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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(5): 1180-1186, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345257

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum silage substitution with different proportions of triticale silage on the performance and carcass of Braford heifers. Twenty-four Braford heifers were randomly assigned to four diets where sorghum silage was replaced at 0%, 30%, 60%, and 100% for triticale silage in a feedlot system. During sixty-tree days of the experiment, the feed intake, feed ratio conversion, and average daily gain were measured. The heifers were slaughtered and the effects of the sorghum and triticale silage in carcass characteristics were evaluated. The replacement of sorghum silage with triticale silage did not affect the feed intake and average daily gain (P> 0.05). Feed gain ratio was higher for the heifers that received lower proportions of triticale silage (0% and 30%) in replace sorghum silage (P <0.05). Eye loin area and fat thickness were similar among treatments (P<0.05). Other carcass characteristics, such as slaughter live weight, dressing percentage, conformation and fat classification were similar among experimental treatments (P<0.005). Triticale silage can replace sorghum silage for finishing beef heifers in feedlot system and provides similar carcass characteristics.(AU)


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição da silagem de sorgo por diferentes proporções de silagem de triticale no desempenho e na carcaça de novilhas Braford. A silagem de sorgo foi substituída em 0%, 30%, 60% e 100% pela silagem de triticale como fonte de volumoso na alimentação de 24 novilhas da raça Braford, em um sistema de confinamento. O período experimental total foi de 63 dias para a avaliação do consumo dos componentes da ração, a conversão alimentar e o ganho médio diário. Ao final do experimento, os animais foram abatidos e avaliados em relação às características de carcaça. A substituição da silagem de sorgo pela silagem de triticale não apresentou efeito no consumo dos componentes da ração e no ganho médio diário entre as novilhas (P>0,05). A conversão alimentar foi melhor para as novilhas que receberam menores proporções de silagem de triticale (0% e 30%) em substituição à silagem de sorgo (P<0,05). As características das carcaças foram semelhantes entre os animais independentemente da fonte de volumoso. A silagem de triticale apresenta-se como alimento alternativo à silagem de sorgo em regiões de transição climática para a terminação de novilhas de corte, proporcionando o mesmo desempenho animal e as mesmas características de carcaça.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cattle , Silage , Sorghum , Triticale , Edible Grain
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 469-476, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248951

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the nutrient digestibility of grain-inclusive and grain-free commercial dry dog foods using the method of total fecal collection and also explore their effects on fecal consistency. 21 different foods, including 14 grain-inclusive (7 grain-chicken meat, 7 grain-lamb meat) and 7 grain-free were investigated. 12 adult Golden retriever dogs (age 3-4 years, body weight=22.5±1.7kg) were divided into 3 groups. The results of digestibility trials indicated that the grain-lamb meat foods showed the highest digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and crude fiber. Overall, in the grain-inclusive and grain-free group evaluation, grain-inclusive foods showed higher digestibility of crude fibers while grain-free foods had higher ether extract digestibility whereas the differences in the scores of fecal consistencies between the groups were insignificant. Contrary to popular belief, grain-inclusive foods were more digestive than grain-free foods in terms of dry matter and organic matter. There are studies involving starch sources in the dog food formulations, but there is a need to study the digestibility of complete dog food to supply them with adequate nutrients. Also, each diet should be assessed based on its overall nutrient profile and digestibility rather than individual ingredients.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar e comparar as digestibilidades de nutrientes de alimentos secos para cães comerciais, com grãos e livres de grãos, usando o método de coleta fecal total, bem como explorar seus efeitos na consistência fecal. Vinte e um alimentos diferentes, incluindo 14 grãos inclusivos (sete grãos de carne de frango, sete grãos de carne de cordeiro) e sete livres de grãos, foram investigados. Doze cães Golden Retriever adultos (idade de três-quatro anos, peso corporal = 22,5 ± 1,7kg) foram divididos em três grupos. Os resultados dos ensaios de digestibilidade indicaram que os alimentos cárneos de cordeiro apresentaram as maiores digestibilidades de matéria seca, matéria orgânica e fibra bruta. Em geral, na avaliação do grupo com grãos inclusivos e do grupo sem grãos, os alimentos com grãos inclusivos mostraram maior digestibilidade das fibras brutas, enquanto os alimentos sem grãos tiveram maior digestibilidade do extrato etéreo; já as diferenças nos escores de consistência fecal entre os grupos foram insignificantes. Ao contrário da crença popular, os alimentos com inclusão de grãos eram mais digestivos do que os sem grãos, em termos de matéria seca e matéria orgânica. Existem estudos envolvendo fontes de amido em formulações de rações, mas é necessário estudar a digestibilidade de rações completas para fornecer nutrientes adequados. Além disso, cada dieta deve ser avaliada com base em seu perfil geral de nutrientes e digestibilidade, em vez de ingredientes individuais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Nutrients/analysis , Edible Grain , Digestion , Animal Feed/analysis , Animal Feed/classification
3.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4415-4429, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921517

ABSTRACT

The zearalenone hydrolase (ZHD101) derived from Clonostachys rosea can effectively degrade the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) present in grain by-products and feed. However, the low thermal stability of ZHD101 hampers its applications. High throughput screening of variants using spectrophotometer is challenging because the reaction of hydrolyzing ZEN does not change absorbance. In this study, we used ZHD101 as a model enzyme to perform computation-aided design followed by experimental verification. By comparing the molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of ZHD101 at different temperatures, 32 flexible sites were selected. 608 saturated mutations were introduced into the 32 flexible sites virtually, from which 12 virtual mutants were screened according to the position specific score and enzyme conformation free energy calculation. Three of the mutants N156F, S194T and T259F showed an increase in thermal melting temperature (ΔTm>4 °C), and their enzyme activities were similar to or even higher than that of the wild type (relative enzyme activity 95.8%, 131.6% and 169.0%, respectively). Molecular dynamics simulation analysis showed that the possible mechanisms leading to the improved thermal stability were NH-π force, salt bridge rearrangement, and hole filling on the molecular surface. The three mutants were combined iteratively, and the combination of N156F/S194T showed the highest thermal stability (ΔTm=6.7 °C). This work demonstrated the feasibility of engineering the flexible region to improve enzyme performance by combining virtual computational mutations with experimental verification.


Subject(s)
Computer-Aided Design , Edible Grain , Enzyme Stability , Hydrolases/metabolism , Hypocreales/enzymology , Protein Engineering , Zearalenone
4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(5): 730-737, set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138609

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El consumo de quínoa (Chenopodium quínoa Willd) ha aumentado, renovando el interés en su composición y valor nutricional. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los contenidos de humedad, cenizas, proteínas y algunos minerales (Fe, Zn y Cu) de 10 variedades de quínoa chilena cultivadas en cuatro zonas geográficas, utilizando metodologías analíticas validadas. Las muestras (n=10) de quínoa cultivada en Vallenar, Los Tilos, Hidango y Santa Rosa fueron analizadas en triplicado. Los métodos normalizados aplicados fueron: humedad; cenizas; proteínas; hierro, zinc y cobre, bajo los requisitos de ISO/IEC 17025:2017. Los datos se analizaron usando análisis de varianza para comparar variedades y zonas de cultivo. Las muestras contienen en promedio 16,6 g de proteínas/100 g (14,4-17,5), 8,97 mg de hierro/100 g (7,71-10,76), 3,38 mg de zinc/100 g (2,17-5,30), y 0,83 mg de cobre/100 g (0,60-1,10). Las variedades cultivadas en Vallenar, Los Tilos e Hidango mostraron mayor contenido proteico que las de Santa Rosa (p<0,05). Todas las variedades tienen un contenido destacado de los microminerales cobre, zinc y hierro. Los resultados aportan información relevante sobre el valor nutricional de la quínoa chilena, entregando datos para la actualización de las Tablas de Composición Química de alimentos.


ABSTRACT The intake of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) has increased worldwide. Its revival has renewed interest in its composition and nutritional value. The aim of this study was to determine the contents of moisture, ash, protein, and some minerals (Fe, Zn and Cu) of ten varieties of Chilean quinoa grown in various geographical zones, using validated analytical methods under rule ISO/IEC 17025:2017. Grains grown in Vallenar, Los Tilos, Hidango, and Santa Rosa were analyzed in triplicates, using previously validated analytical methodologies and certified reference materials. The normalized methods used were: moisture; ash; protein; mineral, under the ISO/IEC 17025:2017 norm. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare varieties and growth zones. The analyzed quinoa grains contain a mean of 16.6 g proteins/100 g (range 14.4-17.5), 8.97 mg iron/100 g (range 7.71-10.76), 3.38 mg zinc/100 g, and 0.83 mg copper/100 g (range 0.60-1.10). The varieties grown in Vallenar, Los Tilos and Hidango showed higher protein content compared to Santa Rosa (p<0.05). All varieties exhibit considerable microminerals content, such as copper, zinc, and iron. These results provide relevant information about the nutritional value of Chilean quinoa and updated reliable data for Food Composition Tables.


Subject(s)
Dietary Proteins , Edible Grain , Chenopodium quinoa , Minerals , Food Chemistry , Food Composition , Nutritive Value
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(4): 1156-1166, 01-06-2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147228

ABSTRACT

The objectives were to study the behavior of fifteen pre-commercial upland maize hybrids, analyze their agronomic performance regarding grain yield, and evaluate productivity components, as well as morpho-agronomic characteristics, in the Midwest Region of Brazil. Two experiments were conducted in the municipalities of Formosa-GO and Planaltina-DF, 2016/17 crop year. Both consisted of five pre-commercial maize hybrid platforms (HPA252, HPB262, HPB621, HPB646, and HPD354). Each platform consisted of three different versions: conventional, transgenic with a Btgene that expresses the protein Cry1F, and transgenic with two Bt genes that express the proteins Cry1F and Cry1AB. The experiment was randomized blocks with four replications. The experimental plot was four lines five meters long considering the two central lines as useful. The lines were spaced 0.75 meters apart, and the final density was five plants per linear meter. To estimate grain yield, the plots were harvested, and the weight was extrapolated to kg.ha-1. The moisture was standardized at 14%. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability using the Sisvar software. Grain yield between treatments ranged from 8,381 to 12,908 kg.ha-1, and the average yield was 11,234 kg.ha-1. The parameters evaluated were divided into two groups. The first group contained parameters determining grain yield: grain depth, thousand grains weight, number of rows of grains, number of grains per row, and grain yield. The second group contained morpho-agronomic parameters that directly interfere with resistance to lodging and plant breaking: plant height, ear insertion height, and mean stem diameter. There was no direct effect of the transgenes on the evaluated hybrids since the classification of productivity was not divided into conventional and transgenic classes. It is suggested that the HPA252YH, HP621H and HP646H versions be discarded because grain yield performance was unsatisfactory compared to their respective conventional and transgenic counterparts. The parameters GD and W1000 are more effective for grain yield estimation than NR and NG. It was observed for HP621H that, in addition to a lower grain yield, there was a significant reduction in stem diameter, indicating a possible reduction in lodging tolerance and/or plant breaking when exposed to adverse climatic conditions such as windstorms. For the HPD354H version, the release of the transgenic counterpart HPD354YH is preferentially indicated since the H version had a significant reduction in stem diameter and a possible greater tolerance to lodging and/or plant breaking under the same conditions. KEYWORDS:Spodoptera frugiperda. Transgenic events. Performance of grains. Plant lodging. Zea mays. INTRODUCTIONStudies analyzing the efficacy of transgenic maize events that control Spodoptera frugiperda are often conducted as new transgenic events are studied and/or commercially released, both in Brazil and in other South American countries. Such studies aim to evaluate the effects of Bt proteins on larva control, genetic control of transgenic plants, and monitoring and efficiency of Bt (FERNANDES et al. 2010; MENDES et al. 2011). In the last years, several researchers have published works in Brazil and in the world on this topic. Soon after the commercial release of the first transgenic Btevent that provides resistance to the fall armyworm, Fernandes et al. (2010) evaluated the effects of MON810 maize, which expresses the Cry1Ab toxin, on S. frugiperda under field conditions and with a natural pest infestation during the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 harvests. MON810 maize significantly reduces caterpillar infestation of S. frugiperda and the consequent damage to plants Received: 08/04/19 Accepted: 20/12/19


Os objetivos foram estudar o comportamento de quinze híbridos pré-comerciais de milho, seus desempenhos agronômicos referentes à produtividade de grãos e os componentes diretos de produtividade, bem como suas características morfoagronômicas no Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Para tal, foram instalados dois experimentos nos municípios de Formosa-GO e Planaltina-DF no ano safra 2016/17, ambos constituídos por cinco plataformas de híbridos pré-comerciais de milho HPA252, HPB262, HPB621, HPB646 e HPD354. Cada plataforma foi constituída por três diferentes versões, convencional, transgênica que expressa à proteína Cry1F e transgênica que expressa as proteínas Cry1F e Cry1AB. O delineamento experimental adotado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. A parcela experimental constituiu-se por quatro linhas de 5 metros, considerando-se úteis as duas linhas centrais. Estas, foram espaçadas de 0,75 metros e a densidade final foi de 5 plantas por metro. Após a colheita, os pesos das parcelas foram extrapolados para kg.ha-1 e a umidade foi padronizada em 14%. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey a 5%, utilizando-se o software Sisvar. O rendimento de grãos variou entre 8.381 e 12.908 kg.ha-1 e a produtividade média foi de 11.234 kg.ha-1. Os parâmetros avaliados foram divididos em dois grupos. Um com os parâmetros determinadores de produtividade de grãos, profundidade de grãos, peso de mil grãos, número de fileiras de grãos, número de grãos por fileira e produtividade de grãos e outro grupo dos parâmetros morfoagronômicos que interferem diretamente a resistência ao acamamento e quebramento de plantas, altura de plantas, altura de inserção de espiga e diâmetro médio de colmo. Não houve efeito direto dos transgenes nos híbridos avaliados em relação a produtividade de grãos. Sugere-se que as versões HPA252YH, HP621H e HP646H sejam descartadas, pois o desempenho de rendimento de grãos, quando comparados às suas respectivas contrapartes convencionais e transgênicas, foram insatisfatórias. Os parâmetros PG e P1000 mostraram-se mais efetivos para estimação de produtividade de grãos que NF e NG. Observou-se em HP621H, que além de menor produtividade de grãos, houve uma redução significativa do diâmetro de colmo, indicando uma possível redução da tolerância ao acamamento e/ou quebramento de plantas quando exposta a condições climáticas adversas como vendavais. Para a versão HPD354H, indica-se preferencialmente o lançamento da contraparte transgênica HPD354YH, pois a versão H teve uma redução significativa do diâmetro de colmo e também uma possível maior tolerância ao acamamento e/ou quebramento de plantas nas mesmas condições.


Subject(s)
Edible Grain , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Food, Genetically Modified
6.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 198-204, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090675

ABSTRACT

La masticación se ha estudiado desde diferentes puntos de vista, utilizando alimentos de prueba naturales y artificiales. La evidencia es escasa cuando se analizan alimentos a base de cereales, que van desde cereales para el desayuno hasta barras de granola. El investigar este tipo de alimentos, se vuelve importante para entender el comportamiento de la masticación frente a alimentos con diferentes composiciones y texturas, y como estas características pueden influir en el proceso masticatorio. Se analizó la masticación desde un punto de vista cinemático, en sujetos jóvenes dentados. El alimento de prueba utilizado fue granola prototipo y maní, este último se ha estudiado en sujetos con rehabilitación protésica y su consumo se recomienda en esta población. Se analizaron las características cinemáticas de la masticación como numero de ciclos, frecuencia masticatoria, velocidad de masticación de ascenso y descenso, y el área de masticación en los tres planos del espacio. Se relacionaron los movimientos masticatorios con los movimientos mandibulares bordeantes que conformaron el polígono de Posselt, este también se analizó en los tres planos espaciales. En todas las variables analizadas la granola presento valores mayores, excepto en el número de ciclos masticatorios, sólo se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (p= 0,03) al comparar la velocidad (ascenso y descenso) y el área de masticación en el plano horizontal.


Chewing has been studied from different points of view, using natural and artificial foods test. When analyzing cereal-based foods, from breakfast cereals to granola bars, the evidence is scarce. Investigate this type of food is important to understand the behavior of chewing, with foods of different compositions and textures, and how these characteristics can influence the chewing process. Chewing was analyzed from a cinematic point of view, in young subjects complete dental. The test food used was prototype granola and peanuts, last one has been studied in subjects with prosthetic rehabilitation and its consumption is recommended in this population. The kinematic characteristics of chewing were analyzed: number of cycles, chewing frequency, ascent and descent chewing speed, and the chewing area in the three planes of space. The masticatory movements were related to the bordering mandibular movements, that formed the Posselt polygon, which was also analyzed in the three spatial planes. In all the variables analyzed, granola showed higher values, except in the number of chewing cycles, only statistically significant differences (p = 0.03) were found when comparing speed (ascent and descent) and the chewing area in the horizontal plane.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Biomechanical Phenomena , Mandible/physiology , Mastication/physiology , Arachis , Edible Grain , Electromagnetic Phenomena
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 607-614, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128490

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição do milho pelo sorgo grão, moído ou inteiro, e a inclusão de carotenoides sintéticos em rações de frangos de corte, sobre parâmetros zootécnicos e desenvolvimento da moela. Utilizaram-se 960 frangos, machos e fêmeas, da linhagem Cobb 500, que foram submetidos a quatro dietas: à base de milho (M), à base de sorgo moído (SM) ou ainda acrescido de carotenoides sintéticos (SMC) e à base de sorgo inteiro (SI). Foram avaliados peso vivo, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, rendimento de carcaça e cortes, peso de moela. A ração de SI proporcionou maior desenvolvimento de moela, embora, aos sete dias, não tenha havido diferenças no peso vivo e na conversão alimentar entre as dietas. SM e SMC proporcionaram maiores valores de peso vivo aos 28 dias do que SI. As conversões alimentares real e tradicional aos 40 dias foram semelhantes para as rações de sorgo, com um melhor rendimento de carcaça em SM e SMC. O sorgo moído pode substituir integralmente o milho nas rações para frangos de corte, sem comprometimento de desempenho e rendimento de carcaça, e, na forma grão inteiro, é zootecnicamente viável.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate the replacement of corn with ground or whole grain sorghum and the inclusion of carotenoids in broiler feed on zootechnical parameters and gizzard development. A total of 960 Cobb 500 broilers, half of each sex, were submitted to four feeds: ground corn (M), ground sorghum (SM) ground sorghum with carotenoid supplementation (SMC) and whole grain sorghum (SI). Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts yield, gizzard weight were evaluated. SI feed provided a greater development of gizzard, however at 7 days there were no differences in body weight and feed conversions between diets. SM and SMC provided higher values of body weight at 28 days than SI feed. Feed conversion at 40 days were the same for the sorghum feeds with a better carcass yield in SM and SMC. Ground sorghum can completely replace corn in broiler diets without compromising performance and carcass yield, and whole grain sorghum is zootecnaly viable.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Carotenoids/administration & dosage , Chickens/growth & development , Sorghum , Gizzard, Avian/growth & development , Edible Grain , Zea mays
8.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 238-246, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115494

ABSTRACT

Oryza sativa L. rice has large amounts of proteins and minerals, besides presenting several pigmented varieties. Red rice is distinguishable due to its great nutritional value compared to the regular white variety. Its red pericarp pigmentation is due to the bioactive compounds that are responsible for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical characterization, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity of flours of three different red rice cultures (Rubi, Virgínia and Pequeno). All samples presented specific levels of carbohydrates for cereals with low fat content and excellent levels of protein and resistant starch. In addition, the samples had a high antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity. Antihyperglycemic capacities were measured as percent inhibition for amylase (56.7-76.5%) and glycosidase (81.0-76.6%), respectively, and antihypertensive capacity as the percentage inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (38.4-34.7%). In addition, Pequeno flour presented the best results for antioxidant and antihyperglycemic capacity in comparison to the two flours tested. Thus, all red rice flours can be a source of functional compounds when added to food.


El arroz integral (Oryza sativa L.) posee importantes cantidades de proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fitoquímicos. El arroz rojo se destaca por su gran valor nutricional. La pigmentación roja del pericarpio está asociado al contenido de compuestos bioactivos, que están directamente relacionados a los beneficios de salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta lo antes expuesto se propuso evaluar las caracteristicas físico-químicas, capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva de las harinas de tres diferentes cultivos de arroz rojo (Rubí, Virginia y Pequeño). Todas las muestras presentaron niveles específicos de carbohidratos para cereales con bajo contenido de grasa y altos contenidos de proteína y almidón resistente. Además, las muestras presentaron una alta capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva. La capacidad anti-hiperglicémica se midió en porcentaje de inhibidores de α-amilasa (56.7-76.5%) y α-glucosidasa (81.0-76.6%), respectivamente; y capacidad antihipertensiva como el porcentaje de inhibición de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (38.4-34.7%). El cultivar Pequeño presentó mayor capacidad antioxidante y anti-hiperglucémica en comparación a los demás cultivares. Así, todas las harinas de arroz rojo pueden ser vehículos de compuestos funcionales en los alimentos.


Subject(s)
Oryza/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Starch , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Edible Grain , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
9.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 43: 8-15, Jan. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087467

ABSTRACT

Background: Plant tissue cultures have the potential to reprogram the development of microspores from normal gametophytic to sporophytic pathway resulting in the formation of androgenic embryos. The efficiency of this process depends on the genotype, media composition and external conditions. However, this process frequently results in the regeneration of albino instead of green plants. Successful regeneration of green plants is affected by the concentration of copper sulfate (CuSO4) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) and the length of induction step. In this study, we aimed at concurrent optimization of these three factors in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (x Triticosecale spp. Wittmack ex A. Camus 1927) using the Taguchi method. We evaluated uniform donor plants under varying experimental conditions of in vitro anther culture using the Taguchi approach, and verified the optimized conditions. Results: Optimization of the regeneration conditions resulted in an increase in the number of green regenerants compared with the control. Statistic Taguchi method for optimization of the in vitro tissue culture plant regeneration via anther cultures allowed reduction of the number of experimental designs from 27 needed if full factorial analysis is used to 9. With the increase in the number of green regenerants, the number of spontaneous doubled haploids decreased. Moreover, in barley and triticale, the number of albino regenerants was reduced. Conclusion: The statistic Taguchi approach could be successfully used for various factors (here components of induction media, time of incubation on induction media) at a one time, that may impact on cereals anther cultures to improve the regeneration efficiency


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Edible Grain/growth & development , Models, Statistical , Pigments, Biological , Plant Growth Regulators , Pollen , Silver Nitrate , Color , Copper Sulfate , Androgens
10.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0842019, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130142

ABSTRACT

Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) is a secondary pest of stored grains. It is a polyphagic and cosmopolitan species, with little information about its occurrence in the northern region of Brazil. This study was conducted to report the first occurrence of A. advena in corn grains in the city of Plácido de Castro, in the state of Acre, Brazil. In June 2019, the presence of A. advena under development was observed in a mass of corn grains. The identification was made at the species level using the available dichotomous keys. Since this is the first record of A. advena in corn grains in the city of Plácido de Castro, monitoring insects in the mass of corn grains is necessary to prevent the economic damages caused by A. advena to grains.(AU)


Ahasverus advena (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) é uma praga secundária de grãos armazenados. É uma espécie polifágica e cosmopolita, com poucas informações sobre sua ocorrência na região norte do Brasil. Este estudo tem o objetivo de relatar a primeira ocorrência de A. advena em grãos de milho na cidade de Plácido de Castro, Acre, Brasil. Em junho de 2019, observou-se a presença de A. advena desenvolvendo em uma massa de grãos de milho. A identificação foi feita a nível de espécie com a utilização das chaves dicotômicas disponíveis. Como este é o primeiro registro de A. advena em grãos de milho na cidade de Plácido de Castro, o monitoramento dos insetos na massa de grãos de milho é necessário para evitar danos econômicos causados por A. advena nos grãos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Coleoptera , Edible Grain , Zea mays , Agricultural Pests , Food Storage
11.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(9): e00196619, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124339

ABSTRACT

As children are particularly vulnerable to marketing, this study analyzes marketing techniques and health/nutrition claims in food packaging and evaluates the nutritional quality in three food categories: sweet biscuits, breakfast cereals and dairy-based desserts. This descriptive study analyzed marketing techniques and claims included in food packaging (n = 301) in one of the largest retailers in Argentina. Trained researchers coded data following an adapted version of the INFORMAS protocol to account for local food packaging regulations. Nutritional quality was assessed using both Pan American Health Organization Nutrient Profile (PAHO NPM) and the WHO Regional Office for Europe Nutrient Profile (WHO Euro NPM) models. Under the PAHO model, 87% (n 262) of the product sample presented excess content of at least one nutrient ("less healthy" products), and 91% (n = 273) should not be marketed to children according to the WHO Euro model. Almost 40% of less healthy food products displayed nutrition claims on their package. Characters or celebrity endorsements, which are particularly attractive to children, featured in 32% of less healthy products, being more frequent in less healthy food products than in healthier ones. Results indicate that packaging for food products with low nutritional value often includes powerful marketing elements in Argentina, which renders young children very vulnerable to obesogenic influence. Moreover, the real nutritional value of the products analyzed were often at odds with the health claims shown on its package. Food labeling policies must be improved in Argentina to guarantee people's health protection against deceptive advertising.


Los niños son particularmente vulnerables a la mercadotecnia; este estudio analiza las técnicas de mercadotecnia y la propaganda sobre salud/nutrición en los paquetes de comida, además de evaluar la calidad nutricional en tres categorías de comida: galletas dulces, cereales para el desayuno y postres lácteos. Este estudio descriptivo analizó las técnicas de mercadotecnia y propaganda incluida en los embalajes de galletas dulces, cereales para el desayuno y postres (n = 301) en uno de los distribuidores más grandes de Argentina. Investigadores cualificados codificaron los datos siguiendo una versión adaptada del protocolo INFORMAS, con el fin de evaluar la regulación respecto a los embalajes de comida local. La calidad nutricional fue evaluada usando tanto los modelos del Perfil Nutricional de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS NPM) y Organización Munidal de la Salud (OMS Euro NPM). Un 87% (n = 262) de la muestra del producto presentó un exceso de contenido de al menos un nutriente (productos "menos saludables"), según el OPS NPM, y un 91% (n = 273) de la muestra no debería haber sido etiquetada para niños, según el OMS Euro NPM. Casi un 40% de los productos menos saludables contaban con propaganda nutricional en sus embalajes. Personajes infantiles o el respaldo de famosos, que son particularmente atractivos para los niños, fueron destacados en un 32% de los productos menos sanos, y fueron más frecuentes entre los productos menos sanos que entre los más saludables. Los resultados indican que los embalajes de productos alimenticios con un valor nutricional bajo, a menudo incluyen elementos poderosos de mercadotecnia en Argentina, lo que provoca que los niños más jóvenes sean más vulnerables a la influencia obesogénica. Asimismo, el valor real nutricional de los productos analizados estuvo a menudo en conflicto con la propaganda sobre los beneficios para la salud mostrados en su embalaje. Las políticas de etiquetado deberían mejorar en Argentina para garantizar la protección a la salud de toda la población frente a la publicidad engañosa.


As crianças são particularmente vulneráveis ao marketing. O estudo analisa as técnicas publicitárias e alegações nutricionais e de saúde nas embalagens de alimentos e avalia a qualidade nutricional de três categorias de alimentos: biscoitos, cereais matinais e sobremesas lácteas. O estudo descritivo analisou as técnicas de marketing e as alegações impressas nas embalagens de biscoitos, cereais matinais e sobremesas lácteas (n = 301) em uma das maiores cadeias de varejo da Argentina. Pesquisadores treinados codificaram os dados de acordo com uma versão adaptada do protocolo INFORMAS para levar em conta a regulamentação argentina de rotulagem de alimentos. A qualidade nutricional foi avaliada com os modelos de Perfil de Nutrientes da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS NPM) e da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS Euro NPM). Ao todo, 87% (n = 262) das amostras dos produtos apresentavam um conteúdo excessivo de pelo menos um ingrediente (os produtos "menos saudáveis") de acordo com o OPAS NPM, enquanto 91% (n = 273) dos produtos não deveriam ser promovidos para crianças, de acordo com o OMS Euro NPM. Quase 40% dos produtos alimentícios menos saudáveis mostravam alegações nutricionais nas embalagens. Personagens conhecidos pelo público infantil, além do endosso de celebridades, que são particularmente atraentes para as crianças, foram destacados em 32% dos produtos menos saudáveis, e eram mais frequentes nos produtos menos saudáveis do que nos mais saudáveis. Os resultados indicam que as embalagens dos produtos alimentícios com menor valor nutritivo muitas vezes fazem uso de elementos poderosos de marketing na Argentina, deixando as crianças altamente vulneráveis à influência obesogênica. Muitas vezes o verdadeiro valor nutritivo dos produtos analisados não estava de acordo com as alegações de saúde nas embalagens. As políticas de rotulagem de alimentos devem ser melhoradas na Argentina para garantir a proteção da saúde da população inteira contra a publicidade enganosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Edible Grain , Breakfast , Argentina , Brazil , Marketing , Europe , Food Labeling , Nutritive Value
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 784-795, may./jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048656

ABSTRACT

Peanuts (Arachis hipogaea L.) have a great potential for grain production for feed and forage production, being an alternative for producers, as it grows a double product. Grains have excellent quality and contain a greater amount of protein with which to feed the herd. The present study is a cut-off effect study with an application of Stimulate® phytostimulant to determine grain quality and peanut fodder genotype. In the first planting, the peanuts were cultivated under field conditions in a randomized block design in a 4 × 2 × 2 subplot scheme, with four cultivars and two cutting periods, with or without phytostimulant. The cultivars were IAC Tatu ST and Caiana (vertical growth), as well as non-flowering and harvesting seeds. For the second planting, a randomized block design was used with a subplot scheme of 3 × 2 × 2, with three cultivars and 2 cutting periods, with or without phytostimulant. The cultivars were IAC Tatu ST and Caiana (vertical growth) and IAC 503 (prostrate growth). All cultivars contained a high percentage of hay protein in the two plantings. The cultivar IAC 503 was efficient in the production of protein and fiber in the grains in both plantings, demonstrated the potential of protein for animal supplementation, and also presented high grain yield in the summer planting.


A cultura do amendoim (Arachis hipogaea L.) apresenta grande potencial para produção de grão para alimentação e produção de forragem, sendo uma alternativa para os produtores, produzindo a cultura com duplo propósito, grãos de excelente qualidade e significativa quantidade de feno para alimentação do rebanho. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o efeito da época de corte com a aplicação do fitoestimulante Stimulate® sobre a qualidade do grão e forragem de genótipo de amendoim. No primeiro plantio o amendoim foi cultivado em condições de campo, em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de subsubparcela de 4x2x2, sendo quatro cultivares, dois períodos de corte, com e sem fitoestimulante. As cultivares foramcompostas de IAC Tatu ST e Caiana (crescimento vertical), IAC 886 e IAC 503 (crescimento prostrado) e as épocas de corte foram no florescimento e na colheita. Para o segundo plantio foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de subsubparcela de 3x2x2 sendo três cultivares com e sem fitoestimulante e dois períodos de corte. As cultivares foram IAC Tatu ST e Caiana (crescimento vertical) e IAC 503 (crescimento prostrado). Todas as cultivares que receberam corte apresentaram alto percentual de proteína do feno nos dois plantios. A cultivar IAC 503, mostrou-se eficiente na produção de proteína e fibra nos grãos nos dois plantios, demonstraram potencial com fonte de proteína para suplementação animal, além de apresentar alta produtividade de grãos no plantio de verão.


Subject(s)
Arachis , Proteins , Edible Grain , Dietary Fiber , Food Analysis
13.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(2): 107-112, jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1053052

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la preferencia y el grado de satisfacción de cuatro productos de panadería (galletas y grissinis) elaborados a base de una mezcla de trigo y frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris) o trigo y lupino (Lupinus albus) en adultos de Chile, y comparar los resultados obtenidos para estos productos en población mexicana. El análisis sensorial se realizó mediante dos pruebas sensoriales hedónicas, una de preferencia y otra de grado de satisfacción. Los participantes fueron 60 adultos de Concepción, Chile. Los resultados mostraron que los cuatro productos fueron del agrado de los participantes, siendo las versiones elaboradas a base de harina de trigo y lupino las más preferidas y mayor puntuadas (2,05 ± 1,05 galleta y 1,28 ± 1,22 grissini) respecto a las elaboradas a base de harina de trigo y frijol (1,90 ± 1,22 galleta y 1,28 ± 1,22 grissini). Al comparar los valores obtenidos de los cuatro productos, se encontró diferencia estadística significativa en los puntajes otorgados a las galletas. En los grissinis los puntajes otorgados fueron idénticos. Los resultados de los participantes mexicanos mostraron una mayor preferencia y grado de satisfacción para los productos elaborados a base de harina de trigo y frijol. De acuerdo a los resultados se puede concluir que los productos de panadería elaborados con mezclas de cereales y leguminosas son una opción mediante la cual se puede favorecer el consumo de leguminosas, el cual ha disminuido en los últimos años(AU)


The purpose of this work was to determine the preference and degree of satisfaction of four bakery products (cookies and grissinis) made from a mixture of wheat and common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) or wheat and lupine (Lupinus albus) in adults from Chile, and compare the results with the results recently obtained for these products in the Mexican population. The sensory analysis was performed using two hedonic sensory tests, one of preference and the other of degree of satisfaction. The participants were 60 adults from Concepción, Chile. The results showed that the four products were liked by the participants, the versions made from wheat and lupine flour were most preferred and highest rated (2.05 ± 1.05 cookie and 1.28 ± 1.22 grissini ) regarding those made of wheat flour and beans (1.90 ± 1.22 cookie and 1.28 ± 1.22 grissini). When comparing the values obtained from the four products, significant statistical difference was found in the scores given to the cookies. The grissinis scores were identical. The results of the Mexican participants showed a greater preference and degree of satisfaction for products made from wheat flour and beans. According to the results, it can be concluded that bakery products made with mixtures of cereals and legumes are an option by which the consumption of legumes can be favored, which has declined in recent years(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Edible Grain , Cookies , Flour Benefactor , Fabaceae , Food Quality , Food Handling , Food Technology
14.
Demetra (Rio J.) ; 14: e33380, mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099534

ABSTRACT

O milho é um dos cereais mais utilizados na produção de alimentos, sendo em sua maioria transgênico. Diante disso, objetivou-se desenvolver e avaliar formulações de biscoitos com farinha não transgênica de milho (FMNT) e farinha de semente de abóbora (FSA), adicionados de especiarias. Inicialmente, foram analisadas quimicamente três marcas de FMT (farinha de milho transgênica) e uma marca de FMNT. Paralelamente, realizou-se pesquisa com 80 consumidores sobre o biscoito proposto, sendo então elaboradas três formulações: F1 (sem FSA), F2 (com 25% FSA) e F3 (com 50% FSA). Cada formulação de biscoito foi avaliada quanto às características microbiológicas, sensoriais e químicas. No que se refere às características das farinhas de milho, a FMNT apresentou maior quantidade de proteínas e capacidade antioxidante. A pesquisa de mercado indicou que as formulações de biscoito propostas têm potencial comercial, e que deveriam ser adicionados orégano e manjericão. Todas as formulações de biscoito estavam seguras microbiologicamente, mas a formulação 2 foi a que apresentou melhor aceitação no que se refere a sabor e impressão global, assim como melhor intenção de compra, além de ser a preferida pelos provadores. O índice de aceitabilidade (IA) indicou a formulação 2 com potencial para consumo e comercialização. Em relação à composição centesimal e química, a formulação 3 apresentou características melhores por conter mais cinzas (7,73), proteínas (34,22), lipídios (28,77), energia (494,43), redução do ferro (23,34) e fenólicos totais (196,40). Diante do exposto, somente a formulação 2 apresenta potencial comercial, uma vez que contém um IA igual ao mínimo estabelecido para comercialização, enquanto que a formulação 3 apresentou melhores características químicas. (AU)


Corn is one of the most used cereals in food production, being mostly transgenic. Therefore, the objective was to develop and evaluate formulations of biscuits with non-transgenic corn flour (NTCF) and pumpkin seed meal (PSM), added with spices. Initially, three brands of TCF (transgenic corn flour), and a brand of NTCF were chemically analyzed. In parallel, a survey was carried out with 80 consumers on the proposed biscuit. Three formulations were formulated: F1 (without PSM), F2 (with 25% PSM) and F3 (with 50% PSM). Each cookie formulation was evaluated for microbiological, sensory and chemical characteristics. Regarding the characteristics of corn flour, NTCF showed a higher amount of protein and antioxidant capacity. Market research has indicated that the proposed biscuit formulations have commercial potential, and that oregano and basil should be added. All biscuit formulations were microbiologically safe; however, formulation 2 was the one that showed the best acceptance for taste, overall impression, purchase intention, and was the preferred formulation by tasters. The acceptability index (IA) indicated formulation 2 with potential for consumption and commercialization. In relation to the centesimal and chemical composition, formulation 3 showed better characteristics as it contained more ash (7.73), proteins (34.22), lipids (28.77), energy (494.43), iron reduction (23.34) and total phenolics (196.40). Considering the above, only formulation 2 has commercial potential, since it contains an acceptance index equal to the minimum established for commercialization, while formulation 3 presented better chemical characteristics. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Food, Formulated , Cookies , Edible Grain , Plants, Genetically Modified , Flour
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786114

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the prevalence of food allergies and allergenic factors in a selected sample of children living in Seoul, Korea, along with their dietary habits, environmental factors, and diseases as risk factors for food allergy. The results of this study will provide basic data for addressing food allergies.METHODS: We selected 3,004 pre-school and school-age children, aged 0 ~ 12, in the 25 districts of Seoul as the study sample. Structured self-report questionnaires were administered over a two-month period in July-August 2018, and the children's parents recorded the answers on their children's behalf. The research tools in this study included the Korean version of the questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC).RESULTS: The physician-diagnosed prevalence rate of food allergies was 14.2%, while 20.4% of the children experienced allergic symptoms at least once and 17.4% reported symptoms within the previous 12 months. The children's symptoms included skin problems (88.1%), gastrointestinal issues (19.2%), oral issues (16.7%), respiratory issues (12.7%), and systemic issues (1.3%). The causes of allergies included eggs, peaches, milk, peanuts, and shrimps. The factors influencing the experience of food allergies were the consumption of cereal (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.09 ~ 2.10; p = 0.013), potatoes (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.33 ~ 2.65; p < 0.001), and fast food (aOR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.10 ~ 2.72; p = 0.017). Having food allergy symptoms was associated with a higher risk of experiencing asthma (aOR, 4.22 95% CI, 3.10 ~ 5.76; p < 0.001), allergic rhinitis (aOR, 2.53; 95% CI, 2.03 ~ 3.15; p < 0.001), and atopic dermatitis symptoms (aOR, 3.56; 95% CI, 2.88 ~ 4.40; p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Episodes of food allergies warrant examining regular food consumption and placing dietary restrictions through early diagnosis as these episodes may imply the presence of other allergies. Our findings offer basic insights into the patterns, prevalence and symptoms of children's food allergies in Seoul, and our findings will contribute to identifying effective interventions for food allergies.


Subject(s)
Arachis , Asthma , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Early Diagnosis , Edible Grain , Eggs , Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Food Hypersensitivity , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Milk , Ovum , Parents , Prevalence , Prunus persica , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Seoul , Skin , Solanum tuberosum
16.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19170737, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011537

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycorrhizae are important components of agroecosystems and the diversification of crops stimulates the abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the participation of symbiosis in plant growth. This experiment examined mycorrhizal assessment, chemical and microbiological soil attributes in a maize-forage grasses intercropping compared to a maize-monocropping system. A complete randomized block design was used with crop systems installed under no-till management with three replicates, as follow: Maize (Zea mays L.); Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana; Urochloa humidicola (Rendle.) Schweickerdt.; Maize-P. maximum intercropping and Maize-U. humidicola intercropping. In 2015/2016 season, intercropping maize with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana or Urochloa humidicola (Rendle.) Schweickerdt. promoted similar effects (Tukey test, p<0.05) to monocropped maize under no-till system on soil chemical and biochemical parameters related to carbon cycling in the soil surface layer, as well as the dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in tropical soils, managed for a period of more than six years. Similar grain yield was verified among maize crop systems. This result indicates that intercropping maize-tropical forage grasses represents an alternative for monocropped grains, a very common practice that is used in intensive management, being able to guarantee equivalent productivities and to combine grain production with crop-livestock systems. As a result, intercropping promotes the diversification of the property's income source, adding environmental gains, such as more efficient land use by cultivated plants, keeping soil constantly cultivated, storing carbon and contributing to minimize the impact of climate change on agricultural systems and the sustainability of food production.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Edible Grain , Tropical Ecosystem , Zea mays , Mycorrhizae
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766002

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The consumption of processed foods has recently been increasing due to changes in the living environment. The purpose of this study was to identify the contribution of processed food to the nutrient intake of adult Koreans. METHODS: A total of 15,760 adult people in the 6(th) National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013 ~ 2015) were included in this study. According to the Korea Food and Drug Administration's classification criteria for processed foods, the 24 hour dietary recall data of the subjects were classified as processed food or natural food. The processed food intake, nutrient intake and major processed food sources by food groups were analyzed. RESULTS: Men consumed more processed foods than did the women. Consumption of processed foods decreased with age, but it increased with the education level and the income level. The total daily processed food intake accounted for 68.1% of the total food intake. The food groups with high processed food intake were beverage, vegetables, cereals and grain products, fruits, and milk and dairy products in this order. The top food source of each food groups were beer, kimchi, bread, processed apple products, and milk. After adjusting for age, gender, and energy intake, all the nutrient intakes and percentage of dietary reference intakes for Koreans, except carbohydrates, were significantly higher in processed foods than in natural foods. The sodium intake from the processed food was 96.3% of total daily sodium intake. The intakes of nutrients from processed foods, excluding vitamins C, dietary fiber, iron, and vitamin A, were higher in men than in women. The intake of sodium from processed foods was highest for people of 30 ~ 49 years of age, and the intake of sodium from processed foods decreased for people over 50. CONCLUSION: Korean adults consumed more processed food than the natural food, consuming more calories and most of the nutrients from the processed food overall total daily intakes. The intake of processed foods is expected to further increase in the future, and nutritional education and research on the ingestion and selection of healthy processed foods are necessary.


Subject(s)
Adult , Beer , Beverages , Bread , Carbohydrates , Classification , Dairy Products , Dietary Fiber , Eating , Edible Grain , Education , Energy Intake , Female , Fruit , Humans , Iron , Korea , Male , Milk , Nutrition Surveys , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Sodium , Vegetables , Vitamin A , Vitamins
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740558

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examined the nutrient intake and dietary habits based on breakfast consumption in Korean adolescents. METHODS: The data of the 2013 ~ 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used in this study. The analysis included 1,281 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. The subjects were divided into two groups (EBF: eating breakfast, n = 911; SBF: skipping breakfast, n = 370). RESULTS: The EBF group was significantly younger than the SBF group. In addition, the EBF group had a significantly lower frequency of skipping dinner than the SBF group. The EBF group consumed significantly higher levels of most nutrients except for vitamin A than the SBF group. The percent of nutrient intake under the EAR (estimated average requirements) in the EBF group were also significantly lower than that in the SBF group. Moreover, the NAR (nutrient adequacy ratio) and MAR (mean adequacy ratio) of the EBF group were significantly higher than those of the SBP group. The intake of cereal, sugars and sweeteners, vegetables, and eggs in the EBF group was significantly higher than that in the SBF group. CONCLUSION: The habit of skipping breakfast in adolescents leads to a decrease in the total nutrient intake and imbalanced dietary habits. Breakfast consumption in adolescence is very important. Therefore, more studies will be needed to develop nutrition education systematically in Korean adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Breakfast , Carbohydrates , Ear , Eating , Edible Grain , Education , Eggs , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Korea , Meals , Nutrition Surveys , Ovum , Sweetening Agents , Vegetables , Vitamin A
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the dietary patterns (DPs) of women during pregnancy. The present study aimed to identify the DPs of pregnant Malaysian women and their associations with socio-demographic, obstetric, and anthropometric characteristics. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 737 participants enrolled in Seremban Cohort Study between 2013 and 2015. Food consumption was assessed using a validated 126-food item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) at four time-points, namely, pre-pregnancy and at each trimester (first, second, and third). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify DPs. RESULTS: Three DPs were identified at each time point and designated DP 1–3 (pre-pregnancy), DP 4–6 (first trimester), DP 7–9 (second trimester) and DP 10–12 (third trimester). DP 1, 4, and 7 appeared to be more prudent diets, characterized by higher intakes of nuts, seeds & legumes, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, eggs, fruits, and milk & dairy products. DP 2, 5, 8, and 11 had greater loadings of condiments & spices, sugar, spreads & creamer, though DP 2 had additional sweet foods, DP 5 and 8 had additional oils & fats, and DP 11 had additional tea & coffee, respectively. DP 3 and 6 were characterized by high protein (poultry, meat, processed, dairy, eggs, and fish), sugars (mainly as beverages and sweet foods), and energy (bread, cereal & cereal products, rice, noodles & pasta) intakes. DP 9 had additional fruits. However, DP 12 had greater loadings of energy foods (bread, cereal & cereal products, rice, noodles & pasta), sugars (mainly as beverages, and sweet foods), and good protein sources (eggs, nuts, seeds & legumes). Malays were more likely to have lower adherence (LA) for DP 1 and 10 than non-Malays. DP 2, 8, and 11 were more prevalent among Malays than non-Malays. Women with a higher education were more likely to have LA for DP 10, and women with a greater waist circumference at first prenatal visit were more likely to show LA for DP 11. CONCLUSIONS: DPs observed in the present study were substantially different from those reported in Western populations. Information concerning associations between ethnicity, waist circumference and education with specific DPs before and throughout pregnancy could facilitate efforts to promote healthy dietary behavior and the overall health and well-being of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Carbohydrates , Coffee , Cohort Studies , Condiments , Dairy Products , Diet , Edible Grain , Education , Eggs , Fabaceae , Fats , Female , Fruit , Humans , Meat , Milk , Nuts , Oils , Ovum , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Principal Component Analysis , Prospective Studies , Spices , Tea , Vegetables , Waist Circumference
20.
Mycobiology ; : 230-241, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760536

ABSTRACT

The Great Sebkha of Oran is a closed depression located in northwestern of Algeria. Despite the ranking of this sebkha among the wetlands of global importance by Ramsar Convention in 2002, no studies on the fungal community in this area have been carried out. In our study, samples were collected from two different regions. The first region is characterized by halophilic vegetation and cereal crops and the second by a total absence of vegetation. The isolated strains were identified morphologically then by molecular analysis. The biotechnological interest of the strains was evaluated by testing their ability to grow at different concentration of NaCl and to produce extracellular enzymes (i.e., lipase, amylase, protease, and cellulase) on solid medium. The results showed that the soil of sebkha is alkaline, with the exception of the soil of cereal crops that is neutral, and extremely saline. In this work, the species Gymnoascus halophilus, Trichoderma gamsii, the two phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium brachygibbosum and Penicillium allii, and the teleomorphic form of P. longicatenatum observed for the first time in this species, were isolated for the first time in Algeria. The halotolerance test revealed that the majority of the isolated are halotolerant. Wallemia sp. and two strains of G. halophilus are the only obligate halophilic strains. All strains are capable to secrete at least one of the four tested enzymes. The most interesting species presenting the highest enzymatic index were Aspergillus sp. strain A4, Chaetomium sp. strain H1, P. vinaceum, G. halophilus, Wallemia sp. and Ustilago cynodontis.


Subject(s)
Algeria , Amylases , Aspergillus , Chaetomium , Depression , Edible Grain , Fungi , Fusarium , Lipase , Penicillium , Salt Tolerance , Soil , Trichoderma , Ustilago , Wetlands
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