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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810980

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the ability of readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI)-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in assessing the microstructural change of extraocular muscles (EOMs) and optic nerves in patients with thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) as well as in evaluating disease activity.MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 35 TAO patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs) who underwent pre-treatment rs-EPI-based DTI. Mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, AD, and RD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the medial and lateral EOMs and optic nerve for each orbit were calculated and compared between TAO and HC groups and between active and inactive TAO groups. Factors such as age, sex, disease duration, mediation, and smoking history between groups were also compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of significant variables for disease activity.RESULTS: Disease duration was significantly shorter in active TAOs than in inactive ones (p < 0.001). TAO patients showed significantly lower FA and higher MD, AD, and RD than HCs for both medial and lateral EOMs (p < 0.001), but not the AD value of lateral EOMs (p = 0.619). Active patients had significantly higher FA, MD, and AD than inactive patients for medial EOMs (p < 0.005), whereas only FA differed significantly in the lateral EOMs (p = 0.018). The MD, AD, and RD of optic nerves were significantly lower in TAO patients than HCs (p < 0.05), except for FA (p = 0.129). Multivariate analysis showed that the MD of medial EOMs and disease duration were significant predictors for disease activity. The combination of these two parameters showed optimal diagnostic efficiency for disease activity (area under the curve, 0.855; sensitivity, 68.4%; specificity, 96.9%).CONCLUSION: rs-EPI-based DTI is promising in assessing microstructural changes of EOMs and optic nerves and can help to indicate the disease activity of TAO, especially through the MD of medial EOMs.


Subject(s)
Anisotropy , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Diffusion , Echo-Planar Imaging , Humans , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Muscles , Negotiating , Optic Nerve , Orbit , Sensitivity and Specificity , Smoke , Smoking , Troleandomycin
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764180

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of the use of spin-echo echo-planar imaging (SE-EPI) magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in livers of children and young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (≤ 20 years old) who underwent 3T SE-EPI MRE were included retrospectively. Subjects were divided into three groups according to the purpose of the liver MRI: suspicion of fatty liver or focal fat deposition in the liver (FAT group), liver fibrosis after receiving a Kasai operation from biliary atresia (BA group), and hepatic iron deposition after receiving chemotherapy or transfusions (IRON group). Technical failure of MRE was defined when a stiffness map showed no pixel value with a confidence index higher than 95%, and the patients were divided as success and failure groups accordingly. Clinical findings including age, gender, weight, height, and body mass index and magnetic resonance imaging results including proton density fat fraction (PDFF), T2*, and MRE values were assessed. Factors affecting failure of MRE were evaluated and the image quality in wave propagation image and stiffness map was evaluated using the appropriate scores. RESULTS: Among total 240 patients (median 15 years, 211 patients in the FAT, 21 patients in the BA, and 8 patients in the IRON groups), technical failure was noted in six patients in the IRON group (6/8 patients, 75%), while there were no failures noted in the FAT and BA groups. These six patients had T2* values ranging from 0.9 to 3.8 ms. The image quality scores were not significantly different between the FAT and BA groups (P > 0.999), while the scores were significantly lower in the IRON group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The 3T SE-EPI MRE in children and young adults had a high technical success rate. The technical failure was occurred in children with decreased T2* value (≤ 3.8 ms) from iron deposition.


Subject(s)
Biliary Atresia , Body Mass Index , Child , Drug Therapy , Echo-Planar Imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Fatty Liver , Humans , Iron , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Protons , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1138-1145, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of brain segments by using two diffusion-weighted imaging acquisition modes, single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and read-out-segmented echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI), and to assess their correlation and agreement in healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T2-weighted (T2W) images, rs-EPI, and ss-EPI of 30 healthy subjects were acquired using a 3T magnetic resonance scanner. The T2W images were co-registered to the rs-EPI and ss-EPI, which were then segmented into the gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to generate masking templates. ADC maps of rs-EPI and ss-EPI were also segmented into the GM, WM, and CSF by using the generated templates. ADCs of rs-EPI and ss-EPI were compared using Student's t tests and correlated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Bland-Altman plots were used to assess the agreement between acquisitions.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Diffusion , Echo-Planar Imaging , Gray Matter , Healthy Volunteers , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Masks , White Matter
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715447

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic performance of readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RS-EPI)-based diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and that of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for differentiating malignant from benign masses in head and neck region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between December 2014 and April 2016, we retrospectively enrolled 72 consecutive patients with head and neck masses who had undergone RS-EPI-based DKI scan (b value of 0, 500, 1000, and 1500 s/mm2) for pretreatment evaluation. Imaging data were post-processed by using monoexponential and diffusion kurtosis (DK) model for quantitation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), apparent diffusion for Gaussian distribution (Dapp), and apparent kurtosis coefficient (Kapp). Unpaired t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare differences of quantitative parameters between malignant and benign groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine and compare the diagnostic ability of quantitative parameters in predicting malignancy. RESULTS: Malignant group demonstrated significantly lower ADC (0.754 ± 0.167 vs. 1.222 ± 0.420, p < 0.001) and Dapp (1.029 ± 0.226 vs. 1.640 ± 0.445, p < 0.001) while higher Kapp (1.344 ± 0.309 vs. 0.715 ± 0.249, p < 0.001) than benign group. Using a combination of Dapp and Kapp as diagnostic index, significantly better differentiating performance was achieved than using ADC alone (area under curve: 0.956 vs. 0.876, p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Compared to DWI, DKI could provide additional data related to tumor heterogeneity with significantly better differentiating performance. Its derived quantitative metrics could serve as a promising imaging biomarker for differentiating malignant from benign masses in head and neck region.


Subject(s)
Diffusion , Echo-Planar Imaging , Head , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neck , Population Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-107504

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (DW-SSFP) in comparison to diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging (DW-EPI) for differentiating the neoplastic and benign osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 40 patients with recent vertebral compression fractures but no history of vertebroplasty, spine operation, or chemotherapy. They had received 3-Tesla (T) spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including both DW-SSFP and DW-EPI sequences. The 40 patients included 20 with neoplastic vertebral fracture and 20 with benign osteoporotic vertebral fracture. In each fracture lesion, we obtained the signal intensity normalized by the signal intensity of normal bone marrow (SI norm) on DW-SSFP and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on DW-EPI. The correlation between the SI norm and the ADC in each lesion was analyzed using linear regression. The optimal cut-off values for the diagnosis of neoplastic fracture were determined in each sequence using Youden's J statistics and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. RESULTS: In the neoplastic fracture, the median SI norm on DW-SSFP was higher and the median ADC on DW-EPI was lower than the benign osteoporotic fracture (5.24 vs. 1.30, P = 0.032, and 0.86 vs. 1.48, P = 0.041, respectively). Inverse linear correlations were evident between SI norm and ADC in both neoplastic and benign osteoporotic fractures (r = −0.45 and −0.61, respectively). The optimal cut-off values for diagnosis of neoplastic fracture were SI norm of 3.0 in DW-SSFP with the sensitivity and specificity of 90.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 81.0–99.0) and 95.3% (95% CI: 90.0–100.0), respectively, and ADC of 1.3 in DW-EPI with the sensitivity and specificity of 90.5% (95% CI: 80.0–100.0) and 70.4% (95% CI: 60.0–80.0), respectively. CONCLUSION: In 3-T MRI, DW-SSFP has comparable sensitivity and specificity to DW-EPI in differentiating the neoplastic vertebral fracture from the benign osteoporotic vertebral fracture.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Diffusion , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Drug Therapy , Echo-Planar Imaging , Fractures, Compression , Fractures, Spontaneous , Humans , Linear Models , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Osteoporotic Fractures , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spine , Vertebroplasty
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119938

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report the use of multiband accelerated echo-planar imaging (EPI) for resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to achieve rapid high temporal resolution at 3T compared to conventional EPI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: rs-fMRI data were acquired from 20 healthy right-handed volunteers by using three methods: conventional single-band gradient-echo EPI acquisition (Data 1), multiband gradient-echo EPI acquisition with 240 volumes (Data 2) and 480 volumes (Data 3). Temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) maps were obtained by dividing the mean of the time course of each voxel by its temporal standard deviation. The resting-state sensorimotor network (SMN) and default mode network (DMN) were estimated using independent component analysis (ICA) and a seed-based method. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed between the tSNR map, SMN, and DMN from the three data sets for between-group analysis. P < 0.05 with a family-wise error (FWE) correction for multiple comparisons was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA and post-hoc two-sample t-tests showed that the tSNR was higher in Data 1 than Data 2 and 3 in white matter structures such as the striatum and medial and superior longitudinal fasciculus. One-way ANOVA revealed no differences in SMN or DMN across the three data sets. CONCLUSION: Within the adapted metrics estimated under specific imaging conditions employed in this study, multiband accelerated EPI, which substantially reduced scan times, provides the same quality image of functional connectivity as rs-fMRI by using conventional EPI at 3T. Under employed imaging conditions, this technique shows strong potential for clinical acceptance and translation of rs-fMRI protocols with potential advantages in spatial and/or temporal resolution. However, further study is warranted to evaluate whether the current findings can be generalized in diverse settings.


Subject(s)
Dataset , Echo-Planar Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Volunteers , White Matter
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-77114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of upper abdominal organs with 2 different 3.0 tesla MR systems and to investigate the usefulness of normalization using the spleen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective study, of which, 35 patients (M:F, 27:8; mean age ± standard deviation, 62.3 ± 12.3 years) were finally analyzed. In addition to the routine liver MR protocol, single-shot spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging using b values of 0, 50, 400, and 800 s/mm2 in 2 different MR systems was performed. ADC values of the liver, spleen, pancreas, kidney and liver lesion (if present) were measured and analyzed. ADC values of the spleen were used for normalization. The Pearson correlation, Spearman correlation, paired sample t test, Wilcoxon signed rank test and Bland-Altman method were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: For all anatomical regions and liver lesions, both non-normalized and normalized ADC values from 2 different MR systems showed significant correlations (r = 0.5196-0.8488). Non-normalized ADC values of both MR systems differed significantly in all anatomical regions and liver lesions (p < 0.001). However, the normalized ADC of all anatomical regions and liver lesions did not differ significantly (p = 0.065-0.661), with significantly lower coefficient of variance than that of non-normalized ADC (p < 0.009). CONCLUSION: Normalization of the abdominal ADC values using the spleen as a reference organ reduces differences between different MR systems, and could facilitate consistent use of ADC as an imaging biomarker for multi-center or longitudinal studies.


Subject(s)
Aged , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echo-Planar Imaging , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Spleen/diagnostic imaging
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99443

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value using single-shot echo-planar imaging sequences at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign fracture edema and tumor infiltration of the vertebral body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 46 spinal examinations were included in the 1.5T MRI group, and a total of 40 spinal examinations were included in the 3T MRI group. The ADC values of the lesion were measured and calculated. The diagnostic performance of the conventional MR image containing sagittal T2-weighted fat saturated image and each diffusion weighted image (DWI) with an ADC value with different b values were evaluated. RESULTS: The mean ADC value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T (p 0.05). The diagnostic accuracies were higher when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T. Statistical differences between 1.5T and 3T or between b values of 400 and 1000 were not seen. CONCLUSION: The ADC values of the benign lesions were significantly higher than those of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T. There was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performances when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to the routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T.


Subject(s)
Diffusion , Echo-Planar Imaging , Edema , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Spine
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82813

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Advances of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), especially that of the Ultra-High Field (UHF) MRI will be reviewed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diffusion MRI data was obtained from a healthy adult young male of age 30 using a 7.0T research MRI scanner (Magnetom, Siemens) with 40 mT/m maximum gradient field. The specific imaging parameters used for the data acquisition were a single shot DW echo planar imaging. RESULTS: Three areas of the imaging experiments are focused on for the study, namely the anatomy, angiography, and tractography. CONCLUSION: It is envisioned that, in near future, there will be more 7.0T MRIs for brain research and explosive clinical application research will also be developed, for example in the area of connectomics in neuroscience and clinical neurology and neurosurgery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Angiography , Brain , Connectome , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echo-Planar Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neurology , Neurosciences , Neurosurgery
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Understanding the neural functional organization of swallowing in the elderly is essential when diagnosing and treating older adults with swallowing difficulties. While brain-imaging studies in young adults have implicated multiple cortical regions in swallowing, only a few investigations were performed on older subjects. In this study, we aimed to compare neural activation in regions for swallowing between healthy young and older adults and to better understand neural control of deglutition, complex sensory-motor process which occurs as a result of old age. METHOD: Fifteen young and fifteen older healthy individuals without a swallowing problem were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during voluntary saliva swallowing. Functional image data was obtained with a T2 gradient-echo, echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence optimized for blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast. Two samples t-test was conducted to perform group comparison (younger adults versus older adults) for the areas in which the activation was larger for the swallowing condition than the non-swallow condition. RESULT: Both groups showed activations in areas involved in the motor control and execution. In both groups, main regions of activation included bilateral prefrontal cortex, primary somatosensory cortex, insula, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Between-group comparisons revealed statistically stronger activations in the prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus of older adults during swallowing. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that swallowing requires larger and more widespread areas of neural control in older adults group, especially in prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus. These findings suggest that more demanding swallowing tasks are necessary for elderly patients because of their inefficient neural network due to their age.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Basal Ganglia , Cerebellum , Deglutition , Echo-Planar Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Prefrontal Cortex , Saliva , Somatosensory Cortex , Temporal Lobe , Young Adult
11.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 709-721, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-744854

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as causas múltiplas de morte de uma coorte de pacientes notificados com tuberculose (TB) e apresentar uma proposta de investigação de causas presumíveis. Realizou-se linkage probabilístico entre o Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) 2006 e o Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM), 2006-2008. Ocorreram 825 mortes, das quais 23% por TB, 16% com TB e 61% sem menção da TB. Duzentos e quinze (42,7%) óbitos ocorreram antes do término do esquema básico de tratamento e não tinham menção da TB, cujo perfil foi distinto do padrão quando a TB era uma das causas associadas. A elevada frequência de doenças do aparelho respiratório, AIDS e causas mal definidas sugerem falha na qualidade da informação. Elaborou-se proposta de correção das causas associadas no SIM e de investigação de óbito com base na relação de causas presumíveis. De acordo com a proposta, 26 óbitos poderiam ter a causa básica modificada. Este estudo destaca a gravidade do quadro da TB e a importância do linkage para a vigilância da TB e melhoria das informações do SIM e do SINAN.


The objective of this study was to analyze the multiple causes of death in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis (TB) and to introduce an investigation proposal death for TB from a list of presumable causes. We performed a probabilistic record linkage with the databases of the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN) 2006 and the Mortality Information System (SIM) 2006-2008. There were 825 deaths, of which 23% for death for TB, deaths due to TB with 16% and 61% without mention of TB. Two hundred and fifteen (42.7%) deaths occurred within the period of treatment, whose profile differed from the pattern of causes when TB was an associated cause, with high frequency of respiratory diseases, AIDS and ill-defined causes. We elaborated a proposal for correction of associated causes of death and an investigation proposal death for TB from a list of presumable causes. According to the proposal, 26 deaths could have modified the underlying cause. This study highlights the importance of record linkage to TB surveillance and improvement of information the SIM and SINAN.


El objetivo fue analizar las múltiples causas de muerte en una cohorte de pacientes con tuberculosis (TB) y presentar una propuesta de investigación de las causas presumibles. Hicieron linkage probabilística entre el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Declaración Obligatoria (SINAN) 2006 y el Sistema de Información sobre Mortalidad (SIM) 2006-2008. 825 muertes, de las cuales 23% para TB, 16% con TB y 61% sin mención de TB. Doscientos quince (42,7%) muertes ocurrieron antes del final de el tratamiento primario y tenía ninguna mención de TB, cuyo perfil era distinto del patrón observado cuando la TB era una causa asociada. La alta frecuencia de enfermedades respiratorias, SIDA y causas mal definidas sugieren insuficiencia en la calidad de la información. Hemos preparado propuestas de corrección de la causa asociada en el SIM y de investigación de muerte basado en las causas presumibles. De acuerdo con la propuesta, 26 muertes podrían haber modificado la causa subyacente. Destacase la gravedad de la TB y la importancia de el linkage para la vigilancia y la mejora de la información en el SIM y SINAN-TB.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Male , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Wakefulness/physiology , Echo-Planar Imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Restraint, Physical , Reward
12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1216-1225, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the image quality (IQ) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of reduced field-of-view (FOV) di-ffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of pancreas in comparison with full FOV DWI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 2 readers independently performed qualitative analysis of full FOV DWI (FOV, 38 × 38 cm; b-value, 0 and 500 s/mm²) and reduced FOV DWI (FOV, 28 × 8.5 cm; b-value, 0 and 400 s/mm²). Both procedures were conducted with a two-dimensional spatially selective radiofrequency excitation pulse, in 102 patients with benign or malignant pancreatic diseases (mean size, 27.5 ± 14.4 mm). The study parameters included 1) anatomic structure visualization, 2) lesion conspicuity, 3) artifacts, 4) IQ score, and 5) subjective clinical utility for confirming or excluding initially considered differential diagnosis on conventional imaging. Another reader performed quantitative ADC measurements of focal pancreatic lesions and parenchyma. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare qualitative scores and ADCs between DWI sequences. Mann Whitney U-test was used to compare ADCs between the lesions and parenchyma. RESULTS: On qualitative analysis, reduced FOV DWI showed better anatomic structure visualization (2.76 ± 0.79 at b = 0 s/mm² and 2.81 ± 0.64 at b = 400 s/mm²), lesion conspicuity (3.11 ± 0.99 at b = 0 s/mm² and 3.15 ± 0.79 at b = 400 s/mm²), IQ score (8.51 ± 2.05 at b = 0 s/mm² and 8.79 ± 1.60 at b = 400 s/mm²), and higher clinical utility (3.41 ± 0.64), as compared to full FOV DWI (anatomic structure, 2.18 ± 0.59 at b = 0 s/mm² and 2.56 ± 0.47 at b = 500 s/mm²; lesion conspicuity, 2.55 ± 1.07 at b = 0 s/mm² and 2.89 ± 0.86 at b = 500 s/mm²; IQ score, 7.13 ± 1.83 at b = 0 s/mm² and 8.17 ± 1.31 at b = 500 s/mm²; clinical utility, 3.14 ± 0.70) (p 0.05). ADCs of adenocarcinomas (1.061 × 10⁻³ mm²/s ± 0.133 at reduced FOV and 1.079 × 10⁻³ mm²/s ± 0.135 at full FOV) and neuroendocrine tumors (0.983 × 10⁻³ mm²/s ± 0.152 at reduced FOV and 1.004 × 10⁻³ mm²/s ± 0.153 at full FOV) were significantly lower than those of parenchyma (1.191 × 10⁻³ mm²/s ± 0.125 at reduced FOV and 1.218 × 10⁻³ mm²/s ± 0.103 at full FOV) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Reduced FOV DWI of the pancreas provides better overall IQ including better anatomic detail, lesion conspicuity and subjective clinical utility.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Artifacts , Diagnosis, Differential , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Echo-Planar Imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreas/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Diseases/pathology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/pathology , Retrospective Studies
13.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1303-1312, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172975

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) in patients with deformed spinal cord but otherwise unremarkable conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33 patients who underwent MRI of the cervical spine including DTI using two-dimensional single-shot interleaved multi-section inner volume diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging and whose spinal cords were deformed but showed no signal changes on conventional MRI were the subjects of this study. Mean diffusivity (MD), longitudinal diffusivity (LD), radial diffusivity (RD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured at the most stenotic level. The calculated performance of MD, FA, MD∩FA (considered positive when both the MD and FA results were positive), LD∩FA (considered positive when both the LD and FA results were positive), and RD∩FA (considered positive when both the RD and FA results were positive) in diagnosing CSM were compared with each other based on the estimated cut-off values of MD, LD, RD, and FA from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with the clinical diagnosis of CSM from medical records as the reference standard. RESULTS: The MD, LD, and RD cut-off values were 1.079 × 10⁻³, 1.719 × 10⁻³, and 0.749 × 10⁻³ mm²/sec, respectively, and that of FA was 0.475. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were: 100 (4/4), 44.8 (13/29), 20 (4/20), and 100 (13/13) for MD; 100 (4/4), 27.6 (8/29), 16 (4/25), and 100 (8/8) for FA; 100 (4/4), 58.6 (17/29), 25 (4/16), and 100 (17/17) for MD∩FA; 100 (4/4), 68.9 (20/29), 30.8 (4/13), and 100 (20/20) for LD∩FA; and 75 (3/4), 68.9 (20/29), 25 (3/12), and 95.2 (20/21) for RD∩FA in percentage value. Diagnostic performance comparisons revealed significant differences only in specificity between FA and MD∩FA (p = 0.003), FA and LD∩FA (p < 0.001), FA and RD∩FA (p < 0.001), MD and LD∩FA (p = 0.024) and MD and RD∩FA (p = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Fractional anisotropy combined with MD, RD, or LD is expected to be more useful than FA and MD for diagnosing CSM in patients who show deformed spinal cords without signal changes on MRI.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cervical Vertebrae , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Echo-Planar Imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index , Spinal Cord Compression/diagnosis , Spinal Cord Diseases/diagnosis
14.
International Journal of Radiation Research. 2014; 12 (2): 129-138
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-149934

ABSTRACT

In this study, Quantitative 32P bremsstrahlung planar and SPECT imaging and consequent dose assessment were carried out as a comprehensive phantom study to define an appropriate method for accurate Dosimetry in clinical practice. CT, planar and SPECT bremsstrahlung images of Jaszczak phantom containing a known activity of 32P were acquired. In addition, Phantom contour was determined for attenuation correction and image registration. Reconstructed SPECT slices were corrected for attenuation effect using two different methods: conventional Chang's method and an expectation maximization algorithm followed by CT and SPECT image registration. Cumulated activity was calculated by a predefined calibration factor. Both attenuation correction algorithms were quantitatively assessed by the Monte Carlo SIMIND program. Acquired planar Bremsstrahlung images were quantified by the Conjugate View Method, as well. Calculated activities were statistically different among various quantification methods [P= 0.0001]. When iterative expectation maximization algorithm and applied methods were used, mean calculated activity had the least difference with real activity of +/- 3%. Quantitative 32P Bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging could accurately determine administered activity and assess radiation dose if precise attenuation correction and appropriate registration with CT were done even without sophisticated scatter correction or when SPECT/CT machines are not available. Therefore, it has the potential of specific tumor/organ dosimetry in clinical practice. The best method for calculating activity is quantitative SPECT using iterative expectation maximization algorithm. Additionally, applied method for determining phantom contour was practical for attenuation correction and image registration


Subject(s)
Echo-Planar Imaging , Phosphorus Radioisotopes , Radiometry , Phantoms, Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the image quality of standard single-shot echo-planar imaging (ss-EPI) and that of readout-segmented EPI (rs-EPI) in patients with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients with 74 breast cancers underwent both ss-EPI and rs-EPI. For qualitative comparison of image quality, three readers independently assessed the two sets of diffusion-weighted (DW) images. To evaluate geometric distortion, a comparison was made between lesion lengths derived from contrast enhanced MR (CE-MR) images and those obtained from the corresponding DW images. For assessment of image parameters, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), lesion contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. RESULTS: The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in most criteria regarding the qualitative image quality. Anatomical structure distinction, delineation of the lesion, ghosting artifact, and overall image quality were significantly better in rs-EPI. Regarding the geometric distortion, lesion length on ss-EPI was significantly different from that of CE-MR, whereas there were no significant differences between CE-MR and rs-EPI. The rs-EPI was superior to ss-EPI in SNR and CNR. CONCLUSION: Readout-segmented EPI is superior to ss-EPI in the aspect of image quality in DW MR imaging of the breast.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Artifacts , Breast/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Contrast Media , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Echo-Planar Imaging/methods , Female , Humans , Image Enhancement/methods , Middle Aged , Observer Variation , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232770

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze the renal relative blood flow value (rBFV) and image quality in normal adults using single-shot fast spin echo, flow sensitive invention recovery (SSFSE-FAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence and echo planar imaging, and flow sensitive invention recovery (EPI-FAIR) MR sequence, and assess its value for clinical application in routine renal examination.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Forty volunteers (25 male and 15 female adults, aged 30 to 62 years) with normal renal function were included in this prospective study. All the subjects underwent 3.0 Tesla MR scanning using 3 MR scan modes, namely breath-holding EPI-FAIR, breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and free breathing SSFSE-FAIR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>SSFSE-FAIR without breath-holding was capable of differentiating the renal cortex and medulla with the corresponding rBFVs of 111.48∓9.23 and 94.98∓3.38, respectively. Breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and EPI-FAIR failed to distinguish the borders of the renal cortex and medulla. The EPI-FAIR rBFV of mixed cortex and medulla value was 178.50∓17.17 (95%CI: 167.59, 189.41).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Breath-holding SSFSE-FAIR and EPI-FAIR can not distinguish the renal cortex and medulla due to a poor spatial resolution but can be used for rough evaluation of renal blood perfusion. Free breathing SSFSE-FAIR with an improved spatial resolution allows evaluation of the status of renal perfusion of the cortex and medulla.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Echo-Planar Imaging , Methods , Female , Humans , Kidney , Physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Renal Circulation
18.
Femina ; 40(5)set.-out. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-668401

ABSTRACT

O câncer de mama é o segundo tipo de câncer mais frequente no mundo e também o mais comum entre as mulheres. A alta taxa de mortalidade pode estar relacionada com fato de a doença ser diagnosticada em estados avançados. A ressonância magnética (RM) das mamas tem mostrado ser um poderoso método adjunto a mamografia e ultrassonografia no diagnóstico das patologias mamárias. A RM das mamas oferece informações relacionadas à morfologia da lesão e sobre aspectos funcionais como a cinética de realce do contraste, apresentando alta sensibilidade, mas baixa especificidade para caracterização do tumor mamário. Entretanto, existe uma sobreposição entre os achados benignos e malignos. Imagem de difusão é uma modalidade que faz uso de RM para representar a mobilidade de moléculas de água em um voxel determinado por meio da aplicação de gradientes. Esta imagem é única e oferece um diferente mecanismo de contraste do que o observado em imagens ponderadas em T1 e T2, sequências convencionais, que possuem limitações quanto à especificidade. Assim, esta nova sequência é uma ferramenta útil para detecção e caracterização tumoral, ajudando a diferenciar lesões benignas e malignas, classificação e estágio do câncer de mama, assim como monitoração da resposta do paciente a quimioterapia.


Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the most common among women. The high mortality rate may be related to the fact that the disease is diagnosed in advanced stages. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breasts has proved to be a powerful method adjunct to mammography and ultrasound on the breast pathologies diagnosis. Breast MRI provides information related to the morphology of the lesion and on functional aspects such as the kinetics of contrast enhancement, showing high sensitivity but low specificity for breast tumor characterization. However, there is an overlap between benign and malignant findings. Diffusion-weighted is a method that makes use of MRI to represent the mobility of water molecules in a given voxel for applying gradient. This sequence provides images different from those observed on T1 and T2, conventional sequences weighted images. Thus, this sequence is a useful tool for detecting and characterizing tumor, helping to differentiate benign and malignant lesions, classification and stage of breast cancer, as well as monitoring patient response to chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Breast Diseases/diagnosis , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Echo-Planar Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39921

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It was reported lately that to obtain consistent liver T1rho measurement, at 3T MRI using six spin-lock times (SLTs), is feasible. In this study, the feasibility of using three or two SLT points to measure liver T1rho relaxation time was explored. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen healthy volunteers underwent 36 examinations. Three representative axial slices were selected to cut through the upper, middle, and lower liver. A rotary echo spin-lock pulse was implemented in a 2D fast field echo sequence. Spin-lock frequency was 500 Hz and the spin-lock times of 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 milliseconds (ms) were used for T1rho mapping. T1rho maps were constructed by using all 6 SLT points, three SLT points of 1, 20, and 50 ms, or two SLTs of 1 and 50 ms, respectively. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman plot were used to assess the measurement agreement. RESULTS: Two examinations were excluded, due to motion artifact at the SLT of 50 ms. With the remaining 34 examinations, the ICC for 6-SLT vs. 3-SLT T1rho measurements was 0.922, while the ICC for 6-SLT vs. 2-SLT T1rho measurement was 0.756. The Bland and Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.19 (95% limits of agreement: -1.34, 1.73) for 6-SLT vs. 3-SLT T1rho measurement, and the mean difference of 0.89 (95% limits of agreement: -1.67, 3.45) for 6-SLT vs. 2-SLT T1rho measurement. The scan re-scan reproducibility ICC (n = 11 subjects) was 0.755, 0.727, and 0.528 for 6-SLT measurement, 3-SLT measurement, and 2-SLT measurement, respectively. CONCLUSION: Adopting 3 SLTs of 1, 20, and 50 ms can be an acceptable alternative for the liver T1rho measurement, while 2 SLTs of 1 and 50 ms do not provide reliable measurement.


Subject(s)
Adult , Eating , Echo-Planar Imaging/methods , Fasting , Female , Humans , Liver/anatomy & histology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Young Adult
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-126049

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the pharmacologic modulation of motor task-dependent physiologic responses by antiplatelet agent, clopidogrel, during hand motor tasks in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy, right-handed subjects underwent three functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) sessions: one before drug administration, one after high dose drug administration and one after reaching drug steady state. For the motor task fMRI, finger flexion-extension movements were performed. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast was collected for each subject using a 3.0 T VHi (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, USA) scanner. T2*-weighted echo planar imaging was used for fMRI acquisition. The fMRI data processing and statistical analyses were carried out using SPM2. RESULTS: Second-level analysis revealed significant increases in the extent of activation in the contralateral motor cortex including primary motor area (M1) after drug administration. The number of activated voxels in motor cortex was 173 without drug administration and the number increased to 1049 for high dose condition and 673 for steady-state condition respectively. However, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of BOLD signal change in terms of peak T value. CONCLUSION: The current results suggest that cerebral motor activity can be modulated by clopidogrel in healthy subjects and that fMRI is highly senstive to evidence such changes.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Echo-Planar Imaging , Fingers , Hand , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Magnetics , Magnets , Motor Activity , Motor Cortex , Oxygen , Ticlopidine
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