of E. hortense was 14,994 bp, which was somewhat smaller than those of other trematode species. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequence datasets for all 12 protein-coding genes using maximum parsimony (MP) method showed that E. hortense and Hypoderaeum conoideum gathered together, and they were closer to each other than to Fasciolidae and other echinostomatid trematodes. The availability of the complete mt genome sequences of E. hortense provides important genetic markers for diagnostics, population genetics, and evolutionary studies of digeneans.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Dataset , Echinostoma , Echinostomatidae , Fasciolidae , Genes, rRNA , Genetic Markers , Genetics, Population , Genome , Genome, Mitochondrial , Humans , RNA, Transfer , Trematoda
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36484

ABSTRACT

Echinostomes are intestinal trematodes that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans, in their adult stage and also parasitize numerous invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts in their larval stages. The purpose of this study was to compare Echinostoma malayanum parasite growth, including worm recovery, body size of adult worms, eggs per worm, eggs per gram of feces, and pathological changes in the small intestine of experimental animals. In this study, 6-8-week-old male hamsters, rats, mice, and gerbils were infected with echinostome metacercariae and then sacrificed at day 60 post-infection. The small intestine and feces of each infected animal were collected and then processed for analysis. The results showed that worm recovery, eggs per worm, and eggs per gram of feces from all infected hamsters were higher compared with infected rats and mice. However, in infected gerbils, no parasites were observed in the small intestine, and there were no parasite eggs in the feces. The volume of eggs per gram of feces and eggs per worm were related to parasite size. The results of histopathological changes in the small intestine of infected groups showed abnormal villi and goblet cells, as evidenced by short villi and an increase in the number and size of goblet cells compared with the normal control group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Size , Disease Models, Animal , Echinostoma/growth & development , Echinostomiasis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Intestine, Small/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-819735

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the prevalence of echinostome metacercariae in Filopaludina dorliaris (F. dorliaris) and Filopaludina martensi martensi (F. martensi martensi) and genotype variation of echinostome metacercariae by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis.@*METHODS@#Filopaludina sp. snails were collected from eight localities of Lamphun Province, Northern Thailand and examined for echinostome metacercariae. RAPD-PCR was used to analyze genotype variation of echinostome metacercariae.@*RESULTS@#A total of 3 226 F. dorliaris and F. martensi martensi snails were collected from eight localities. The overall prevalences of echinostome metacercariae in F. dorliaris and F. martensi martensi were 40.89% and 36.27%, while the intensity of infection was 20.37 and 12.04, respectively. The dendrogram constructed base on RAPD profiles, 4 well supported domains were generated; (i) group of metacercariae from Ban Hong, Mae Ta, Meaung, Pa Sang, Toong Hua Chang, and Weang Nong that were clustered in the group of E. revolutum, (ii) Ban Thi, (iii) Lee, and (iv) 3 adults of an out group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This research demonstrated RAPD profiling has been a useful tool to detect DNA polymorphisms to determine genetic relationship between echinostome metacercariae in Lamphun Province, Northern Thailand.


Subject(s)
Animals , Echinostoma , Classification , Genetics , Echinostomiasis , Epidemiology , Parasitology , Metacercariae , Classification , Genetics , Molecular Typing , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Snails , Parasitology , Thailand , Epidemiology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190466

ABSTRACT

Human cases of echinostomiasis have been sporadically diagnosed by extracting worms in the endoscopy in Korea and Japan. Most of these were caused by Echinostoma hortense infection. However, in the present study, we detected 2 live worms of Echinostoma cinetorchis in the ascending colon of a Korean man (68-year old) admitted to the Gyeongsang National University Hospital with complaint of intermittent right lower quadrant abdominal pain for 5 days. Under colonoscopy, 1 worm was found attached on the edematous and hyperemic mucosal surface of the proximal ascending colon and the other was detected on the mid-ascending colon. Both worms were removed from the mucosal surface with a grasping forceps, and morphologically identified as E. cinetorchis by the characteristic head crown with total 37 collar spines including 5 end-group ones on both sides, disappearance of testes, and eggs of 108x60 microm with abopercular wrinkles. The infection source of this case seems to be the raw frogs eaten 2 months ago. This is the first case of endoscopy-diagnosed E. cinetorchis infection in Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Animals , Colon/parasitology , Colonoscopy , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostomiasis/diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Male
15.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2014. x,119 p. ilus, mapas.
Thesis in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774278

ABSTRACT

A meningite eosinofílica é uma doença caracterizada pelo aumento de eosinófilos no líquidocefalorraquidiano (LCR), cuja causa mais comum é a invasão do sistema nervoso central porhelmintos. Entre os helmintos, destaca-se o Angiostrongylus cantonensis. O roedor Rattusnorvegicus é o hospedeiro natural definitivo e o homem atua como hospedeiro acidental e que podese infectar através da ingestão de moluscos crus ou mal cozidos ou alimentos contaminados com alarva L3. Recentemente, no Brasil houve quatro casos de meningite eosinofílica, devido à ingestãoou manipulação de Achatina fulica infectada. Foi realizado uma avaliação das alteraçõesmetabólicas, fisiológicas e histopatológicas em R. norvegicus experimentalmente infectados com100 larvas L3 de A. cantonensis e o estudo do efeito da infecção concomitante por Echinostomaparaensei e A. cantonensis sobre a atividade das aminotransferases ALT e AST, na concentração deproteínas totais, ácido úrico, ureia e análise histopatológica para compreender o efeito da infecçãoconcomitante em Biomphalaria glabrata. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a infecçãocausada por A. cantonensis em R. norvegicus promoveu alterações metabólicas hepáticas ehistopatológicas, caracterizadas pelo aumento da atividade das enzimas ALT, AST, GGT e ALKP,alteração no metabolismo glicídico, presença de infiltrado inflamatório, alterações hematológicassignificativas, além disso promoveu alterações histopatológicas no parênquima pulmonardemonstraram nos roedores a ocorrência de áreas de necrose e extensa fibrose, podendo estardiretamente relacionada com o desenvolvimento de hipóxia celular...


Eosinophilic meningitis is a disease characterized by increased eosinophils in the cerebrospinalfluid (CSF), which is the most commonly caused by invasion of the central nervous system byhelminths, as occurs in Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections. The rodent Rattus norvegicus is thedefinitive natural host and humans act as accidental hosts and can become infected by eating raw orundercooked snails or food contaminated with infective L3 larvae. Recently in Brazil there havebeen four cases of eosinophilic meningitis due to ingestion of infected Achatina fulica. Anevaluation of metabolic, physiological and pathological changes in R. norvegicus experimentallyinfected with 100 L3 larvae of A. cantonensis and study the effect of co-infection with Echinostomaparaensei and A. cantonensis on the activity of aminotransferases ALT and AST was performed inthe concentration total protein, uric acid, urea and histopathologic analysis to understand the effectof co-infection in Biomphalaria glabrata. The results showed that the infection caused by A.cantonensis in R. norvegicus promoted histopathological changes in liver metabolism ischaracterized by increased activity of ALT, AST, GGT and ALKP enzymes in glucose metabolism,inflammatory infiltrate, hematological changes significant in addition in addition histopathologicalalterations in lung parenchyma in rodents have shown the occurrence of extensive areas of necrosisand fibrosis, which can be directly related to the development of cellular hypoxia. The infectedsnails showed altered levels of aminotransferases and increased excretion of nitrogen products,histopathological findings showed a change in the distribution of A. cantonensis in the presence ofE. paraensei, indicating that the presence of this trematode may interfere with the dynamics of A.cantonensis...


Subject(s)
Rats , Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Biomphalaria/parasitology , Echinostoma , Heart Diseases , Rats
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7394

ABSTRACT

Three echinostome species, i.e., Patagifer bilobus, Petasiger neocomense, and Saakotrema metatestis, are newly recorded in the trematode fauna of the Republic of Korea. They were recovered from 3 species of migratory birds (Platalea minor, Podiceps cristatus, and Egretta garzetta), which were donated by the Wildlife Center of Chungbuk (WCC) and the Conservation Genome Resource Bank for Korean Wildlife (CGRB). Only 1 P. bilobus specimen was recovered from the intestine of a black-faced spoonbill (P. minor), and characterized by the bilobed head crown with a deep dorsal incision and 54 collar spines. Twenty P. neocomense were recovered from the intestine of a great crested grebe (P. cristatus), and they had a well-developed head crown with 19 spines and 2 testes obliquely located at the posterior middle of the body. Total 70 S. metatestis were collected from the bursa of Fabricius of 1 little egret (E. garzetta). It is characterized by stout tegumental spines covered in the entire leaf-shaped body, posterior extension of the uterus, presence of the uroproct and a well-developed head crown with 12 pairs of collar spines on each side. By the present study, these 3 echinostome species are newly added to the trematode fauna in Korea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Birds , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostomiasis/epidemiology , Female , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Species Specificity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103956

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of 37-collar spined echinostome metacercariae in freshwater snails was investigated in 6 districts of Chiang Mai Province, Thailand, from October 2011 to April 2012. A total of 2,914 snails that belong to 12 species were examined, and 7 snail species (Clea helena, Eyriesia eyriesi, Bithynia funiculata, Bithynia siamensis siamensis, Filopaludina doliaris, Filopaludina sumatrensis polygramma, and Filopaludina martensi martensi) were found infected with echinostome metacercariae. The prevalence of metacercariae was the highest in Filopaludina spp. (38.5-58.7%) followed by B. funiculata (44.0%), E. eyriesi (12.5%), B. siamensis siamensis (8.2%), and C. helena (5.1%). Metacercariae were experimentally fed to hamsters and domestic chicks, and adult flukes were recovered from both hosts at days 15 and 20 post-infection. The adult flukes were identified based on morphological features, morphometrics, host-parasite relationships, and geographical distribution. They were compatible to Echinostoma revolutum or Echinostoma jurini, with only minor differences. As the adults were recovered from both hamsters and chicks, our specimens were more compatible to E. revolutum rather than E. jurini (reported only from mammals). This is the first report for metacercariae of E. revolutum in the snail host, C. helena, and also confirmed that Filopaludina spp., E. eryresi, and Bithynia spp. act as the second intermediate hosts of E. revolutum under natural conditions, which are indigenously distributed in Chiang Mai province.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens , Cricetinae , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Fresh Water , Life Cycle Stages , Metacercariae/anatomy & histology , Prevalence , Snails/parasitology , Thailand/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103955

ABSTRACT

The echinostome metacercariae encysted in Cipangopaludina sp. snails that were purchased from a market in Vientiane Municipality, Lao PDR, were identified as Echinostoma macrorchis (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) through recovery of adult flukes after experimental infection to rats and a cat. The metacercariae were round, 113-128 (121)x113-125 (120) microm, having a thick cyst wall, a head collar armed with collar spines, and excretory granules. The adult flukes recovered from the rats and cat at day 14 and 30 post-infection, respectively, were elongated, ventrally curved, and 3.9-6.3x0.7-1.1 mm in size. The head collar was distinct, bearing 43-45 collar spines with 5 angle spines on each side. Two testes were large (as the name implies), tandem, and slightly constricted at the middle, with irregular margins. Eggs were operculated, ovoid to elliptical, and 88-95x56-60 microm. In scanning electron microscopy, the head collar was prominent, with 43-45 collar spines. Scale-like tegumental spines were densely distributed on the ventral surface between the oral and ventral suckers. Sensory papillae were distributed mainly on the tegument around the 2 suckers. It is confirmed that E. macrorchis is distributed in Lao PDR using Cipangopaludina sp. snails as the second intermediate host.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Animal Structures/anatomy & histology , Animals , Biometry , Cats , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Laos , Microscopy/methods , Parasitology/methods , Rats , Snails/parasitology
19.
In. Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Reinhard, Karl Jan; Araújo, Adauto. Fundamentos da paleoparasitologia. Rio de Janeiro, Editora Fiocruz, 2011. p.263-281, ilus, graf. (Temas em saúde).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-638244
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107274

ABSTRACT

We detected metacercariae of Echinostoma revolutum in Filopaludina sp. snails purchased from a local market in Nam Dinh Province for the first time in Vietnam. Adult flukes were harvested from experimentally infected hamsters at days 14 and 17 post-infection. The metacercariae were round, 170-190 microm (n=15) in diameter, with a cyst wall thickness of about 12 microm. A total of 37 collar spines were arranged around the head collar, and large excretory granules were seen in 2 canals of the excretory bladder. The 14-day old adult flukes were elongated, ventrally curved, and 5.0-7.2x0.8-1.3 mm (n=20). The head collar had a total of 37 collar spines arranged in 2 alternating rows, including 5 corner spines on each side. The cirrus sac contained a saccular seminal vesicle, a prostatic gland, and an unarmed cirrus. Two tandem testes were smooth or slightly lobed. Eggs were ovoid to elliptical, 110-118x70-75 microm. These morphological characters were similar to those of E. revolutum and E. jurini. We tentatively identified it as E. revolutum because the validity of E. jurini remains to be elucidated. The taxonomic relationship of E. revolutum and E. jurini is discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cricetinae , Echinostoma/anatomy & histology , Echinostomiasis/parasitology , Female , Metacercariae/anatomy & histology , Snails/parasitology , Vietnam
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