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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246460, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350310

ABSTRACT

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.


Resumo O estudo de pesquisa de campo foi realizado na temporada (2017). A soja e as ervas daninhas foram amostradas semanalmente de forma aleatória. Tripes adultos foram identificados e contados. A detecção do vírus isolado e a incidência natural foram determinadas usando transmissão mecânica, gama de hospedeiros, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. A incidência natural de tripes em indivíduos foi detectada dependendo da % de SVNV em tripes e hospedeiros infestantes. Dez espécies de tripes foram associadas a plantas de soja no campo. A espécie mais abundante foi T. tabaci, com média de 256,5 número médio de indivíduos, seguida por F. occidentalis (142,5) e N. variabilis (86,6 / número médio de indivíduos). Catorze espécies de tripes ocorreram em 5 culturas de leguminosas e 41 espécies de plantas daninhas dentro de campos de soja. O maior número médio de 40,6 indivíduos foi registrado em Ammi majus. Enquanto o mais baixo, 3,3 número médio de indivíduos, foi no Urtica urens. Apenas 21 espécies de plantas diagnosticadas foram suscetíveis à infecção com SVNV. G. max e Vigna radiate foram os maiores percentuais de infecção, 80%, seguidos por V. unguilata e N. benthamiana, 75%. O isolado egípcio neste estudo mostrou um alto grau de similaridade e está intimamente relacionado ao TSWV do Egito (DQ479968) e ao TCSV dos EUA (KY820965), com identidade de sequência de nucleotídeos de 78%. Quatro espécies de tripes transmitiram SVNV (F. fusca 4,0%, F. schultzei 4,3%, F. tritici 3,3% e N. variabilis 68,0% de transmissão). Tanto C. phaseoli quanto M. sjostedti podem adquirir o vírus, mas não podem transmiti-lo. As seguintes espécies, T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis e T. palmi não podem adquirir ou transmitir SVNV. A incidência de SVNV no campo, iniciada no final de julho, aumentou gradativamente de 12,7 para 71,3% no final da temporada. Em conclusão, poucos indivíduos de tripes invadiram a cultura da soja e são suficientes para transmitir alta taxa de SVNV dentro da cultura. Além disso, várias espécies de vetores também abundam em ervas daninhas, que são as principais fontes dos vírus da soja transmitidos às lavouras. Essas informações podem ser importantes para controlar e reduzir a incidência de infecção por SVNV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tospovirus , Plant Diseases , Soybeans , Incidence , Urticaceae , Egypt/epidemiology , Plant Weeds , Necrosis
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e246309, 2022. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278504

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the present study, the biochemical composition of some Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) from the Red Sea, Egypt was investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria scabra. The highest percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) was recorded in Pearsonothuria graeffei while the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was recorded in Holothuria nobilis and the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. The highest percentage of omega-3 fatty acids was recorded in Stichopus hermanni however, the lowest percentage was recorded in Diadema setosum. The highest percentage of omega-6 fatty acids was recorded in Bohadschia vitiensis where, the lowest percentage was recorded in Holothuria atra. In addition, nonessential amino acid (NEAA) glycine were the highest in all species and serine was the lowest while Essential amino acid (EAA) arginine was the highest and cysteine was the lowest. All of the NEAA recorded highest concentrations in S. hermanni except proline. The recorded essential amino acids were histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, and leucine. The latter was high in Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tyrosine, valine, threonine, and arginine were high in Stichopus hermanni. The present study proved that sea cucumbers has great nutritional value.


Resumo No presente estudo, investigou-se a composição bioquímica de algumas espécies Echinodermata (Holothuroidea, Echinoidea) do Mar Vermelho no Egito. Os resultados mostraram que a maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos saturados (SFA) foi na espécie Holothuria nobilis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria scabra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (MUFA) foi registrada na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei, enquanto a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. O maior percentual de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (PUFA) foi registrado em Holothuria nobilis e o menor percentual foi registrado em Holothuria atra. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-3 foi registrada na espécie Stichopus hermanni, entretanto, a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Diadema setosum. A maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos ômega-6 foi registrada em Bohadschia vitiensis e a menor porcentagem foi registrada em Holothuria atra. Além disso, o nível de aminoácido não-essencial (NEAA) glicina foi o mais alto em todas as espécies e o de serina foi o mais baixo, enquanto o nível de aminoácido essencial (EAA) arginina foi o mais alto e a cisteína foi o mais baixo. Todos os NEAA registraram concentrações mais altas em S. hermanni, exceto prolina. Os aminoácidos essenciais registrados foram histidina, isoleucina, fenilalanina e leucina. A leucina apresentou alto nível na espécie Pearsonothuria graeffei. Tirosina, valina, treonina e arginina apresentaram níveis elevados em Stichopus hermanni. Assim, o presente estudo comprovou que o pepino-do-mar possui grande valor nutricional.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sea Cucumbers , Sea Urchins , Indian Ocean , Echinodermata , Egypt
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 1054-1060, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153441

ABSTRACT

Abstract One aquatic coleopteran species from family Dytiscidae and two aquatic coleopteran genera from family Hydrophilidae were recorded in the summer period and represent first records in the Egyptian lakes. Beetles were collected from two northern lakes, Lake Idku and Lake Burullus. They were identified by morphological characteristics as well as the mtDNA barcoding method. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to determine the genetic identity of the collected samples based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) from Egypt showed no significant difference in the COI region and they are highly similar to P. servillianus from Madagascar. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the other two coleopteran genera belong to family Hydrophilidae. Based on COI only, there is no clear evidence for their genetic identity at the species level. So, we defined them to the closest taxon and denoted them as Cymbiodyta type A and B. The results indicated that resolving the molecular identity of the aquatic beetles from northern lakes of Egypt need more considerations in the field of biological conservation. We concluded that utilization of COI as a barcoding region for identifying some coleopteran species is not sufficient and additional molecular markers are required to uncover the molecular taxonomy at deep levels.


Resumo Uma espécie de coleópteros aquático da família Dytiscidae e dois gêneros de coleópteros aquáticos da família Hydrophilidae foram registrados no período de verão e representam os primeiros registros nos lagos egípcios. Os besouros foram coletados em dois lagos do norte, o lago Idku e o lago Burullus, e identificados por características morfológicas e pelo método de código de barras mtDNA. Uma abordagem filogenética molecular foi usada para determinar a identidade genética das amostras coletadas com base no citocromo oxidase I mitocondrial (COI). Prodaticus servillianus (Dytiscidae) do Egito não mostrou diferença significativa na região COI e é altamente semelhante a P. servillianus de Madagascar. A análise filogenética revelou que os outros dois gêneros de coleópteros pertencem à família Hydrophilidae. Com base apenas no COI, não há evidências claras de sua identidade genética no nível da espécie. Assim, nós os agrupamos no táxon mais próximo e os denominamos Cymbiodyta tipo A e B. Os resultados indicaram que a identidade molecular dos besouros aquáticos dos lagos do norte do Egito precisa de mais considerações no campo da conservação biológica. Concluímos que a utilização de COI como região de código de barras para identificar algumas espécies de coleópteros não é suficiente, sendo necessários marcadores moleculares adicionais para descobrir a taxonomia molecular em níveis profundos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lakes , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Phylogeny , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Egypt
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(3): 332-345, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285074

ABSTRACT

Abstract The study of skin, the science of dermatology, has undergone significant transformations throughout the centuries. From the first descriptions of skin diseases in Egyptian papyri and in Hippocratic writings to the first treatises on dermatology, important individuals and discoveries have marked the specialty. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the specialty consolidated itself as a field of medical study based on the first classifications of dermatoses, diagnostic methods, and drug treatments. In the 20th century, the scientific and technological revolution transformed dermatological practice, incorporating new therapeutic resources, as well as surgical and aesthetic procedures. In the face of such a vigorous process, it is important to provide a historical synthesis for the medical community to recognize and understand the origins that supported one of the most relevant specialties in the current medical scenario.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Skin Diseases/therapy , Dermatology , Skin , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Egypt , Esthetics
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 452-460, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153359

ABSTRACT

Field experiments were carried out in the reclaimed land east of Cairo-Alexandria Desert Road, Village of Wardan, Giza Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the impact of using nano-gels pheromone for the first time on the attraction of the RPW adults by pheromone traps compared to the control which is normal pheromone during two successive seasons in 2018 and 2019. Also, this study aimed to compare the efficacy of two types of trap, traditional trap (type 1) and dry funnel trap (type 2) in capturing of RPW adults. Results revealed that the nano gel pheromone traps attracted significantly more adults with an average of (4.26 and 3.56) adults/trap and total of (55.33 and 46.33) adults/trap compared to control with an average (2.69 and 2.46) and total of (35.00 and 32.00) adults/trap for the two seasons 2018 and 2019 respectively. Results indicated that the use of nano gel pheromone for the first time in field improved the trap catchability to RPW adults by 22.51 and 18.30% of total number of RPW adults captured throw out the two successive seasons respectively. In addition, there was no significant difference between the total numbers of RPW adults collected by the two tested type of traps over the two successive seasons. Furthermore, the sex ratio between males and females of total collected RPW adults found to be1: 1.43 and 1: 1.94 at 2018 and 2019 respectively.


Experimentos de campo foram realizados na terra recuperada a leste da estrada do deserto de Cairo-Alexandria, vila de Wardan, província de Giza, Egito, para avaliar o impacto do uso de feromônio de nano géis pela primeira vez na atração de adultos RPW por armadilhas de feromônio comparado ao controle que é o feromônio normal durante duas temporadas sucessivas em 2018 e 2019. Além disso, este estudo teve como objetivo comparar a eficácia de dois tipos de armadilha, armadilha tradicional (tipo 1) e armadilha de funil seco (tipo 2) na captura de RPW adultos. Os resultados revelaram que as armadilhas de nano gel de feromônio atraíram significativamente mais adultos, com uma média de (4,26 e 3,56) adultos/armadilha e total de (55,33 e 46,33) adultos/armadilha em comparação ao controle com uma média (2,69 e 2,46) e total de (35.00 e 32.00) adultos/armadilha para as duas temporadas 2018 e 2019, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram que o uso de feromônio nano gel pela primeira vez em campo melhorou a capturabilidade de armadilhas para adultos com RPW em 22,51 e 18,30% do número total de adultos com RPW capturados durante as duas estações sucessivas, respectivamente. Além disso, não houve diferença significativa entre o número total de adultos RPW coletados pelos dois tipos de armadilhas testados ao longo das duas estações sucessivas. Além disso, a proporção sexual entre homens e mulheres do total de adultos coletados de RPW foi de 1: 1,43 e 1: 1,94 em 2018 e 2019, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Pheromones , Weevils , Seasons , Insect Control , Egypt
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 424-436, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153346

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) is one of the food-borne entero-pathogen responsible for yersiniosis in humans. The purpose of this research was to survey the prevalence, virulence-associated genes, and antimicrobial resistance of Y. enterocolitica isolated from meat and meat product samples in Egypt. Forty-one (5.9%) out of 700- samples of chicken meat, beef, ground beef, and sausage were positive Y. enterocolitica with a high prevalence in chicken meat (12%). Five virulence genes (ail, inv, ystA, ystB, and yadA) were characterized among 41 Y. enterocolitica isolates with variable frequencies. Among the strains tested, the ystB gene was detected with a high percentage (78.1%), followed by inv gene (70.7%), ail gene (14.6%), ystA gene (12.2%), and yadA gene (2.4%). A high resistance rate was estimated to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (100%), followed by cefazolin (95%), ampicillin (65.9%), and doxycycline (51.2%), whilst a high sensitivity rate was observed to gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (97.6% each). Interestingly, the multidrug resistance was specified in the 70.7% of strains and showing 13 resistance patterns. Based on nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16s rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree showed the genetic relatedness amongst Y. enterocolitica isolates. These findings highlighted the emergence of virulent and multidrug-resistant pathogenic Y. entrocolitica in retailed meat and meat products in Egypt.


A Yersinia enterocolitica patogênica (Y. enterocolitica) é um dos enteropatógenos de origem alimentar responsáveis pela yersiniose no ser humano. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a prevalência, genes associados à virulência e resistência antimicrobiana de Y. enterocolitica isolada de amostras de carne e produtos à base de carne no Egito. Quarenta e um (5,9%) de 700 amostras de carne de frango, carne bovina, moída e linguiça foram Y. enterocolitica positivas, com alta prevalência em carne de frango (12%). Cinco genes de virulência (ail, inv, ystA, ystB e yadA) foram caracterizados entre 41 isolados de Y. enterocolitica com frequências variáveis. Entre as cepas testadas, o gene ystB foi detectado com uma alta porcentagem (78,1%), seguido pelo gene inv (70,7%), ail genes (14,6%), gene ystA (12,2%) e gene yadA (2,4%). Foi estimada uma alta taxa de resistência ao ácido amoxicilina-clavulânico (100%), seguida de cefazolina (95%), ampicilina (65,9%) e doxiciclina (51,2%), enquanto uma alta taxa de sensibilidade foi observada para gentamicina e ciprofloxacina (97,6% cada). Curiosamente, a resistência a múltiplas drogas foi especificada em 70,7% das cepas e mostrando 13 padrões de resistência. Com base na análise da sequência nucleotídica do gene rRNA 16s, a árvore filogenética mostrou a relação genética entre isolados de Y. enterocolitica. Esses achados destacaram o surgimento de Y. entrocolitica patogênica virulenta e multirresistente em carnes e produtos à base de carne no Egito.


Subject(s)
Humans , Yersinia enterocolitica/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Meat/microbiology , Meat Products/microbiology , Phylogeny , Virulence/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Egypt , Genotype , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(4): 891-896, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142545

ABSTRACT

Abstract Baculoviruses are considered as effective bio pesticides except of being not active under sunlight conditions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of moringa extract to prolong virus activity under Egyptian field conditions especially that Moringa proved to be strong protective material under previous investigation under laboratory conditions the addition of moringa filters were tested on tomato plant foliage. Results are based on leaf bioassay using Spodoptera littoralis test insect and its nuclepolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) as standard materials. The Original Activity Remaining (OAR) and Lethal Infectivity Time to 50% (LIT50) were estimated after exposure to natural sunlight. cacao and green tea were tested as comparative materials, which proved to be effective as virus protective agent in earlier investigations. The results showed that moringa additive at 10% sustained 50% of virus activity for 193.53 hours and 62.05 and 23.023 hours post application for cacao and green tea; respectively. While virus alone treatment lasts for only 17.551 hours. Moringa generally available, relatively cheap; it also has been tested and proved to be non-toxic, safe, and friendly to the environment. The obtained results showed the activity of moringa water extract in prolonging the virus activity under field application.


Resumo Os baculovírus são considerados como biopesticidas eficazes, exceto por não estarem ativos sob condições de luz solar. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a capacidade do extrato de moringa para prolongar a atividade do vírus sob condições de campo egípcias, tendo em vista que Moringa provou ser um material protetor forte sob investigação anterior em condições de laboratório a adição de filtros moringa foram testados na folhagem de plantas de tomate. Os resultados são com base em bioensaios foliares utilizando o inseto-teste Spodoptera littoralis e seu vírus de poliedrose nuclear (VPNSl) como materiais padrões. A Atividade Original Restante (AOR) e o Tempo de Infectividade Letal até 50% (LIT50) foram estimados após a exposição à luz solar natural. Cacau e chá verde foram testados como materiais comparativos, que se mostraram eficazes como agentes protetores do vírus em investigações anteriores. Os resultados mostraram que a moringa aditiva a 10% sustentou 50% da atividade viral por 193,53 horas e 62,05 e 23,023 horas após a aplicação de cacau e chá verde, respectivamente. Enquanto o tratamento sozinho do vírus dura apenas 17,551 horas, a moringa geralmente está disponível, e é relativamente barata; e a mesma também foi testada e provou ser não tóxica, segura e propícia ao meio ambiente. Os resultados obtidos mostraram a atividade do extrato aquosa da moringa no prolongamento da atividade do vírus sob aplicação em campo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Moringa , Sunlight , Water , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Baculoviridae , Plant Leaves , Egypt
8.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 29(3)sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1139858

ABSTRACT

Rabbit hemorrhagic disease is a contagious viral disease of rabbits controlled by vaccination. The present study was aimed to diagnose rabbit hemorrhagic disease from 11 infected farms from Qalubia governorate during 2019 and to prepare homologous vaccine against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2. For this purpose, 11 liver samples were collected from suspected cases and subjected to detection and identification of circulating rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. Ten samples were confirmed to be rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus using hemagglutination test, animal inoculation and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of two isolates (R5&R6) revealed the presence of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 (A/Qalubia/2019 and B/Qalubia/2019) under accession number MT07629 and MT067630 respectively. The inactivated rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus vaccines were prepared using Montanide ISA 206 oil or aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvants. Prepared vaccines were inoculated subcutaneously in susceptible rabbits and submitted to sterility, safety and potency tests. Obtained results showed that mean hemagglutination inhibition titer for aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine was 6,7.7,8.9 and 9.1 log2 while, Montanide vaccine reached to 6.7,8.7,9.2 and 9.5 log2 at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks post vaccination, respectively. Immunized rabbits with Montanide vaccine showed better protection reach to 70 percent, 90 percent percent, 100 percent and 100 percent when compared to aluminum hydroxide gel vaccine 60 percent, 70 percent, 90 percent and 90 percent at 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th weeks post vaccination respectively. It was concluded that newly emerged rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 was isolated from suspected cases. The two prepared vaccines were sterile, safe and potent. The oily adjuvanted rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus 2 vaccine stimulated an earlier and higher humoral immune response than the aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvanted vaccine. This humoral immune response achieved significant level of protection(AU)


La enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo es una enfermedad viral contagiosa de los conejos que se controla mediante vacunación. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo diagnosticar la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo en 11 granjas infectadas de la provincia de Qalubia, durante 2019 y preparar una vacuna homóloga contra el virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2. Para este propósito, se recolectaron 11 muestras de hígado de casos sospechosos y se sometieron a detección e identificación de virus circulante de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo. Se confirmó que diez muestras eran positivas al virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo, utilizando para ello la prueba de hemaglutinación, inoculación en animales y Reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa. La secuenciación y el análisis filogenético de dos aislamientos (R5 y R6) revelaron la presencia del virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2 (A/Qalubia/2019 y B/Qalubia/2019) con los números de acceso MT07629 y MT067630 respectivamente. Las vacunas inactivadas del virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo se prepararon usando adyuvantes de gel de hidróxido de aluminio o aceite Montanide ISA 206. Las vacunas preparadas se inocularon por vía subcutánea en conejos susceptibles y se sometieron a pruebas de esterilidad, seguridad y potencia. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el título medio de inhibición de la hemaglutinación para la vacuna en gel de hidróxido de aluminio fue de 6; 7,7; 8,9 y 9,1 log2, mientras que la vacuna de Montanide alcanzó 6,7; 8,7; 9,2 y 9,5 log2 en la 1ª, 2ª, 3ª y 4ª semanas después de la vacunación, respectivamente. Los conejos inmunizados con la vacuna Montanide tuvieron una mejor protección, alcanzándose niveles de 70 por ciento, 90 por ciento, 100 por ciento y 100 por ciento en comparación con la vacuna en gel de hidróxido de aluminio 60 por ciento, 70 por ciento, 90 por ciento y 90 por ciento en la 1ª, 2ª, 3ª y 4ª semanas después de la vacunación, respectivamente. Se concluyó que el virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2 de reciente aparición se aisló de los casos sospechosos. Las dos vacunas preparadas fueron estériles, seguras y potentes. La vacuna contra el virus de la enfermedad hemorrágica del conejo tipo 2 con adyuvante oleoso estimuló una respuesta inmune humoral más temprana y mayor que la vacuna con adyuvante en gel de hidróxido de aluminio. Esta respuesta inmune humoral confirió un nivel significativo de protección(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit/immunology , Caliciviridae Infections/veterinary , Lethal Dose 50 , Vaccines , Egypt
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 295-304, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132361

ABSTRACT

Abstract Diospyros kaki L. or Costata cultivar is the main persimmon variety progressively consumed in the Egyptian market and exportation. The objective of this study was to investigate the bioprotective effects of the alcoholic extract of fruits as well as leaves of D. kaki using in-vivo rat models. Petroleum ether extracts of fruits and leaves were analytically characterized for saponifiable and unsaponifiable compounds by GC/MS. Main flavonoids were chromatographically isolated from 80% aqueous methanol extract of leaves. Chemical evaluation for fruits and leaves namely, content of moisture, ash, proteins, fatty acids, amino acids, fat and water soluble vitamins, minerals, carotenoids was carried out. Total antioxidant activity was determined by radical scavenging effects using DPPH assay. The effect on biochemical parameters and its biological activity were also performed. Results revealed the identification of the major compounds of saponifiable and unsaponifiable matters of fruits and leaves. Scopoletin, as well as, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin and apigenin 7-O-glucoside were isolated and identified. It showed that this plant can provide a good nutritional value and it is safe regarding the kidney and liver functions, good source that help in enhancing the antioxidant defense against free radicals. No abnormal effects were found in lipids profile on experimental animals and there were good results in the ratio of HDL and LDL cholesterol. Also, this plant can help in optimizing blood sugar, enhancing the level of blood haemoglobin. It is concluded that D. kaki displays a good source of nutrients and bioactive compounds that may contribute to its therapeutic benefits against the risk of disease complications.


Resumo Diospyros kaki L. ou Costata é a principal variedade de caqui progressivamente consumida no mercado e exportação egípcia. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos bioprotetores do extrato alcoólico de frutos e folhas de D. kaki utilizando modelos de ratos "in vivo". Extratos de éter de petróleo provenientes de frutos e folhas foram caracterizados analiticamente para compostos saponificáveis ​​e insaponificáveis ​​por GC/MS. Os principais flavonoides foram isolados cromatograficamente, a partir de 80% de extrato aquoso de folhas de metanol. Foi realizada avaliação química de frutos e folhas, ou seja, de teor de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, ácidos graxos, aminoácidos, vitaminas lipossolúveis e solúveis em água, minerais, carotenoides. Foi caracterizada a atividade antioxidante, utilizando ensaio (DPPH). O efeito nos parâmetros bioquímicos e sua atividade biológica também foram analisados. Os resultados revelaram a identificação dos principais compostos saponificáveis e insaponificáveis de frutos e folhas. Escopoletina, bem como kaempferol, luteolina, rutina e apigenina 7-O-glicosídeo foram isolados e identificados. Também demonstraram que esta planta pode proporcionar um bom valor nutricional e é segura em relação às funções renais e hepáticas, boa fonte que ajuda a melhorar a defesa antioxidante contra os radicais livres. Não foram encontrados efeitos anormais no perfil lipídico em testes em animais, e houve um efeito satisfatório na relação de colesterol HDL e LDL. Além disso, esta planta pode ajudar na otimização do açúcar no sangue, aumentando o nível de hemoglobina. Conclui-se que o D. kaki apresenta uma boa fonte de nutrientes e de compostos bioativos que contribuem para seus benefícios terapêuticos e contra o risco de complicações de doenças.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Diospyros , Plant Extracts , Plant Leaves , Egypt , Antioxidants
10.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(2): 86-92, abr. 30, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151843

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Lichen planus is one of the most common oral mucosal lesions. Transforming growth factor-ß (TGF- ß) has a marked effect on epithelial­mesenchymal transition and immune cells function. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mediates T-lymphocyte homing and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Objetive: The present study was conducted in order to compare the expression of serum and salivary TGF- ß, VEGF, TNF-α between OLP patients and control individuals to investigate if saliva can be used as an alternative to serum for diagnostic purposes and for monitoring disease. Materials and Methods: 23 OLP patients and 23 control individuals were included to evaluate serum and salivary TGF-ß, VEGF, TNF-α using ELISA kits. Five milliliters of venous blood was collected and unstimulated saliva was collected by the spitting method. Results: Serum and salivary levels of TGF- ß, VEGF, TNF-α are higher in OLP patients compared to normal controls. Mean difference is higher in saliva than serum. Moreover, there was a significant difference in serum and salivary VEGF and TNF-α between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. Conclusions: Saliva can be a used as a substitute for serum to evaluate levels of the assessed biomarkers.


Introducción: El liquen plano oral es una de las lesiones de la mucosa oral más comunes. El factor de crecimiento transformante ß (TGF-ß) tiene un efecto marcado sobre la transición epitelial-mesenquimal y la función de las células inmunes. El factor de crecimiento endotelial vascular (VEGF) es un regulador clave de la vasculogénesis y la angiogénesis. El factor de necrosis tumoral α (TNF-α) media la localización de los linfocitos T y la apoptosis de las células epiteliales. Objetivo: El presente estudio se realizó con el fin de comparar la expresión en suero y saliva de TGF-ß, VEGF, TNF-α entre pacientes con OLP y personas de control para investigar si la saliva se puede utilizar como alternativa al suero para fines de diagnóstico y monitoreo de la enfermedad. Material y Métodos: Se incluyeron 23 pacientes con OLP y 23 individuos control para evaluar los niéveles en suero y en saliva de TGF- ß, VEGF, TNF-α utilizando kits ELISA. Se recogieron cinco mililitros de sangre venosa y se recogió saliva no estimulada por el método de escupir. Resultado: Los niveles séricos y salivales de TGF-ß, VEGF, TNF-α son más altos en pacientes con OLP en comparación con los controles normales. La diferencia media es mayor en saliva que en suero. Además, hubo una diferencia significativa de VEGF y TNF-α en suero y saliva entre los grupos sintomáticos y asintomáticos. Conclusion: La saliva puede usarse como un sustituto del suero para evaluar los niveles de los biomarcadores estudiados


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Saliva/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Lichen Planus, Oral/diagnosis , Serum/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Egypt , Mouth Mucosa , Necrosis
11.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 93-98, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090556

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Hearing is important for the proper development of every child, especially for those younger than 5 years of age, because it helps in the development of language and speech. Emotional and social problems, as well as issues with academic performance, can result from hearing loss even of mild degree. Early diagnosis and management can overcome those negative impacts. Objective To determine the prevalence of mild hearing loss in primary-school children and its association with their school performance. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted at a regular school. The study included the random selection of 120 apparently normal students (aged 6-9 years) who were considered as having normal hearing by their parents. A total of 20 students were excluded from the study due to the presence of wax in their ears. Finally, the study was conducted with 100 students. All participants were subjected to a basic audiological evaluation, and the Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk (SIFTER) question- naire was given to their teachers to evaluate their school performance. Results From a total of 100 students, we confirmed that 23 (23%) had mild hearing loss, 17 (17%) had bilateral conductive hearing loss, and 6 (6%) had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. The students who had low attention and communication performance were significantly associated with mild hearing loss. Conclusion The prevalence of mild hearing loss was of 23% (23 cases). This problem had an effect on the communication and attention in school; and it might affect academic performance later in life. A hearing assessment is highly recommended for every child, especially those who have a low rate of academic performance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Academic Performance , Hearing Loss/epidemiology , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Acoustic Impedance Tests , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Primary and Secondary , Ear Diseases/diagnosis , Egypt , Medical History Taking
12.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 96(1): 108-116, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090992

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common childhood cancer, yet surprisingly, very few studies have reported the treatment outcomes and the relapse rate of patients from low/middle-income countries. Method This study was a 5-year retrospective cohort study. It was conducted at Oncology Center of Mansoura University in Egypt and aimed to estimate the treatment outcomes and the relapse rates of newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. Results Two hundred children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia were studied; forty-six patients (23%) died during induction and most of those deaths were related to infection. Forty-one patients (27%) relapsed out of the 152 patients who achieved complete remission. The most common site of relapse was the bone marrow, followed by the isolated central nervous system, 53.7% and 31.7%, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of relapses occurred very early/early rather than later. The majority of relapse patients' deaths were related to infection and disease progression. The 5-year overall survival rate for patients was 63.1% (82.1% for non-relapsed compared to 36.6% for relapsed patients). Conclusion There was a high incidence of induction deaths related to infection and high percentages of very early/early relapses, with high mortalities and low 5-year overall survival rates. These findings suggest the urgent need for modification of chemotherapy regimens to be suitable for the local conditions, including implementation of supportive care and infection control policies. There is also a requirement for antimicrobial prophylaxis during induction period combined with the necessary increase in government healthcare spending to improve the survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Egyptian children.


Resumo Objetivo Estimar os desfechos do tratamento e as taxas de recidiva de crianças recém-diagnosticadas com leucemia linfoblástica aguda. É o câncer infantil mais comum, mas surpreendentemente poucos estudos relataram os desfechos do tratamento e a taxa de recidiva em pacientes de países de renda baixa/média. Método Estudo de coorte retrospectivo de cinco anos. Foi feito no Centro de Oncologia da Universidade de Mansoura, no Egito. Resultados Foram estudadas 200 crianças com leucemia linfoblástica aguda, das quais 46 (23%) morreram durante a indução e a maioria dessas mortes estava relacionada à infecção. Dos 152 pacientes que alcançaram a remissão completa, 41 (27%) apresentaram recidiva. O local mais comum de recidiva foi a medula óssea, seguido pelo sistema nervoso central isolado, com 53,7% e 31,7% dos casos, respectivamente. Das recidivas, 78% ocorreram muito precocemente ou precocemente, em vez de tardiamente. A maioria das mortes de pacientes com recidiva estava relacionada à infecção e progressão da doença. A taxa de sobrevida global em cinco anos para os pacientes foi de 63,1% (82,1% para não recidivados em comparação com 36,6% para os recidivados). Conclusão Houve uma alta incidência de mortes na indução relacionadas à infecção e altos percentuais de recidivas muito precoces ou precoces, com altas taxas de mortalidade e baixas taxas de sobrevida global em cinco anos. Nossos achados sugerem a necessidade urgente de modificação dos esquemas quimioterápicos para adequação às nossas condições locais, implantação de políticas de cuidados de suporte e controle de infecções. Há também a necessidade de profilaxia antimicrobiana durante o período de indução, junto com um aumento necessário nos gastos governamentais com a saúde, para melhorar a capacidade de sobrevivência das crianças egípcias com leucemia linfoblástica aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Developing Countries , Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Recurrence , Remission Induction , Survival Rate , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Egypt
13.
Medical Technologies Journal ; 1(3): 126-135, 2020. tab
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1266492

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious emerging public health issue and it has been identified as a major risk to human health in 2020. Egypt has more than 100 million population, of whom in poor economic conditions and with low education levels could be vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. Physicians are at the frontiers in battles against the emergence, spread, and control of COVID-19 pandemic. Research data are needed to develop evidence-based strategies to prepare health care systems to deal with the current epidemic. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes to COVID-19 pandemic among a group of Egyptian physicians. Methods: From March 15th to March 25th, 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional online survey using non-probability accessibility sampling technique. The structured questionnaire was distributed online through E-mails and social networks to identify the knowledge and attitude among a group of Egyptian physicians regarding COVID-19 pandemic. Result: The study included 256 physicians. Of the participants, 48% were males 49.6% were females. The mean of total score was (19.6±2.3) out of 23 gained mainly from the social media (50.7%). About 67% of the participants heard of Coronaviruses before this pandemic, 78.5% identified other Coronaviruses. All the participants correctly identified the incubation period and 81.6% correctly identified the typical clinical symptoms. Most of the participants (97.6%) could estimate the fatality of COVID-19. Approximately 95% of the respondents knew no vaccination and 88% correctly answered that no current specific treatment for COVID-19 available. Almost all 98% of the participants knew the recommended general infection control precautions. Most of the participants showed positive attitude, about (97%) agreed that health care workers must avail themselves of all information about the COVID-19. Conclusion: The finding of this survey indicating that, faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, this studied group of Egyptian physicians showed positive attitude and satisfactory knowledge about emerging COVID-19 infection. Recommendations: Although the Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH) has taken several major steps to prepare the health care system to be ready dealing with COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to develop educational programs to ensure continuous updated knowledge of the physicians


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Egypt , Pandemics , SARS Virus/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
S. Afr. j. child health (Online) ; 14(2): 104-106, 2020.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270385

ABSTRACT

Hereditary tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare inherited genetic disorder attributed to deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH). HT1 may present with diarrhoea in its acute form. We report on a 2.5-year-old Egyptian girl diagnosed with HT1. At the age of 1 year and 9 months, the patient started to have persistent diarrhoea with marked abdominal distension, anorexia and irritability, and with no fever or vomiting. At the onset of diarrhoea, liver synthetic functions deteriorated and ascites progressed, requiring frequent paracentesis. These manifestations did not improve after starting specific treatment for HT1 (2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzoyl)- 1,3-cyclohexanedione) (NTBC). Coeliac disease was diagnosed; this disorder was not previously reported as having an association with HT1


Subject(s)
Child , Egypt , Tyrosinemias
15.
S. Afr. j. obstet. gynaecol ; 26(1): 18-21, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1270790

ABSTRACT

Background. Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSEP) is a rare condition in which the implantation of the gestational sac takes place within the uterine scar of a previous caesarean section (CS). If the pregnancy continues within the uterus, the risk of placenta accrete or uterine rupture is increased.Objective. To investigate four treatment methods, based on each patient's clinical presentation, gestational age of the pregnancy and haemodynamic stability, for the management of CSEP.Methods. CSEP cases (N=30) were diagnosed by ultrasound at the Shatby Maternity University Hospital, Egypt. Various treatment modalities, based on gestational age, were employed to treat the patients. Treatments included suction curettage (n=12), embryo reduction with local methotrexate injection (n=12), laparoscopic excision (n=3) and excision through laparotomy (n=3). Serum levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (ß-hCG) were measured at diagnosis and weekly following treatment until the levels returned to non-pregnant values.Results. There was a significant positive correlation between gestational age in weeks and the CSEP management strategy employed. ß-hCG levels decreased from before treatment to the end of the follow-up period 3 weeks later.No cases required a hysterectomy, and no maternal complications were reported in this study.Conclusion. The appropriate CSEP management strategy varies according to gestational age. Suction and embryo reduction with local methotrexate injection offers an effective, safe and minimally invasive surgical treatment to remove ectopic pregnancy tissue. Closely monitored follow-up of patients, including serial measurement of ß-hCG levels and ultrasonographic examinations, is recommended after CSEP management


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Egypt , Laparoscopy , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Tertiary Care Centers , Vacuum Curettage
16.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258384

ABSTRACT

BUT DE L'ÉTUDE: Le but de cette étude d'essais cliniques contrôlés randomisés était d'évaluer et de comparer la conservation des dimensions de la crête alvéolaire après une extraction dentaire atraumatique à l'aide d'une membrane de collagène et d'une xénogreffe mélangée avec du gel vit D3 actif par rapport à une membrane de collagène et à une xénogreffe uniquement. MATÉRIEL ET MÉTHODES: Dix patients ont été sélectionnés. Tous les patients ont dû extraire deux prémolaires non restaurables (ou dents antérieures) situées dans des quadrants symétriques d'arcs maxillaires ou mandibulaires et ont demandé une restauration d'implant. Deux chirurgies ont été réalisées pour chaque patient; le premier était destiné à l'extraction de la préservation de la crête alvéolaire, tandis que le second était destiné à la biopsie osseuse centrale et à la pose d'implants de façon routinière. Chez le même patient, une prise d'extraction (site de test) a été traitée avec une membrane de collagène et une xénogreffe mélangée avec de la vit active D3 tandis que la deuxième prise d'extraction (site de contrôle) a été traitée avec une membrane de collagène et une xénogreffe uniquement. Des évaluations cliniques, radiographiques et histologiques / histomorphométriques ont été réalisées. RÉSULTATS: Cliniquement et par radiographie tout au long de la période d'étude, il n'y avait pas de différence statistiquement significative entre les variations moyennes en% de la largeur des crêtes BL et de la hauteur des crêtes dans les deux groupes. L'analyse histomorphométrique a montré une différence statistiquement significative entre la fraction de surface moyenne de la nouvelle formation osseuse dans les deux groupes. CONCLUSION: L'application locale de vitamine d3 avec la xénogreffe dans la préservation de la crête alvéolaire accélère la formation de nouveaux os et favorise la maturation osseuse lors de la comparaison avec la xénogreffe uniquement


Subject(s)
Bone Regeneration , Collagen , Egypt , Tooth Extraction
17.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258622

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite agreement in the literature that"stable"blunt trauma patients may be managed con-servatively, in Egypt many such patients receive operative management. This paper presents the results of apragmatic, prospective, observational study to evaluate outcomes of non-operative (NOP) versus operative (OP)management of blunt abdominal solid organ trauma in hemodynamically stable adults admitted to TantaUniversity Emergency Hospital (TUH) in Egypt.Methods:A prospective observational study enrolled adult blunt abdominal trauma patients with solid organinjury at TUH over a 3-year period (June 2014­June 2017). Inclusion criteria were age≥18 yr, mean arterialpressure > 65 mm Hg, heart rate < 110 bpm, hematocrit≥7 mg/dl, and abdominal organ injury diagnosed byultrasound or computed tomography (CT). Excluded patients were those with pelvis and femur fractures; pa-tients with penetrating abdominal trauma; predominate burn injuries, children and pregnant women. All pa-tients were assigned to non-operative or operative management based on clinician preference. Outcomes ofinterest were 30-day mortality, blood transfusion volume, and length of stay. Descriptive statistics andχ2wereused to compare outcomes. Results:During the study period, 4254 trauma patients presented to TUH. Of these, 790 had blunt abdominaltrauma and 111 (14.1%) met inclusion criteria. Injury severity scores for each group were comparable (24 ± 10­NOP vs. 28 ± 11­OP,p= 0.126). NOP received less transfused blood (213.41 ± 360.3 ml [NOP]vs.1155.17 ± 380.4 ml [OP] (p< 0.0001)) but had a longer length of stay (8.29 ± 2.8 [NOP] vs.6.45 ± 1.97 days [OP] (p= 0.012)). There was no difference in mortality between groups (p= 0.091). Conclusion:Our study demonstrated that non-operative management in Egypt of blunt abdominal trauma wassafe and resulted in fewer procedures, fewer units of blood transfused, and no increase in mortality. Longerlength of stay for non-operative patients might reflect treating physician caution in their management


Subject(s)
Abdominal Injuries , Adult , Egypt , Operative Time , Patients , Wounds, Nonpenetrating
18.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 1(1): 15-23, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258716

ABSTRACT

Background: The growing incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has become a public health crisis. This work aims to evaluate the in-vitro activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), alone and in combination with the antimicrobials amikacin and ceftazidime, against MDR Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from clinical cases in Zagazig University Hospitals. Methods: In a cross sectional study, MDR GNB were isolated from different clinical specimens and were tested to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bactericidal activity of AgNPs using broth microdilution method. The effect of combining subMIC levels of AgNPs (MIC/2 and MIC/4) with amikacin and ceftazidime, was also determined by broth microdilution. Results: A total of 63 MDR GNB was obtained during the study period (22 E. coli, 17 Klebsiella, 15 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 9 Acinetobacter isolates). AgNPs demonstrated a bactericidal effect on all tested isolates with an MBC/MIC ratio of less than 4. When combined with amikacin, a synergistic effect was demonstrated on all tested E.coli and Klebsiella isolates at AgNPs MIC/2 and on 45.4%, 40% and 77.8% of E.coli, P.aeruginosa and Acinetobacter isolates, respectively at MIC/4. In combination with ceftazidime, AgNPs exhibited a synergistic effect on 100% of E. coli and 88.2% Klebsiella at both MIC/2 and MIC/4 and on 40% of P. aeruginosa isolates at AgNPs MIC/4. Conclusions: AgNPs exert a bactericidal activity on MDR GNB as well as a synergistic effect when combined with amikacin and ceftazidime suggesting them as a new weapon in the war against MDR GNB


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple , Egypt , Enterobacteriaceae , Nanoparticles , Silver
19.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 1(2): 77-85, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258719

ABSTRACT

Background: Multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria are seriously endangering the antibiotics. Different alternative strategies are needed to reinforce antibiotics, of, these; nanostructured materials may play a fruitful role. This study aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against MDR bacteria. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 33 methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and 52 MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates were recovered from intensive care units' (ICUs) admitted patients over a period of 9 months, from December 2017 to August 2018. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs on the clinical isolates of MRSA and MDR P. aeruginosa was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) using broth microdilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined as the lowest concentrations required to kill 99.9% of the initial inoculum. Tissue culture plate method was used to evaluate the antibiofilm activity. Results: The MIC and MBC values ranged from 1 to 16 µg/ml and 2 to 64 µg/ml, respectively. Silver nanoparticles exerted a significant antibiofilm activity against MRSA and MDR P.aeruginosa at all tested concentrations, recording a maximum inhibition value of (82%) and (91%), respectively. Conclusions: AgNPs exhibited a considerable antibacterial and antibiofilm, effect; it could represent a promising weapon in the fight against biofilm forming MDR organisms


Subject(s)
Egypt , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Nanoparticles , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Silver , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant
20.
Afro-Egypt. j. infect. enem. Dis ; 1(3): 168-181, 2020. ilus
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258722

ABSTRACT

Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common cause of gastric infections worldwide. Due to antibiotic resistance and adverse effects, phytotherapy and phage therapy have been a research focus as an alternative therapy for H. pylori infection. Objectives: To assess the medicinal plant extracts and bacteriophages as a treatment of H. pylori infection. Methodology: Thirty five gastric biopsies were cultured for H. pylori isolation. Screening of medicinal plants extract efficiency was done by Disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts were assessed. In vivo effect of Punica granatum peel extract was tested by bacterial density and histopathology in rats. Sewage water samples were screened for H. pylori specific bacteriophages. Single plaque isolation technique was used for phage purification. Results: Ten out of 35 (28.57%) patients had positive gastric biopsy for H. pylori by culture. Four out of 10 (40%) isolates were resistant to all antibiotics. Inhibitory effect of Rosemarinus officinalis, Syzygium aromaticum, Rhus coriaria and Ammi visagna on H. pylori was detected. Punica granatum extract was the most efficient in vitro. In vivo, Punica granatum peel extract caused significant reduction of bacterial density (Pty (P<0.05) and enhanced ulcer healing. Sewage water filtrates contained 3 types ofH. pylorispecific bacteriophages. During phagepurification,phage infectivity waslost.Conclusions:Punicagranatumpeel extract revealed better in vivo activity againstH. pylorithanv standard regimen antimicrobials. Other effective plants can be beneficial inH. Pylori infection management .Loss of bacteriophage infectivity may be an obstacle to phage therapy of H. pylori


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteriophages , Egypt , Helicobacter pylori , Plants, Medicinal
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