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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 41(3): 705-710, jun. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514283

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic caused several changes in the teaching of human anatomy, among them the use of different teaching methodologies based on E-learning. However, studies evaluating electronic tools have not provided clear evidence of effective student learning. Thus, this was the first study to evaluate medical students after completing human anatomy courses in the E- learning modality. We recruited first term (Group A, n=25) and second term (Group B, n=13) medical students. We applied a practical assessment based on 50 human anatomy markingson real anatomical specimens and cadavers, to be completed in Questionnaire 01 (Phase I). After detecting low scores on Questionnaire 01 by both groups, we applied a practical and face-to-face tutoring system for 14 days (Phase II). Afterwards, we re-evaluated both groups by repeating the same scores (Questionnaire 02, Phase III). According to the paired analysis of questionnaires 01 and 02 by Student's T-test, both groups showed significant increase in the final scores obtained in questionnaire 02 (Phase III). The evidence showed that the remote format lecture system weakened the learning and retention process of basic anatomical knowledge by medical students. On the other hand, in-person practical teaching proved to be efficient in the formative process of the students, a fact proven by the significant increase in the scores of the students in the 02 questionnaire, for both groups.


La pandemia por COVID-19 provocó varios cambios en la enseñanza de la anatomía humana, entre ellos el uso de diferentes metodologías de enseñanza basadas en E-learning. Sin embargo, los estudios que evalúan las herramientas electrónicas no han proporcionado evidencia clara de un aprendizaje efectivo de los estudiantes. Este fue el primer estudio que evaluó a estudiantes de medicina luego de cursar cursos de anatomía humana en la modalidad E-learning. Reclutamos estudiantes de medicina de primer término (Grupo A, n=25) y segundo término (Grupo B, n=13). Se aplicó una evaluación práctica basada en 50 marcas de anatomía humana sobre especímenes anatómicos reales y cadáveres, para ser completado en el Cuestionario 01 (Fase I). Tras detectar puntuaciones bajas en el Cuestionario 01 por parte de ambos grupos, se aplicó un sistema de tutorías prácticas y presenciales durante 14 días (Fase II). Posteriormente, reevaluamos ambos grupos repitiendo las mismas puntuaciones (Cuestionario 02, Fase III). Según el análisis apareado de los cuestionarios 01 y 02 por la prueba T de Student, ambos grupos mostraron aumento significativo en los puntajes finales obtenidos en el cuestionario 02 (Fase III). La evidencia mostró que el sistema de conferencias en formato remoto debilitó el proceso de aprendizaje y retención de conocimientos anatómicos básicos por parte de los estudiantes de medicina. Por otro lado, la docencia práctica presencial demostró ser eficiente en el proceso formativo de los alumnos, hecho que demuestra el aumento significativo de las puntuaciones de los alumnos en el cuestionario 02, para ambos grupos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , COVID-19 , Anatomy/education , Teaching , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Distance , Learning
2.
Educ. med. super ; 37(2)jun. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1528536

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Hoy día se requiere formar a estudiantes de la carrera de medicina que sean competentes en el cumplimiento de sus funciones en los niveles de atención en salud. Como parte de las funciones que se deben desarrollar en el estudiante de medicina, se deben formar competencias para la prevención de la salud. Objetivo: Proponer una metodología para la formación de la competencia prevención de la salud en estudiantes de medicina durante el trabajo comunitario integral. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo de tipo preexperimental. La población estuvo conformada por 669 estudiantes de tercer año de medicina de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Holguín. De ellos se obtuvo una muestra de 100 estudiantes mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple. Se emplearon la observación directa en el terreno y la Prueba de Rangos con Signos de Wilcoxon para constar la hipótesis de investigación. Resultados: Se aportó la competencia de prevención de la salud y la metodología para su formación en estudiantes de medicina durante el trabajo comunitario integral, así como los principales logros y deficiencias demostrados durante las acciones realizadas en la educación en el trabajo. Conclusiones: La competencia prevención de la salud forma parte del perfil de competencias laborales que singularizan a la formación de un médico general competente. Es de tipo genérica y requiere para su formación de la combinación de acciones instructivas, educativas y desarrolladoras desde las potencialidades del trabajo comunitario integral que realizan los estudiantes como parte del componente laboral de la carrera(AU)


Introduction: Nowadays, it is necessary to train medical students to be competent in the fulfillment of their functions at the healthcare levels. As part of the functions to be developed among medical students, health prevention competences should be developed. Objective: To propose a methodology for the formation of health prevention competences among medical students during comprehensive community work. Methods: A quantitative preexperimental study was carried out. The population consisted of 669 third-year medical students from Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Holguín. A sample of 100 students was obtained by simple random sampling. Direct observation in the field and the Wilcoxon's signed-ranks test were used to verify the research hypothesis. Results: The health prevention competence and the methodology for its formation among medical students during comprehensive community work were provided, as well as were the main achievements and deficiencies shown during the actions carried out in education at work. Conclusions: The health prevention competence is part of the profile of occupational competences that singularize the training of a competent general practitioner. It is generic and requires. for its formation. the combination of instructive, educational and developmental actions from the potentialities of comprehensive community work performed by students as part of the occupational component of the major(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Preventive Health Services/methods , Professional Competence , Knowledge , Professional Training , Health Promotion/methods , Primary Prevention/education , Students, Medical , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods
3.
Prensa méd. argent ; 109(1): 9-12, 20230000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1427395

ABSTRACT

En el presente artículo, partimos de dos interrogantes que nos habilitan a repensar las prácticas educativas y los procesos de aprendizaje en Educación Superior, y más concretamente en la Formación de pregrado de los profesionales médicos. Nos preguntamos entonces, ¿qué (es) enseñar? y ¿para qué enseñar?... Lejos de responder dichos interrogantes, buscamos abrir nuevos


In this article, we start from two questions, that enable us to rethink educational practices and learning processes in higher education. And more specifically in the undergraduate training of medical professionals. We ask ourselves then, what (is) to teach? And what to teach? ... far from answering these questions, we seek to open new ones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Universities , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Human Rights , Learning
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 43(1): 12-16, mar. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1434187

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la Educación Basada en la Comunidad (EBC) representa una estrategia educativa que acerca la formación médica a la práctica real, y promueve una atención médica de mayor aceptabilidad que contempla la esfera social de los procesos de salud/enfermedad y aborda de forma adecuada las necesidades reales de la población. Existen, a la fecha, escasas publicaciones a nivel regional en las cuales los propios estudiantes reflexionen sobre este tipo de experiencias formativas. Objetivos: identificar y comunicar los principales aprendizajes obtenidos de una experiencia de EBC por parte de estudiantes de grado de Medicina. Metodología: se revisaron las sistematizaciones de experiencias confeccionadas por la primera cohorte que completó esta experiencia en el Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires. Se reflexionó sobre las principales dificultades observadas y los aprendizajes más significativos obtenidos a partir de dicha experiencia. Se establecieron dominios y codificaron los textos de las sistematizaciones generadas durante la cursada. Finalmente, se generó un mapa de conceptos a partir del cual se escribió este artículo. Resultados: esta experiencia tuvo para los estudiantes tres momentos bien definidos: una etapa inicial, caracterizada por incertidumbre y malestar; una intermedia, con aprendizaje estratégico y algo de transformación; y una avanzada, con aprendizaje profundo y situado. Conclusión: es recomendable que a las experiencias de EBC se les asigne el tiempo suficiente en las planificaciones y que finalicen con un proceso de reflexión promovido por el equipo docente. (AU)


Introduction: Community-Based Education (CBE) represents an educational strategy that brings medical training closer to real scenario practice, and promotes medical care of greater acceptability that contemplates the social sphere of health/disease processes and that adequately addresses the real needs of the population. To date, there are few publications at the regional level in which the students themselves reflect on this type of training experience. Objectives: to identify and communicate the main lessons learned from a CBE experience by Medicine-degree students.Methodology: the systematization of experiences made by the first cohort that completed this experience at the Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires was reviewed. We reflected on the main difficulties observed and the most significant lessons learned from this experience. Domains were established, and the texts of the systematization generated during the course were codified. Then, a concept map was generated from which this work was written. Results: this experience had three well-defined moments for the students: an initial stage, characterized by uncertainty and discomfort; an intermediate one, with strategic learning and some transformation; and an advanced one, with deep and situated learning. Conclusion: it is recommended that EBC experiences are assigned enough time in the planning and that they end with a reflection process promoted by the teaching team. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Social Learning , Health-Disease Process , Professional Training , Value-Based Health Care
5.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 151(1): 113-119, feb. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1515412

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical simulation is a strategy with broad support especially when face-to-face medical attention is difficult. In Psychiatry, the use and availability of simulation is lower than in other medical specialties, even for remote teaching. AIM: To report a pedagogical experience whose objective was to develop and implement the simulated patient technique as a teaching strategy for psychopathology and face-to-face Psychiatry for Psychiatry residents and remote for undergraduate medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six residents and 115 medical students participated in the activity. A descriptive qualitative-quantitative study was designed. Surveys were used to measure the quality and satisfaction of clinical simulation and simulation in psychopathology and psychiatry. In addition, an opinion was requested about the activity. All residents and 104 students participated in the assessment. RESULTS: The simulations were satisfactorily evaluated. The participants perceived that the pedagogical activity favored the development of generic competencies and specific skills for general Psychiatry. CONCLUSIONS: Simulation in Psychiatry does not replace face-to-face practical teaching, but it is a transitional and complementary method for clinical activities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychiatry , Students, Medical , Patient Simulation , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Teaching , Surveys and Questionnaires , Qualitative Research
6.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1449922

ABSTRACT

Los factores cuantitativos asociados a la publicación de tesis médicas en el pregrado no han sido lo suficientemente estudiados. Por ello, la investigación describió las tasas de publicación, así como la asociación con las características de las tesis, del asesor y del tesista. Se accedió, de manera virtual, a las tesis médicas de pregrado de la Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Perú, durante el período 2011-2020. Mediante el análisis de regresión logística múltiple, se evaluó la asociación entre la publicación de la tesis en revistas indizadas (Scopus) y la experiencia previa en publicación en revistas indizadas en Scopus del asesor y del tesista, la unidad de análisis, el tamaño de muestra, diseño de estudio, número de páginas, aprobación por el comité de ética de investigación y el sexo del tesista. De 884 tesis solo 12 (1,5 por ciento) se publicaron; lo que constituye el 1,23 por ciento de las tesis publicadas anualmente, con tendencia constante. La experiencia previa en publicación del asesor se asoció con la colocación de las tesis en revistas indizadas (OR = 8,97 [1,70-42,98]; p = 0,005) y en revistas indizadas a Scopus (OR = 14,64 [1,24-336,11]; p = 0,037). Presentar la aprobación del comité de ética de la institución se asoció con publicar la tesis en revistas indizadas a Scopus (OR = 12,45 [1,06-285,94]; p = 0,050). La publicación de tesis médicas de pregrado en esta universidad es baja y constante. Se asoció con tener un asesor de tesis con experiencia previa en publicaciones en revistas indizadas a Scopus y a tener aprobación por comité de ética. Urge implementar estrategias para aumentar la publicación de tesis(AU)


Quantitative factors associated with the publication of undergraduate medical theses have not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, the research described publication rates, as well as the association with thesis, advisor, and thesis writer characteristics. Undergraduate medical theses from the Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Peru, during the period 2011-2020 were accessed virtually. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between thesis publication in indexed journals (Scopus) and the previous publication experience in indexed journals in Scopus of the advisor and the thesis author, the unit of analysis, sample size, study design, number of pages, approval by the research ethics committee and the gender of the thesis author. Out of 884 theses only 12 (1.5percent) were published; this constitutes 1.23percent of the theses published annually, with a constant trend. The previous publication experience of the advisor was associated with the placement of theses in indexed journals (OR = 8.97 [1.70-42.98]; p = 0.005) and in journals indexed to Scopus (OR = 14.64 [1.24-336.11]; p = 0.037). Presenting the approval of the institution's ethics committee was associated with publishing the thesis in journals indexed to Scopus (OR = 12.45 [1.06-285.94]; p = 0.050). Publication of undergraduate medical theses at this university is low and consistent. It was associated with having a thesis advisor with previous experience in publishing in Scopus-indexed journals and having approval by an ethics committee. There is an urgent need to implement strategies to increase thesis publication(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Premedical , Mentors , Academic Dissertation , Ethics Committees, Research , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Scientific and Technical Publications , Peru
7.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(6): 1656-1661, dic. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421812

ABSTRACT

Los recursos educativos digitales se han transformado en un importante material de apoyo al proceso de enseñanza- aprendizaje, especialmente durante la pandemia por COVID-19. Estos corresponden a recursos de autoaprendizaje, generalmente en línea y de dominio público cuya disponibilidad inmediata a todo tipo de dispositivos electrónicos permite una rápida interacción del estudiante con materiales didácticos programados. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el grado de satisfacción de cinco recursos educativos digitales, desarrollados como herramientas de apoyo para la enseñanza de la patología general, en estudiantes de carreras de pregrado del área de la salud de la Universidad Austral de Chile. Estudio descriptivo y exploratorio. Se desarrollaron cinco recursos educativos digitales donde se visualizan imágenes microscópicas correspondientes a procesos patológicos ocurridos en diferentes tejidos. Estos recursos fueron alojados en repositorios de la universidad y se encuentran actualmente disponibles en el canal de YouTube. Para conocer el grado de satisfacción, en sus aspectos pedagógicos y técnicos, se realizó una encuesta digital, anónima y voluntaria a estudiantes que cursaron asignaturas de patología, la que contempló cuatro dominios con sus respectivas preguntas: forma; control de usuario; contenido educativo y valoración global. El 94 % de los estudiantes calificaron el recurso de excelente o muy bueno y todos los dominios obtuvieron sobre el 80 % de satisfacción. Los contenidos representan lo que el recurso dice ofrecer, ayuda a resolver dudas y facilita la comprensión de la materia. El tamaño y color del texto es el adecuado y las imágenes presentan una excelente calidad y resolución. Los recursos cumplen con una alta calidad técnica y pedagógica, que asegura un gran potencial de uso para la enseñanza de la patología general, guiar el trabajo autónomo del estudiante y las actividades prácticas con el microscopio.


SUMMARY: Digital educational resources have become an important material to support the teaching-learning process, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. These correspond to self-learning resources, generally online and the public domain, whose immediate availability to all types of electronic devices allows for rapid learner interaction with programmed didactic materials. The public domain and its immediate availability to all types of electronic devices allows a quick interaction of the student with self-explanatory didactic materials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of satisfaction of five digital educational resources, developed as support tools for the teaching of general pathology, in undergraduate students of the health area of the Universidad Austral de Chile. Descriptive and exploratory study. Five digital educational resources have been developed where microscopic images corresponding to pathological processes occurring in different tissues are visualized these resources were hosted in university repositories and uploaded to the YouTube channel. To determine the degree of satisfaction, in their pedagogical and technical aspects, an anonymous and voluntary digital survey was carried out among students taking pathology courses, which included four domains with their respective questions: form; user control; educational content and overall assessment. The 94 % of the students evaluated the resource as excellent or very good and all domains obtained over 80 % satisfaction. The contents represent what the resource says it offers, helps to resolve doubts and facilitates the understanding of the subject. The size and color of the text is adequate, and the images present excellent quality and resolution. The resources developed offer a high technical and pedagogical quality, which guarantees a great potential for use in the teaching of general pathology, guiding the student's autonomous work and practical activities with the microscope.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pathology/education , Students, Health Occupations , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Teaching Materials , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Rev. med. Chile ; 150(9): 1234-1238, sept. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1431887

ABSTRACT

This work is a bibliographical review of the challenges of professionalism in medical training. Medicine practiced with narrative competence, called narrative medicine, is proposed as a model for humane and effective medical practice. By virtue of the changes in the practice of medicine during the last years, professionalism values emerge as qualities that should reshape medicine. Several medical associations are redefining professionalism and insist that this issue should be included in the training curriculum. Thus, several medical education institutions are pursuing strategies to teach and assess professionalism. Modeling is still relevant as a learning strategy, but it must be tutored and directed. Also, timely and formative feedback appears as the most frequently suggested evaluative action. Both processes incorporate a personal reflective practice. Several recent studies suggest that a reflective experience is relevant for the formation of a professional identity. Narrative Medicine methodology emerges as an innovative strategy to address this issue, as it seeks to deliver valuable learning experiences to the students through reflection and the search for a new paradigm for medical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Medical , Education, Medical , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Narrative Medicine , Professional Competence , Curriculum , Professionalism
9.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e54907, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367787

ABSTRACT

The teaching-service-community integration is an important strategy for achieving changes in the training of human resources in health, in order to train professionals with a profile to work in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, as per its Portuguese acronym). This study analyzed how it occurs and what are the contributions of the teaching-service-community integration in the view of professors from the first to the seventh period of Medicine, Nursing and Dentistry programs at a university in northeastern Brazil. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, with a quantitative approach. Data were collected using an interview form and analyzed with the help of SPSS software. The descriptive analysis of the data, the chi-square test and the calculation of the internal consistency of the evaluation scale were used. The study had the participation of 106 professors. Results show that practices were still predominantly performed in university clinics and hospitals, 76 (71.7%). Most professors, 59 (56.7%), consider the teaching-service-community interaction very important for the quality of training and recognize its importance in strengthening SUS, 89 (85.6%). Although there was resistance on the part of some professors to follow-up students in extramural services, most of them, 94 (89.5%), consider the role of professors as essential for changing health practices, especially professors in nursing and dentistry professors that carry out extramural practices (p < 0.01). Interdisciplinary practices were performed more frequently in the first two periods of the three courses and by the nursing course (p = 0.001). In turn, multiprofessional interaction predominates in the practical classes of the nursing course and practices held outside the university domain (p < 0.01). It is evident the need to institutionalize the teaching-service-community interaction, as well as to value initiatives that streamline and make teaching more flexible in multiprofessional and interdisciplinary activities, fundamental for the amendment of training in health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Teaching Care Integration Services , Education, Dental/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Education, Nursing/methods , Professional Training , Patient Care Team , Teaching , Unified Health System , Hospitals, University
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1360-1370, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352116

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la orientación educativa, desde la relación profesor-alumno, es esencial para el tránsito del joven por los estudios superiores; requiere atención especial en el período de enfrentamiento a la covid-19 y es fundamental para el estudiante de ciencias médicas. Objetivo: identificar la percepción de la función orientadora del docente ante la covid-19 en estudiantes de ciencias médicas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en el período comprendido entre abril y octubre de 2020. El universo de trabajo estuvo representado por 18 estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Medicina, de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Mayabeque, que realizan la pesquisa en una comunidad perteneciente al Policlínico Docente Dr. Luis Li Trigent. Se analizaron datos como la existencia del profesor como orientador, áreas de la orientación educativa, problemas de los estudiantes y valoración de la comunicación empática profesor-estudiante. Resultados: los estudiantes reconocen la existencia del profesor como orientador. El área de orientación educativa de mayor incidencia en que se expresó la función orientadora del profesor fue la académica. Los problemas predominantes identificados por los estudiantes están relacionados con el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Existió una valoración positiva de la comunicación empática profesor-estudiante. Conclusiones: la relación profesor-alumno se hace más relevante durante la pandemia de covid-19. El estudiante de Medicina enfrenta nuevas condiciones en el proceso docente-educativo y demanda la orientación del docente (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: educational orientation, from the teacher-student relationship, is essential for the transit of the youth through higher education; it requires special attention in the period of confrontation with covid-19 and is essential for the student of medical sciences. Objective: to identify the perception of the teacher's guiding function in facing covid-19 in medical sciences students. Materials and methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the period between April and October 2020. The universe of work was represented by 18 first-year students of the Medical pregraduate course, from the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Mayabeque, who carry out the research in a community belonging to the Teaching Polyclinic Dr. Luis Li Trigent. The existence of the teacher as a counselor, areas of educational orientation, student problems and assessment of empathic teacher-student communication were among the analyzed data. Results: the students recognize the teacher's existence as a counselor. The area of educational guidance with the highest incidence in which the teacher's guiding role was expressed was the academic one. The predominant problems identified by students are related to the teaching-learning process. There was a positive assessment of empathic teacher-student communication. Conclusions: the teacher-student relationship becomes more relevant during the covid-19 pandemic. The medical student faces new conditions in the teaching-educational process and demands the guidance of the teacher (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Communication , Students, Medical , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Faculty, Medical/education
11.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e092, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279841

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: O ensino médico vem passando por transformações nas últimas décadas. Objetivos educacionais tendem a se alterar com os avanços tecnológicos recentes, em especial na área de tecnologias de informação. Objetivo: Esta pesquisa aborda o exame do fundo de olho explorando e analisando as dificuldades dos estudantes de Medicina na execução desse componente do exame clínico e busca propor diretrizes para seu ensino na graduação médica. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa com técnicas de observação direta e entrevistas com análise de conteúdo em uma população de estudantes do internato da Universidade do Estado do Pará (Uepa), na cidade de Marabá. Na avaliação de conteúdo utilizaram-se recursos do programa livre de análise de texto Iramuteq. Resultados: Dos 21 estudantes voluntários participantes da pesquisa, apenas dois relataram experiência anterior com oftalmoscópio direto (9,52%) e um aluno havia participado de campanha com uso de dispositivo portátil para registro da imagem do fundo de olho (4,8%). As atividades da pesquisa incluiram discussão de casos clínicos, realização de oftalmoscopias diretas em pacientes voluntários e análise de retinografias. Na análise dos textos correspondentes às entrevistas foram categorizadas quatro classes geradas pelo programa Iramuteq, realçando-se o valor da integração de teoria e prática no depoimento dos alunos. Conclusão: Programas de treinamento com integração de teoria e prática e valendo-se de princípios de aprendizagem significativa podem contribuir para prover competência ao estudante de Medicina para o exame de fundo de olho, adequando-se ao surgimento de novas tecnologias.


Abstract: Introduction: Medical education has undergone changes in recent decades. Educational objectives tend to change with recent technological advances, especially in the area of information technologies. Objective: This research addresses the examination of ocular fundus by exploring and analyzing the difficulties medical students encounter in relation to this component of the clinical examination and seeks to propose guidelines for its teaching in undergraduate medical training. Method: Qualitative research with direct observation techniques and interviews with content analysis with a population of students at the University of the State of Pará (UEPA), in the city of Marabá. Content analysis used resources from the free text analysis program Iramuteq. Results: Of the 21 volunteer students participating in the research, only two reported previous experience with direct ophthalmoscope (9.52%) and one student had participated in a campaign using a portable device to record the fundus image (4.8%). Research activities included discussion of clinical cases, performing direct ophthalmoscopies in volunteer patients and retinography analysis. In the analysis of the texts corresponding to the interviews, four classes generated by the Iramuteq program were categorized, highlighting the value of theoretical and practical integration in the students' testimony. Conclusion: Training programs with theoretical and practical integration using meaningful learning concepts can help qualify medical students in the ocular fundus exam, adapting to the emergence of new technologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ophthalmology/education , Ophthalmoscopy/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Clinical Competence , Problem-Based Learning , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fundus Oculi
12.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 25: e200358, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286860

ABSTRACT

As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais orientam a constituição dos currículos para ordenamento da formação profissional em saúde e os projetos pedagógicos dos cursos as articulam às práticas pedagógicas. Esta pesquisa analisou as repercussões das Diretrizes Curriculares de 2014 nos projetos pedagógicos das escolas médicas criadas após sua publicação. De abordagem qualitativa, faz análise documental dos referidos projetos orientada pela hermenêutica crítica. Os achados revelam forte alinhamento dos projetos analisados às diretrizes curriculares. Identificou-se deslocamento do paradigma flexneriano para a integralidade, tendendo para formação de profissionais voltada às reais necessidades da população. Outros achados são as diferenças na concepção do médico de formação geral e na utilização das metodologias ativas de ensino-aprendizagem. Evidenciou-se ainda matrizes curriculares com concepções cuja proposta de integração ensino-serviço-comunidade não pareceu estar garantida, sugerindo a manutenção de propostas baseadas em disciplinas. (AU)


Las Directrices Curriculares Nacionales orientan la constitución de los currículos para ordenamiento de la formación profesional en salud y los Proyectos Pedagógicos de los Cursos las articulan con las prácticas pedagógicas. Esta investigación analizó las repercusiones de las Directrices Curriculares de 2014 en los Proyectos Pedagógicos de las escuelas médicas creadas después de su publicación. De abordaje cualitativo, hace análisis documental de los referidos proyectos orientados por la hermenéutica crítica. Los hallazgos revelan un fuerte alineamiento de los proyectos analizados con las directrices curriculares. Se identificó un desplazamiento del paradigma flexneriano para la integralidad, tendiendo a la formación de profesionales enfocada en las necesidades reales de la población. Otros hallazgos son las diferencias en la concepción del médico de formación general y en la utilización de las metodologías activas de enseñanza aprendizaje. Se evidenciaron también matrices curriculares con concepciones cuya propuesta de integración enseñanza-servicio-comunidad no parecía estar garantizada, sugiriendo el mantenimiento de propuestas con base en asignaturas. (AU)


The Brazilian national curricular guidelines on health education steer curriculum composition so as to organize professional training in this field. Pedagogical projects for courses connect these guidelines to pedagogical practices. This study assessed the repercussions of the 2014 curricular guidelines for the pedagogical projects of medical schools that were created after publication of the guidelines. A qualitative approach was taken, with analysis on documents of these projects guided by critical hermeneutics. Strong alignment between these projects and the curricular guidelines was found. A shift from the Flexner paradigm to comprehensiveness was identified, such that the professional training tended towards the real needs of the population. Differences in the conception of general medical practitioners and in the use of active teaching-learning methodologies were found. Curricular conceptions in which the proposed teaching-service-community integration did not seem to be guaranteed were evident, thus suggesting that proposals based on disciplines had remained present. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Schools, Medical/standards , Evaluation of Medical School Curriculum , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Problem-Based Learning , Curriculum/trends , Higher Education Policy
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1686-1692, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134499

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The emergence of the digital society in the 21st century due to great advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) has allowed the development of research, communication, and collaboration activities related to knowledge and information. ICTs have influenced many aspects of society, especially educational work, and many educational establishments have adopted these technologies in a bid to enhance their teaching methods. One of the most representative cases is the global expansion of e-learning platforms. Until now, the traditional method of study of human anatomy, a key component of any study plan in the health education area, has been mainly based on classic texts. However, different types of software made an appearance in this century such as the three-dimensional (3D) atlases consisting of digital illustrations of the human body. However, there might be a high cost of investment involved when purchasing these kind of software. This research aimed to study the perception of human anatomy students regarding the use of models of 3D-scanned real cadaveric samples available at http://anatomiahumana3d.com, as a complementary educational resource to conventional study. A satisfaction survey was designed which consisted of four items. The survey was answered by 134 students. The format of the models, functionality of the resource, content and teaching of the resource, and finally the general evaluation, reached 96.8%, 84.05%, 81.14%, and 89.4% of perception of satisfaction, respectively. The results show that the new generations of students are immersed in a technological environment, therefore, both general and anatomy teaching could benefit from the use of new technologies.


RESUMEN: El comienzo de la sociedad digital en el siglo XXI debido a los grandes avances en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) ha permitido el desarrollo de actividades de investigación, comunicación y colaboración relacionadas con el conocimiento y la información. Las TIC han influido en muchos aspectos de la sociedad, especialmente en el trabajo educativo, y muchos establecimientos educativos han adoptado estas tecnologías en un intento por mejorar sus métodos de enseñanza. Uno de los casos más representativos es la expansión global de las plataformas de e-learning. Hasta ahora, el método tradicional de estudio de la anatomía humana, componente clave de cualquier plan de estudios en el área de educación para la salud, se ha basado principalmente en textos clásicos. Sin embargo, en este siglo aparecieron diferentes tipos de software, como los atlas tridimensionales (3D) que consisten en ilustraciones digitales del cuerpo humano. Sin embargo, puede haber un alto costo de inversión involucrado al adquirir este tipo de software. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar la percepción de los estudiantes de anatomía humana sobre el uso de modelos de muestras de cadáveres reales escaneados en 3D disponibles en http://anatomiahumana3d.com, como recurso educativo complementario al estudio convencional. Se diseñó una encuesta de satisfacción que constaba de cuatro ítems. La encuesta fue respondida por 134 estudiantes. El formato de los modelos, funcionalidad del recurso, contenido y didáctica del recurso, y finalmente la evaluación general, alcanzaron el 96,8%, 84,05%, 81,14% y 89,4% de percepción de satisfacción, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes se encuentran inmersas en un entorno tecnológico, por lo que tanto la enseñanza general como la de anatomía podrían beneficiarse del uso de las nuevas tecnologías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomy/education , Models, Anatomic , Personal Satisfaction , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Human Body , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement , Information Technology
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 113-116, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116374

ABSTRACT

O estudo da Anatomia Humana (AH) é parte integrante e de relevância inquestionável na graduação dos cursos da saúde. Com a constante redução na carga horária destinada à AH e diante dos debates sobre os novos métodos de ensino, o uso do código de quick response (código QR) se mostrou promissor. Nesse sentido, foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Anatomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL) o processo de catalogação das estruturas anatômicas com o uso do código QR, sendo nosso objetivo relatar esta experiência. Neste processo, as estruturas dissecadas no Laboratório de Anatomia da UEL foram catalogadas com base em uma planilha contendo a correlação entre estruturas e números e, as informações de cada estrutura transcritas em um código QR através de um gerador eletrônico, sendo então impresso, plastificado e anexado à peça anatômica. As marcações foram realizadas por meio da sutura de etiquetas enumeradas. Dentro da discussão dos métodos alternativos de ensino há como exemplos a plastinação, a projeção em três dimensões e a prospecção. Em destaque neste relato, o uso do código QR mostrou-se como uma alternativa válida na agregação de conhecimento nos currículos acadêmicos. Por meio das atividades empreendidas no processo de catalogação, foi possível, além da aquisição de mais tempo dedicado ao conhecimento teórico-prático em AH, ampliar a independência no estudo e no desenvolvimento de pesquisas. Dessa forma, tem-se a oportunidade de se expandir as análises voltadas ao ensino da AH e aos novos métodos de aprendizado.


The study of human anatomy is a relevant part of the curriculum of health course graduation students. Given the constant reduction of hours destinated to the study of Anatomy and the debates regarding new teaching methods, the use of the Quick Response Code (QR code) has shown to be promising. Therefore, the Anatomy Department at the State University of Londrina (UEL) has developed a cataloging process concerning anatomical structures with the application of QR code, and this paper has the purpose of reporting on such experience. In the process, the structures dissected in UEL's Anatomy Laboratory were cataloged based on a spreadsheet which contained the correlation between these structures and numbers; the information regarding each structure was then transcribed into a QR code using a digital generator, with posterior printing, lamination and attachment to the body part. The labels were made by sewing the numbered tags onto the structures. Within the discussion regarding alternative teaching methods, examples can be given regarding lamination, three-dimension projection and prospection. The use of the QR code has proven to be a valid alternative in aggregating knowledge to academic curriculum. Through the activities performed in the process of cataloging, it was possible not only to dedicate more time to the theorical and practical learning of human anatomy, but also to increase the independence in studying and developing research. Furthermore, there is an opportunity to expand the analysis directed toward human anatomy teaching and toward new learning methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Educational Technology/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Anatomy/education , Locomotion , Musculoskeletal System/anatomy & histology , Teaching Materials , Educational Technology/instrumentation , Dissection/methods
18.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(6): 518-527, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149984

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La pandemia de la COVID-19, al igual que en otras esferas de la vida social, ha tenido impacto en la educación médica. Objetivo: Exponer las experiencias de la aplicación de la estrategia de enfrentamiento a la COVID-19 en el proceso formativo de pregrado en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con recolección retrospectiva de la información, mediante la revisión documental de las resoluciones dictadas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba y las que emergieron desde estas en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo para la reorganización del proceso formativo de pregrado durante la pandemia. Resultados: En el proceso formativo de pregrado en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo, la estrategia de enfrentamiento a esta pandemia se sustentó en cuatro pilares básicos: capacitación de los estudiantes, profesores y trabajadores en temas de bioseguridad y protocolos de enfrentamiento, ajustes curriculares en cada una de las carreras de las ciencias médicas, utilización de la educación a distancia mediante el uso de plataformas virtuales y la incorporación de los estudiantes y profesores a la pesquisa activa. Se explicitaron los contenidos de cada uno de ellos. Conclusiones: La estrategia de enfrentamiento a esta pandemia determinó modificaciones en el proceso formativo de pregrado en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo, acordes a las exigencias sociales del país, lo que asegura la continuidad del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje.


ABSTRACT Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic as well as other spheres of social life have had great impact in medical education. Objective: To promote the experiences acquired during the application of the strategy to confront the COVID-19 pandemic within the undergraduate training process at the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo. Method: A descriptive study collecting historical information of the topic was carried out, making a documental analysis of the Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba decisions issued, and the ones issued by the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo to reorganize the undergraduate training process during the pandemic. Results: The undergraduate training process at the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo used a strategy to confront the pandemic formed by 4 main basis: students, professors and workers training in biosafety requirements and confrontational protocols, curricular adjustments in each medical science major, the use of a distance learning program based on the virtual platforms, and the active epidemiologic inquiries made by students and professors. All details were explicitly informed. Conclusions: The strategy used to confront the pandemic caused some modifications in the undergraduate training process at the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo, following to the social demands in Cuba, which ensure the continuity of the teaching-learning process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Education, Distance
19.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e37485, jan.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1097669

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar jogos educativos com realidade aumentada aplicados ao ensino sobre visita domiciliar. Método: pesquisa descritiva de abordagem quantitativa e avaliação tecnológica desenvolvida na Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Alfenas, no período de abril a junho de 2016, realizada com 135 universitários de enfermagem, fisioterapia e medicina, aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: a análise estatística destacou que 74,8% dos participantes eram do sexo feminino e a média de idades foi de 20 anos. A primeira atividade consistiu em um estudo de caso para realizar a classificação de risco familiar e a segunda abordou a Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, que prevê a qual profissional compete realizar a visita domiciliar. 89,6% dos participantes consideraram adequado e muito adequados os jogos desenvolvidos para o ensino sobre visita domiciliar. Conclusão: os jogos com realidade aumentada foram bem avaliados pelos participantes, sendo uma tecnologia promissora para o ensino.


Objective: to evaluate augmented reality educational games applied to home visiting teaching to university students in the health area. Method: descriptive research of quantitative approach and technological assessment developed at the School of Nursing of the Federal University of Alfenas, from April to June 2016, conducted with 135 undergraduate nursing, physiotherapy and medicine. The Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Results: the statistical analysis highlighted that 74.8% of the participants were female and the average age was 20 years. The first activity consisted of a case study to perform the family risk classification and the second dealt with the National Primary Care Policy, which provides for which professional to perform home visits. 89.6% of participants considered the games developed for home visiting teaching to be appropriate and very appropriate. Conclusion: augmented reality games were well evaluated by the participants, being a promising technology for teaching.


Objetivo: evaluar los juegos educativos de realidad aumentada aplicados a la enseñanza de visitas domiciliarias a estudiantes universitários en la área de salud. Método: investigación descriptiva, cuantitativa y evaluación tecnológica desarrollada en la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Federal de Alfenas, de abril a junio de 2016, realizada con 135 estudiantes de pregrado en enfermería, fisioterapia y medicina, aprobada por Comité de Ética de Investigación. Resultados: el análisis estadístico destacó que el 74.8% de los participantes eran mujeres y la edad promedio era de 20 años. La primera actividad consistió en un estudio de caso para llevar a cabo la clasificación de riesgo familiar y la segunda abordó la Política Nacional de Atención Primaria, que establece qué profesional es responsable de llevar a cabo la visita domiciliaria. El 89,6% de los participantes consideró que los juegos desarrollados para enseñar visitas a domicilio eran apropiados y muy adecuados. Conclusión: los juegos con realidad aumentada fueron bien evaluados por los participantes, siendo una tecnología prometedora para la enseñanza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Video Games , Educational Technology/methods , Education, Nursing/methods , Augmented Reality , House Calls , Professional Competence , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Brazil , Risk Factors , Physical Therapy Specialty/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 903-907, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012373

ABSTRACT

Digital game-based learning and the testing effect have been shown to be effective in improving learning. The use of screens offers the opportunity to test innovative learning strategies in the classroom. Here, we report the impact of implementing a game and testing effect-based learning tool in a histology course. Seventy nine students participated in the study (mean age 19.5 years, 65 % female). The students observed a slide-based class and then participated in a game, answering questions about key concepts, using their smartphones. Two surveys, asking about aspects related to perceptions/motivations and use of mobile technologies, were applied. The game allowed for immediate feedback, revealing student performance in every evaluated concept, and allowed teachers to give corrections after detecting conceptual mistakes. Students perceived the methodology as fun, interesting, interactive and attractive. Moreover, 96 % of students participated and enjoyed the game and, among them, all agreed to use the methodology again. In parallel, about 87 % of students use mobile technology to study and 97 % to find academic information, frequently. The results indicate that the vast majority of students use mobile technology to study and positively perceive the game-based strategy. Strategies allowing fast feedback and dynamic relationships in the classroom could potentially improve significant learning on concept acquisition.


El aprendizaje basado en juegos digitales y pruebas han demostrado ser efectivos en el mejoramiento del aprendizaje. El uso de pantallas ofrece la oportunidad de probar estrategias de aprendizaje innovadoras en el aula. En este estudio se presenta el impacto de la implementación de una herramienta de aprendizaje basada en juegos y pruebas aplicadas en un curso de histología. Setenta y nueve estudiantes participaron en el estudio (edad promedio 19,5 años, 65 % mujeres). Los estudiantes observaron una clase basada en diapositivas y luego participaron en un juego, respondiendo preguntas sobre conceptos clave, utilizando sus teléfonos inteligentes. Se aplicaron dos encuestas, preguntando sobre aspectos relacionados con las percepciones/motivaciones y el uso de tecnologías móviles. El juego permitió una retroalimentación inmediata, revelando el desempeño de los estudiantes en cada concepto evaluado, y permitió a los profesores dar correcciones cuando se detectaron errores conceptuales. Los estudiantes percibieron la metodología como divertida, interesante, interactiva y atractiva. Además, el 96 % de los estudiantes participaron y disfrutaron del juego y, de ellos, todos relataron la intención de utilizar la metodología nuevamente. En paralelo, 87 % de los estudiantes utilizan la tecnología móvil para estudiar y el 97 % para encontrar información académica, frecuentemente. Los resultados indican que la gran mayoría de los estudiantes usa tecnología móvil para estudiar y perciben positivamente la estrategia basada en juego. Las estrategias que permiten retroalimentación rápida y relaciones dinámicas en el aula podrían potencialmente mejorar el aprendizaje significativo en la adquisición de conceptos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Games, Recreational , Smartphone , Anatomy/education , Feedback , Learning , Motivation
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