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2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927966

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the pharmacoeconomic value of Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid in the treatment of viral myocarditis(Qi-Yin deficiency syndrome) by supplementing Qi, nourishing the heart, calming the mind, and relieving palpitation, the present study performed the Meta-analysis based on the published papers on Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid by AMSTAR and carried out pharmacoeconomic evaluation using TreeAge Pro by the cost-effectiveness analysis. The results showed that the quality of the included papers was good. After four weeks of treatment, Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid combined with the conventional treatment regimen was superior to the conventional treatment in improving creatine kinase isoenzyme, and the difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, the treatment cost was also higher than that of conventional treatment, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CNY 95.89, accounting for 0.30% of per capita disposable income. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that the research results were robust. Therefore, based on the assumption that the per capita disposable income in 2020 was the threshold of patients' willingness to pay, it is more economical for patients with viral myocarditis to use Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid combined with conventional secondary prevention regimen than conventio-nal secondary prevention regimen alone. The economic evaluation of Qidong Yixin Oral Liquid in the treatment of viral myocarditis will help physicians and patients choose optimal treatment options, improve rational clinical medication, and provide references for the efficient allocation and utilization of medical resources in China.


Subject(s)
Cost-Benefit Analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Humans , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Qi , Yin Deficiency/drug therapy
3.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 13: 1-7, 5/02/2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1179862

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los establecimientos de atención de la salud utilizan sustancias y productos potencialmente peligrosos para la salud de los pacientes, los trabajadores, la comunidad o el entorno, ya sea en forma directa o transformados en residuos con potencial impacto ambiental. En el marco de la estrategia de Hospitales Sostenibles, se tiende a limitar la exposición a estos insumos minimizando su uso o reemplazándolos gradualmente por equivalentes de riesgo menor. Sin embargo, y con independencia de los márgenes de seguridad establecidos, la evaluación del impacto ambiental a lo largo de la cadena de valor no forma parte constitutiva del análisis costo-beneficio que antecede a la decisión de su adquisición y empleo. Este trabajo se propuso evaluar una herramienta de análisis económico-ambiental que permita seleccionar la alternativa más sostenible. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó el Proceso de Análisis Jerárquico para incorporar atributos ambientales en la evaluación de múltiples criterios aplicables a productos de similares propiedades e intención de uso con materiales potencialmente peligrosos. RESULTADOS: Se relevaron 125 productos o familias de productos médicos, y 93 cumplían los criterios de inclusión. Se observó una alta prevalencia de productos fabricados en PVC. DISCUSIÓN: La herramienta, que introduce criterios ambientales en el proceso de evaluación, es un instrumento eficaz para decidir una adquisición o incorporación al activo tecnológico de un establecimiento sanitario.


Subject(s)
Economics, Pharmaceutical , Equipment and Supplies
4.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 45: e57, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251987

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective. To examine multiple aspects of the medicines in CARICOM procurement markets, including manufacturer headquarters location, regulatory history, and type (innovator versus generic); the proportion of World Health Organization (WHO) essential medicines; and the most expensive medicines procured. Methods. An analysis of procurement information from selected CARICOM procurers. Four public sector procurement lists were obtained based on public availability or sharing of data from public sector procurers. Analyses were based on parameters available or deduced from these data. Results. The majority of products come from manufacturers headquartered in North America and Europe (63%-67%). The percentage of medicines procured from generic companies is 60%-87%; and 25%-50% of medicines procured are on the WHO Essential Medicines List. Wide price variations exist in the most expensive medicines purchased. Conclusions. The analysis identifies vulnerabilities and opportunities in the procurement situation of CARICOM states, particularly related to quality and rational use of medicines. This analysis represents a baseline that governments and other stakeholders can use in the future.


RESUMEN Objetivo. Revisar los múltiples aspectos de los medicamentos en los mercados de compras y los proveedores de CARICOM, como la ubicación de la sede del fabricante, el historial de regulación, el tipo (patentado versus genérico); la proporción de medicamentos esenciales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS); y los medicamentos comprados más caros. Métodos. Se analizó información sobre la compra por parte de determinados organismos de CARICOM. La información procedía de cuatro listas de organismos del sector público que realizan las compras, que se consiguieron en función de su disponibilidad pública o de los datos distribuidos por los organismos del sector público que realizan las compras. Los análisis estaban basados en los parámetros disponibles o derivados de estos datos. Resultados. La mayoría de los productos proviene de fabricantes radicados en América del Norte y Europa (entre 63% y 67%). El porcentaje de medicamentos que se compra de empresas genéricas oscila entre 60% y 87%; y de 25% a 50% de los medicamentos que se compran están en la Lista de Medicamentos Esenciales de la OMS. Hay una gran divergencia de precios entre los medicamentos comprados más caros. Conclusiones. En el análisis se han encontrado vulnerabilidades y oportunidades con respecto a la situación de las compras de medicamentos de los Estados de CARICOM, especialmente en cuanto a la calidad y al uso racional de los medicamentos. Este análisis representa una línea de base que los gobiernos u otros interesados directos pueden utilizar en el futuro.


RESUMO Objetivo. Examinar vários aspectos relacionados aos mercados e fornecedores de produtos farmacêuticos da CARICOM, incluindo a localização da sede do laboratório fabricante, histórico regulatório e tipo de produtos (inovadores versus genéricos); proporção de medicamentos adquiridos que constam da relação de medicamentos essenciais da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS); e medicamentos mais caros comprados. Métodos. Foi realizada uma análise de informação sobre compras feitas por compradores selecionados da CARICOM. Quatro listas de compras do setor público foram obtidas com informação de acesso público ou compartilhada pelos compradores. As análises foram feitas com base em parâmetros disponíveis ou inferidos a partir dos dados. Resultados. A maioria dos produtos farmacêuticos é proveniente de laboratórios com sedes na América do Norte e Europa (63%-67%). Do total, 60%-87% dos medicamentos adquiridos são de laboratórios de produtos genéricos e 25%-50% constam da relação de medicamentos essenciais da OMS. Existe uma ampla variação nos preços dos medicamentos mais caros comprados. Conclusões. Foram identificadas fragilidades e oportunidades na situação de compras dos países da CARICOM, em particular relacionadas à qualidade dos produtos e ao uso racional dos medicamentos. Esta análise serve de referência a ser usada futuramente pelos governos e outras partes interessadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drugs, Generic/economics , Drugs, Essential/economics , Pharmaceutical Trade , World Health Organization , Public Sector , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879164

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the economics of Suhuang Zhike Capsules in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD) for inpatients. Based on the published clinical research data, cost-utility analysis was used in this study to evaluate the pharmacoeconomics of Suhuang Zhike Capsules in treatment of AECOPD inpatients from the perspective of medical insu-rance. The test group was treated with Suhuang Zhike Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine, and the control group was treated with conventional Western medicine alone. Treeage software was used to construct a pharmacoeconomic model and perform simulation analysis. The results showed that the cost and output of Suhuang Zhike Capsules combined with the conventional Western medicine were 60 010.18 yuan and 1.92 quality adjusted life year(QALYs), respectively in the simulated 3 years of disease treatment. The cost and output of the conventional Western medicine were 96 730.60 yuan and 1.90 QALYs respectively. Suhuang Zhike Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine required lower cost but achieved higher output, showing cost-utility advantages, so this drug combination was a plan with pharmacoeconomic advantages. The sensitivity analysis results showed that the conclusion was relatively stable. Based on the above results, it is believed that as compared with the conventional Western medicine, Suhuang Zhike Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine have lower cost and higher output for the treatment of AECOPD inpatients, and it is a treatment plan with pharmacoeconomic advantages.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Humans , Inpatients , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879098

ABSTRACT

This research was to evaluate the economics of Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional therapy for patients with coronary heart disease(CHD) in Chinese medical environment. From the perspective of medical insurance, a Markov model was established in this study based on the results of Meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness and safety of Shexiang Tongxin Dripping Pills combined with conventional treatment and conventional treatment alone. The experimental group was treated with She-xiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine treatment, while the control group was treated with conventional Western medicine treatment alone. The cost-utility analysis and sensitivity analysis were performed for the two regimens using Treeage pro. After 30 cycles of model simulation, according to the results of Markov model, the total cost and health output were CNY 237 795.73 and 16.36 QALYs(the quality adjusted life years, QALYs), respectively for Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional Western medicine treatment, CNY 247 396.55 and 16.36 QALYs respectively for the conventional Western medicine treatment alone. Compared with the conventional treatment alone, the Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pills combined with conventional treatment had lower long-term cost and higher health output, with advantages of cost-utility and pharmacoeconomic advantages. The sensitivity analysis results showed that the conclusion was relatively stable. Based on the above results, it is considered that compared with the conventional Western medicine alone, Shexiang Tongxin Dropping Pill combined with conventional Western medicine is a treatment regimen with pharmacoeconomic advantages for the treatment of CHD.


Subject(s)
Coronary Disease/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Female , Humans
7.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(2): 63-70, Jan.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is an acute syndrome triggered by certain anesthetic medications. Dantrolene is the only specific treatment for MH crises. Without treatment, lethality may be as high as 80%. In Colombia, it is not mandatory to keep dantrolene supplies in stock. Objective: To establish the cost-benefit ratio, from the perspective of healthcare institutions, of keeping dantrolene supplies in stock in the operating theater. Methods: Using a decision tree, a Monte Carlo simulation was run with 10,000 scenarios to determine the median annual cost of keeping full or partial stocks (36 or 12 vials x 20 mg, respectively) of dantrolene. For the option of not keeping supplies in stock, the cost threshold was calculated where the expected value of both alternatives of the decision tree is equalized. Indifference curves were constructed for complete and partial supplies. Results: The median annual cost was estimated at 6.6 million Colombian pesos (COP) for full dantrolene supplies, and at COP 2.2 million for partial supplies. The median economic consequence threshold for 1 death due to the unavailability of dantrolene was estimated at COP 18.5 million for full supplies, and at COP 57.0 million for partial supplies. Conclusion: If, as a result of the unavailability of dantrolene, the economic consequences of a death due to MH exceed the threshold of COP 57.0 or COP 18.5 million, the purchase of full or partial stocks, respectively, is justified.


Resumen Introducción: La hipertermnia maligna (HM) es un síndrome agudo desencadenado por algunos medicamentos anestésicos. El dantroleno es el único tratamiento específico para las crisis de HM. Sin tratamiento puede tener una letalidad cercana al 80%. En Colombia, el abastecimiento de dantroleno no es obligatorio. Objetivo: Establecer la relación costo-efectividad, desde el punto de vista de las instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud, de mantener un abastecimiento de dantroleno en quirófanos. Métodos: Mediante un árbol de decisiones se realizó una simulación Monte Carlo con 10 mil escenarios para determinar la mediana del costo anual de un abastecimiento completo o parcial (36 o 12 viales de 20 mg, respectivamente) de dantroleno. Para la alternativa de no tener abastecimiento, se calculó el umbral de costo, donde se iguala el valor esperado de ambas alternativas del árbol de decisiones. Se construyeron curvas de indiferencia para el abastecimiento completo y parcial. Resultados: La mediana del costo anual del abastecimiento completo de dantroleno se estimó en $6.6 millones de pesos colombianos (COP), y el del abastecimiento parcial en $2.2 millones COP. La mediana del umbral de consecuencias económicas por una muerte sin disponibilidad de dantroleno se estimó en 18.5 millones COP para el abastecimiento completo, y en 57.0 millones COP para el abastecimiento parcial. Conclusión: Si por no disponer de dantroleno las consecuencias económicas de una muerte por HM superan el umbral de $57.0 o $18.5 millones COP, se justifica la compra de un abastecimiento completo o parcial, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Costs and Cost Analysis , Dantrolene , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Delivery of Health Care , Economics, Hospital , Anesthetics , Malignant Hyperthermia
8.
Clin. biomed. res ; 40(2): 96-104, 2020. ilus.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147977

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A farmácia clínica tem como objetivo garantir uma farmacoterapia adequada ao paciente. A avaliação de prescrição é uma das principais atividades do farmacêutico clínico, o que pode resultar em intervenções e economia para a instituição, além de promover o uso racional e seguro de medicamentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a economia gerada por meio das intervenções realizadas pelos farmacêuticos clínicos durante o processo de avaliação farmacêutica de prescrição. Métodos: Estudo transversal, observacional e analítico, onde foi analisada a economia gerada através das intervenções realizadas pelos farmacêuticos no período entre janeiro e julho de 2017. Resultados: Foram realizadas 3.033 intervenções no período do estudo e 943 foram incluídas. O valor da economia gerada foi de R$ 72.648,39 (US$ 23.134,95), sendo as intervenções mais frequentes relacionadas à adequação de apresentação (847) e forma farmacêutica (44). Dentre os medicamentos cujas intervenções farmacêuticas resultaram em maior economia, estão a anfotericina B lipossomal (R$ 18.919,75), a daptomicina (R$ 8.575,00), o valganciclovir (R$ 7.452,00) e a anidulafungina (R$ 7.422,35). Algumas intervenções não resultaram em economia direta do tratamento medicamentoso, como ocorreu com a risperidona comprimido (− R$ 264,04) e o sulfametoxazol+trimetoprima comprimido (− R$ 208,62), que foram substituídos por solução oral para administração por sondas. Conclusão: O estudo demonstrou que a atuação do farmacêutico clínico resultou na efetivação de intervenções relacionadas à adequação de dose, correção de diluição, alteração de apresentação, substituição de forma farmacêutica, adequação de tempo de tratamento e a adesão aos protocolos institucionais. Essas intervenções refletiram diretamente na redução de custo dos tratamentos, otimizando recursos e gerando economia ao serviço de saúde. (AU)


Introduction: Clinical pharmacy aims to ensure appropriate pharmacotherapy for patients. Prescription evaluation is one of the main activities of the clinical pharmacist and can result in interventions and cost savings for the institution, in addition to promoting the rational and safe use of medications. The objective of this study was to evaluate cost savings generated through interventions performed by clinical pharmacists during the process of prescription evaluation. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, analytical study analyzed cost savings generated through interventions performed by pharmacists from January to July 2017. Results: A total of 3,033 interventions were performed during the study period, of which 943 were included. Cost savings amounted to R$ 72,648.39 (US$ 23,134.95), and the most frequent interventions were related to the adequacy of presentation (847) and dosage form (44). The medications whose pharmaceutical interventions resulted in the greatest cost savings are liposomal amphotericin B (R$ 18,919.75), daptomycin (R$ 8,575.00), valganciclovir (R$ 7,452.00), and anidulafungin (R$ 7,422.35). Some interventions did not result in direct cost savings, such as treatment with risperidone tablet (− R$ 264.04) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole tablet (− R$ 208.62), which were replaced by oral solution for tube administration. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that the performance of clinical pharmacists resulted in the implementation of interventions related to dose adjustment, dilution correction, change of presentation, replacement of dosage form, adjustment of treatment duration, and adherence to institutional protocols. These interventions directly resulted in the reduction of treatment costs, optimizing resources and generating cost savings for the health system. (AU)


Subject(s)
Economics, Pharmaceutical , Hospitals, University , Pharmacy Service, Hospital , Pharmaceutical Services , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage
9.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 11(1): 42-48, Abril/2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1005719

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Analisar os gastos com insulinas análogas de ação rápida e longa, no município de Belém/PA, no ano de 2016. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, quantitativo de farmacoeconomia, relacionado aos custos de insulinas análogas. A pesquisa foi realizada na Secretária Municipal de Saúde de um município do estado do Pará, por meio da análise das notas de empenho referentes à aquisição de insulinas análogas no ano de 2016. Os dados foram tabulados no Microsoft® Excel 2010, no qual também foram geradas tabelas e gráficos para melhor interpretação das informações coletadas. A presente pesquisa não envolveu a participação de seres humanos e nem a utilização de dados secundários, por isso não houve a necessidade de submissão ao Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa (CEP). Resultados: Durante o ano de 2016, foram disponibilizadas 15 variedades de apresentação de análogos de insulinas. Neste ano, foram realizadas 10 compras de insulinas comprovadas por meio de empenho, resultando num total de 30.450 frascos de insulina, que gerou uma despesa extra de R$ 1.857.778,00 ao município. Em relação à quantidade comprada e ao custo de cada insulina análoga, a insulina Glargina liderou o ranking em ambas as variáveis, obtendo 12.650 frascos comprados e custo total de R$ 967.970,00. Conclusão: Mesmo com a recente inclusão nas listas-padrão de algumas insulinas análogas que devem ser disponibilizadas pelo Sistema único de Saúde (SUS), essa ação ainda não ocorre de maneira efetiva no território brasileiro, evidenciado pelos gastos significativos com a compra de insulinas análogas por meio de judicialização.


Objective: To analyze the costs of fast and long-acting analogues of insulin in Belém/PA, from 2016. Methods: This is a descriptive and quantitative study of pharmacoeconomics, related to the analogues of insulins cost. The research was realized at the Municipal Health Secretary from a county in the state of Pará, through analysis of the commitment notes regarding the acquisition of analogous of insulins from the year of 2016. The data were charted in Microsoft® Excel 2010, which also generated another's tables and graphs for the information collected better interpretation. The present research did not involve the human beings participation or even use of secondary data, so there was no need to submit to the Research Ethics Committee (REC/CEP). Results: During the year 2016, 15 presentation varieties of analogous of insulin were made available. This same year, 10 purchases of proven insulin were performed through a commitment, resulting in a total of 30.450 bottles of insulin, which generated an extra expense of R$ 1,857.778.00 to the county. Regarding the quantity purchased and the cost of each analogous insulin, Glargina insulin led the ranking in both variables, obtaining 12.650 bottles purchased and R$ 967,970.00 of total cost. Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion at the standard lists of some analogues of insulins that should be made available by the Single Health System (SHS/SUS), this action still does not occur effectively in Brazil, evidenced by the significant expenses with the purchase of analogues of insulins through a judicial process (public civil action).


Subject(s)
Humans , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Drugs, Essential , Insulin, Long-Acting , Health's Judicialization
10.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e17197, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019530

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) affects millions of people worldwide and causes several complications for the patient, consuming large sums of financial resources from the health services. This study aims to estimate the financial investment of DM2 treatment for glycemic control of the patient, from the point of view of the municipal Public Health System (SUS). The Delphi technique was used to validate the opinion of a team of judges, specialists in DM2, and health service managers, on the investment necessary for glycemic control of patients with DM2 through the application of questionnaires. In order for the patient to achieve glycated hemoglobin (A1c) < 7%, an investment of US$ 2,419.06 (value/patient/year) is necessary. As the value of A1c increases, investment is reduced. This result reveals the intention to allocate resources for the prevention of DM2 and its complications


Subject(s)
Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Economics, Pharmaceutical/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/classification , Unified Health System/classification
11.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 65(3)19/09/2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048431

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A trombose venosa profunda é uma complicação comum e intimamente relacionada às neoplasias. Novos anticoagulantes orais foram lançados nos últimos anos, entre eles, a rivaroxabana. Objetivo: O estudo analisou o custo-efetividade e o impacto orçamentário da rivaroxabana versus enoxaparina. Método: Trata-se de uma coorte retrospectiva, realizada com população oncológica sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. Por meio do modelo de árvore de decisão, foram comparados desfechos de sangramento e retrombose, e custos do tratamento da trombose venosa profunda com rivaroxabana ou enoxaparina, em um horizonte temporal de sete meses. Custos diretos foram extraídos do Sistema de Gerenciamento da Sistema de Gerenciamento da Tabela de Procedimentos, Medicamentos, Órteses, Próteses e Materiais e Medicamentos Especiais do SUS (SIGTAP-SUS), e empregou-se a Planilha Brasileira de Impacto Orçamentário de tecnologias da saúde para avaliação do impacto orçamentário com base na população brasileira de 2017, em cinco anos. A análise de sensibilidade simulou cenários tanto na avaliação de custo-efetividade quanto na de impacto orçamentário. Resultados: Cento e cinquenta e três pacientes foram incluídos na análise de custo-efetividade com diversas neoplasias. A rivaroxabana demonstrou não inferioridade terapêutica comparada à enoxaparina. A razão de custo-efetividade incremental foi de R$ 5.521,71 por unidade de benefício ganho com a nova alternativa, rivaroxabana. Na análise de sensibilidade, a rivaroxabana manteve-se dominante. Foi demonstrada uma economia no impacto orçamentário incremental de R$ 85.950.791.129,21 com a utilização de rivaroxabana ao longo de cinco anos em comparação ao cenário de referência, e esta se manteve como opção mais econômica perante as análises de sensibilidade. Conclusão: A rivaroxabana, nesse contexto, apresentou-se como uma importante alternativa terapêutica.


Introduction: Deep vein thrombosis is a common complication and closely related to neoplasms. New oral anticoagulants have been launched in recent years, among them rivaroxaban. Objective: The study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin. Method: This is a retrospective cohort, performed with oncological population from the perspective of Sistema Único de Saúde (National Health System). The decision tree model compared outcomes of bleeding and rethrombosis, and costs of treatment of deep venous thrombosis with rivaroxaban or enoxaparin in a time horizon of seven months. Direct costs were extracted from the SIGTAP-SUS, and the Brazilian Spreadsheet for Budgetary Impact of Health Technologies was used to evaluate the budgetary impact based in the Brazilian population of 2017 over a five-year period. The sensitivity analysis simulated scenarios for both cost-effectiveness and budget impact assessments. Results: One hundred and fifty-three patients were included in the cost-effectiveness analysis with several neoplasms. Rivaroxaban demonstrated no therapeutic inferiority compared to enoxaparin. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was R$ 5,521.71 per benefit unit spared with the new alternative, rivaroxaban. In the sensitivity analysis, rivaroxaban remained dominant. An economy in incremental budget impact of R$ 85,950,791,129.21 was demonstrated with the use of rivaroxaban over five years in comparison to the reference scenario, and this continued as the most economic option in relation to sensitivity analyzes. Conclusion: In this context rivaroxaban was an important therapeutic alternative.


Introducción: La trombosis venosa profunda es una complicación común e íntimamente relacionada a las neoplasias. Los nuevos anticoagulantes orales. Objetivo: El estudio analizó el Costo-Efectividad y el Impacto Presupuestario de la rivaroxabana versus enoxaparina. Método: En el modelo de árbol de decisión se compararon los resultados de la hemorragia y la retrombosis, y los costos del tratamiento de la trombosis venosa profunda con rivaroxabana o enoxaparina, con una cohorte retrospectiva, realizada con población oncológica bajo la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud en un horizonte temporal de siete meses. Los costos directos fueron extraídos del SIGTAP-SUS, y se empleó la Planilla Brasileña de Impacto Presupuestario de Tecnologías de la Salud para evaluación del Impacto Presupuestario con base en la población brasileña de 2017 en un horizonte temporal de cinco años. El análisis de sensibilidad simuló escenarios tanto en la evaluación de Costo-Efectividad y en la de Impacto Presupuestario. Resultados: Ciento cincuenta y tres pacientes fueron incluidos en el análisis de Costo-Efectividad con diversas neoplasias. La rivaroxabana demostró no inferioridad terapéutica comparada a la enoxaparina. La razón de costo-efectividad incremental fue de R $ 5.521,71 por unidad de beneficio ganada con la nueva alternativa, rivaroxabana. En el análisis de sensibilidad, la rivaroxabana se mantuvo dominante. Se demostró una economía em el Impacto Presupuestario incremental de R$ 85.950.791.129,21 con la utilización de rivaroxabana a lo largo de 5 años en comparación al escenario de referencia, y ésta se mantuvo como opción más económica ante los análisis de sensibilidad. Conclusión: La rivaroxabana, en este contexto, se presentó como una importante alternativa terapéutica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Enoxaparin/economics , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Rivaroxaban/economics , Neoplasms/complications , Unified Health System , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Anticoagulants/economics
12.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 24(2): 75-80, jul.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985674

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El uso de antibióticos, enfrenta grandes problemas que deben ser resueltos en pro de la calidad de vida de los pacientes buscando un equilibrio en el costo-efectividad. Los análisis farmacoeconómicos son una herramienta útil para determinar qué fármacos deben estar disponibles en guías farmacoterapéuticas. Aunque el método de selección de fármacos varía en cada institución, el principio general es que deben ser elegidos los más efectivos al menor costo. El objetivo fue establecer el costo de los tratamientos, la evaluación de susceptibilidad y resistencia a los antibióticos en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos de Montería. Métodos: La muestra se integró por todos los pacientes ingresados a la UCI, que recibieron tratamiento antibiótico, durante doce meses. De las historias clínicas, se identificaron y se clasificaron los tratamientos aplicados, duración del tratamiento, costo del tratamiento por paciente, consumos por paciente de los antibióticos con el fin de estimar los costos de los antibióticos utilizados en pacientes de la UCI. Resultados: Se registraron 670 ingresos, de los cuales el 48,40% recibieron terapia antimicrobiana. Las principales causas de ingreso a la UCI fueron: evento coronario agudo (16,69%), insuficiencia respiratoria aguda (13,83%), sepsis (12,48%). Los microorganismos encontrados fueron: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, A. baumanni, A. haemolyticus. Conclusión: Los sistemas estandarizados de vigilancia para el uso de antibióticos es una herramienta esencial en el uso racional y en el control de la resistencia antibacteriana.


Abstract The use of antibiotics, faces major problems that must be solved to ensure high-quality care of patients, which seeking a balance in cost-effectiveness. Pharmacoeconomics analyzes are a useful tool for determining which drugs should be available for pharmacotherapy strategies. Although the method of drug selection varies in each institution, the general principle is that the most effective ones should be chosen amongst the lowest-cost. The objective was to establish the cost of treatments, susceptibility assessment and resistance to antibiotics in an Intensive Care Unit in Montería. The sample was integrated by all the patients admitted to the ICU, who received antibiotic treatment, during twelve months. From the clinical records served, the treatments applied, duration of treatment, cost of treatment per patient, consumption per patient of the antibiotics were identified and classified to estimate the costs in relation to the therapeutic effectiveness of the antibiotics used in patients in the ICU. A total of 670 patients were registered, of whom 48,40% received antimicrobial therapy. The main causes of ICU admission were: acute coronary event (16,69%), acute respiratory failure (13,83%), sepsis (12,48%). The strains were: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, A. baumanni, A. haemolyticus. Standardized surveillance systems for the use of antibiotics are an essential strategic intervention for the rational use and control antimicrobial resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Sepsis , Disease Susceptibility , Intensive Care Units , Quality of Life , Therapeutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Colombia , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Surveillance in Disasters , Escherichia coli , Duration of Therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents
13.
Rev. enferm. Inst. Mex. Seguro Soc ; 26(4): 232-238, Septiembre-Dic. 2018. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-979898

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar el impacto económico institucional del programa Receta Resurtible con pacientes diabéticos. Material y métodos: estudio de costos antes y después del programa Receta Resurtible con pacientes diabéticos. El costo promedio incluyó perfil de uso y costo unitario. El perfil de uso se determinó para Consulta externa, Farmacia y medicamentos. En el análisis se plantearon escenarios y se adoptaron supuestos. Resultados: el promedio de consultas antes y después se ubica en 6.45 y 4.73, respectivamente. La dotación de medicamentos fue 55.8% y 99%. El impacto del programa para una unidad de medicina familiar con 6400 pacientes diabéticos, de los cuales 18% se encuentra en el programa Receta Resurtible, permite un ahorro de $ 490 366 en la consulta de Medicina familiar y atención en Farmacia, sin embargo existe un incremento de $112 100 por consumo de medicamentos, el ahorro total en este escenario es de $378 266. Conclusión: el impacto económico del programa Receta Resurtible es benéfico para la institución.


Objective: To determine the institutional economic impact of the Resupply Prescription program in diabetic patients. Material and methods: Study of costs before and after the Resupply Prescription program with diabetic patients. The average cost included usage profile and unit cost. The profile of use was determined for External consultation, Pharmacy and medication. In the analysis, scenarios were raised and assumptions were adopted. Results: The average of before and after consultations is located at 6.45 and 4.73, respectively. The medication provision was 55.8 and 99%. The impact of the program for a Family Medicine Unit with 6400 diabetic patients, of which 18% is in the Resupply Prescription program, allows a saving of $ 490 366 in the consultation of Family Medicine and Pharmacy, however there is a increase of $ 112 100 for drug consumption, the total saving in this scenario is $ 378 266. Conclusion: The economic impact of the Resupply Prescription program is beneficial for the institution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Primary Health Care , Program Evaluation , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Costs and Cost Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus , Economics , Economics, Medical , National Health Programs , Mexico
14.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 10(2): 134-139, Agosto/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-915089

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização clínica da dexmedetomidina e o custo econômico de sua aquisição em pacientes adultos em um hospital universitário. Métodos: Estudo observacional e descritivo do tipo prospectivo, em que foram analisados os formulários de solicitações do medicamento entre 15 de dezembro de 2016 e 15 de dezembro de 2017. Os dados coletados foram idade, gênero, dias solicitados e liberados, justificativa clínica, dose, posologia e via de administração. O custo financeiro foi calculado considerando o valor unitário do medicamento. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo STATA12.0. Resultados: Foram coletados 79 formulários; 14 foram da UTI cardiológica, 41, da UTI de adulto e 24, do centro cirúrgico. As solicitações foram separadas em grupos cirúrgico e clínico. Foi observada prevalência de pacientes com idade acima de 30 anos e sexo masculino. No grupo cirúrgico, o tempo médio de solicitação e liberação foi igual, enquanto no grupo clínico foi de 3,73 e 3 dias, respectivamente. A dose diária foi de 233,33 mcg/dia no grupo cirúrgico e de 773,77 µg/dia no clínico. No grupo cirúrgico, o uso foi para sedação em plástica mamária não estética; no grupo clínico, foi para agitação psicomotora, sedoanalgesia e delirium. O custo no grupo clínico foi de R$ 58.470,65, enquanto no grupo cirúrgico foi de R$ 2.995,65, totalizando R$ 61.466,30. Conclusão: O custo econômico encontrado com o uso do medicamento foi similar ao achado em outro hospital público de alta complexidade.


Objective: Evaluate clinical dexmetomidine use and economic impact of its acquisition to adult patients at a university hospital. Methods: Observational and descriptive study, of prospective type, in which the medication request forms received between December 15th, 2016 and December 15th, 2017 were analized. The data collected were age, gender, days requested and released, clinical justification, dosage, posology and method of administration. The financial cost was calculated assuming the unitary value of the medicine. The statistical analysis was performed by Stata 12.0. Results: 79 forms were collected. 14 were from the coronary care unit, 41 from the adult intensive care unit and 24 from the surgery center. The requests were divided into surgical group and clinical group. Most patients were male aged 30 or more. For the surgical group, the request and release time were mostly the same, meanwhile for the clinical one it was 3.73 and 3 days, respectively. The daily dosage was 233.33 mcg/day in the surgical group and 773.77 µg/day in the clinical one. In the surgical group the use was due to sedation in non-aesthetic breast surgeries. In the clinical one it was for psychomotor agitation, sedoanalgesia and delirium. The cost for the clinical group was R$ 58,470.65, while for the surgical one it was R$ 2,995,65, summing up R$ 61,466.30. Conclusion: The financial cost demanded with the use of the medicine was similar to the one found in another high complexity public hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dexmedetomidine , Drug Utilization , Economics, Pharmaceutical
15.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1,supl.1): 763-778, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886940

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The development of our society has been based on the use of biodiversity, especially for medicines and nutrition. Brazil is the nation with the largest biodiversity in the world accounting for more than 15% of all living species. The devastation of biodiversity in Brazil is critical and may not only cause the loss of species and genes that encode enzymes involved in the complex metabolism of organisms, but also the loss of a rich chemical diversity, which is a potential source for bioeconomy based on natural products and new synthetic derivatives. Bioeconomy focus on the use of bio-based products, instead of fossil-based ones and could address some of the important challenges faced by society. Considering the chemical and biological diversity of Brazil, this review highlights the Brazilian natural products that were successfully used to develop new products and the value of secondary metabolites from Brazilian biodiversity with potential application for new products and technologies. Additionally, we would like to address the importance of new technologies and scientific programs to support preservation policies, bioeconomy and strategies for the sustainable use of biodiversity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Medicinal/classification , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Biological Products , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Biodiversity , Brazil
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In South Korea, 22.3% of women ≥50 years of age and 37% of women ≥70 years of age visit the doctor to obtain treatment for osteoporosis. According to the analysis of the National Health Insurance Services claim data between 2008 and 2012, the number and incidence of hip and vertebral fractures increased during the same period. Denosumab, a newly marketed medicine in Korea, is the first RANK inhibitor. METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was conducted from a societal perspective to prove the superiority of denosumab to alendronate. A Markov cohort model was used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of denosumab. A 6-month cycle length was used in the model, and all patients were individually followed up through the model, from their age at treatment initiation to their time of death or until 100 years of age. The model consisted of eight health states: well; hip fracture; vertebral fracture; wrist fracture; other osteoporotic fracture; post-hip fracture; post-vertebral fracture; and dead. All patients began in the well-health state. In this model, 5% discounted rate, two-year maximum offset time, and persistence were adopted. RESULTS: The total lifetime costs for alendronate and denosumab were USD 5,587 and USD 6,534, respectively. The incremental costeffectiveness ratio (ICER) for denosumab versus alendronate was USD 20,600/QALY. Given the ICER threshold in Korea, the results indicated that denosumab was remarkably superior to alendronate. CONCLUSION: Denosumab is a cost-effective alternative to the oral anti-osteoporotic treatment, alendronate, in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Alendronate , Cohort Studies , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Denosumab , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Female , Hip , Humans , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal , Osteoporotic Fractures , Wrist
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 135(2): 92-99, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846298

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: In 2004, the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária, ANVISA) published a resolution establishing guidelines for albumin use. Although the published data do not indicate any definitive conclusions about the benefits of albumin use in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS), the guidelines recommend this procedure only in cases of edema that is refractory to use of diuretics. The aim here was to analyze albumin use among patients with nephrotic syndrome. DESIGN AND SETTING: Pharmacoeconomic study conducted in four large public referral hospitals for nephrology services in northeastern Brazil. METHOD: Cost-effectiveness and cost-utility economic evaluations were performed on a concurrent cohort of patients with nephrotic syndrome, who were divided into two groups according to compliance or noncompliance with the guidelines. Quality-of-life data were obtained from the SF36 and CHQ-PF50 questionnaires. RESULTS: This study enrolled 109 patients (60% adults and 56% women); 41.3% were using albumin in accordance with the guidelines. The weight, diuresis and fluid balance parameters were more cost-effective for patients who adhered to the guidelines. Regarding days of hospitalization avoided, the incremental ratio showed a daily cost of R$ 55.33, and guideline-compliant patients were hospitalized for five days or fewer. The quality of life improved by 8%, and savings of R$ 3,458.13/QALY (quality-adjusted life year) for the healthcare system were generated through guideline compliance. CONCLUSION: The economic analyses of this study demonstrated that there were greater cost benefits for patients whose treatment followed the guidelines.


RESUMO CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Em 2004, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) publicou uma resolução que estabelece diretrizes para o uso de albumina. Embora os dados publicados não indiquem conclusões definitivas sobre os benefícios do uso de albumina em pacientes com síndrome nefrótica (SN), a diretriz recomenda o procedimento apenas em casos de edema refratário ao uso de diuréticos. O objetivo aqui foi analisar o uso de albumina em pacientes com síndrome nefrótica. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo farmacoeconômico realizado em quatro grandes hospitais públicos de referência em serviços de nefrologia no nordeste do Brasil. MÉTODO: Foram realizadas avaliações econômicas do tipo custo-efetividade e custo-utilidade em uma coorte concorrente de pacientes com síndrome nefrótica, divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o cumprimento ou descumprimento das diretrizes. Dados de qualidade de vida foram obtidos a partir dos questionários SF36 e CHQ-PF50. RESULTADOS: Este estudo incluiu 109 pacientes (60% adultos e 56% mulheres); 41,3% estavam usando albumina conforme as diretrizes. Os parâmetros de peso, diurese e balanço hídrico foram mais custo-efetivos para pacientes que aderiram às diretrizes. Quanto a dias de internação evitados, a razão incremental mostrou um custo diário de R$ 55,33, sendo que os pacientes que seguiram as diretrizes ficaram cinco dias a menos internados. A qualidade de vida melhorou 8%, gerando economia de R$ 3,458.13/QALY (quality-adjusted life year) para o sistema de saúde por meio do cumprimento das diretrizes. CONCLUSÃO: As análises econômicas deste estudo demonstraram maiores benefícios em termos de custo para os pacientes cujo tratamento seguiu as diretrizes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Guideline Adherence/economics , Albumins/therapeutic use , Nephrotic Syndrome/economics , Nephrotic Syndrome/drug therapy , Quality of Life , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitals, Public
18.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (3 [Special]): 1057-1062
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189310

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the continuous growth of drug costs has become one of the hot issues of society. In this paper, by using principles and methods of pharmacoeconomics, we study on the management of drug cost control in hospital. Pharmacoeconomics involves the effective allocation and rational use of drug resources, and study the economic effect, that is to carry out the study of drug resources utilization efficiency. Through the analysis of the cost-benefit analysis of drug treatment, we could find the a more cost-effective treatment. Pharmacoeconomics can be applied to the clinical diagnosis and treatment, make reasonable prescription cost effect, it could provide patients with high economic efficiency of treatment, so that drug treatment to achieve the best results


Subject(s)
Economics, Pharmaceutical , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hospitals
19.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (3 [Special]): 1069-1073
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189312

ABSTRACT

With the increasing demand for health care, the consumption and cost of drugs have increased dramatically. Pharmacoeconomics is a new interdisciplinary subject in recent years. It mainly focuses on the cost and benefit of drug treatment. In this paper, the authors analyze the drug cost management based on an antimicrobial treatment case. The results show that by using cost-effectiveness method, we could reduce the cost of drugs in the course of treatment, the proportion of antimicrobial drugs are also reduced accordingly. By using the concept of pharmacoeconomics, in order to standardize the process of diagnosis and treatment, and to increase the economic performance of the drug delivery plan


Subject(s)
Economics, Pharmaceutical , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacy , Cost-Benefit Analysis
20.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2017. 180 f p. graf, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-966438

ABSTRACT

As hepatites virais B e C, nas últimas décadas, emergiram e se mantiveram em evidência como um grande problema de saúde pública. O desenvolvimento e a disseminação do uso de medicamentos antivirais vêm contribuindo para a diminuição da carga dessas infecções em nível individual e coletivo. Especialmente na última década, disponibilizaram-se tecnologias mais seguras e eficazes para o diagnóstico precoce e para o tratamento. No intuito de assegurar o uso racional desses insumos, muitos países elaboraram recomendações que incluem, os critérios de inclusão e exclusão para o tratamento e o estabelecimento do curso terapêutico. As recomendações nacionais e internacionais para o tratamento das hepatites B e C divergem em diversos aspectos, principalmente no que se refere aos fármacos eleitos como primeira linha de tratamento e ao público prioritário. No caso da hepatite C, o Ministério da Saúde brasileiro indica a terapia tripla somente para portadores de doença hepática avançada. O consenso internacional, representado pela OMS, pela AALSD e pelo NICE, assume direção oposta, ao propor como público prioritário, indivíduos com hepatite leve e moderada. As recomendações nacionais e internacionais para o tratamento da hepatite B se assemelham em grande medida, mas são conflitantes no que diz respeito aos medicamentos eleitos como primeira escolha. Com base nas divergências das diretrizes terapêuticas nacionais e internacionais, esse estudo objetivou confrontar as óticas nacionais e internacionais e avaliar as estratégias mais custo-efetivas para o tratamento contra o vírus da hepatite B (VHB) e o vírus da hepatite C (VHC) sob a perspectiva do SUS. Os resultados do modelo econômico construído indicam que o uso precoce e universal dos inibidores de protease (IPs) emerge como a conduta mais racional para o tratamento da hepatite C crônica na atualidade. Essa abordagem resulta em melhores desfechos clínicos e econômicos se comparada à terapia dual (peguinterferon + ribavirina) e ao uso de IPs no caso de refratariedade ao tratamento prévio e especialmente quando empregada restritamente aos casos de fibrose avançada, tal como recomendado pelas diretrizes nacionais. Na avaliação do custo-efetividade das recomendações terapêuticas para o tratamento contra o VHB em indivíduos HBeAg não reagentes, o uso do tenofovir se mostrou a estratégia mais eficiente. A terapia com tenofovir constitui a primeira linha de tratamento nas diretrizes nacionais atuais e foi a que apresentou maior efetividade associada ao menor custo global, contrariando as proposições de protocolos internacionais e de algumas publicações anteriores. Em síntese, a análise farmacoeconômica comparativa entre as diretrizes nacionais e internacionais para o tratamento das hepatites crônicas revela que a conduta de tratamento contra o VHB adotada no Brasil é adequada pelos pontos de vista clínico e econômico. Em contrapartida, as mesmas conclusões não se aplicam ao caso do tratamento da infecção do genótipo 1 da hepatite C, que, da forma como está sendo conduzido, penaliza uma parcela significativa dos indivíduos portadores, por oferecer o que há de mais avançado em tratamento antiviral exclusivamente aos pacientes com menores chances de resposta, maior risco de desenvolvimento de intolerância medicamentosa e já em estágio terminal da doença hepática


In the last decades, viral hepatitis B and C have emerged and have remained in evidence as a major public health problem. The development and dissemination of the use of antiviral drugs has contributed to reduce the burden of these infections at the individual and collective levels. Especially in the last decade, safer and more effective technologies have been made available for early diagnosis and treatment. In order to ensure the rational use of antivirals, many countries have developed recommendations that adds the inclusion and exclusion criterias for the treatment and establishment of the therapeutic course. National and international recommendations for the treatment of hepatitis B and C differ in several respects, especially for the drugs chosen as the first treatment line and for the priority public. In the case of hepatitis C, the Brazilian Ministry of Health indicates triple therapy only for patients with advanced liver disease. The international consensus, represented by WHO, AALSD and NICE, assumes the opposite direction proposing as a priority public, individuals with mild and moderate hepatitis. National and international recommendations for the treatment of Hepatitis B closely resemble each other but are in conflict with regard to medicines chosen as the first choice. Based on divergences among national and international therapeutic guidelines, this study aimed to compare national and international perspectives and to evaluate the most cost-effective strategies for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) from the SUS perspective. The results of the constructed economic model indicate that the early and universal use of protease inhibitors (PIs) emerges as the most rational conduct for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C today. This approach results in better clinical and economic outcomes compared to dual therapy (peginterferon + ribavirin) and the use of PIs in the case of refractoriness to previous treatment and especially when used strictly to cases of advanced fibrosis, as recommended by the national guidelines. In cost-effectiveness evaluation of the therapeutic recommendations for the treatment against HBV in non-reactive HBeAg individuals, the use of tenofovir was the most efficient strategy. In current national guidelines, tenofovir is recommended as the first-line treatment and was the one with the highest effectiveness associated with the lowest overall cost, contrary to the proposals of international protocols and some previous publications. In summary, the comparative pharmacoeconomic analysis between the national and international guidelines for the treatment of chronic hepatitis reveals that the treatment approach against HBV adopted in Brazil is adequate from the clinical and economic points of view. In contrast, the same conclusions do not apply to the treatment of hepatitis C genotype 1 infection, which, as it is being conducted, penalizes a significant portion of carriers because it offers the most advanced antiviral treatment exclusively to patients with lower chances of response, higher risk of developing drug intolerance and already in the terminal stage of liver disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Therapeutics/economics , Brazil , Practice Guideline , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Hepatitis C/economics , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Hepatitis B/economics
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