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1.
Ciencia Tecnología y Salud ; 8(2): 134-146, 2021. il 27 c
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, LIGCSA, DIGIUSAC | ID: biblio-1353050

ABSTRACT

El Hospital Nacional Dr. Mario Catarino Rivas (hospital de segundo nivel de atención), sirve como centro de atención para embarazos de alto riesgo de la zona noroccidental de Honduras; reportó 1,702 casos de trastor-nos hipertensivos del embarazo en 2017 y 2,070 casos en 2018. Se caracterizó pacientes con signos y síntomas de trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo agrupadas desde un punto de vista obstétrico, epidemiológico y clínico. Se realizó un estudio, descriptivo de corte transversal en gestantes que presentaron cefalea, cifras tensionales elevadas (≥ 140/90mmHg); registrando ausencia o presencia de proteinuria, atendidas en la emergencia de labor y parto de un hospital nacional de segundo nivel de atención en San Pedro Sula, Honduras, desde junio hasta octubre del 2019. Se incluyeron 110 pacientes de entre 18-43 años, mestizas y amas de casa, la edad gestacional promedio por fecha de ultima menstruación de 37.7 semanas; el 28.2% presentó preeclampsia severa. Las manifestaciones clínicas frecuentes fueron edema de miembros inferiores y cefalea. El 57.3% desarrolló trabajo de parto espontá-neo, la resolución del embarazo fue cesárea en el 57.3% de las gestantes. Respecto al producto de la concepción, 66.4% tenían peso normal y talla apropiada para la edad gestacional, un APGAR de 8 al primer minuto y de 9 a los 5 minutos. En este estudio, se reporta una prevalencia del 13.72% con respecto a los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo. Particularmente en pacientes mayores de 35 años, multípara, con índice de masa corporal ≥ 32 kg/m2, presentando antecedentes de hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus y preeclampsia.


The National Hospital Dr. Mario Catarino Rivas (second-level care hospital), serves as a care center for high-risk pregnancies in the northwestern part of Honduras; it reported 1,702 cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in 2017 and 2,070 cases in 2018. Patients with signs and symptoms of hypertensive disorders of preg-nancy were characterized grouped from an obstetric, epidemiological and clinical point of view. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in pregnant women who presented headache, high blood pressure (≥ 140 / 90mmHg); registering the absence or presence of proteinuria in urine, attended in the labor and delivery emer-gency of a national hospital of second level of care in San Pedro Sula, Honduras; from June to October 2019. 110 patients between 18-43 years old, mixed race and housewives were included, the average gestational age by date of last menstruation of 37.7 weeks, 28.2% presented severe preeclampsia. The frequent clinical manifestations were lower limb edema and headache. 57.3% developed spontaneous labor, the pregnancy termination route was cesarean section in 57.3% of pregnant women. Regarding the product of conception, 69.1% had weight and height appropriate for gestational age, an APGAR of 8 at the first minute and of 9 at 5 minutes. In this study, a prevalence of 13.72% is reported with respect to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Particularly in patients older than 35 years, multiparous, with a body mass index ≥ 32 kg / m2, presenting a history of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and pre-eclampsia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Cesarean Section/methods , Gestational Age , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Natural Childbirth , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Proteinuria/complications , Infant, Newborn/growth & development , Labor, Obstetric , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Eclampsia/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Honduras
2.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252042

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. Estimate the acceptability and adoption by health care workers of clinical practice guidelines and treatment protocols for women with preeclampsia/eclampsia and identify the facilitating factors and barriers to their implementation. Methods. A qualitative study was conducted, using semi-structured interviews and focus groups in five maternity hospitals. Interviews were compiled for analysis, and barriers and facilitators were characterized. Results. Seventy health professionals (52 female and 18 male) participated, representing different levels of the health system. The majority of workers and managers were aware of the existence and content of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for preeclampsia/eclampsia, especially the participants with more time in the health service. With respect to facilitating factors, both medical and nursing staff were positive about continued development and implementation of high-quality CPGs. There was consensus that limitations exist, especially with respect to a lack of the necessary medicines, supplies, and equipment to meet and implement the established recommendations. Discussion. The results of the study show the need to strengthen strategies that help close the gap between research and public policy. Studies suggest that research should focus on users, policymakers, and decisionmakers in the health system. The actors in the Dominican health system recognize the GRADE methodology as an appropriate instrument for the development and implementation of CPGs. Implementation barriers require systemic and comprehensive approaches.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Estimar la aceptabilidad y adopción de las guías de prática clínica (GPC) y protocolos de atención a la mujer con preeclampsia-eclampsia por parte del personal prestador de los servicios de salud, e identificar los factores facilitadores y las barreras para su implementación. Métodos. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo por medio de entrevistas semiestructuradas y grupos focales en cinco maternidades. Se recopilaron las entrevistas para su análisis y se caracterizaron las barreras y facilitadores. Resultados. Participaron 70 profesionales de la salud (52 de sexo femenino y 18 de sexo masculino) que se desempeñan en distintos niveles del sistema de salud, participaron. La mayoría de los prestadores y gerentes conocen la existencia de las GPC de eclampsia-preeclampsia y su contenido, sobre todo los participantes con más tiempo en el servicio. Para los facilitadores, se estableció una valoración positiva entre el personal médico y de enfermería ante el proceso de continuar con la elaboración e implementación de GPC de alta calidad. Hubo consenso en cuanto a la existencia de limitaciones, sobre todo, por la falta de medicamentos, insumos y equipos requeridos, para cumplir y aplicar las recomendaciones formuladas. Discusión. Los resultados del estudio exponen la necesidad de fortalecer estrategias que ayuden a cerrar la brecha entre la investigación y la política pública. Estudios fundamentan la investigación en priorizar la atención a los usuarios, y los encargados de formular políticas y los tomadores de decisiones en el sistema de salud. Los actores del sistema de salud dominicano reconocen la metodología GRADE como un instrumento apropiado para la formulación e implementación de GPC. Las barreras de implementación requieren de abordajes sistémicos e integrales.


RESUMO Objetivo. Estimar a aceitabilidade e a adoção de diretrizes de prática clínica (DPCs) e protocolos de atenção para mulheres com pré-eclâmpsia e eclâmpsia por profissionais da saúde e identificar os fatores facilitadores e barreiras à sua implementação. Métodos. Desenvolvemos um estudo qualitativo baseado em entrevistas semiestruturadas e grupos focais em cinco maternidades. As entrevistas foram coletadas para análise, sendo caracterizadas as barreiras e fatores facilitadores. Resultados. O estudo contou com a participação de 70 profissionais da saúde (52 mulheres e 18 homens) que trabalham em diferentes níveis do sistema de saúde. Em sua maioria, os profissionais e administradores estão cientes da existência de DPCs para pré-eclâmpsia e eclâmpsia e conhecem seu conteúdo, especialmente os que têm mais tempo de experiência. Em relação aos fatores facilitadores, os profissionais médicos e de enfermagem consideraram positivo o processo de elaboração e implementação de DPCs de alta qualidade. Houve consenso sobre a existência de limitações, especialmente no que diz respeito à falta de medicamentos, insumos e equipamentos necessários para cumprir e implementar as recomendações. Discussão. Os resultados do estudo deixam clara a necessidade de reforçar as estratégias que ajudam a estabelecer vínculos entre a pesquisa e as políticas públicas. A pesquisa futura deve priorizar a atenção aos usuários e o apoio aos decisores e responsáveis pela elaboração de políticas no sistema de saúde. Os atores do sistema de saúde dominicano reconhecem a metodologia GRADE como um instrumento apropriado para a formulação e implementação de DPCs. As barreiras à implementação exigem abordagens sistêmicas e abrangentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Attitude of Health Personnel , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Eclampsia/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Dominican Republic
3.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 30211, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291269

ABSTRACT

O sulfato de magnésio tem sido utilizado em obstetrícia por décadas e milhares de mulheres já foram incluídas em ensaios clínicos que estudaram sua eficácia em uma variedade de condições gestacionais. Os principais usos do medicamento na atual prática obstétrica incluem prevenção e tratamento de convulsões eclâmpticas, prolongamento da gravidez para administração antenatal de corticosteroides e neuroproteção fetal na iminência de interrupção prematura da gravidez. Em função da alta qualidade e da consistência dos resultados de importantes ensaios clínicos, a indicação do sulfato de magnésio para profilaxia e terapia das convulsões eclâmpticas está bem estabelecida. Entretanto, tal unanimidade não ocorre com relação ao seu emprego como tocolítico, tanto pela discussão sobre sua efetividade quanto pelas doses mais altas usualmente utilizadas para esse fim. Em relação à importância do sulfato de magnésio como agente neuroprotetor fetal, a paralisia cerebral é a causa mais comum de deficiência motora na infância e tem como fator de risco mais importante a prematuridade, cuja incidência tem aumentado significativamente. Diretrizes nacionais e internacionais mais recentes, baseadas em resultados de ensaios clínicos randomizados e metanálises de boa qualidade, mostraram que a administração antenatal de sulfato de magnésio na iminência de parto pré-termo precoce é uma intervenção eficiente, viável, segura, com boa relação custo-benefício e pode contribuir para a melhoria dos desfechos neurológicos neonatais.


Magnesium sulfate has been used in obstetrics for decades and thousands of women have already been included in clinical trials that have studied its effectiveness in a variety of gestational conditions. The main uses of the drug in current obstetrical practice include prevention and treatment of eclamptic seizures, prolongation of pregnancy for antenatal administration of corticosteroids, and fetal neuroprotection in the imminence of premature termination of pregnancy. Because of the high quality and consistency of the results of important clinical trials, the indication of magnesium sulfate for prophylaxis and therapy of eclamptic seizures is well established. However, such unanimity does not occur regarding its use as tocolytic, either by the discussion of its effectiveness or by the higher doses usually used for this purpose. Regarding the importance of magnesium sulfate as a fetal neuroprotective agent, cerebral palsy is the most common cause of motor deficits in childhood and has a significantly higher incidence of prematurity as a major risk factor. More recent national and international guidelines, based on results from randomized controlled trials and good quality meta-analyzes, have shown that the antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate at the imminence of early preterm delivery is a cost-effective, viable, efficient intervention and safe and can contribute to the improvement of neonatal neurological outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Obstetrics , Tocolysis , Cerebral Palsy , Eclampsia/drug therapy , Neuroprotection , Obstetric Labor, Premature , Magnesium
4.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 31: 31106, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1291255

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Mundialmente, a saúde materna e neonatal tem sido motivo de preocupação e estudos, e no Brasil é considerada prioridade .Objetivo: traçar o perfil de gestantes de alto risco, segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas, histórico de saúde e assistência prénatal. Método: transversal, observacional, descritivo, no período de janeiro a julho de 2017 com 314 gestantes de alto risco, dados coletados por meio de questionário estruturado e analisados por frequência absoluta e relativa. O estudo foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa Envolvendo Seres Humanos da Unicentro. Resultados: 66,9% tinham de 20 a 34 anos; 48,4% eram brancas; 89,2% possuiam companheiro; 47,1% tinham escolaridade entre 5 e 9 anos; 54,5% eram desempregadas/do lar; 42% possuiam renda de 2 salários mínimos; 46,2% portavam doenças crônicas não transmissíveis; 56,1% referam rara procura pelos serviços de saúde; 28% eram primigestas; 33,4% tiveram reincidência de alto risco; 48,4% não realizava planejamento familiar; 58,8% referiram gestações não planejadas; 36,7% tinham índice de massa corporal gestacional de obesidade; 19,3% tiveram Pré eclâmpsia; 78% não tinham acompanhamento da atenção primária; 76,1% não participaram de educação em saúde. Conclusão: o perfil revela que população feminina necessita de ações não somente no período gestacional, mas de promoção à saúde da mulher.


Introduction: Worldwide, maternal and neonatal health has been a cause for concern and research and in Brazil it is considered a priority. Objective: to profile high-risk pregnant women considering demographic, socioeconomic, health history and prenatal care variables. Method: cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study, from January to July 2017 with 314 high-risk pregnant women, data collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed for absolute and relative frequency. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee Involving Humans. Results: 20 to 34 years (66.9%); white (48.4%); with partner (89.2%); education between 5 and 9 years old (47.1%); unemployed/ housewife (54.5%); income of 2 minimum wages (42%); with chronic noncommunicable diseases (46.2%); rare demand for health services (56.1%); first-born (28%); high risk recurrence (33.4%); without family planning (48.4%) unplanned pregnancies (58.8%); gestational body mass index of obesity (36.7%); pregnancy-specific hypertensive disease (19.3%); unaccompanied by primary care (78%); did not participate in health education (76.1%). Conclusion: the profile reveals that the female population needs actions not only during pregnancy, but also to promote women's health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Health Profile , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Prenatal Care , Women's Health , Pregnancy, Unplanned , Eclampsia , Maternal-Child Health Services , Maternal Health
5.
Medisan ; 24(1)ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1091164

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La ecografía Doppler de las arterias uterinas es una técnica propuesta para predecir el riesgo de preeclampsia, retardo del crecimiento intrauterino y otras alteraciones perinatales adversas. Objetivos: Determinar la frecuencia de gestantes con alteración en las arterias uterinas durante el primer trimestre e identificar la presencia de preeclampsia/eclampsia, así como sus principales características clínicas. Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio descriptivo y longitudinal de 168 gestantes en el primer trimestre de embarazo, pertenecientes al municipio de Tercer Frente en Santiago de Cuba, evaluadas en una pesquisa de Genética realizada en el Policlínico Docente Cruce de los Baños, de abril a noviembre de 2018. A todas se les realizó ecografía Doppler para calcular el índice de pulsatilidad de las arterias uterinas. Resultados: En la casuística, 16 pacientes presentaron alterado el índice de pulsatilidad y, de ellas, solo en 3 se desarrolló preeclampsia, para 18,7 %; la edad promedio en estas últimas fue de 29 años y 2 eran nulíparas (66,6 %). Respecto al índice de pulsatilidad, el promedio fue de 2,5. Conclusiones: Se mantuvo un estrecho seguimiento, hasta el parto, de las pacientes con resultados patológicos, y se destacó la importancia de estudiar el índice de pulsatilidad de las arterias uterinas durante el primer trimestre del embarazo, sobre todo en las nulíparas.


Introduction: The Doppler echography of the uterine arteries is a technique suggested to predict the risk of pre-eclampsia, the intrauterine growth retardation and other adverse perinatal disorders. Objectives: To determine the frequency of pregnant women with disorder in the uterine arteries during the first trimester and to identify the pre-eclampsia/eclampsia presence, as well as their main clinical characteristics. Methods: A descriptive and longitudinal study of 168 pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy, belonging to the Tercer Frente municipality in Santiago de Cuba was carried out, they were evaluated by investigation of Genetics in Cruce de los Baños Teaching Polyclinic from April to November, 2018. To determine the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries, a Doppler echography was carried out. Results: In the case material 16 patients presented this parameter altered and just 3 pregnant women presented pre-eclampsia, for 18.7 %; the average age of these last ones was of 29 years and 2 were nonparous (66.6 %). Regarding the pulsatility index, the average was of 2.5. Conclusions: There was a close follow up of the patients with pathological results, until the childbirth, and the importance of studying the pulsatility index of the uterine arteries in the first trimester of the pregnancy, mainly in the nonparous, was emphasized.


Subject(s)
Pre-Eclampsia/diagnostic imaging , Pulsatile Flow , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Eclampsia/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Growth Retardation/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy
6.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(1): 14-23, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092771

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: Los trastornos hipertensivos asociados al embarazo son considerados un problema de salud pública. Se busca describir las características clínicas y desenlaces materno-fetales de las pacientes con esta patología, atendidas en el Hospital Universitario de Santander (HUS) durante el primer semestre de 2017. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de corte transversal. Se incluyeron las pacientes en estado de embarazo o puerperio con diagnóstico o sospecha de trastorno hipertensivo; se excluyeron aquellas que no pudieron ser clasificadas o no correspondían a éstos. RESULTADOS: Se analizaron 181 historias clínicas; la edad de las pacientes osciló entre 14 y 44 años; el 43,7% eran primigestantes; el 40,3% tuvo un control prenatal inadecuado y el 27,5% tenía antecedente de trastorno hipertensivo en gestaciones previas. El 75,1% de las pacientes fueron clasificadas como preeclampsia, 18,2% con hipertensión gestacional, 4,4% con hipertensión más preeclampsia sobreagregada y 2,2% con hipertensión crónica. El 16,9% de las pacientes con preeclampsia debutaron antes de la semana 34, de las cuales el 91,3% tenían criterios de severidad; mientras que entre las demás, el 84% presentaron criterios de severidad. CONCLUSIONES: La preeclampsia fue el trastorno hipertensivo más frecuente, predominó la presentación tardía y severa con importantes tasas de complicación maternas y fetales. Mediante la implementación de estrategias de detección temprana y adecuada atención de los trastornos hipertensivos asociados al embarazo podrían mejorarse los desenlaces materno-fetales.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are considered a public health issue. The aim is to describe the clinical features, maternal - fetal outcomes of patients with this disease, who were admitted at the University Hospital of Santander (Bucaramanga, Colombia) during the first half of 2017. METHOD: Cross-sectional retrospective observational study. Patients in pregnancy or puerperium with diagnosis of hypertensive disorder were included; those who could not be classified or did not correspond were excluded. RESULTS: 181 clinical charts were analyzed, the age of the patients ranged between 14 and 44 years, 43.7% were nulliparous, 40.3% had an inadequate prenatal control and 27.5% had history of hypertensive disorder in previous pregnancies. 75.1% were classified as preeclampsia, 18.2% as gestational hypertension, 4.4% as hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia and 2.2% with chronic hypertension; 16.9% of the patients were of an early-onset preeclampsia before week 34, of which 91.3% had criteria of severity; among the others, 84% presented criteria of severity. CONCLUSION: Preeclampsia was the most frequent hypertensive disorder, late and severe presentation prevailed with important maternal and fetal complication rates. Through the implementation of early detection strategies and adequate care of hypertensive disorders associated with pregnancy maternal and fetal outcomes could be improved.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/classification , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/epidemiology , Pre-Eclampsia/classification , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , HELLP Syndrome/classification , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , HELLP Syndrome/epidemiology , Colombia , Eclampsia/classification , Eclampsia/diagnosis , Eclampsia/epidemiology
7.
Ibom Medical Journal ; 13(3): 200-205, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1262922

ABSTRACT

Background: Eclampsia is a recognized cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in North western Nigeria. It's a preventable obstetrics calamity were adequate antenatal care services are provided. Objective: To review medico-social characteristics of patients with eclampsia at a metropolitan Specialist Hospital in North-western Nigeria. Methodology: Eighty consecutive patients that presented with eclampsia at Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital were recruited for the study from 1st December, 2016 to 28th February, 2017. Data were collected using structured questionnaire, administered by research assistants. Information obtained included sociodemographic data, duration of fits before presentation and maternal-fetal outcome. Results: A total of 1931 patients delivered within the study period, among them 80 had eclampsia. This gives an incidence of 4.0%. Teenage pregnancy accounted for 35%. Forty-nine patients (61.2%) were primigravidae and up to 95% were booked. Majority of the patients 40(50%) had antepartum eclampsia while only 10(12.5%) had postpartum eclampsia. Most of the patients (73.8%) presented within 12 hours of convulsions and (87%) had vaginal delivery. There were 3 maternal deaths with case fatality rate of 3.8%. Live birth was achieved in 65%. Fresh still birth and Macerated still births were recorded in 20% and 12.5% respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of eclampsia is still high despite introduction of free maternity care services. Socio medical factors and poor quality of Antenatal Care services may be the contributing factors to development of eclampsia. There is need to review and improve the quality of antenatal care services offered at the primary health care centers


Subject(s)
Cause of Death , Eclampsia , Maternal Death , Nigeria , Pregnancy Complications , Prenatal Care
8.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257725

ABSTRACT

Background: Eclampsia remains a major cause of maternal mortality, particularly in teenage pregnancies. Healthcare professionals providing antenatal must regard teenagers as a high risk group for the pre-eclampsia-eclampsia syndrome. Setting: Data extracted from the South African Saving Mothers Report: 2014­2016. Aim: To establish the clinical details in teenage maternal deaths owing to eclampsia. Method: Retrospective review of the case records and maternal death assessment forms of teenagers that died due to eclampsia during 2014­2016. Results: There were 47 teenagers (aged 14 to 19 years) who died from eclampsia. Of these 18 out of 47 (38%) deaths occurred in the post-partum period. Forty (85.1%) of the patients had antenatal care. Three (6.4%) had post-partum eclampsia, and of the remaining 44 of the 47 (93.6%), the gestational age at first occurrence of a seizure ranged from 25 to 39 weeks. The blood pressures at the time of seizure ranged from systolic of 131 to 210 mmHg and diastolic of 89 to 130 mmHg. The commonest final causes of death were intracerebral haemorrhage associated with severe hypertension and multi-organ failure. Avoidable factors included transport delays, referral to the wrong levels of health care and poor care by health professionals. Conclusion: Teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for eclampsia-related death; awareness of borderline elevations of blood pressure levels from baseline values (prehypertension levels) and taking following national guidelines on the management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy will decrease deaths from eclampsia


Subject(s)
Eclampsia , Gynecology , Maternal Death , Obstetrics , Pregnancy in Adolescence , South Africa
9.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(5): 1242-1258, sept.-oct. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094126

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Los desórdenes hipertensivos del embarazo se encuentran dentro de las tres primeras causas de morbimortalidad materna y perinatal a nivel mundial, hasta el año 2016. Diferentes estudios realizados en los últimos 5 años e importantes organizaciones científicas han abordado este tema en el que existen discrepancias en cuanto a su etiopatogenia. Sin embargo, los avances logrados en la misma, la profundización en sus manifestaciones clínicas, los modos de presentación y los elementos diagnósticos han permitido el reconocimiento precoz y la efectividad del tratamiento. Esto ha ocasionado, principalmente en lo referente a los desórdenes hipertensivos tipo I, cambios que afectan desde la definición hasta el tratamiento. De esta manera, el presente documento pone al alcance de la comunidad médica una amplia revisión científica que facilita un mejor diagnóstico de la preeclampsia y de otras formas de hipertensión arterial en la etapa grávido-puerperal. Asimismo, contribuirá a reducir el error diagnóstico y logrará una intervención temprana para la obtención de mejores resultados maternos y perinatales (AU).


SUMMARY Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are among the first three causes of maternal and perinatal Morbimortality in the world until 2016. Important scientific organizations and several studies carried out in the last five years have approached the theme, but there are still discrepancies with respect to etiopathogeny. Nevertheless, advances in it and deepening in its clinical manifestations, presentation ways and diagnostic elements have allowed its precocious recognition and diagnostic elements, causing changes from its definition up to its treatment, mainly in the case of the hypertensive disorders type I. In the current article, the authors put at reach of the medical community a wide scientific review facilitating a better diagnosis of preeclampsia and other forms of arterial hypertension in the pregnancy-puerperal stage that will contribute to reducing diagnosis error and making an early intervention, leading to better maternal and perinatal results (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/classification , Eclampsia , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/diagnosis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/etiology , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/pathology
10.
Femina ; 47(5): 258-273, 20190531. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046517

ABSTRACT

A pré-eclâmpsia é uma doença multifatorial e multissistêmica específica da gestação. É classicamente diagnosticada pela presença de hipertensão arterial associada à proteinúria em gestante previamente normotensa após a 20a semana de gestação. A pré-eclâmpsia também é considerada na ausência de proteinúria se houver lesão de órgão-alvo. A presente revisão tem uma abordagem geral focada em aspectos de interesse prático na assistência clínica e obstétrica dessas mulheres. Assim, explora a etiologia ainda desconhecida, aspectos atuais da fisiopatologia e do diagnóstico e diagnóstico diferencial de convulsões, a abordagem da predição da doença, seus resultados adversos e prevenção. A conduta baseia-se em princípios gerais, tratamento clínico não farmacológico e farmacológico de situações graves ou não graves, com ênfase na crise hipertensiva e eclâmpsia. O controle obstétrico se fundamenta na pré-eclâmpsia sem ou com sinais de deterioração clínica e/ou laboratorial, estratificação da idade gestacional abaixo de 24 semanas, entre 24 e menos de 34 semanas e 34 ou mais semanas de gestação e orientação na via de parto. Uma abordagem imediata do puerpério e repercussões na vida futura de gestantes que desenvolvem pré-eclâmpsia também foram apresentadas.(AU)


Pre-eclampsia is a multifactorial and multisystemic disease specific to gestation. It is classically diagnosed by the presence of hypertension associated with proteinuria manifested in a previously normotensive pregnant woman after the 20th week of gestation. Pre-eclampsia is also considered in the absence of proteinuria if there is target organ damage. The present review takes a general approach focused on aspects of practical interest in the clinical and obstetric care of these women. Thus, it explores the still unknown etiology, current aspects of pathophysiology and of the diagnosis, the approach to disease prediction, its adverse outcomes and prevention. Management is based on general principles, on nonpharmacological and on pharmacological clinical treatment of severe or nonsevere situations with emphasis on the hypertensive crisis and eclampsia. Obstetric management is based on preeclampsia without or with signs of clinical and/or laboratory deterioration, stratification of gestational age in < 24 weeks, between 24 and less than 34 weeks, and ≥ 34 weeks of gestation, and guidance on route of delivery. An immediate puerperium approach and repercussions in the future life of pregnant women who develop preeclampsia is also presented.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Eclampsia , Hypertension , Pregnancy Complications , Proteinuria , Seizures , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(1): 14-24, ene.-mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093619

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La preeclampsia produce proteinuria, edema e hipertensión arterial. La eclampsia aparece luego de la preeclampsia o de forma aguda con convulsiones. Ambos estados suelen producirse hacia el final de la gestación, durante o después del parto. Objetivo: Caracterizar a gestantes o puérperas con preeclampsia-eclampsia, ingresadas en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Método: Estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y longitudinal, que incluyó 38 pacientes a las que se les realizó examen físico completo, exámenes complementarios de utilidad para su diagnóstico y el índice APACHE II. Resultados: Predominaron las puérperas con preeclampsia y las edades entre 21 a 35 años. Los factores de riesgo más frecuentes encontrados: las edades extremas, antecedentes personales y la nuliparidad. Con una estadía entre 4 y 5 días de ambos grupos, con 100 por ciento de egresos vivos. Conclusiones: Con una estrategia de seguimiento precoz en gestantes y puérperas con riesgo, se puede llegar al diagnóstico de formas graves e incipientes de preeclampsia(AU)


Introduction: Preeclampsia produces proteinuria, edema and arterial hypertension. Eclampsia appears after preeclampsia or acute with seizures. Both states usually occur towards the end of pregnancy, during or after delivery. Objective: To characterize pregnant or puerperal women with preeclampsia-eclampsia, admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Methods: A descriptive, prospective and longitudinal study was concluded, in 38 patients who underwent a complete physical examination, complementary tests useful for their diagnosis and APACHE II index. Results: Puerperal pre-eclampsia predominated. The ages between 21 to 35 years prevailed. The most frequent risk factors found were advanced ages, personal history and nulliparity. The stay ranged between 4 and 5 days in both groups, with 100 percent of live hospital discharges. Conclusions: The early diagnosis of severe and initial forms of preeclampsia is possible with a strategy of early follow-up in pregnant and puerperal women at risks(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pre-Eclampsia/prevention & control , Longitudinal Studies , Critical Care/methods , Postpartum Period , Eclampsia/diagnosis
12.
South. Afr. j. crit. care (Online) ; 35(2): 62-69, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1272283

ABSTRACT

Background. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are a major cause of maternal mortality and adverse outcomes. A previous study in the intensive care unit (ICU) at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa, in 2000 found 10.5% mortality among eclampsia patients. Objectives. To describe the mortality and adverse neurological outcomes associated with HDP in a tertiary ICU, compare these with results from 2000 and describe factors associated therewith. Methods. The data of 85 patients admitted with HDP to ICU at King Edward VIII Hospital from 2010 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Mortality and adverse neurological outcome (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤14 on discharge from ICU) were assessed. Two sets of analyses were conducted. The first compared those alive on discharge from ICU with those who died in ICU. The second compared good neurological outcome with poor outcome (adverse neurological outcome, or death). Results. The mortality was 11.6%, and overall, 9% had adverse neurological outcomes. There was no significant difference in mortality between patients with eclampsia in 2010 - 2013 (11.0%) and those in 2000 (10.5%) (p=0.9). Factors associated with mortality were: intra- or postpartum onset of seizures; twins; failure to perform operative delivery when indicated; lowest GCS score <10; failure to use magnesium sulphate when indicated; respiratory failure; and lower respiratory tract infections. Factors associated with poor outcomes (adverse neurological outcome, or death) were: parity (better outcomes in primiparous patients); time of antenatal onset of hypertension (worse if earlier onset); HIV infection; failure to perform operative delivery when indicated; lowest GCS score <10; failure to use magnesium sulphate when indicated; use of anticonvulsants other than magnesium sulphate or benzodiazepines in eclampsia. Conclusion. The lack of improvement in ICU eclampsia mortality demonstrates a need to develop and implement a protocol for HDP management


Subject(s)
Eclampsia , Intensive Care Units , Maternal Mortality , Patients , Pregnancy , South Africa
13.
Ethiop. j. health sci ; 29(1): 831-840, 2019. ilus
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1261882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disorders of pregnancy induced hypertensive are a major health problem in the obstetric population as they are one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that at least one woman dies every seven minutes from complications of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The objective of this study is to assess pregnancy induced hypertension and its associated factors among women attending delivery service at Mizan-Tepi University Teaching Hospital, Gebretsadikshawo Hospital and Tepi General Hospital. METHODS: A health facility based cross-sectional study was carried out from October 01 to November 30/2016. The total sample size (422) was proportionally allocated to the three hospitals. Systematic sampling technique was used to select study participants. Variables with p-value of less than 0.25 in binary logistic regression were entered into the multivariable logistic regression to control cofounding. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was used. P-value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of pregnancy induced hypertension was 33(7.9%); of which 5(15.2%) were gestational hypertension, 12 (36.4%) were mild preeclampsia, 15(45.5%) were severe preeclampsia and 1 (3%) eclampsia. Positive family history of pregnancy induced hypertension [AOR5.25 (1.39-19.86)], kidney diseases (AOR 3.32(1.04-10.58)), having asthma [AOR 37.95(1.41-1021)] and gestational age (AOR 0.096(0.04-.23)) were predictors of pregnancy induced hypertension. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pregnancy induced hypertension among women attending delivery service was 7.9%. Having family history of pregnancy induced hypertension, chronic kidney diseases and gestational age were predictors of pregnancy induced hypertension


Subject(s)
Eclampsia , Ethiopia , Hospitals , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/mortality , Maternal Mortality , Pre-Eclampsia , Women
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766747

ABSTRACT

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by neurotoxic symptoms and neuroimaging finding of reversible cerebral edema in association with various conditions including hypertension, eclampsia, and autoimmune diseases. The author experienced a 47-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis overlap syndrome who developed PRES. The patient presented with alteration of consciousness in association with hypertension and increased autoimmune activity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed vasogenic edema in the bilateral cerebral cortex, subcortical white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Basal Ganglia , Brain Edema , Brain Stem , Cerebellum , Cerebral Cortex , Consciousness , Eclampsia , Edema , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Pregnancy , Scleroderma, Systemic , White Matter
16.
Repert. med. cir ; 28(1): 39-44, 2019. Il., tablas
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1007488

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la incidencia de los trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo en pacientes con infección del tracto urinario (ITU) en los Hospitales de San José e Infantil Universitario de San José, Bogotá, Colombia, en 2015. Materiales y métodos: cohorte de embarazadas que asistieron a urgencias con ITU que requirieron tratamiento intrahospitalario y seguimiento para establecer la ocurrencia de trastornos hipertensivos. La frecuencia de estos se describe sobre la base de incidencias acumuladas, así como en términos de la incidencia en cada nivel individual de gravedad de la ITU. Resultados: 138 embarazadas cumplieron con los criterios requeridos, edad media de 25 años (RIQ: 21-29), 42% cursaban el primer embarazo. El germen más aislado fue Escherichia coli. La incidencia de trastornos hipertensivos fue 21,7%. El trastorno más frecuente fue la preeclampsia y el tipo de ITU que más se presentó fue bacteriuria asintomática (35.5%). Conclusión: la ocurrencia de trastornos hipertensivos en embarazadas con infección del tracto urinario fue de 21,7%. Es importante investigar las infecciones del tracto urinario durante el embarazo como posibles factores generadores de preeclampsia


Objective: to present the basic mathematical, physical and radiological principles behind tractography, as well as, providing a review of the main tracts in the brain and their applications in neuroscience from the Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud (FUCS) in Bogota D.C., Colombia experience. Materials and Methods: bibliographic review and use of a 1.5 T or 3T MR imaging system to describe tractography images in central nervous system disorders. Results: the main features of tractography are shown based on cases at our institution. Discussion: there are no identified studies on the usefulness of tractography in the vast majority of brain related pathologies. Although this procedure is currently available, clinical information is scarce, as the image-processing techniques are lengthy and in most institutions, protocols have not been determined to reconstruct each of the tracts in the brain. Conclusions: it is possible to reconstruct brain tracts using 1.5T and 3T scanners, identifying the major brain tracts and their relationship with brain tumors, cranioencephalic trauma, substance abuse and other conditio


Subject(s)
Humans , Pyelonephritis , Pre-Eclampsia , Proteinuria , Cystitis , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced , Eclampsia , Asymptomatic Diseases
18.
Rev. cuba. med ; 57(2)abr.-jun. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-985553

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las pacientes obstétricas pueden presentar numerosas complicaciones que ponen en peligro sus vidas con necesidad de ingreso en unidades de cuidados intensivos. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente las maternas críticas con complicaciones neurológicas. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, retrospectivo en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras durante el período de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2016. Para el análisis de los datos se efectuó el cálculo de frecuencias absolutas y relativas, se aplicaron medidas de tendencia central (media) y dispersión (rango) y para conocer la posible asociación entre las variables cualitativas se aplicó el Test de chi-cuadrado con una significación de p<0,05. Resultados: Las complicaciones neurológicas se presentaron en 33,3 por ciento de las pacientes, las más frecuentes fueron: eclampsia (65,7 por ciento), infarto cerebral (9,0 por ciento) y la trombosis venosa cerebral (8,6 por ciento). Las nulíparas (51,4 por ciento) y la edad mayor de 35 años (42,8 por ciento) fueron los factores de riesgo más observados. La hipertensión arterial fue el antecedente patológico personal principal y se evidenció asociación entre las complicaciones neurológicas y la causa directa de la muerte (p=0,00043). Conclusiones: Las complicaciones neurológicas fueron frecuentes en las maternas críticas y constituyen causa directa de muerte. Como complicación más frecuente se presentó la eclampsia(AU)


Introduction: Obstetric patients can present numerous complications that put in danger their lives, and they need of admission in intensive care units. Objective: To characterize in a clinical way the critically ill pregnant women with neurological complications. Methods: An observational, descriptive, retrospective study was conducted in Hermanos Ameijeiras. Clinical-Surgical Hospital during the period from January, 2007 to December, 2016. There was carried out the calculation of absolute and relative frequencies for the analysis of the data; there were applied measures of central (average) trends and dispersion (range), and to know the possible association between the qualitative variables the Chi-square´s Test was performed with a significance of p < 0.05. Results: The neurological complications appeared in 33,3 percent of the patients and the most frequent were: eclampsia (65,7 percent), cerebral infarction (9,0 percent) and cerebral venous thrombosis (8,6 percent). Being a nulliparous women (51,4 percent) and age of more than 35 years (42,8 percent) were the most common risk factors. Arterial hypertension was the main pathological background and the association between the neurological complications and the direct cause of the death (p=0.00043) was demonstrated. Conclusions: The neurological complications were frequent in critically ill pregnant women and they constitute a direct cause of death. The most frequent complication was eclampsia(AU)


Subject(s)
Eclampsia/mortality , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Neurologic Manifestations , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
19.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1264166

ABSTRACT

Introduction : L'éclampsie est une complication fréquente et grave de la prééclampsie. Elle est responsable de morbidité et de mortalité maternelle et périnatale élevées. Objectif : Etudier les aspects diagnostique, thérapeutique et pronostique de l'éclampsie à Cotonou. Matériel et Méthodes : Il s'agissait d'une étude observationnelle transversale descriptive, menée du 1er janvier au 31 août 2016 à la Clinique Universitaire de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (CUGO) du Centre National Hospitalier Universitaire Hubert Koutoukou Maga (CNHU-HKM) de Cotonou. Résultats : L'incidence de la crise éclamptique était de 1,9%. Les patientes affectées étaient jeunes avec un âge moyen de 25,4 ans, primigestes (60,3%), nullipares (64,7%) avec un mauvais suivi de la grossesse. L'éclampsie est survenue en antépartum dans 75% des cas. L'HTA était sévère (95,6%), la protéinurie massive (61,8%) et le coma léger (52,9%). Le Sulfate de magnésium était l'anticonvulsivant de choix (100%) et la césarienne la principale voie d'accouchement (100%). Le pronostic maternel et périnatal était mauvais avec une mortalité maternelle de 2,9%, une mortinatalité de 5,9% et une mortalité néonatale de 27,3%. Conclusion : L'éclampsie demeure une complication fréquente et redoutable de la prééclampsie à Cotonou. Un bon suivi de la grossesse s'avère capital pour un diagnostic et une prise en charge précoces de la prééclampsie avant l'apparition de la crise éclamptique


Subject(s)
Benin , Cesarean Section , Eclampsia , Magnesium Sulfate , Patients
20.
Ethiop. med. j. (Online) ; 56(2): 125-132, 2018.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1261999

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aims of the study were to determine the incidence of eclampsia and describe its clinical correlates and pregnancy outcomes.Patients and Methods: A one-year prospective study of 93 cases of eclampsia using a structured questionnaire which included socio-demographic data, clinical presentation, work-up, management and feto-maternal outcomes was done at Karamara Regional Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia.Results: The incidence of eclampsia was 2.7% (93 in 3500 deliveries). Most of the cases were young (45%), nulliparous (70%) women who had not received any antenatal care (63%). Almost two thirds of the women (n=57, 61%) presented with eclampsia in antepartum, whereas 26 cases (28%) occurred in intrapartum, and there were 10 cases (11%) with eclampsia postpartum. Preceding symptoms were reported in 78.5 % of patients with severe hypertension recorded in 66%. The average gestational age at presentation was 32 weeks. Hydralazine was used for emergency control of hypertension in 91% of the cases. Magnesium was administered to 92 (99%) of the patients. Delay greater than 12h from admission to delivery occurred in 45% of the women with eclampsia. Cesarean section (CS) was performed in 14 (17%) and instrumental delivery in 15 (18%). The maternal and perinatal case fatality rates of eclampsia were 34.7% and 11% respectively.Conclusion: The incidence of eclampsia was very high with corresponding high maternal and perinatal deaths. The presentation of patients was late and the work up and management of cases substandard. Hence capacity building of health facilities, implementation of standard guidelines and criteria based auditing are recommended


Subject(s)
Eclampsia/diagnosis , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Eclampsia/surgery , Ethiopia , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies
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