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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927960

ABSTRACT

The core prescriptions and formulation characteristics in the treatment of edema by traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) masters were analyzed through data mining and their mechanisms were explored by network pharmacology. We collected journal reports on the treatment of edema by TCM masters in three sessions from China National Knowledge Infrastructure(CNKI) and constructed a database by Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System 3.0. The prescriptions in the case studies were analyzed by association rules and k-means clustering. The chemical components and targets of Chinese medicines in core prescriptions were collected through TCMSP and TCMID. Edema-related targets were collected from DrugBank and GeneCards. The protein-protein interaction(PPI) network was constructed by STRING and the core targets were screened out. FunRich 3.1.3 was used to enrich the expression sites of core prescriptions. Metascape was used to perform Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) enrichment analysis of intersection targets. Cytoscape 3.6.0 was used to visualize the "Chinese medicine-active ingredient-core target-pathway" network. The results showed that 315 pieces of medical records in the treatment of edema by TCM masters were obtained and five core prescriptions were analyzed by association rules and k-means clustering. Core prescription 1 contained Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Codonopsis Radix, involving 166 chemical components and 1 125 targets. Core prescription 2 contained Astragali Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Poria, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Paeoniae Radix Rubra, and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, involving 138 chemical components and 1 112 targets. Core prescription 3 contained Poria, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma, and Coicis Semen, involving 126 chemical components and 1 121 targets. Core prescription 4 contained Poria, Forsythiae Fructus, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Imperatae Rhizoma, Cicadae Periostracum, and Coicis Semen, involving 58 chemical components and 820 targets. Core prescription 5 contained Poria, Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Astragali Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Trionycis Carapax, and Dioscoreae Rhizoma, involving 68 chemical components and 919 targets. The core targets of core prescriptions included AKT1, ALB, CASP3, MAPK3, EGFR, SRC, MAPK1, and TNF. The potential targets of core prescriptions in the treatment were highly expressed in the stomach, bladder, lung, and kidney. KEGG pathways were enriched in inflammation and cell cycle pathways, especially the inflammation-relation pathways. The therapeutic effect of core prescriptions on edema is presumedly achieved by tonifying the spleen, draining water, activating blood, and benefiting Qi to resist inflammation and regulate the immune system. This study is expected to provide references for the summary of TCM masters' experience and new drug development.


Subject(s)
Data Mining , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Prescriptions , Rhizome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921709

ABSTRACT

The present study optimized the extraction of flavonoids from Lonicera rupicola Hook. f. et Thoms(LRH) and explored its pharmacological effects, such as resisting inflammation, relieving pain, enhancing immunity, and inhibiting pyroptosis, aiming to provide data support and scientific basis for the development and utilization of LRH. Response surface methodology(RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of flavonoids from LRH based on the results of single-factor experiments. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of LRH flavonoids were evaluated via inflammation and pain models in mice, such as xylene-induced ear swelling, carrageenan-induced footpad swelling, writhing caused by acetic acid, and paw licking. The effect of LRH flavonoids on the carbon clearance index of monocytes and serum immunoglobulin A(IgA) and IgM levels was analyzed on the immunosuppression model induced by cyclophosphamide in mice. The anti-oxidative effect in vivo of LRH flavonoids on liver superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and malondialdehyde(MDA) levels was determined based on the chronic/subacute aging model in mice induced by D-galactose. The levels of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and IL-18 in the supernatant of J774 A.1 mononuclear phagocytes were detected to evaluate the effect of LRH flavonoids on the pyroptosis of mononuclear phagocytes in mice induced by the combination of lipopolysaccharide(LPS) and adenosine triphosphate(ATP). Meanwhile, the effect of LRH flavonoids on the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway was also explored. The optimum conditions for the extraction of LRH flavonoids are listed below: extraction temperature of 65 ℃, the ethanol concentration of 50%, extraction time of 60 min, a material-liquid ratio at 1∶25, and the yield of LRH flavonoids of 0.553%. RSM determined the multiple quadratic regression equation model of response value and variables as follows: the yield of LRH flavonoids=0.61-0.48A+0.1B+0.029C-0.014D+0.32AB+0.04AC-0.012AD-0.02BC+0.037BD-0.031CD-0.058A~2-0.068B~2-0.069C~2-0.057D~2. LRH flavonoids could effectively inhibit ear swelling and footpad swelling, reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, and delayed the paw licking response time in mice. Additionally, LRH flavonoids could improve the carbon clearance index in immunosuppressed mice, potentiate the activities of SOD and CAT and reduce MDA levels in the liver of aging mice induced by D-galactose, and effectively inhibit macrophage pyroptosis by decreasing the levels of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18. The results reveal that LRH flavonoids possess excellent pharmacological activities such as resisting inflammation and oxidation, relieving pain, and enhancing immunity. They can inhibit pyroptosis by enhancing the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. The results of this study can underpin the pharmacological research, development, and utilization of LRH.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Animals , Edema/drug therapy , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lonicera , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pain/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Pyroptosis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888041

ABSTRACT

To explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium based on network pharmacology and inflammatory or pain mouse models. The effective components of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium were screened out by TCMSP database. And their potential corresponding targets were predicted by PharmMapper software. The possible targets relating to inflammation and pain were mainly collected through DrugBank, TTD and DisGeNET databases. The "active ingredient-gene-disease" network diagram was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.0 software. The network pharmacology results showed 5 potential effective compounds, which were related to 29 targets; 132 targets relating to inflammation and pain were screened out in the DrugBank, TTD and DisGeNET databases. The network analysis results indicated that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform(PIK3 CG) gene may be the key to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of essential oil extract and dichloromethane extract of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium were explored through the mouse model of inflammation induced by xylene or carrageenan and the mouse model of pain induced by acetic acid or formalin. The experimental results showed that essential oil extract and dichloromethane extract of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium could reduce xylene-induced ear swelling and carrageenan-induced paw swelling and decrease the number of writhing responses in mice induced by acetic acid and the licking foot time of mice in phase Ⅱ induced by formalin. Western blot results showed that Zanthoxyli Pericarpium extract could inhibit the expressions of PIK3 CG, phosphonated nuclear factor kappaB(p-NF-κB) and phosphonated p38(p-p38 MAPK) protein. The present study showed the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium through multiple components and targets, so as to provide a pharmacodynamic basis for the study of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium and its mechanism.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(3): e9422, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153527

ABSTRACT

Hyptis crenata, commonly known as "salva-do-Marajó", "hortelã-do-campo", and "hortelãzinha", is used in folk medicine in Northeast Brazil as tea or infusion to treat inflammatory diseases. Due to the pharmacological efficacy and the low toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis crenata (EOHc), we decided to investigate the EOHc antiedematogenic effect in experimental models of inflammation. EOHc was administrated orally at doses of 10-300 mg/kg to male Swiss albino mice. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous injection in the right hind paw of inflammatory stimuli (carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin, and bradykinin) 60 min after administration of EOHc. EOHc significantly inhibited the induced edema. The inhibitory effect of EOHc on dextran-induced edema extended throughout the experimental time. For the 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses of EOHc, the inhibition was of 40.28±1.70, 51.18±2.69, and 59.24±2.13%, respectively. The EOHc inhibitory effect on carrageenan-induced edema started at 10 mg/kg at the second hour (h) and was maintained throughout the observation period. At 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses the inhibition started earlier, from 30 min. At the edema peak of 180 min, 56, 76, and 82% inhibition was observed for 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg doses, respectively. Additionally, the effect of EOHc on carrageenan-induced paw edema was influenced by the time of administration. The EOHc also inhibited myeloperoxidase activity. In conclusion, the EOHc showed a potent effect, both preventing and reversing the edema, consistent with its anti-inflammatory use in folk medicine.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Hyptis/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Brazil , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Carrageenan , Edema/chemically induced , Inflammation/chemically induced
5.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200119, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250801

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective 5-Hydroxytryptophan is the precursor compound of serotonin biosynthesis. The oral absorption of 5-Hydroxytryptophan is close to 100% and, unlike serotonin, it crosses the blood-brain barrier freely. 5-Hydroxytryptophan has been used as a food supplement for many years to treat anxiety and depression. Recent studies have shown that 5-Hydroxytryptophan suppresses the pro-inflammatory mediators and is effective in some inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis and allergic asthma. However, the role of 5-Hydroxytryptophan supplements on acute peripheral inflammation has not been investigated yet. In this study, the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of 5-Hydroxytryptophan was evaluated with a carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in mice. Methods For the investigation of the acute antiinflammatory activity, single oral doses of 5-Hydroxytryptophan (1.5, 5 and 20mg/kg) were given to mice 1.5 hours prior to the carrageenan test. For chronic activity, the same oral doses were administered daily for two weeks prior to the carrageenan test on the 14th day. To induce inflammation, 0.01mL of 2% carrageenan was injected into the paws of mice. Results Supplementation with 5-Hydroxytryptophan significantly reduced inflammation in a dose-independent manner which was irrespective of the duration of exposure (per cent inhibition in acute experiments was 35.4%, 20.9%, 24.0%, and per cent inhibition in chronic experiments was 29.5%, 35.3%, 40.8% for the doses of 1.5, 5, and 20mg/kg, respectively). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate for the first time that 5-HTP supplements have the potential of suppressing the measures of acute peripheral inflammation. It is suggested that, apart from several diseases where serotonin is believed to play an important role, including depression, patients with inflammatory conditions may also benefit from 5-HTP.


RESUMO Objetivo O 5-hidroxitriptofano (5-HTP) é o composto precursor da biossíntese da serotonina. A absorção oral do 5-HTP é próxima a 100% e, ao contrário da serotonina, atravessa a barreira hematoencefálica livremente. O 5-HTP tem sido usado como suplemento alimentar por muitos anos na ansiedade e na depressão. Estudos recentes demonstraram que o 5-HTP suprime os mediadores pró-inflamatórios e é eficaz em algumas doenças inflamatórias, como artrite e asma alérgica. No entanto, o papel dos suplementos de 5-HTP na inflamação periférica aguda ainda não foi investigado. Neste estudo, a atividade anti-inflamatória in vivo do 5-HTP foi avaliada por meio do teste de edema de pata induzido por carragenina em ratos. Métodos Para a atividade aguda, doses orais únicas de 5 -HTP (1,5, 5 e 20 mg/kg) foram dados aos ratos 1,5 horas antes do teste da carragenina. Para a atividade crônica, as mesmas doses orais foram dadas cada dia durante duas semanas antes do teste da carragenina no 14º dia. 0,01ml da carragenina a 2% foi injetado nas patas dos ratos a fim de induzir a inflamação. Resultados A suplementação com 5-HTP reduziu significativamente a inflamação de uma maneira independente da dose, que foi independente da duração da exposição (por cento de inibição em experimentos agudos; 35,4%, 20,9%, 24,0% e por cento de inibição em experimentos crônicos; 29,5%, 35,3%, 40,8% para as doses de 1.5, 5 e 20 mg/kg respectivamente). Conclusão Nossas conclusões demonstram pela primeira vez que os suplementos de 5-HTP têm potencial para suprimir os sintomas de inflamação periférica aguda. É sugerido que, além de várias doenças em que se acredita que a serotonina tem uma função importante, incluindo a depressão, os pacientes com doenças inflamatórias também podem se beneficiar do 5-HTP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Carrageenan , 5-Hydroxytryptophan/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Edema/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922768

ABSTRACT

Chansu has demonstrated adverse reactions in clinical settings, which is associated with its toxicity and limits its clinical applications. But there are methodological limitations for drug safety evaluation. In the current study, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, lipidomic profiling, and molecular docking were used to systemically assess Chansu-induced acute inflammatory irritation and further identify the underlying drug targets. Compared with the EtOAc extract, Chansu water fraction containing indolealkylamines caused acute inflammatory irritation in rats, including acute pain (spontaneous raising foot reaction), and inflammation (paw edema). At the molecular level, lipids analysis revealed significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators of the COX and LOX pathways. However, anti-inflammatory mediators from the CYP 450, ALA, and DHA pathways markedly decreased after exposure to Chansu water fraction. Moreover, four indolealkylamines from Chansu showed a high theoretical affinity to a known irritation target, 5-HT


Subject(s)
Animals , Bufanolides , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation , Lipidomics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rats , Water
7.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(1): e7581, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974275

ABSTRACT

Bredemeyera floribunda roots are popularly used to treat snakebites in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil, and previous studies indicate the anti-ophidian actions of triterpenoid saponins found in its roots. To assess B. floribunda root extract (BFRE) activity against the effects of Bothrops jararacussu venom (BjuV), antiphospholipasic, antiproteolytic, antihemorrhagic, antinecrotic, and anti-edematogenic activities were investigated in mice. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, and sugars, with rutin and saccharose being the major constituents of BFRE. Acute toxicity was determined and BFRE was nontoxic to mice. Phospholipase A2 and proteolytic activities induced by BjuV were inhibited in vitro by BFRE at all concentrations tested herein. BFRE (150 mg/kg) inhibited paw edema induced by BjuV (50 µg/animal), reducing total edema calculated by area under the curve, but carrageenan-induced paw edema was unchanged. Hemorrhagic and necrotizing actions of BjuV (50 µg/animal) were considerably decreased by BFRE treatment. Thus, BFRE blocked the toxic actions of B. jararacussu venom despite having no anti-inflammatory activity, which points to a direct inhibition of venom's toxins, as demonstrated in the in vitro assays. The larger amounts of rutin found in BFRE may play a role in this inhibition, since 3′,4′-OH flavonoids are known inhibitors of phospholipases A2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Antivenins/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Crotalid Venoms/antagonists & inhibitors , Edema/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/etiology , Antivenins/isolation & purification , Bothrops , Crotalid Venoms/toxicity , Polygalaceae/chemistry , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Edema/etiology , Hemorrhage/drug therapy
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(5): e7798, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001525

ABSTRACT

Himatanthus drasticus (Mart.) Plumel belongs to the Apocynaceae family and the latex from its trunk bark (Hd) is known as "janaguba milk". This latex is widely used in Northeast Brazil, mainly in the Cariri region, for its gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. The objective of this study was to investigate a triterpene-rich fraction (FJNB) from H. drasticus latex on acute models of nociception and inflammation and to clarify its mechanisms of action. Wistar rats or Swiss mice were subjected to the carrageenan-induced paw edema test or the formalin test, respectively, after the acute oral treatment with FJNB. The inflamed paws from the carrageenan-induced paw edema and formalin tests were processed for histological and immunohistochemical assays, respectively. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and considered significant at P<0.05. FJNB (10 mg/kg) decreased the paw edema by 25% at the 3rd h after the carrageenan injection. Indomethacin, used as reference, inhibited the paw edema by 59% at the same time-point. In the formalin test, FJNB inhibited the 1st phase by 27, 49, and 52% and the 2nd phase by 37, 50, and 67%, at the doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, FJNB significantly inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa (NF-kB) were also inhibited at the same doses. In conclusion, the FJNB inhibitory actions on iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, HDAC, and NF-kB could be involved with the drug anti-inflammatory activity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Rats , Triterpenes/therapeutic use , Apocynaceae/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Triterpenes/isolation & purification , Immunohistochemistry , Biomarkers/blood , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
9.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 185-194, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886919

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The N-salicyloyltryptamine (NST) is an indole derivative compound analogue to the alkaloid N-benzoyltryptamine. In the present study, the antiedematogenic activity of NST was investigated in animal models. Firstly, the acute toxicity for NST was assessed according to the OECD Guideline no. 423. The potential NST-induced antiedematogenic activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, as well as by dextran-, compound 48/80-, histamine-, serotonin-, capsaicine-, and prostaglandin E2-induced paw edema in mice. The effect of NST on compound 48/80-induced ex vivo mast cell degranulation on mice mesenteric bed was investigated. No death or alteration of behavioral parameters was observed after administration of NST (2000 mg/kg, i.p.) during the observation time of 14 days. The NST (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the carrageenan-induced edema from the 1st to the 5th hour (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The edematogenic activity induced by dextran, compound 48/80, histamine, serotonin, capsaicin, and prostaglandin E2 was inhibited by NST (100 mg/kg, i.p.) throughout the observation period (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). The pretreatment with NST (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg, i.p) attenuates the compound 48/80-induced mast cell degranulation (**p<0.01; ***p<0.001). Thus, the inhibition of both mast cell degranulation and release of endogenous mediators are probably involved in the NST-induced antiedematogenic effect.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Tryptamines/pharmacology , Salicylates/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/drug effects , Time Factors , Carrageenan , Tryptamines/toxicity , Salicylates/toxicity , Rats, Wistar , Inflammation Mediators , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/chemically induced , Hindlimb , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/toxicity
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(1): 189-193, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-893209

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El propóleos es un producto resinoso complejo producido por las abejas Apis mellifera, el cual posee diversas actividades biológicas como inmunomodulador, antiinflamatorio, anticancerígeno, antiviral, antibacteriano, antioxidante, entre otros. El propósito del siguiente estudio fue realizar una evaluación in vivo de las propiedades antiinflamatorias de un extracto de propóleos chileno, sobre el modelo de edema auricular inducido por 13-acetato-12-O-tetradecanoilforbol (TPA) en pabellón auricular de ratón, para posterior evaluación y análisis histológico. El extracto de propóleos chileno (EEP) utilizado se obtuvo a partir de un macerado etanólico, rotaevaporado y liofilizado. Se observó que el EEP disminuyó el edema y el infiltrado inflamatorio de forma significativa. Estos resultados sugieren que el extracto etanólico de propóleos chileno posee potenciales efectos antiinflamatorios o moduladores del sistema inmunológico en edema auricular.


SUMMARY: Propolis is a complex resinous product produced by bees Apis mellifera, which has a number of biological activities such as an immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, among others. The purpose of the following study was to perform an in vivo evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of a Chilean propolis extract, on the model of atrial edema induced 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13- acetate (TPA) in the mouse auricular pavilion, for later evaluation and histological analysis. The Chilean propolis extract (EPP) used was obtained from an ethanolic, rotaevaporated and lyophilized macerate. It was observed that the EPP significantly decreased edema and inflammatory infiltrate. These results suggest that the ethanolic extract of Chilean propolis possesses potential anti-inflammatory or modulatory effects of the immune system in atrial edema.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Propolis/pharmacology , Edema/drug therapy , Ear Auricle/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Propolis/chemistry , Ear Auricle/pathology , Polyphenols/analysis
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(2): 175-184, Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886262

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and inward rectifier potassium channel 4.1 (Kir4.1) on medullospinal edema after treatment with methylprednisolone (MP) to suppress acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) in rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, sham, ASCI, and MP-treated ASCI groups. After the induction of ASCI, we injected 30 mg/kg MP via the tail vein at various time points. The Tarlov scoring method was applied to evaluate neurological symptoms, and the wet-dry weights method was applied to measure the water content of the spinal cord. Results: The motor function score of the ASCI group was significantly lower than that of the sham group, and the spinal water content was significantly increased. In addition, the levels of AQP4 and Kir4.1 were significantly increased, as was their degree of coexpression. Compared with that in the ASCI group, the motor function score and the water content were significantly increased in the MP group; in addition, the expression and coexpression of AQP4 and Kir4.1 were significantly reduced. Conclusion: Methylprednisolone inhibited medullospinal edema in rats with acute spinal cord injury, possibly by reducing the coexpression of aquaporin 4 and Kir4.1 in medullospinal tissues.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Spinal Cord Diseases/drug therapy , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/metabolism , Edema/drug therapy , Aquaporin 4/metabolism , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/cytology , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Spinal Cord Diseases/metabolism , Spinal Cord Injuries/chemically induced , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/metabolism , Aquaporin 4/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
13.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 15(5): 274-287, Sept. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-907545

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the differences in qualitative-quantitative composition of triterpenoids and total phenolic contents, together with anti-inflammatory activity of Ugni molinae leaves obtained from ten genotypes. The ethyl acetate (EAE) and ethanol extracts (ETE) were obtained and analyzed. The plant genotypes were grown under same soil and climate conditions and under same agronomic management; the leaves were also harvested under the same conditions. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by mice ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) at a single dose of 200 mg/kg BW of each extract. Composition of triterpenoids and total phenolic contents was determined by HPLC-DAD and Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. Ugni molinae leaves of different plant genotypes exhibited significant differences in regard to their anti-inflammatory activity, as well as in qualitative-quantitative composition of triterpenoids and total phenolic content.


El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer las diferencias en la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa de triterpenoides y en los contenidos totales de fenoles, junto con la actividad antiinflamatoria de las hojas de Ugni molinae provenientes de diez genotipos. Los extractos de acetato de etilo (EAE) y etanólicos (ETE) fueron obtenidos y analizados. Los genotipos fueron cultivados bajo las mismas condiciones edafo-climáticas y con el mismo manejo agronómico; las hojas fueron cosechadas bajo las mismas condiciones. La actividad antiinflamatoria fue evaluada en ratones a los que se les indujo un edema en la oreja mediante la aplicación del 12-O-tetradecanoilforbol-13 acetato (TPA) y los extractos fueron evaluados a una dosis única de 200 mg/kg de peso corporal. La composición en triterpenoides y los contenidos de fenoles totales fueron determinados por CLAE-DAD y por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu, respectivamente. Las hojas provenientes de los diferentes genotipos de U. molinae, exhibieron significativas diferencias en sus actividades antiinflamatorias, así como, en el contenido cualitativo y cuantitativo de triterpenoides y en el contenido de fenoles totales.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Edema/drug therapy , Myrtaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Triterpenes/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(8): 549-556, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792409

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To develop a chemotherapeutics induced phlebitis and explore the effects of Xianchen on the phlebitis treatment. METHODS: Forty-eight rabbits were divided into two series. Phlebitis model induced by vincristine was established at each series. The first series had 24 rabbits, which were divided into four groups (6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, 24 hours) after vincristine infusion. The grades of phlebitis through visual observation and histopathological examination were observed. The second series had also 24 rabbits. Interventions were performed 12 hours after vincristine infusion. These rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, according to treatment: Hirudoid (bid), Xianchen (daily), Xianchen (tid), Xianchen (five times a day). Four days after intervention, the venous injury through visual observation and histopathological examination were evaluated. RESULTS: Series 1: Phlebitis appeared 12 hours after infusion of vincristine through visual observation. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between 6 hours and 24 hours, 6 hours and 18 hours through visual observation. However, the inflammation happened 6 hours after infusion, the loss of venous endothelial cells demonstrated differences among four groups through histopathological evaluation (p<0.05). There were significant differences (p<0.05) after 4 days among the intervention groups through visual observation, the effects of Xianchen group (five times a day) were better than Xianchen group (tid) (p<0.01). The treatment of edema demonstrated differences among groups through histopathological evaluation (p<0.05), Xianchen (five times a day) better relieved the degree of edema (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that inflammatory reaction of phlebitis appeared early. Xianchen can treat vincristine induced phlebitis, as well as Hirudoid. It is particularly effective in the treatment of edema, and there is a remarkable dose-response relationship.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Phlebitis/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Edema/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Phlebitis/chemically induced , Phlebitis/prevention & control , Vincristine , Infusions, Intravenous , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(7): e5103, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785054

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain is usually done by administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs present high efficacy, although side effects are common, especially gastrointestinal lesions. One of the pharmacological strategies to minimize such effects is the combination of drugs and natural products with synergistic analgesic effect. The monoterpene terpinolene (TPL) is a chemical constituent of essential oils present in many plant species, which have pharmacological activities, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The association of ineffective doses of TPL and diclofenac (DCF) (3.125 and 1.25 mg/kg po, respectively) presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the acute (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, after treatment) and chronic (10 days) inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of female Wistar rats (170-230 g, n=6-8). The mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by the Randall Selitto paw pressure test, which determines the paw withdrawal thresholds. The development of edema was quantified by measuring the volume of the hind paw by plethismography. The TPL/DCF association reduced neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the histological analysis of the paw, following a standard staining protocol with hematoxylin and eosin and the counts were performed with the aid of optical microscopy after chronic oral administration of these drugs. Moreover, the TPL/DCF association did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. A possible mechanism of action of the analgesic effect is the involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, because ketanserin completely reversed the antinociceptive effect of the TPL/DCF association. These results suggest that the TPL/DCF association had a synergistic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without causing apparent gastric injury, and that the serotonergic system may be involved in the antinociceptive effect of this association.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pain/drug therapy , Terpenes/pharmacology , Chronic Disease , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Edema/drug therapy , Freund's Adjuvant , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Hyperalgesia/pathology , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/pathology , Pain Measurement , Pain/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Stomach/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(9): 822-830, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-756405

ABSTRACT

This paper reports on the in vitro antibacterial and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties of a hydroethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gochnatia pulchra (HEGP). It also describes the antibacterial activity of HEGP fractions and of the isolated compounds genkwanin, scutellarin, apigenin, and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as evaluated by a broth microdilution method. While HEGP and its fractions did not provide promising results, the isolated compounds exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity. The most sensitive microorganism was Streptococcus pyogenes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100, 50 and 25 µg/mL for genkwanin and the flavonoids apigenin and scutellarin, respectively. Genkwanin produced an MIC value of 25 µg/mL against Enterococcus faecalis. A paw edema model in rats and a pleurisy inflammation model in mice aided investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of HEGP. This study also evaluated the ability of HEGP to modulate carrageenan-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Orally administered HEGP (250 and 500 mg/kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. Regarding carrageenan-induced pleurisy, HEGP at 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg diminished leukocyte migration by 71.43%, 69.24%, and 73.34% (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP suppressed IL-1β and MCP-1 production by 55% and 50% at 50 mg/kg (P<0.05) and 60% and 25% at 100 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP abated TNF-α production by macrophages by 6.6%, 33.3%, and 53.3% at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg (P<0.05), respectively. HEGP probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and MCP-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Asteraceae/chemistry , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Asteraceae/classification , Disease Models, Animal , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Rats, Wistar
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(2): 147-157, feb. 2015. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-742565

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a gap between the number of patients requiring a renal allograft and the number of potential deceased donors (DD). One alternative is using allografts from non-related living donors (NRLD). Aim: To compare survival and complications of renal allograft recipients from DD, related living donors (RLD) and NRLD. Material and Methods: Observational study of a cohort of renal allograft recipients. Of 253 transplants performed in a Chilean region between 1981 and 2003, 20 patients received and allograft from a NRLD. Graft and patient survival of these patients were compared with those of 93 patients receiving an allograft from a related living donor and 140 receiving it from a DD. Patients were followed for 10 years or until death or dialysis requirement. Results: No significant differences between groups in graft and patient survival, deaths with a functioning graft or return to dialysis were observed. Receptors of DD had more hospital admissions during the first years after receiving the graft, usually due to infections. Also a delayed graft function was more common among them. Glomerular filtration rate ten years after the graft was similar among the three groups. Conclusions: No differences in graft or patient survival was observed between patients receiving a renal allograft from NRLD, RLD or DD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Rats , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Amides/pharmacology , Carrageenan , Dipyrone/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Edema/drug therapy , Formaldehyde , Hot Temperature , Isomerism , Motor Activity/drug effects , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Picolinic Acids/pharmacology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases/antagonists & inhibitors , Postural Balance/drug effects , Rats, Wistar
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154649

ABSTRACT

Background: In India, a number of fixed dose drug combinations of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID's) are available, often as over-the-counter products. These combinations are being prescribed too. Evidence for efficacy of NSIAD fixed dose combination is lacking. Objectives: The current study was undertaken to assess the analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy of these combinations over their individual components. Materials and Methods: The study used three NSAIDs viz; paracetamol, ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium, alone or in combination with paracetamol. Animals were divided into six groups with six animals in each group. Analgesic activity was tested by writhing test and paw edema model was used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity. The test drugs were administered orally 30 min prior to injecting 0.6% solution of glacial acetic acid intraperitoneally for writhing test. For paw edema test, after 30 min of drugs administration, animals were injected with 0.1 ml of 1% carrageenan in subplanter region for inducing inflammation. Paw volume was again measured at baseline and after 3 h of subplanter injection of 1% carrageenan. Results: The analgesic and the anti-inflammatory activity of paracetamol and ibuprofen combination were significantly greater than the individual agents when used alone. However, no significant difference in the analgesic or anti-inflammatory activity was found between diclofenac sodium and its combination with paracetamol. It was observed that diclofenac sodium was the most efficacious of the analgesics tested. Combining paracetamol with diclofenac did not show superior analgesic activity compared to diclofenac alone (P = 0.18). Conclusion: Combining paracetamol with ibuprofen enhances analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity over their individual component but potentiation of analgesic activity of diclofenac was not seen when paracetamol was added to it.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Animals, Laboratory , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/analysis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations/administration & dosage , Edema/drug therapy , Foot , Rats , Spasm
19.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Aug; 52(8): 763-772
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-153757

ABSTRACT

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way in the fields of pharmacology and medicine. The conjugation of drug to nanoparticles combines the properties of both. In this study, gold nanoparticle (GNP) was conjugated with NKCT1, a cytotoxic protein toxin from Indian cobra venom for evaluation of anti-arthritic activity and toxicity in experimental animal models. GNP conjugated NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) synthesized by NaBH4 reduction method was stable at room temperature (25±2 °C), pH 7.2. Hydrodynamic size of GNP-NKCT1 was 68–122 nm. Arthritis was developed by Freund's complete adjuvant induction in male albino rats and treatment was done with NKCT1/GNP-NKCT1/standard drug. The paw/ankle swelling, urinary markers, serum markers and cytokines were changed significantly in arthritic control rats which were restored after GNP-NKCT1 treatment. Acute toxicity study revealed that GNP conjugation increased the minimum lethal dose value of NKCT1 and partially reduced the NKCT1 induced increase of the serum biochemical tissue injury markers. Histopathological study showed partial restoration of toxic effect in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. Normal lymphocyte count in culture was in the order of GNP-NKCT1>NKCT1>Indomethacine treatment. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation increased the antiarthritic activity and decreased toxicity profile of NKCT1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthritis, Experimental/drug therapy , Arthritis, Experimental/pathology , Edema/drug therapy , Edema/pathology , Elapid Venoms/administration & dosage , Elapid Venoms/chemistry , Elapidae , Gold/administration & dosage , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Metal Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Mice , Rats
20.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 132(5): 261-265, 08/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-721017

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency manifests as recurrent episodes of edema involving the skin, upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract. It can be lethal due to asphyxia. The aim here was to evaluate the response to therapy for these attacks using icatibant, an inhibitor of the bradykinin receptor, which was recently introduced into Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective experimental single-cohort study on the efficacy and safety of icatibant for HAE patients. METHODS: Patients with a confirmed HAE diagnosis were enrolled according to symptoms and regardless of the time since onset of the attack. Icatibant was administered in accordance with the protocol that has been approved in Brazil. Symptom severity was assessed continuously and adverse events were monitored. RESULTS: 24 attacks in 20 HAE patients were treated (female/male 19:1; 19-55 years; median 29 years of age). The symptoms were: subcutaneous edema (22/24); abdominal pain (15/24) and upper airway obstruction (10/24). The time taken until onset of relief was: 5-10 minutes (5/24; 20.8%); 10-20 (5/24; 20.8%); 20-30 (8/24; 33.4%); 30-60 (5/24; 20.8%); and 2 hours (1/24; 4.3%). The time taken for complete resolution of symptoms ranged from 4.3 to 33.4 hours. Adverse effects were only reported at injection sites. Mild to moderate erythema and/or feelings of burning were reported by 15/24 patients, itching by 3 and no adverse effects in 6. CONCLUSION: HAE type I patients who received icatibant responded promptly; most achieved improved symptom severity within 30 minutes. Local adverse events occurred in 75% of the patients. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O angioedema hereditário (AEH) com deficiência de inibidor de C1 manifesta-se por episódios recorrentes de edema envolvendo pele, trato respiratório superior e gastrointestinal. Pode ser letal por asfixia. O objetivo foi avaliar a resposta à terapia dos ataques com icatibanto, inibidor do receptor de bradicinina, recentemente introduzido no Brasil. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo experimental prospectivo de coorte, sem grupo controle, da eficácia e segurança do icatibanto em paciente com AEH. MÉTODOS: Pacientes com diagnóstico confirmado de AEH foram incluídos de acordo com os sintomas, independentemente do tempo de início do ataque. Icatibanto foi administrado segundo protocolo aprovado no Brasil. A gravidade do sintoma foi estabelecida continuamente e os eventos adversos foram monitorados. RESULTADOS: 24 ataques em 20 pacientes com AEH foram tratados (19 F:1 M; 19-55 anos; mediana 29 anos). Os sintomas foram: edema subcutâneo (22/24), dor abdominal (15/24) e obstrução de vias aéreas superiores (10/24). O tempo para o início do alívio foi: 5-10 minutos, 5/24 (20,8%); 10-20, 5/24 (20,8%); 20-30, 8/24 (33,4%); 30-60, 5/24 (20,8%) e 2 horas, 1/24 (4,3%). O tempo para a resolução completa variou de 4,3-33,4 horas. Somente efeitos adversos nos locais das injeções foram relatados. Eritema leve a moderado e/ou sensação de ardor foram relatados por 15/24 pacientes, prurido em 3, e 6 não tiveram efeitos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com AEH tipo I receberam icatibanto com pronta resposta; a maioria teve melhora na gravidade dos sintomas em 30 minutos. Eventos adversos locais ocorreram em 75% dos pacientes. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Angioedemas, Hereditary/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Age Distribution , Angioedemas, Hereditary/complications , Brazil , /adverse effects , Bradykinin/adverse effects , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Edema/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Subcutaneous Tissue/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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