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1.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(5): 1360-1370, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352116

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la orientación educativa, desde la relación profesor-alumno, es esencial para el tránsito del joven por los estudios superiores; requiere atención especial en el período de enfrentamiento a la covid-19 y es fundamental para el estudiante de ciencias médicas. Objetivo: identificar la percepción de la función orientadora del docente ante la covid-19 en estudiantes de ciencias médicas. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en el período comprendido entre abril y octubre de 2020. El universo de trabajo estuvo representado por 18 estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Medicina, de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Mayabeque, que realizan la pesquisa en una comunidad perteneciente al Policlínico Docente Dr. Luis Li Trigent. Se analizaron datos como la existencia del profesor como orientador, áreas de la orientación educativa, problemas de los estudiantes y valoración de la comunicación empática profesor-estudiante. Resultados: los estudiantes reconocen la existencia del profesor como orientador. El área de orientación educativa de mayor incidencia en que se expresó la función orientadora del profesor fue la académica. Los problemas predominantes identificados por los estudiantes están relacionados con el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Existió una valoración positiva de la comunicación empática profesor-estudiante. Conclusiones: la relación profesor-alumno se hace más relevante durante la pandemia de covid-19. El estudiante de Medicina enfrenta nuevas condiciones en el proceso docente-educativo y demanda la orientación del docente (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: educational orientation, from the teacher-student relationship, is essential for the transit of the youth through higher education; it requires special attention in the period of confrontation with covid-19 and is essential for the student of medical sciences. Objective: to identify the perception of the teacher's guiding function in facing covid-19 in medical sciences students. Materials and methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in the period between April and October 2020. The universe of work was represented by 18 first-year students of the Medical pregraduate course, from the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Mayabeque, who carry out the research in a community belonging to the Teaching Polyclinic Dr. Luis Li Trigent. The existence of the teacher as a counselor, areas of educational orientation, student problems and assessment of empathic teacher-student communication were among the analyzed data. Results: the students recognize the teacher's existence as a counselor. The area of educational guidance with the highest incidence in which the teacher's guiding role was expressed was the academic one. The predominant problems identified by students are related to the teaching-learning process. There was a positive assessment of empathic teacher-student communication. Conclusions: the teacher-student relationship becomes more relevant during the covid-19 pandemic. The medical student faces new conditions in the teaching-educational process and demands the guidance of the teacher (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/classification , Communication , Students, Medical , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Faculty, Medical/education
2.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(2): e092, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279841

ABSTRACT

Resumo: Introdução: O ensino médico vem passando por transformações nas últimas décadas. Objetivos educacionais tendem a se alterar com os avanços tecnológicos recentes, em especial na área de tecnologias de informação. Objetivo: Esta pesquisa aborda o exame do fundo de olho explorando e analisando as dificuldades dos estudantes de Medicina na execução desse componente do exame clínico e busca propor diretrizes para seu ensino na graduação médica. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa com técnicas de observação direta e entrevistas com análise de conteúdo em uma população de estudantes do internato da Universidade do Estado do Pará (Uepa), na cidade de Marabá. Na avaliação de conteúdo utilizaram-se recursos do programa livre de análise de texto Iramuteq. Resultados: Dos 21 estudantes voluntários participantes da pesquisa, apenas dois relataram experiência anterior com oftalmoscópio direto (9,52%) e um aluno havia participado de campanha com uso de dispositivo portátil para registro da imagem do fundo de olho (4,8%). As atividades da pesquisa incluiram discussão de casos clínicos, realização de oftalmoscopias diretas em pacientes voluntários e análise de retinografias. Na análise dos textos correspondentes às entrevistas foram categorizadas quatro classes geradas pelo programa Iramuteq, realçando-se o valor da integração de teoria e prática no depoimento dos alunos. Conclusão: Programas de treinamento com integração de teoria e prática e valendo-se de princípios de aprendizagem significativa podem contribuir para prover competência ao estudante de Medicina para o exame de fundo de olho, adequando-se ao surgimento de novas tecnologias.


Abstract: Introduction: Medical education has undergone changes in recent decades. Educational objectives tend to change with recent technological advances, especially in the area of information technologies. Objective: This research addresses the examination of ocular fundus by exploring and analyzing the difficulties medical students encounter in relation to this component of the clinical examination and seeks to propose guidelines for its teaching in undergraduate medical training. Method: Qualitative research with direct observation techniques and interviews with content analysis with a population of students at the University of the State of Pará (UEPA), in the city of Marabá. Content analysis used resources from the free text analysis program Iramuteq. Results: Of the 21 volunteer students participating in the research, only two reported previous experience with direct ophthalmoscope (9.52%) and one student had participated in a campaign using a portable device to record the fundus image (4.8%). Research activities included discussion of clinical cases, performing direct ophthalmoscopies in volunteer patients and retinography analysis. In the analysis of the texts corresponding to the interviews, four classes generated by the Iramuteq program were categorized, highlighting the value of theoretical and practical integration in the students' testimony. Conclusion: Training programs with theoretical and practical integration using meaningful learning concepts can help qualify medical students in the ocular fundus exam, adapting to the emergence of new technologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ophthalmology/education , Ophthalmoscopy/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Clinical Competence , Problem-Based Learning , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Fundus Oculi
3.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1686-1692, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134499

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The emergence of the digital society in the 21st century due to great advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) has allowed the development of research, communication, and collaboration activities related to knowledge and information. ICTs have influenced many aspects of society, especially educational work, and many educational establishments have adopted these technologies in a bid to enhance their teaching methods. One of the most representative cases is the global expansion of e-learning platforms. Until now, the traditional method of study of human anatomy, a key component of any study plan in the health education area, has been mainly based on classic texts. However, different types of software made an appearance in this century such as the three-dimensional (3D) atlases consisting of digital illustrations of the human body. However, there might be a high cost of investment involved when purchasing these kind of software. This research aimed to study the perception of human anatomy students regarding the use of models of 3D-scanned real cadaveric samples available at http://anatomiahumana3d.com, as a complementary educational resource to conventional study. A satisfaction survey was designed which consisted of four items. The survey was answered by 134 students. The format of the models, functionality of the resource, content and teaching of the resource, and finally the general evaluation, reached 96.8%, 84.05%, 81.14%, and 89.4% of perception of satisfaction, respectively. The results show that the new generations of students are immersed in a technological environment, therefore, both general and anatomy teaching could benefit from the use of new technologies.


RESUMEN: El comienzo de la sociedad digital en el siglo XXI debido a los grandes avances en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) ha permitido el desarrollo de actividades de investigación, comunicación y colaboración relacionadas con el conocimiento y la información. Las TIC han influido en muchos aspectos de la sociedad, especialmente en el trabajo educativo, y muchos establecimientos educativos han adoptado estas tecnologías en un intento por mejorar sus métodos de enseñanza. Uno de los casos más representativos es la expansión global de las plataformas de e-learning. Hasta ahora, el método tradicional de estudio de la anatomía humana, componente clave de cualquier plan de estudios en el área de educación para la salud, se ha basado principalmente en textos clásicos. Sin embargo, en este siglo aparecieron diferentes tipos de software, como los atlas tridimensionales (3D) que consisten en ilustraciones digitales del cuerpo humano. Sin embargo, puede haber un alto costo de inversión involucrado al adquirir este tipo de software. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar la percepción de los estudiantes de anatomía humana sobre el uso de modelos de muestras de cadáveres reales escaneados en 3D disponibles en http://anatomiahumana3d.com, como recurso educativo complementario al estudio convencional. Se diseñó una encuesta de satisfacción que constaba de cuatro ítems. La encuesta fue respondida por 134 estudiantes. El formato de los modelos, funcionalidad del recurso, contenido y didáctica del recurso, y finalmente la evaluación general, alcanzaron el 96,8%, 84,05%, 81,14% y 89,4% de percepción de satisfacción, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes se encuentran inmersas en un entorno tecnológico, por lo que tanto la enseñanza general como la de anatomía podrían beneficiarse del uso de las nuevas tecnologías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomy/education , Models, Anatomic , Personal Satisfaction , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Human Body , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement , Information Technology
7.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(2): 113-116, maio-ago. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116374

ABSTRACT

O estudo da Anatomia Humana (AH) é parte integrante e de relevância inquestionável na graduação dos cursos da saúde. Com a constante redução na carga horária destinada à AH e diante dos debates sobre os novos métodos de ensino, o uso do código de quick response (código QR) se mostrou promissor. Nesse sentido, foi desenvolvido no Departamento de Anatomia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL) o processo de catalogação das estruturas anatômicas com o uso do código QR, sendo nosso objetivo relatar esta experiência. Neste processo, as estruturas dissecadas no Laboratório de Anatomia da UEL foram catalogadas com base em uma planilha contendo a correlação entre estruturas e números e, as informações de cada estrutura transcritas em um código QR através de um gerador eletrônico, sendo então impresso, plastificado e anexado à peça anatômica. As marcações foram realizadas por meio da sutura de etiquetas enumeradas. Dentro da discussão dos métodos alternativos de ensino há como exemplos a plastinação, a projeção em três dimensões e a prospecção. Em destaque neste relato, o uso do código QR mostrou-se como uma alternativa válida na agregação de conhecimento nos currículos acadêmicos. Por meio das atividades empreendidas no processo de catalogação, foi possível, além da aquisição de mais tempo dedicado ao conhecimento teórico-prático em AH, ampliar a independência no estudo e no desenvolvimento de pesquisas. Dessa forma, tem-se a oportunidade de se expandir as análises voltadas ao ensino da AH e aos novos métodos de aprendizado.


The study of human anatomy is a relevant part of the curriculum of health course graduation students. Given the constant reduction of hours destinated to the study of Anatomy and the debates regarding new teaching methods, the use of the Quick Response Code (QR code) has shown to be promising. Therefore, the Anatomy Department at the State University of Londrina (UEL) has developed a cataloging process concerning anatomical structures with the application of QR code, and this paper has the purpose of reporting on such experience. In the process, the structures dissected in UEL's Anatomy Laboratory were cataloged based on a spreadsheet which contained the correlation between these structures and numbers; the information regarding each structure was then transcribed into a QR code using a digital generator, with posterior printing, lamination and attachment to the body part. The labels were made by sewing the numbered tags onto the structures. Within the discussion regarding alternative teaching methods, examples can be given regarding lamination, three-dimension projection and prospection. The use of the QR code has proven to be a valid alternative in aggregating knowledge to academic curriculum. Through the activities performed in the process of cataloging, it was possible not only to dedicate more time to the theorical and practical learning of human anatomy, but also to increase the independence in studying and developing research. Furthermore, there is an opportunity to expand the analysis directed toward human anatomy teaching and toward new learning methods.


Subject(s)
Humans , Educational Technology/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Anatomy/education , Locomotion , Musculoskeletal System/anatomy & histology , Teaching Materials , Educational Technology/instrumentation , Dissection/methods
8.
Rev. inf. cient ; 99(6): 518-527, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149984

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La pandemia de la COVID-19, al igual que en otras esferas de la vida social, ha tenido impacto en la educación médica. Objetivo: Exponer las experiencias de la aplicación de la estrategia de enfrentamiento a la COVID-19 en el proceso formativo de pregrado en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con recolección retrospectiva de la información, mediante la revisión documental de las resoluciones dictadas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba y las que emergieron desde estas en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo para la reorganización del proceso formativo de pregrado durante la pandemia. Resultados: En el proceso formativo de pregrado en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo, la estrategia de enfrentamiento a esta pandemia se sustentó en cuatro pilares básicos: capacitación de los estudiantes, profesores y trabajadores en temas de bioseguridad y protocolos de enfrentamiento, ajustes curriculares en cada una de las carreras de las ciencias médicas, utilización de la educación a distancia mediante el uso de plataformas virtuales y la incorporación de los estudiantes y profesores a la pesquisa activa. Se explicitaron los contenidos de cada uno de ellos. Conclusiones: La estrategia de enfrentamiento a esta pandemia determinó modificaciones en el proceso formativo de pregrado en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo, acordes a las exigencias sociales del país, lo que asegura la continuidad del proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje.


ABSTRACT Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic as well as other spheres of social life have had great impact in medical education. Objective: To promote the experiences acquired during the application of the strategy to confront the COVID-19 pandemic within the undergraduate training process at the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo. Method: A descriptive study collecting historical information of the topic was carried out, making a documental analysis of the Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba decisions issued, and the ones issued by the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo to reorganize the undergraduate training process during the pandemic. Results: The undergraduate training process at the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo used a strategy to confront the pandemic formed by 4 main basis: students, professors and workers training in biosafety requirements and confrontational protocols, curricular adjustments in each medical science major, the use of a distance learning program based on the virtual platforms, and the active epidemiologic inquiries made by students and professors. All details were explicitly informed. Conclusions: The strategy used to confront the pandemic caused some modifications in the undergraduate training process at the Universidad de Ciencias Médicas Guantánamo, following to the social demands in Cuba, which ensure the continuity of the teaching-learning process.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adaptation, Psychological , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Containment of Biohazards , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Education, Distance
9.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 27: e37485, jan.-dez. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1097669

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar jogos educativos com realidade aumentada aplicados ao ensino sobre visita domiciliar. Método: pesquisa descritiva de abordagem quantitativa e avaliação tecnológica desenvolvida na Escola de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Alfenas, no período de abril a junho de 2016, realizada com 135 universitários de enfermagem, fisioterapia e medicina, aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: a análise estatística destacou que 74,8% dos participantes eram do sexo feminino e a média de idades foi de 20 anos. A primeira atividade consistiu em um estudo de caso para realizar a classificação de risco familiar e a segunda abordou a Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, que prevê a qual profissional compete realizar a visita domiciliar. 89,6% dos participantes consideraram adequado e muito adequados os jogos desenvolvidos para o ensino sobre visita domiciliar. Conclusão: os jogos com realidade aumentada foram bem avaliados pelos participantes, sendo uma tecnologia promissora para o ensino.


Objective: to evaluate augmented reality educational games applied to home visiting teaching to university students in the health area. Method: descriptive research of quantitative approach and technological assessment developed at the School of Nursing of the Federal University of Alfenas, from April to June 2016, conducted with 135 undergraduate nursing, physiotherapy and medicine. The Research Ethics Committee approved the study. Results: the statistical analysis highlighted that 74.8% of the participants were female and the average age was 20 years. The first activity consisted of a case study to perform the family risk classification and the second dealt with the National Primary Care Policy, which provides for which professional to perform home visits. 89.6% of participants considered the games developed for home visiting teaching to be appropriate and very appropriate. Conclusion: augmented reality games were well evaluated by the participants, being a promising technology for teaching.


Objetivo: evaluar los juegos educativos de realidad aumentada aplicados a la enseñanza de visitas domiciliarias a estudiantes universitários en la área de salud. Método: investigación descriptiva, cuantitativa y evaluación tecnológica desarrollada en la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Federal de Alfenas, de abril a junio de 2016, realizada con 135 estudiantes de pregrado en enfermería, fisioterapia y medicina, aprobada por Comité de Ética de Investigación. Resultados: el análisis estadístico destacó que el 74.8% de los participantes eran mujeres y la edad promedio era de 20 años. La primera actividad consistió en un estudio de caso para llevar a cabo la clasificación de riesgo familiar y la segunda abordó la Política Nacional de Atención Primaria, que establece qué profesional es responsable de llevar a cabo la visita domiciliaria. El 89,6% de los participantes consideró que los juegos desarrollados para enseñar visitas a domicilio eran apropiados y muy adecuados. Conclusión: los juegos con realidad aumentada fueron bien evaluados por los participantes, siendo una tecnología prometedora para la enseñanza.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Video Games , Educational Technology/methods , Education, Nursing/methods , Augmented Reality , House Calls , Professional Competence , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Brazil , Risk Factors , Physical Therapy Specialty/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 903-907, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012373

ABSTRACT

Digital game-based learning and the testing effect have been shown to be effective in improving learning. The use of screens offers the opportunity to test innovative learning strategies in the classroom. Here, we report the impact of implementing a game and testing effect-based learning tool in a histology course. Seventy nine students participated in the study (mean age 19.5 years, 65 % female). The students observed a slide-based class and then participated in a game, answering questions about key concepts, using their smartphones. Two surveys, asking about aspects related to perceptions/motivations and use of mobile technologies, were applied. The game allowed for immediate feedback, revealing student performance in every evaluated concept, and allowed teachers to give corrections after detecting conceptual mistakes. Students perceived the methodology as fun, interesting, interactive and attractive. Moreover, 96 % of students participated and enjoyed the game and, among them, all agreed to use the methodology again. In parallel, about 87 % of students use mobile technology to study and 97 % to find academic information, frequently. The results indicate that the vast majority of students use mobile technology to study and positively perceive the game-based strategy. Strategies allowing fast feedback and dynamic relationships in the classroom could potentially improve significant learning on concept acquisition.


El aprendizaje basado en juegos digitales y pruebas han demostrado ser efectivos en el mejoramiento del aprendizaje. El uso de pantallas ofrece la oportunidad de probar estrategias de aprendizaje innovadoras en el aula. En este estudio se presenta el impacto de la implementación de una herramienta de aprendizaje basada en juegos y pruebas aplicadas en un curso de histología. Setenta y nueve estudiantes participaron en el estudio (edad promedio 19,5 años, 65 % mujeres). Los estudiantes observaron una clase basada en diapositivas y luego participaron en un juego, respondiendo preguntas sobre conceptos clave, utilizando sus teléfonos inteligentes. Se aplicaron dos encuestas, preguntando sobre aspectos relacionados con las percepciones/motivaciones y el uso de tecnologías móviles. El juego permitió una retroalimentación inmediata, revelando el desempeño de los estudiantes en cada concepto evaluado, y permitió a los profesores dar correcciones cuando se detectaron errores conceptuales. Los estudiantes percibieron la metodología como divertida, interesante, interactiva y atractiva. Además, el 96 % de los estudiantes participaron y disfrutaron del juego y, de ellos, todos relataron la intención de utilizar la metodología nuevamente. En paralelo, 87 % de los estudiantes utilizan la tecnología móvil para estudiar y el 97 % para encontrar información académica, frecuentemente. Los resultados indican que la gran mayoría de los estudiantes usa tecnología móvil para estudiar y perciben positivamente la estrategia basada en juego. Las estrategias que permiten retroalimentación rápida y relaciones dinámicas en el aula podrían potencialmente mejorar el aprendizaje significativo en la adquisición de conceptos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Students, Medical , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Games, Recreational , Smartphone , Anatomy/education , Feedback , Learning , Motivation
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 912-916, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012375

ABSTRACT

The present project on learning surface anatomy through the body painting method was undertaken because anatomical knowledge supports medical practice. The appropriate anatomical training of the doctor depends on surface anatomy. We considered the renovation of teaching strategies and didactic resources to optimize the overall teaching- learning process. 189 first-year medical students, enrolled in the Trunk and Splanchnology course at the University of Cádiz (Spain) participated in this study. Students were divided into 5 groups each of 38-41 students. The students were asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire supplied to each participant through an on-line platform. On the basis of the results, we recommend the body painting method as an alternative tool for learning surface and clinical anatomy.


El presente proyecto sobre el aprendizaje de la anatomía de superficie a través del método de pintura corporal se realizó debido a que el conocimiento anatómico apoya la práctica médica. El entrenamiento anatómico apropiado del médico depende de la anatomía de superficie. Consideramos la renovación de las estrategias de enseñanza y los recursos didácticos para optimizar el proceso general de enseñanza-aprendizaje. De este estudio participaron 189 estudiantes de primer año de medicina, matriculados en el curso de Troncal y Splanchnology en la Universidad de Cádiz (España). Los estudiantes fueron divididos en 5 grupos, cada uno de 38-41 estudiantes. Se les pidió a los estudiantes que completaran un cuestionario de satisfacción proporcionado a cada participante a través de una plataforma en línea. Sobre la base de los resultados, recomendamos el método de pintura corporal como una herramienta alternativa para el aprendizaje de la anatomía de superficie y clínica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Paint , Students, Medical/psychology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Anatomy/education , Spain , Teaching , Program Evaluation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Group Processes , Learning
12.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1085-1088, Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012400

ABSTRACT

With the accumulation of teaching experience and the summary of the teaching process in the teaching of medical colleges and universities, the course "Normal Human Morphology" has been basically on the right track in undergraduate education. However, most of the colleges and universities in China still use the traditional teaching mode, and the evaluation of students' learning effects and teacher teaching still follows the method of final evaluation. This method is not conducive to students' timely understanding of self-stage learning effects. It will affect the teacher's adjustment (or solution) to the specific links (or problems) that appear in the teaching process. The establishment of the mixed teaching model and formative evaluation system can solve the problems of the two to some extent.


Con la mayor experiencia de los docentes y del proceso de aprendizaje en la enseñanza de facultades y universidades de medicina, el curso "Morfología Humana Normal" básicamente ha seguido una metodología correcta en la educación de pregrado. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los colegios y universidades en China aún utilizan el modelo de enseñanza tradicional, por lo cual, la evaluación de los efectos de aprendizaje de los estudiantes junto con la enseñanza docente, a la fecha, sigue el método de una evaluación final. Este método no es propicio para la comprensión oportuna por parte de los alumnos, en la etapa del auto-aprendizaje, ya que afecta la adaptación (o solución) del profesor a los enlaces (o problemas) específicos que aparecen en el proceso de enseñanza. El establecimiento de un modelo de enseñanza mixta y un sistema de evaluación formativa en cierta medida podrían resolver ambos problemas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , Anatomy/education , China , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Self-Directed Learning as Topic
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 239-241, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013682

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo: O objetivo do presente estudo foi desenvolver uma metodologia que aproxime o discente do conteúdo abordado nas aulas de anatomia do globo ocular. Métodos: Foi realizada uma incisão circular na lâmina orbital do osso frontal de um cadáver humano de uma instituição em saúde e, para acessar as estruturas orbitárias, foram dissecadas as estruturas da área criando uma via para a injeção de uma solução de borracha de silicone branca entre o cristalino e a retina com posterior enucleação e dissecação final. Resultados: O emprego da técnica permitiu que os discentes do curso construíssem o conhecimento tátil do órgão em questão e transformando o saber teórico em prático, reconhecendo músculos, funcionalidade, vasos sanguíneos e estruturas oculares durante o procedimento de dissecação. Conclusão: A metodologia empregada no presente estudo é uma opção viável para o ensino da anatomia do olho.


Abstract Objective: The objective of the present study was to develop a methodology that approximates the student of the content addressed in the classes of anatomy of the eyeball. Methods: A circular incision was made in the orbital blade of the frontal bone of a human cadaver of a health institution and, to access the orbital structures, the area structures were dissected creating a pathway for the injection of a solution of white silicone rubber between the lens and the retina with subsequent enucleation and final dissection. Results: The use of the technique allowed the students of the course to construct the tactile knowledge of the organ in question and transform the theoretical knowledge into practice, recognizing muscles, functionality, blood vessels and ocular structures during the dissection procedure. Conclusion: The methodology used in the present study is a viable option for teaching the anatomy of the eye.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Eye/anatomy & histology , Anatomy/education , Ophthalmology/education , Silicone Elastomers , Students, Medical , Teaching , Cadaver , Dissection/education , Dissection/instrumentation , Dissection/methods
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(6): 790-798, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020728

ABSTRACT

Background: A portfolio is a compilation of academic work that demonstrates student's knowledge, reflection and critical thinking. Aim: To describe the development and implementation of an undergraduate portfolio in the School of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, its temporal evolution and its educational impact after 10 years of experience. Material and Methods: The development and implementation of a portfolio for 4th-year undergraduate medical student was analyzed. Its design, teaching and learning methodologies, results and perceptions of students and teachers were assessed. The educational impact was measured using Kirkpatrick's levels. Results: A total of 1,320 students participated between 2007 and 2017, supported by six teachers and 190 assistant-students. The portfolio included clinical cases, narrative medicine, palliative care and evidence-based medicine (EBM). The overall student's perception was positive, highlighting the development of critical analysis, clinical reasoning and professionalism. The delivery of feedback and learning assessment, allowed students to obtain excellent grades. There were only two cases of plagiarism reported. Fifteen EBM articles and two books with 52 narrative medicine essays were published. The greatest organizational impact of this teaching innovation, was that it evolved to become an established and continuous assessment instrument in 10 consecutive years. Conclusions: This portfolio is a project with a high educational impact, with a favorable perception by students and tutors, excellent results related to grades, stimulating both scientific writing and reflective practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement/methods , Students, Medical , Time Factors , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Learning
15.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 39(2): 55-59, jun. 2019. graf.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047950

ABSTRACT

En vista de la transformación que se está produciendo en la educación universitaria en general y en la educación para profesionales de la salud en particular, el Instituto Universitario del Hospital Italiano plantea un cambio curricular para la carrera de Medicina. Esto implica, una forma de cambio sociocultural profunda, que afecta los distintos aspectos de la vida institucional. Se propone dejar atrás, el "sistema flexneriano" de enseñanza, proponiendo el sistema Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (ABP), sumado a talleres y laboratorios donde el conocimiento y las habilidades se irán adquiriendo con diferente grado de complejidad en forma espiralada. El Laboratorio de Práctica Profesional (LPP) es el espacio y el ambiente educacional donde ocurre la máxima integración, trabajando sobre todos los conocimientos necesarios para llevar adelante la actividad profesional correspondiente. En el primer módulo, el enfoque fue guiado, fundamentalmente, hacia lo comunicacional persiguiendo como objetivo que el alumno desarrolle habilidades que le permitan establecer una adecuada relación médico-paciente-familia, así como vínculos adecuados con el equipo de trabajo y la comunidad . Se evaluó el taller en sí mismo y a los tutores mediante encuestas a los estudiantes, y estos últimos a su vez fueron evaluados periódicamente por los tutores y al final del módulo con un examen escrito y un examen tipo evaluación clínica objetiva estructurada. Por lo trabajado creemos que el LPP, como estrategia de enseñanza, contribuye a la formación de habilidades complejas; el resultado de las evaluaciones y el feedback rsultan indispensables para establecer un plan de mejoras. (AU)


In view of the transformation that is taking place in university education in general and in education for health professionals in particular, it is that the University Institute of the Italian Hospital proposes a curricular change for the Medicine career. This implies a socio-cultural change that affects the different aspects of institutional life. It is proposed to leave behind the "Flexnerian system", proposing a system based on: Problem Based Learning, in addition to workshops and laboratories where knowledge and skills will be acquired with a different degree of complexity in spiral form. The Professional Practice Laboratory is the space and educational environment where maximum integration occurs, working on all the necessary knowledge to carry out the corresponding professional activity. In the first module the focus was guided, fundamentally, to the communicational pursuing as objective: that the student develops skills that allow him to establish an adequate doctor-patient-family relationship, as well as adequate links, with the work team and the community. The evaluation was carried out to workshop itself and to the tutors through students' quiz. The students were periodically evaluated by the tutors and at the end of the module with a written exam and a structured Objective Clinical Evaluation type test. For what we have worked to this moment, we believe that: The laboratory of professional practice, as a teaching strategy, contributes to the formation of complex skills; being the result of the evaluations and the feedback, fundamental to establish an improvement plan. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Competency-Based Education/methods , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Physician-Patient Relations , Teaching/education , Universities/trends , Mentors/education , Cultural Characteristics , Educational Measurement/methods , Professional Training , Social Skills , Formative Feedback , Teacher Training/trends , Hospitals, University/trends
17.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 71(2): 122-128, abr. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058244

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las técnicas de sutura básicas se consideran competencias mínimas de un egresado de medicina y son fundamentales en el ejercicio de la medicina general. Actualmente, los estudiantes de la Universidad de Concepción no poseen una instancia formal para adquirir estas competencias. OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la validez de un programa de formación de alumnos monitores de sutura a través de los resultados obtenidos mediante un método de evaluación estandarizado, realizado en estudiantes de pregrado de medicina de la Universidad de Concepción. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio preexperimental antes y después. Se realizó intervención teórico-práctica para seis estudiantes de medicina de distintos semestres cursados, entre los meses de mayo y julio de 2017. Consistió en tres módulos: clases teóricas, práctica en modelo biológico y módulo en pabellón quirúrgico supervisado por subespecialistas. Se evaluó punto de sutura continuo y discontinuo en modelo biológico mediante la escala "The Objective Structured Assessment Of Technical Skills" (OSATS). Se describen y comparan resultados de la escala OSATS antes y después del curso. Se aplicó consentimiento informado. Se utilizó SPSS® para análisis estadístico mediante prueba de Mann-Whitney para variables no paramétricas. Se consideró significativo p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Todos los participantes mejoraron puntuación en escala OSATS. Los participantes progresaron significativamente sus resultados en las distintas escalas OSATS (5,2 vs 8,8; p < 0,05 y 16,5 vs 27,2; p < 0,05) al comparar resultados pre vs posintervención respectivamente. DISCUSIÓN: Nuestra experiencia demuestra que es posible crear un taller de formación de MS con muy buenos resultados, para estudiantes de medicina, a través de una capacitación trimodal, con clases teóricas, simulación y práctica in vivo. Además, constituye la base de futuras investigaciones que buscan solucionar la inexistencia de un programa formal de enseñanza de técnicas de sutura a los estudiantes de medicina de nuestra facultad.


INTRODUCTION: Suture techniques are considered the minimum of a medical examination and are fundamental in the practice of medicine. Currently, the students of the Universidad de Concepción do not have a formal instance to acquire these competences. AIM: To evaluate the validity of a training program for Suture Instructor (SI) students through the results obtained through a standardized assessment method, carried out in undergraduate students of medicine at the University of Concepción. METHOD: Preexperimental before and after study. A theoretical-practical intervention was carried out for six medical students of different semesters of the career, between the months of May and July 2017. It consisted of three modules: theoretical classes, practice in biological model and module in surgical pavilion supervised by subspecialists. Continuous and interrupted sutures were evaluated in the biological model using the "The Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills" (OSATS) scale. Results of the OSATS scale are described and compared before and after the course. Informed consent was applied. SPSS® was used for statistical analysis by Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric variables. It was considered significant p < 0.05. Results: All participants improved score on OSATS scale. The participants progressed significantly their results in the different OSATS scales (5.2 vs 8.8, p < 0.05 and 16.5 vs 27.2, p < 0.05) when comparing pre vs post intervention results respectively. DISCUSSION: Our experience shows that it is possible to create an SI training workshop with excellent results for medical students, through a three phase training program, with theory classes, simulation and "in vivo" practice. It also constitutes the basis of future research that seeks to solve the lack of a formal program of teaching suture techniques to medical students of our university.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sutures , Suture Techniques/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Students, Medical , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement , Learning Curve , Simulation Training
18.
Rev. cuba. med ; 58(1): e977, ene.-mar. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093596

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad existe desarrollo de la tecnociencia aplicada a la medicina con tendencia a relegar a un segundo plano el método clínico. Las diferentes escuelas de medicina del mundo, incluyendo la cubana, han comenzado una modernización del método clínico, el cual está basado en un método científico, por lo que es importante centrar su enseñanza en aspectos eminentemente prácticos, además de usar adecuadamente los exámenes complementarios para ratificar el diagnóstico, pronóstico y tratamiento del enfermo. El objetivo de esta investigación es aunar criterios sobre la enseñanza y aplicación del método clínico, para ello se hacen algunas reflexiones sobre su utilidad práctica, los programas actuales de su enseñanza y los textos en los que se basa. La conceptualización del método clínico es fruto de la Escuela Cubana de Clínica, donde los internistas han tenido una función importante en los últimos 50 años. Los especialistas de esta área del conocimiento, junto a todos los médicos asistenciales que están en la necesidad de utilizar este método para el manejo de sus enfermos, están llamados a continuar con la tarea de mantener y transmitir la esencia misma de la clínica, en medio de un ambiente inestable y cambiante(AU)


At present, due to the development of techno science applied to medicine, there is a tendency to overshadow the clinical method. Different medical schools in the world, including the Cuban school, have begun the modernization of the clinical method, which is based on the scientific method. Therefore, it is important to focus teaching on the eminently practical aspects, in addition to properly using complementary tests to confirm the patient´s diagnosis, prognosis and treatment. The objective of this research is to combine criteria on the teaching and use of the clinical method. Some reflections arise from its practical convenience, current syllabus and the texts on which it is based. The conceptualization of the clinical method is the result of the Cuban School of Clinic, where internists have played important role in the last 50 years. The specialists of this area of knowledge, together with all the medical assistants who need to use this method for treating their patients, are called to continue with the task of maintaining and transmitting the very essence of the clinic, in the midst of unstable and changing circumstances(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/ethics , Clinical Diagnosis/diagnosis , Clinical Diagnosis/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900410, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001092

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To develop a silicone alternative model of tissue suture simulation to be used in the teaching of surgical technique. Methods: Twelve alternative models of silicone for tissue suture simulation were manufactured and implemented as a tool for suture pattern training of undergraduate medical students of Universidade Federal do Amazonas. Forty-eight students participated in the research. The evaluation of the proposed model was done through a questionnaire using the Likert scale, in order to verify the student satisfaction index of the alternative resource and its performance as opposed to the model historically used in the discipline, which is to suture in cloths. Results: The alternative model showed satisfactory results, especially with respect to the structural aspect, such as, better perception of anatomical planes, handling and transport. About 89.58% of positive concordant responses demonstrating expressive approval for incorporation of a complementary form of the alternative methodological proposal of the discipline of surgical technique. Conclusions: The model developed for experimental simulation of tissue sutures has proved to be a fully feasible alternative method for the training of this surgical skill. It is a simple, reproducible and low-cost model.


Subject(s)
Humans , Silicones , Suture Techniques/education , Simulation Training/methods , Models, Anatomic , Students, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Competence , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/standards , Simulation Training/standards , Academic Performance
20.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(1): eAO4469, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984371

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate a method aimed at teaching ultrasound techniques to medical students in emergency settings. Methods A prospective study conducted with 66 sixth-year undergraduate medical students. Students participated in theory and practicing sessions with a 5-hour load; knowledge acquisition was assessed through pre- and post-course and 90-day tests. A questionnaire were distributed to the students after course completion for theoretical and practical knowledge assessment. Results Average pre-test grade in theoretical content evaluation was 4.9, compared to 7.6 right after course completion, and 5.9 within 90 days (p<0.001). Questions addressing technical aspects and image acquisition were mostly answered correctly; in contrast, questions related to clinical management of patients tended to be answered incorrectly. In practical evaluation, 54 students (81.8%) were able to correctly interpret images. Conclusion Ultrasound applicability and image acquisition techniques can be taught to medical students in emergency settings. However, teaching should be focused on technical aspects rather than clinical management of patients.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar metodologia para o ensino de técnicas de ultrassom para estudantes de Medicina em ambiente de emergência. Métodos Estudo prospectivo realizado com 66 alunos do sexto ano de graduação em Medicina. Os alunos participaram de aulas teóricas e práticas com carga de 5 horas, e os conhecimentos adquiridos foram avaliados em provas antes, logo depois e 90 dias após o curso. Após a conclusão das aulas, foi distribuído um questionário aos alunos, tendo sido avaliados os conhecimentos teórico e prático. Resultados Nas avaliações teóricas, a média do grau de pré-teste foi de 4,9, com aumento observado para 7,6 após o término do curso, e de 5,9 para o teste de 90 dias (p<0,001). Questões sobre aspectos técnicos e aquisição de imagens foram mais frequentemente respondidas, e aquelas relacionadas ao manejo clínico foram as mais respondidas incorretamente. Na avaliação prática, 54 alunos (81,8%) conseguiram interpretar as imagens. Conclusão Foi possível ensinar o uso de técnicas de ultrassom em um ambiente de emergência para estudantes na faculdade de Medicina e instruí-los em técnicas de aquisição de imagens, mas a instrução deve se concentrar em aspectos técnicos, e não em gerenciamento clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Ultrasonics/education , Ultrasonography , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement , Emergency Medicine/education , Students, Medical , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Clinical Competence , Curriculum
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