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1.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e012, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132751

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the application of different concentrations of EDTA on the adhesion of fiber posts to root dentin using self-adhesive resin cements. After endodontic treatment, 78 single roots were randomly divided into six groups (n = 13) according to the combination of the following factors: surface dentin treatment - control (distilled water), 17% EDTA and 24% EDTA; and self-adhesive resin cement - RelyX U200 (RX); and Multilink Speed (ML). After fiber post cementation, six slices were obtained for each root. Ten roots of each group were used for bond strength (BS) and three for microhardness (MH) evaluations. Data obtained from BS and MH tests for each resin cement were subjected to two-way ANOVA (surface treatment vs. root region) and to a post-hoc Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The lowest BS value was observed in the 24% EDTA group for RX cement, whereas the highest values for ML cement were observed for the control group in the middle and apical regions. In the MH test, the lowest value for RX was observed for 24% EDTA in the cervical region, whereas and the highest value for the ML cement was observed in the control group. Regarding both self-adhesive resin cements tested, the application of 24% EDTA was not able to improve the adhesion of fiber posts to root canal.


Subject(s)
Resin Cements , Materials Testing , Post and Core Technique , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity , Dentin , Glass
2.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 632-638, dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134550

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) associated with the benzalkonium chloride (BAK) on the adhesion and formation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilms attached to coated dentin. Discs standard bovine dentin blocks were treated with the coating materials evaluated: Saline solution (control), 17 % EDTA, 17 % EDTA associated with 1 % BAK for 5 minutes and subsequently washed with saline solution. Afterwards, biofilms of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) were grown on the surface of coated dentin blocks for time intervals of 1 hour and 7 days (n = 20) and were subsequently washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Bacterial viability and total biovolume were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using the Live/Dead technique. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn tests were used to determine statistical differences (a = 5 %). The 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK group showed significantly lower biovolume and bacterial viability values at the end of 1 hour (p < 0.05). After 7 days of contamination, the 17 % EDTA and 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK groups showed similar results that differed statistically from those of the control group (p < 0.05). The saline solution group showed higher values. The use of BAK associated with EDTA on dentin blocks surfaces before exposure to contamination was able to interfere in the adhesion of E. faecalis to dentin. Also, dentin treatment by BAK associated with a chelating agent influences the secondary biofilm formation, which could have important effects on the long-term success of root canal treatment.


RESUMEN: El objetivo del estudio consistió en investigar in vitro, la influencia del ácido etilendiamino-tetraacético (EDTA) con cloruro de benzalconio (BAK) en la adhesión y formación de biopelículas de Enterococcus faecalis a la dentina. Discos de dentina bovina fueron tratadas con solución salina (control), 17 % de EDTA, 17% de EDTA asociado con 1 % de BAK durante 5 minutos y lavadas con solución salina. Las biopelículas de E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) se cultivaron sobre los discos de dentina durante intervalos de tiempo de 1 hora y 7 días (n = 20), lavados con solución salina tamponada con fosfato (PBS). La viabilidad bacteriana y el biovolumen total se analizaron mediante microscopía de barrido por láser (CLSM) utilizando la técnica Live / Dead. Se realizó prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, seguida por Dunn con una diferencia estadística (a = 5 %). El grupo de 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostró valores significativamente menores de biovolumen y viabilidad bacteriana al final de 1 hora (p < 0,05). Después de 7 días de contaminación, los grupos de 17 % EDTA y 17 % EDTA + 1 % BAK mostraron resultados similares que diferían estadísticamente del grupo control (p < 0,05). La solución salina mostró valores más altos. La asociación de BAK con EDTA antes de la contaminación interfirió en la adhesión de E. faecalis. Además, el tratamiento de la dentina por BAK asociado con EDTA influye en la formación de biopelículas secundarias, lo que podría tener efectos importantes sobre el éxito a largo plazo del tratamiento del conducto radicular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Bacterial Adhesion/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dentin/microbiology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Microscopy, Confocal , Saline Solution
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170374, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893735

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To determine the concentration of calcium, iron, manganese and zinc ions after the application of chelator to Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Material and Methods Fifty bovine maxillary central incisors were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis for 60 days. The following were used as irrigation solutions: 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) combined with 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10), distilled water (pH 3, 7 and 10), and 2.5% NaOCl. Each solution was kept in the root canal for five minutes. Fifteen uncontaminated root canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA (pH 3, 7 and 10). Six teeth were used as bacterial control. The number of calcium, iron, manganese and zinc ions was determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) values were used for descriptive statistics. Results Calcium chelation using 17% EDTA at pH 7 was higher than at pH 3 and 10, regardless of whether bacterial biofilm was present. The highest concentration of iron occurred at pH 3 in the presence of bacterial biofilm. The highest concentration of manganese found was 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA at pH 7 in the presence of bacterial biofilm. Zinc levels were not detectable. Conclusions The pH of chelating agents affected the removal of calcium, iron, and manganese ions. The concentration of iron ions in root canals with bacterial biofilm was higher after the use of 17% EDTA at pH 3 than after the use of the other solutions at all pH levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/chemistry , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/chemistry , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Materials Testing , Water/chemistry , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Calcium/analysis , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Enterococcus faecalis/chemistry , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Iron/analysis , Manganese/analysis
4.
Rio de janeiro; s.n; 2017. 79 p. ilus.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1016752

ABSTRACT

Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a sensibilidade dos biofilmes de E. faecalis a NaOCl, CHX e PAA após uma exposição de ácido cítrico 2,5%. O biofilme de E. faecalis foi formado em lamínulas de vidro circular de 13 mm Ø em placas de cultura de 24 poços. Os biofilmes foram tratados ou não durante 5 minutos com ácido cítrico, posteriormente, exposto a diferentes concentrações de NaOCl, CHX e PAA. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada por meio da contagem de unidade formadora de colônias (UFCs). Ao analisar o percentual de redução bacteriana na forma planctônica em função do tempo e da solução/concentração, o teste de Anova demonstrou não haver diferença estatística entre CHX e NaOCl (p>0,05). Contudo a CHX, quando utilizada sozinha, apresentou menor efetividade que NaOCl (p<0,05) sobre o biofilme. O pré-tratamento do biofilme com ácido cítrico tornou as bactérias na forma séssil mais sensível ao NaOCl e ao PAA. Baseado nos resultados obtidos foi possível concluir que o tratamento com ácido cítrico aumentou a sensibilidade do biofilme de E. faecalis a irrigante utilizado em procedimento endodôntico e orienta o início do tratamento com irrigação prévia com o ácido cítrico.


The present study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of E. faecalis biofilms to NaOCl, CHX and PAA after exposure to 2.5% citric acid. The E. faecalis biofilm was formed in 13-mm diameter circular glass microslides in 24-well culture plates. The biofilms were treated or not for 5 minutes with citric acid, and subsequently exposed to different concentrations of NaOCl, CHX and PAA. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by colony-forming unit (CFU) count. When analyzing the bacterial reduction percentage in planktonic form according to the time and solution/concentration, the Anova test demonstrated no statistical difference between CHX and NaOCl (p>0.05). However, CHX, when utilized alone, presented less effectiveness than NaOCl (p<0.05) on the biofilm. The citric acid pretreatment of the biofilm made the bacteria in the sessile form more sensitive to NaOCl and PAA. Based on the obtained results, it was possible to conclude that citric acid treatment increased the sensitivity of the E. faecalis biofilm to irrigants employed in endodontic procedures, guiding the beginning of treatment with prior citric acid irrigation.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e40, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839529

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of final irrigation protocols on microhardness reduction and erosion of root canal dentin. Sixty root canals from mandibular incisors were instrumented and randomly divided into six groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant used: QMiX, 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid (CA), 1% peracetic acid (PA), 2.5% NaOCl (solution control), and distilled water (negative control). The chelating solutions were used to irrigate the canal followed by 2.5% NaOCl as a final flush. After the irrigation protocols, all specimens were rinsed with 10 mL of distilled water to remove any residue of the chemical solutions. Before and after the final irrigation protocols, dentin microhardness was measured with a Knoop indenter. Three indentations were made at 100 µm and 500 µm from the root canal lumen. Afterwards, the specimens were prepared for scanning electron microscopic analysis and the amount of dentin erosion was examined. Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to analyze the results with a significance level set at 5%. At 100 µm, all protocols significantly reduced dentin microhardness (p < .05), while at 500 µm, this effect was detected only in the EDTA and QMiX groups (p < .05). CA was the irrigant that caused more extensive erosion in dentinal tubules, followed by PA and EDTA. QMiX opened dentinal tubules, but did not cause dentin erosion. Results suggest that QMiX and 17% EDTA reduced dentin microhardness at a greater depth. Additionally, QMiX did not cause dentin erosion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants , Tooth Erosion/chemically induced , Biguanides , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Dentin/ultrastructure , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Hardness Tests , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Peracetic Acid/pharmacology , Polymers , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Root Canal Therapy/methods , Smear Layer , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects
6.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e131, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951958

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Bioactive molecules stored in dentin, such as transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-b1), may be involved in the signaling events related to dental tissue repair. The authors conducted an in vitro evaluation of the amount of TGF-b1 released from dentin slices after treatment with 10% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and the effect of this growth factor on stem cell migration from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). Sixty 1-mm-thick tooth slices were prepared with or without the predentin layer, and treated with either 10% EDTA for 1 minute, 2.5% NaOCl for 5 days or kept in PBS. Tooth slice conditioned media were prepared and used for TGF-b1 ELISA and migration assays. Culture medium with different concentrations of recombinant human TGF-b1 (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 ng/mL) was also tested by migration assay. The data were evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's test. Optical density values corresponding to media conditioned by tooth slices either containing or not containing the predentin layer and treated with 10% EDTA were statistically greater than the other groups and close to 1 ng/mL. Increased rates of migration toward media conditioned by tooth slices containing the predentin layer and treated with PBS, 10% EDTA or 2.5% NaOCl were observed. Recombinant human TGF-b1 also stimulated migration of SHED, irrespective of the concentration used. EDTA may be considered an effective extractant of TGF-b1 from the dentin matrix. However, it does not impact SHED migration, suggesting that other components may account for the cell migration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Stem Cells/drug effects , Cell Movement/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Dental Pulp/cytology , Dentin/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/drug effects , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Stem Cells/physiology , Tooth, Deciduous/cytology , Tooth, Deciduous/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Culture Media, Conditioned , Dental Pulp/drug effects , Dentin/ultrastructure , Extracellular Matrix/drug effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
7.
J. appl. oral sci ; 23(4): 431-435, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-759357

ABSTRACT

AbstractThe presence of endotoxin inside the root canal has been associated with periapical inflammation, bone resorption and symptomatic conditions.Objectives To determine, in vitro, the effect of QMix® and other three root canal irrigants in reducing the endotoxin content in root canals.Material and Methods Root canals of single-rooted teeth were prepared. Samples were detoxified with Co-60 irradiation and inoculated with E. coli LPS (24 h, at 37°C). After that period, samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the irrigation solution tested: QMix®, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX), and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). LPS quantification was determined by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The initial counting of endotoxins for all samples, and the determination of LPS levels in non-contaminated teeth and in contaminated teeth exposed only to non-pyrogenic water, were used as controls.Results QMix® reduced LPS levels, with a median value of 1.11 endotoxins units (EU)/mL (p<0.001). NaOCl (25.50 EU/mL), chlorhexidine (44.10 EU/mL) and positive control group (26.80 EU/mL) samples had similar results. Higher levels were found with EDTA (176.00 EU/mL) when compared to positive control (p<0.001). There was no significant difference among EDTA, NaOCl and CHX groups. Negative control group (0.005 EU/mL) had statistically significant lower levels of endotoxins when compared to all test groups (p<0.001).Conclusion QMix® decreased LPS levels when compared to the other groups (p<0.001). 3% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA were not able to significantly reduce the root canal endotoxins load.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biguanides/pharmacology , Endotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Polymers/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Time Factors
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(3): 207-212, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Postoperative pain treatment in mastectomy remains a major challenge despite the multimodal approach. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic effect of intravenous lidocaine in patients undergoing mastectomy, as well as the postoperative consumption of opioids. METHODS: After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira in Recife, Pernambuco, a randomized, blind, controlled trial was conducted with intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg infused over 1 h in 45 women undergoing mastectomy under general anesthesia. One patient from placebo group was. RESULTS: Groups were similar in age, body mass index, type of surgery, and postoperative need for opioids. Two of 22 patients in lidocaine group and three of 22 patients in placebo group requested opioid (p = 0.50). Pain on awakening was identified in 4/22 of lidocaine group and 5/22 of placebo group (p = 0.50); in the post-anesthetic recovery room in 14/22 and 12/22 (p = 0.37) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively. Pain evaluation 24 h after surgery showed that 2/22 and 3/22 patients (p = 0.50) of lidocaine and placebo groups, respectively, complained of pain. CONCLUSION: Intravenous lidocaine at a dose of 3 mg/kg administered over a period of an hour during mastectomy did not promote additional analgesia compared to placebo in the first 24 h, and has not decreased opioid consumption. However, a beneficial effect of intravenous lidocaine in selected and/or other therapeutic regimens patients cannot be ruled out. .


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: O tratamento da dor pós-operatória em mastectomia continua sendo um grande desafio apesar da abordagem multimodal. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito analgésico da lidocaína intravenosa em pacientes submetidas a mastectomia, como também, o consumo de opioide pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Após aprovação pelo comitê de ética e pesquisa em seres humanos do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira em Recife - Pernambuco foi realizado ensaio clínico aleatório encoberto placebo controlado com lidocaína intravenosa na dose de 3 mg/kg infundida em uma hora, em 45 mulheres submetidas a mastectomia sob anestesia geral. Excluída uma paciente do grupo placebo. RESULTADOS: Os grupos foram semelhantes quanto à idade, índice de massa corpórea, tipo de intervenção cirúrgica e necessidade de opioide no pós-operatório. Solicitaram opioide 2/22 pacientes nos grupos da lidocaína e 3/22 placebo (p = 0,50). Identificada a dor ao despertar em 4/22 no grupo lidocaína e 5/22 (p = 0,50) no grupo placebo; na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica em 14/22 e 12/22 (p = 0,37) nos grupos lidocaína e placebo respectivamente. Ao avaliar a dor 24 horas após o procedimento cirúrgico 3/22 e 2/22 (p = 0,50) das pacientes relataram dor em ambos os grupos respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A lidocaína intravenosa na dose de 3mg/kg administrada em um período de uma hora no transoperatório de mastectomia não promoveu analgesia adicional em relação ao grupo placebo nas primeiras 24 horas e não diminuiu o consumo de opioide. Contudo, um efeito benéfico da lidocaína intravenosa em pacientes selecionadas e/ou em outros regimes terapêuticos não pode ser descartado. .


JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El tratamiento del dolor postoperatorio en la mastectomía continúa siendo un gran reto a pesar del abordaje multimodal. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el efecto analgésico de la lidocaína intravenosa en pacientes sometidas a mastectomía, así como el consumo postoperatorio de opiáceos. MÉTODOS: Después de la aprobación por el Comité de Ética e Investigación en seres humanos del Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, en Recife, Pernambuco, se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado, encubierto, placebo controlado con lidocaína intravenosa en una dosis de 3 mg/kg infundida en una hora, en 45 mujeres sometidas a mastectomía bajo anestesia general. Una paciente del grupo placebo fue excluida. RESULTADOS: Los grupos fueron similares en cuanto a la edad, índice de masa corporal, tipo de intervención quirúrgica y necesidad de opiáceos en el postoperatorio. Solicitaron opiáceos 2/22 pacientes en los grupos de la lidocaína y 3/22 placebo (p = 0,50). Fue identificado el dolor al despertar en 4/22 en el grupo lidocaína y 5/22 (p = 0,50) en el grupo placebo; en la sala de recuperación postanestésica en 14/22 y 12/22 (p = 0,37) en los grupos lidocaína y placebo, respectivamente. Al calcular el dolor 24 h después del procedimiento quirúrgico 3/22 y 2/22 (p = 0,50) de las pacientes relataron dolor en ambos grupos respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: La lidocaína intravenosa en una dosis de 3 mg/kg administrada en un período de una hora en el transoperatorio de mastectomía no generó analgesia adicional con relación al grupo placebo en las primeras 24 h y no disminuyó el consumo de opiáceos. Sin embargo, no puede ser descartado un efecto beneficioso de la lidocaína intravenosa en pacientes seleccionadas y/o en otros regímenes terapéuticos. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Transcription, Genetic , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Sequence , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , DNA , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , Protein Stability , Protein Subunits/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA, Viral/ultrastructure , Scattering, Small Angle , Solutions , Solvents , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Proteins/ultrastructure , Zinc Fingers
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of in vitro hemolysis (IVH) using a hematology analyzer is challenging because centrifugation of the specimens cannot be performed for cell counts. In the present study, we aimed to develop a scoring system to help identify the presence of hemolysis in anticoagulated blood specimens. METHODS: Thirty-seven potassium EDTA anticoagulated blood specimens were obtained, and each specimen was divided into 3 aliquots (A, B, and C). Aliquots B and C were mechanically hemolyzed by aspirating 2 and 5 times, respectively, using a 27-gauge needle and then tested; aliquot A was analyzed immediately without any hemolysis. After the cells were counted, aliquots B and C were centrifuged and the supernatants were tested for the hemolytic index and lactate dehydrogenase levels. RESULTS: The 4 hematologic parameters were selected and scored from 0 to 3 as follows: or =38.5 for mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, g/dL); or =0.04 for red blood cell ghosts (10(12)/L); or =1.31 for difference value (g/dL) of measured hemoglobin and calculated hemoglobin; and or =3.35 for difference value (g/dL) of MCHC and cell hemoglobin concentration mean. The hemolysis score was calculated by adding all the scores from the 4 parameters. At the cutoff hemolysis score of 3, the IVH of aliquots B and C were detected as 64.9% and 91.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The scoring system might provide effective screening for detecting spurious IVH.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Specimen Collection , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hemolysis/drug effects , Humans
11.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(6): 490-495, Nov-Dec/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-732592

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of root canal procedures by using different irrigants and intracanal medication on endotoxin levels found in root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: Thirty root canals of teeth with pulpal necrosis associated with periapical lesions were selected and randomly divided into groups according to the irrigants used: GI - 2.5% NaOCl, GII - 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, and GIII - saline solution (SS) (all, n=10). Samples were collected with sterile/apyrogenic paper points before (S1) and after root canal instrumentation (S2), after use of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (S3), and after 30 days of intracanal medication (Ca(OH)2+SS) (S4). A turbidimetric kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay was used for endotoxin measurement. Results: Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canals investigated (30/30), with a median value of 18.70 EU/mL. After S2, significant median percentage reduction was observed in all groups, irrespective of the irrigant tested: 2.5% NaOCl (99.65%) (GI), 2% CHX (94.27%) (GII), and SS (96.79%) (GIII) (all p<0.05). Root canal rinse with 17% EDTA (S3) for a 3-minute period failed to decrease endotoxin levels in GI and a slight decrease was observed in GII (59%) and GIII (61.1%) (all p>0.05). Intracanal medication for 30 days was able to significantly reduce residual endotoxins: 2.5% NaOCl (90%) (GI), 2% CHX (88.8%) (GII), and SS (85.7%) (GIII, p<0.05). No differences were found in the endotoxin reduction when comparing s2 and s4 treatment groups. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated the effectiveness of the mechanical action of the instruments along with the flow and backflow of irrigant enduring root canal instrumentation for the endotoxin removal from root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Moreover, the use of intracanal medication for 30 days contributed for an improvement ...


Subject(s)
Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/analysis , Periapical Periodontitis/therapy , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Chronic Disease , Dental Pulp Necrosis , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/therapeutic use , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Limulus Test , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Random Allocation , Root Canal Irrigants/therapeutic use , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 571-575, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732261

ABSTRACT

This case report describes root canal filling performed over a large S1 ProTaper file fragment in a second mandibular molar with irreversible pulpitis. An S1 ProTaper file was fractured during the instrumentation of the mesiobuccal canal. Approximately 10 mm of file fragment remained in the apical and middle thirds of the canal. The obturation was performed over this fragment using thermomechanically compacted gutta-percha and sealer. Radiographic findings and the absence of clinical signs and symptoms at 3-year follow up indicated successful treatment. Cone-beam computed tomography images revealed absence of periapical lesion and details of intracanal file fragment related to root fillings and apex morphology. In this case, the presence of a large intracanal fractured instrument did not have a negative impact on the endodontic prognosis during the follow up evaluation period.


Este relato de caso descreve a obturação do canal radicular realizada sobre um grande fragmento da lima ProTaper S1 em um segundo molar inferior com pulpite irreversível. Uma lima ProTaper S1 fraturou durante a instrumentação do canal mésio-vestibular. Aproximadamente 10 mm de remanescente do fragmento da lima permaneceu nos terços apical e médio do canal. A obturação foi realizada sobre este fragmento usando guta-percha compactada termomecanicamente e cimento endodôntico. Achados radiográficos e ausência de sinais e sintomas clínicos após 3 anos de acompanhamento indicaram o sucesso do tratamento. Imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixes cônicos revelaram a ausência de lesão periapical e detalhes do fragmento da lima intracanal relacionados à obturação do canal radicular e à morfologia do ápice. Neste caso, a presença de grande instrumento fraturado intracanal não teve impacto negativo no prognóstico endodôntico durante o período de acompanhamento.


Subject(s)
Bacteriological Techniques , Campylobacter/ultrastructure , Centrifugation, Density Gradient , Cell Membrane/analysis , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Octoxynol , Polyethylene Glycols/pharmacology , Sarcosine/analogs & derivatives , Sarcosine/pharmacology
13.
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(5): 409-415, Sep-Oct/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-690093

ABSTRACT

An increase in dentin roughness, associated with surface composition, contributes to bacterial adherence in recontaminations. Surface roughness is also important for micromechanical interlocking of dental materials to dentin, and understanding the characteristics of the surface is essential to obtain the adhesion of root canal sealers that have different physico-chemical characteristics. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA), etidronic (HEBP), and citric acid (CA) associated with different irrigation regimens on root dentin roughness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-five root halves of anterior teeth were used. The root parts were sectioned in thirds, embedded in acrylic resin and polished to a standard surface roughness. Initially, the samples of each third were randomly assigned into 3 groups and treated as follows: G1 - saline solution (control); G2 - 5% NaOCl+18% HEBP mixed in equal parts; and G3 - 2.5% NaOCl. After initial measuments, the G3 samples were distributed into subgroups G4, G5 and G6, which were subjected to 17% EDTA, 10% CA and 9% HEBP, respectively. Following the new measuments, these groups received a final flush with 2.5% NaOCl, producing G7, G8 and G9. The dentin surface roughness (Ra) was determined before and after treatments using a profilometer. The Wilcoxon test (α<0.05) was used to compare the values before and after treatments, and the Friedman test (α<0.05) to detect any differences among root thirds. RESULTS: (i) NaOCl did not affect the surface roughness; (ii) there was a significant increase in roughness after the use of chelating agents (P<0.01); and (iii) only the G3 group showed a difference in surface roughness between apical third and other thirds of the teeth (P<0.0043). CONCLUSION: Only the irrigation regimens that used chelating agents altered the roughness of root dentin. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin/drug effects , Etidronic Acid/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Tooth Root/drug effects , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
14.
Bauru; s.n; 2013. 122 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-707698

ABSTRACT

O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano da irrigação e da medicação endodôntica em dentina infectada por biofilmes orais. Na primeira parte do estudo, avaliaram-se as seguintes soluções irrigadoras: hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, clorexidina a 2%, ácido cítrico a 10% e EDTA a 17%. Na segunda parte, avaliaram-se soluções irrigadoras contendo associações (MTAD, Smear Clear, Qmix, ácido maleico a 7%, iodo-iodeto de potássio a 2% e ácido peracético a 4%), sendo essas soluções comparadas a 2 concentrações de hipoclorito de sódio. Na terceira parte, avaliou-se o efeito de dispositivos sônicos, ultrassônicos e de laser na capacidade de limpeza do hipoclorito de sódio a 6%, com uso de microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Na quarta parte, avaliaram-se os efeitos antimicrobianos de 3 pastas de hidróxido de cálcio contendo 3 radiopacificadores diferentes (óxido de zinco, sulfato de bário e iodofórmio). No último experimento, foram avaliadas as propriedades antimicrobianas da pasta triantibiótica, da clorexidina em gel e da pasta aquosa de hidróxido de cálcio. Os resultados mostraram que todas as soluções de hipoclorito de sódio testadas e o ácido peracético a 4% foram mais efetivas sobre o biofilme em comparação a todos os irrigantes testados. As soluções de hipoclorito de sódio propiciaram significativamente uma melhor limpeza da dentina. O ácido peracético foi também efetivo para dissolver células do biofilme. A ativação do hipoclorito de sódio com o ultrassom e com laser interferiu favoravelmente na limpeza da dentina infectada. A pasta triantibiótica e o hidróxido de cálcio associado ao iodofórmio foram os medicamentos mais efetivos na descontaminação da dentina infectada. Portanto, o protocolo ideal que deve ser adotado para garantir uma descontaminação efetiva da dentina contaminada por biofilmes orais inclui o uso de hipoclorito de sódio ativado por ultrassom ou laser e medicação intracanal de hidróxido de cálcio com iodofórmio...


The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of endodontic irrigation and medication on biofilm infected dentin. In the first part, we evaluated the following irrigant solutions: 1% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, 10% citric acid and 17% EDTA. In the second part, irrigant solutions containing combinations of antimicrobials such as "MTAD," "Smear Clear", "Qmix", 7% maleic acid and 2% iodine-potassium iodide and 4% peracetic acid were evaluated. These solutions were compared to 2 concentrations of sodium hypochlorite. In the third part, we evaluated the effect of sonic, ultrasonic and laser irrigation on the cleaning ability of biofilm infected dentin using 6% sodium hypochlorite under scanning electron microscope. In the fourth part, we evaluated the antimicrobial effects of 3 calcium hydroxide pastes containing 3 different radiopacifiers (zinc oxide, barium sulfate and iodoform). In the last experiment, we evaluated the antimicrobial properties of the triantibiotic paste, 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide paste. The results showed that the sodium hypochlorite and the peracetic acid solutions were more effective to decontaminate the biofilm infected dentin in comparison to all of the tested irrigants. The sodium hypochlorite solutions allowed significantly better cleaning of the dentine. The peracetic acid was also effective to dissolve the biofilm cells. Activation of 6% sodium hypochlorite with ultrasonic and laser increased the cleaning of biofilm infected dentin. The triantibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide associated to iodoform were the most effective intracanal dressings available for the decontamination of the infected dentin. Therefore, the ideal protocol to be adopted in order to ensure an effective decontamination of biofilm infected dentin includes the use of sodium hypochlorite, specially activated by ultrasound or laser; and the use of calcium hydroxide with iodoform intracanal dressing...


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Biofilms , Dentin , Dentin/microbiology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Microscopy, Confocal , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric
15.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(6): 645-653, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662421

ABSTRACT

The aim of this preliminary study was to verify the antibacterial potential of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in root canals infected by Enterococcus faecalis. Forty human maxillary anterior teeth were prepared and inoculated with E. faecalis for 60 days. The teeth were randomly assigned to the following groups: 1: Root canal preparation (RCP) + 0.1% CPC with positive-pressure irrigation (PPI, Conventional, NaviTip®); 2: RCP + 0.2% CPC PPI; 3: RCP + 2.5% NaOCl PPI; 4: RCP + 2.5% NaOCl with negative-pressure irrigation system (NPI, EndoVac®); 5: Positive control; and 6: Negative control. Four teeth of each experimental group were evaluated by culture and 4 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In all teeth, the root canals were dried and filled with 17% EDTA (pH 7.2) for 3 min for smear layer removal. Samples from the infected root canals were collected and immersed in 7 mL of Letheen Broth (LB), followed by incubation at 37°C for 48 h. Bacterial growth was analyzed by turbidity of culture medium and then observed with a UV spectrophotometer. The irrigating solutions were further evaluated for antimicrobial effect by an agar diffusion test.The statistical data were treated by means, standard deviation, Kruskal-Wallis test and analysis of variance. Significance level was set at 5%. The results showed the presence of E. faecalis after root canal sanitization. The number of bacteria decreased after the use of CPC. In the agar diffusion test, CPC induced large microbial inhibition zones, similar to 2% chlorhexidine and large than 2.5% NaOCl. In conclusion, cetylpyridinium chloride showed antibacterial potential in endodontic infection with E. faecalis.


O objetivo deste estudo preliminar foi verificar o potencial antibacteriano de cloreto de cetilpiridínio (CCP) em canais radiculares infectados por E. faecalis. Quarenta dentes anteriores de humanos foram preparados e inoculados com E. faecalis por 60 dias. Os dentes foram aleatoriamente distribuídos como se segue: 1. Preparo do canal radicular (PCR) + CCP 0,1% com sistema de pressão positiva de irrigação (PPI, convencional, Navitip®); 2. PCR + CPC 0,2% PPI; 3. PCR + NaOCl 2,5% PPI, 4. PCR + NaOCl 2,5% com sistema de pressão negativa de irrigação (PNI, EndoVac®); 5 e 6. Controles positivos e negativos. Quatro dentes de cada grupo experimental foram avaliados por cultura e quatro por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV). Em todos os dentes, os canais foram secos e preenchidos com EDTA 17% (pH 7,2) durante 3 min. As amostras dos canais radiculares infectados foram coletadas e imersas em 7 mL Letheen Broth (LB), seguido de incubação a 37° C durante 48 h. O crescimento bacteriano foi analisado pela turvação do meio de cultura, e mensurados por meio de um espectrofotometro (UV). As soluções irrigantes foram ainda avaliadas em teste de difusão em ágar. A análise estatística utilizou de média, desvio padrão,teste de Kruskal-Wallis e análise de variância. O nível de significância foi de 5%. Os resultados mostraram a presença de E. faecalis posterior ao processo de desinfecção do canal radicular. O cloreto de cetilpiridínio mostrou reduzir o número de bactérias. No teste de difusão em ágar, o CPC determinou inibição microbiana, com resultados semelhantes à CHX a 2% e maiores do que o hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5%. O cloreto de cetilpiridínio demonstrou potencial antibacteriano em infecção endodôntica por E. faecalis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Bacteriological Techniques , Bacterial Load/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/growth & development , Immunodiffusion , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nephelometry and Turbidimetry , Pressure , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Smear Layer , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Temperature , Time Factors , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods
16.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(6): 654-658, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662422

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation regimens on dentin microhardness at the furcation area of mandibular molars, using sodium hypochlorite and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), individually and in alternation. The occlusal surface and the roots of 20 non-carious extracted human permanent mandibular molars were cut transversally and discarded. The tooth blocks were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=5) according to the irrigating regimens: 1% NaOCl solution, 17% EDTA solution, 1% NaOCl and 17% EDTA and distilled water (control). Knoop microhardness of dentin at the furcation area was evaluated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests (α=0.05). The results of this study indicated that all irrigation solutions, except for distilled water (control), decreased dentin microhardness. EDTA did not show a significant difference with NaOCl/EDTA (p>0.05), but showed a significant difference with NaOCl (p<0.01). EDTA and NaOCl/EDTA showed a maximum decrease in microhardness. The 17% EDTA solution, either alone or in combination with 1% NaOCl reduced significantly dentin microhardness at the furcation area of mandibular molars.


A proposta desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito do NaOCl 1% e do ácido etilenodiaminotetracético 17% (EDTA), de forma isolada e alternada, sobre a microdureza dentinária da região da furca de molares inferiores. A superfície oclusal e as raízes de vinte molares inferiores, recém extraídos, foram cortadas transversalmente e descartadas. Os espécimes foram distribuídos em 4 grupos (n=5) de acordo com a solução irrigante utilizada. As soluções empregadas foram EDTA 17% (I), NaOCl 1% (II), NaOCl 1% e EDTA 17% (III), e água destilada (IV) (controle). Os dentes foram incluídos em blocos de resina acrílica e cortados transversalmente. A hemi-secção que melhor representou a furca dental foi lixada e polida para a avaliação da microdureza Knoop. As medidas obtidas foram analisadas utilizando-se teste ANOVA seguido do teste de comparação múltipla de Tukey (α=0,05). Os resultados desse estudo mostraram que todas as soluções, exceto o grupo controle, diminuíram a microdureza dentinária. O EDTA não apresentou diferença estatística significante em relação ao NaOCl/EDTA (p>0,05), mas foi diferente do NaOCl (p<0,01). Os grupos do EDTA e NaOCl/EDTA mostraram a maior redução da microdureza. A solução de EDTA 17%, associada ou não ao NaOCl 1% reduz, significantemente, a microdureza dentinária da furca de molares inferiores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Molar/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Hardness , Mandible , Materials Testing , Root Canal Preparation/methods , Tooth Root/drug effects
17.
Braz. dent. j ; 23(3): 212-217, 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-641589

ABSTRACT

The effect of solutions of 0.2% chitosan, 15% EDTA and 10% citric acid on the microhardness of root dentin was evaluated comparatively in this study. Thirteen sound human maxillary central incisors were selected and decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Ten roots were set into rapid polymerization acrylic resin and the root/resin block was fitted to the cutting machine to obtain slices from the cervical third. The first slice was discarded and the second slice was divided into four quadrants. Each quadrant was used to construct a sample, so that 4 specimens were obtained from each root slice, being one for each chelating solution to be tested: 15% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 0.2% chitosan and distilled water (control). The specimens were exposed to 50 μL of the solution for 5 min, and then washed in distilled water. A microhardness tester (Knoop hardness) with a 10 g load was used for 15 s. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.05). The other 3 roots had the canals instrumented and irrigated at the end of the biomechanical preparation with the test solutions, and then examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for qualitative analysis. All solutions reduced the microhardness of root dentin in a way that was statistically similar to each other (p>0.05) but significantly different from the control (p>0.05). The SEM micrographs showed that the three solutions removed smear layer from the middle third of the root canal. In conclusion, 0.2% chitosan, 15% EDTA and 10% citric acid showed similar effects in reducing dentin microhardness.


Avaliou-se o efeito das soluções de quitosana 0,2%, EDTA 15% e ácido cítrico 10% sobre a microdureza da dentina radicular. Foram utilizados 13 incisivos centrais superiores humanos, os quais tiveram suas coroas seccionadas transversalmente e desprezadas. Dez raízes foram incluídas em resina acrílica de rápida polimerização e o bloco formado raiz/resina adaptado à maquina de corte. Desprezou-se o primeiro corte transversal da porção cervical e dividiu-se o segundo, em 4 quadrantes. Cada quarto foi destinado à confecção do corpo-de-prova obtendo-se 4 espécimes para cada raiz, um para cada solução (n=10): EDTA a 15%, ácido cítrico a 10%, quitosana a 0,2% e água destilada (controle). Os espécimes receberam 50 μ L da solução por 5 min, sendo em seguida, lavados com água destilada. Utilizou-se um microdurômetro (dureza Knoop) com carga de 10 g durante 15 s. Os dados foram avaliados por meio do teste ANOVA e Tukey-Kramer (α=0,05). Três incisivos centrais superiores foram instrumentados e irrigados, ao final da biomecânica, com uma das soluções estudadas. Os espécimes foram levados para MEV e posterior análise qualitativa. Todas as soluções avaliadas reduziram a microdureza da dentina radicular de forma semelhante entre si (p>0,05) e estatisticamente diferente do controle (p<0,01). As fotomicrografias mostraram que as 3 soluções removeram a smear layer do terço médio do canal radicular. Concluiu-se que as soluções de quitosana 0,2%, EDTA 15% e ácido cítrico 10% apresentam efeito semelhante na redução da microdureza dentinária.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Dentin/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Tooth Root/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Hardness , Hardness Tests/methods , Incisor , Microscopy, Acoustic , Smear Layer
18.
J. appl. oral sci ; 19(6): 639-643, Nov.-Dec. 2011. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610880

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the removal of smear layer from the middle and apical root thirds after use of different irrigating solutions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty roots of permanent human teeth had their canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=10), according to the irrigating solution: apple vinegar (group A), apple vinegar finished with 17 percent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (group B), 1 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) finished with 17 percent EDTA (group C) and saline (group D - control). After chemomechanical preparation, the roots were cleaved longitudinally and their middle and apical thirds were examined by SEM at ×1,000 magnification. Two calibrated examiners (kappa=0.92) analyzed the SEM micrographs qualitatively attributing scores that indicated the efficacy of the solutions in removing the smear layer from the surface of the dentin tubules (1 - poor, 2 - good and 3 - excellent). Data from the control and experimental groups were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test, while the Wilcoxon test was used to compare the middle and apical thirds of the canals within the same group (a=0.05). RESULTS: The middle third presented less amount of smear layer than the apical third, regardless of the irrigant. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.0402) among the groups in the middle third. In the apical third, the apple vinegar/EDTA group showed the greatest removal of smear layer (p=0.0373). CONCLUSION: Apple vinegar associated or not with EDTA was effective in removing smear layer when used as an endodontic irrigant.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin/drug effects , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Smear Layer , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Malus/chemistry , Random Allocation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
19.
J. appl. oral sci ; 19(5): 469-475, Sept.-Oct. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600847

ABSTRACT

Dental roots that have been exposed to the oral cavity and periodontal pocket environment present superficial changes, which can prevent connective tissue reattachment. Demineralizing agents have been used as an adjunct to the periodontal treatment aiming at restoring the biocompatibility of roots. OBJECTIVE: This study compared four commonly used demineralizing agents for their capacity of removing smear layer and opening dentin tubules. METHODS: Fifty fragments of human dental roots previously exposed to periodontal disease were scaled and randomly divided into the following groups of treatment: 1) CA: demineralization with citric acid for 3 min; 2) TC-HCl: demineralization with tetracycline-HCl for 3 min; 3) EDTA: demineralization with EDTA for 3 min; 4) PA: demineralization with 37 percent phosphoric acid for 3 min; 5) Control: rubbing of saline solution for 3 min. Scanning electron microscopy was used to check for the presence of residual smear layer and for measuring the number and area of exposed dentin tubules. RESULTS: Smear layer was present in 100 percent of the specimens from the groups PA and control; in 80 percent from EDTA group; in 33.3 percent from TC-HCl group and 0 percent from CA group. The mean numbers of exposed dentin tubules in a standardized area were: TC-HCl=43.8±25.2; CA=39.3±37; PA=12.1±16.3; EDTA=4.4±7.5 and Control=2.3±5.7. The comparison showed significant differences between the following pairs of groups: TC-HCl and Control; TC-HCl and EDTA; CA and Control; and CA and EDTA. The mean percentages of area occupied by exposed dentin tubules were: CA=0.12±0.17 percent; TC-HCl=0.08±0.06 percent; PA=0.03±0.05 percent; EDTA=0.01±0.01 percent and Control=0±0 percent. The CA group differed significantly from the others except for the TC-HCl group. CONCLUSION: There was a decreasing ability for smear layer removal and dentin tubule widening as follows: AC>TC-HCl>PA>EDTA. This information can be of value as an extra parameter for choosing one of them for root conditioning.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Cavity Preparation/methods , Dentin/drug effects , Smear Layer , Tooth Root/drug effects , Analysis of Variance , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Dentin/ultrastructure , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Phosphoric Acids/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Tetracycline/pharmacology , Tooth Root/ultrastructure
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139946

ABSTRACT

Context: To evaluate the effect of widely used endodontic irrigating solutions on root dentin microhardness and surface roughness. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty, non-carious extracted human permanent incisor teeth were selected. The crowns of the teeth were sectioned and the roots were separated longitudinally to get 240 specimens. These specimens were then divided into six groups according to the irrigating solutions used. The solutions used were 5% and 2.5% NaOCl solutions, 3% H2 O2 , 17% EDTA solution, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, and distilled water. Then, the specimens were subjected to microhardness and roughness testing. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Results: The results of this study indicated that all irrigation solutions, except 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, decreased the microhardness of root dentin, and 3% H2 O2 and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate had no effect on surface roughness. Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, it is concluded that 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate seems to be an appropriate irrigation solution, because of its harmless effect on the microhardness and surface roughness of root canal dentin.


Subject(s)
Analysis of Variance , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Debridement/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/ultrastructure , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/ultrastructure , Edetic Acid/pharmacology , Hardness , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties , Therapeutic Irrigation/methods , Tooth Root
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