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Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(1): e-05868, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146955


Introduction: Oral cavity cancer is considered a public health problem worldwide. Malnutrition is prevalent in this population, increasing morbidity and mortality. Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid has been proposed to reverse protein catabolism and modulate inflammatory processes. Objective:Assess the effect of supplement with eicosapentaenoic acid in the weight and lean mass of patients with oral cavity cancer. Method: Clinical trial conducted with patients in oncologic pretreatment. The patients were randomized to receive nutritional supplement with eicosapentaenoic acid (2 g/day) or placebo. Nutritional parameters (weight, height, body composition and food intake) were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 4 weeks of supplementation (T1). The paired t-test or Wilcoxon test were used in intragroup comparisons. Associations between categorical variables were verified using the χ² or Fisher Exact test. Logistic regression was applied to identify the chance of weight loss. Differences were considered significant at p <0.05. Results:It was not observed significant difference on nutritional parameters between the groups after intervention. However, considering each group at the beginning and at the end of the study, it was observed that patients in the control group presented significant weight loss (T0: 57.2 kg x T1: 56.4 kg), reduction in the body mass index (T0: 22.6 kg/m2x T1: 22.0 kg/m2), fat mass (T0: 17.3 kg x T1: 15.3 kg) and arm circumference (T0: 27.4 cm xT1: 26.8 cm). Those who received supplement with eicosapentaenoic acid had 80% less chance of losing weight (95% CI: 0.045-0.860; OR: 0.19). Conclusion: This trial yielded data suggesting that patients with oral cavity cancer can benefit from eicosapentaenoic acid-containing nutritional supplement in oncologic pretreatment.

Introdução: O câncer de cavidade oral é considerado um problema de saúde pública no mundo. A desnutrição é prevalente nessa população, aumentando a morbimortalidade. A suplementação com ácido eicosapentaenoico tem sido proposta para reverter o catabolismo proteico e modular processos inflamatórios. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do suplemento nutricional enriquecido com ácido eicosapentaenoico no peso corporal e massa magra de pacientes com câncer de cavidade oral. Método: Ensaio clínico realizado com pacientes em pré-tratamento oncológico. Os pacientes foram randomizados para receber suplemento nutricional com ácido eicosapentaenoico (2 g/dia) ou placebo. Os parâmetros nutricionais (peso, estatura, composição corporal e ingestão alimentar) foram avaliados no início (T0) e após quatro semanas de suplementação (T1). O teste-t pareado ou de Wilcoxon foram usados nas comparações intragrupos. As associações entre as variáveis categóricas foram verificadas por meio do teste do χ² ou Exato de Fisher. A regressão logística foi aplicada para identificar a chance de perder peso. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando p<0,05. Resultados: Não foi observada diferença significativa nos parâmetros nutricionais entre os grupos após a intervenção. No entanto, considerando cada grupo no início e no final do estudo, observou-se que os pacientes do grupo controle apresentaram perda de peso significativa (T0: 57,2 kg x T1: 56,4 kg), redução no índice de massa corporal (T0: 22,6 kg/m2x T1: 22,0 kg/m2), massa gorda (T0: 17,3 kg x T1: 15,3 kg) e circunferência do braço (T0: 27,4 cm xT1: 26,8 cm). Aqueles que receberam suplemento com ácido eicosapentaenoico tiveram 80% menos chance de perder peso (95% IC: 0,045-0,860; OR: 0,19). Conclusão: Este estudo produziu dados que sugerem que pacientes com câncer de cavidade oral podem se beneficiar com o uso de suplemento nutricional contendo ácido eicosapentaenoico no pré-tratamento oncológico.

Introducción: El cáncer de la cavidad oral se considera un problema de salud pública en todo el mundo. La desnutrición prevalece en esta población, lo que aumenta la morbilidad y la mortalidad. Cuando la desnutrición se asocia con la anorexia, el aumento del gasto energético y la inflamación se denomina caquexia. Se ha propuesto la suplementación con ácido eicosapentaenoico para revertir el catabolismo proteico y modular los procesos inflamatorios. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de un suplemento nutricional enriquecido con ácido eicosapentaenoico sobre el peso corporal y la masa magra de pacientes con cáncer de cavidad oral. Método: Ensayo clínico realizado con pacientes sometidos a tratamiento previo al cáncer. Los pacientes fueron asignados al azar para recibir un suplemento nutricional con ácido eicosapentaenoico (2 g/día) o placebo. Los parámetros nutricionales (peso, altura, composición corporal e ingesta alimentaria) se evaluaron al inicio del estudio (T0) y después de 4 semanas de suplementación (T1). En las comparaciones intragrupo se utilizó la prueba t pareada o de Wilcoxon. Las asociaciones entre variables categóricas se verificaron mediante la prueba de la χ² o la prueba exacta de Fisher. Se aplicó regresión logística para identificar la posibilidad de perder peso. Las diferencias se consideraron significativas en p<0,05. Resultados: No hubo diferencias significativas en los parámetros nutricionales entre los grupos después de la intervención. Sin embargo, considerando cada grupo al principio y al final del estudio, se observó que los pacientes en el grupo de control tenían una pérdida de peso significativa (T0: 57,2 kg x T1: 56,4 kg), reducción en el índice de masa corporal (T0: 22,6 kg/m2x T1: 22,0 kg/m2), masa grasa (T0: 17,3 kg x T1: 15,3 kg) y circunferencia del brazo (T0: 27,4 cm x T1: 26,8 cm). Aquellos que fueron suplementados con ácido eicosapentaenoico tenían 80% menos probabilidades de perder peso (95% IC: 0,045-0,860; OR: 0,19). Conclusión: Este estudio produjo datos que sugieren que los pacientes con cáncer de la cavidad oral pueden beneficiarse del uso de un suplemento nutricional que contenga ácido eicosapentaenoico en el tratamiento previo al cáncer.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/administration & dosage , Dietary Supplements , Body Composition/drug effects , Nutritional Status
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719355


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized as one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases, and it is mostly associated with oxidative stress, atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) due to its antioxidant properties may play a role in the atherosclerosis development. Although long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. Our goal in this study was to determine the effect of EPA administration on gene expression of PON2 in patients with T2DM. Present study was a randomized, controlled double-blind trial. Thirty-six patients with T2DM were randomly allocated to receive 2 g/day EPA (n = 18) or placebo (n = 18) for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences between 2 groups concerning demographic or biochemical variables, and dietary intakes as well (p > 0.05). However, patients received EPA showed a significant increase in the gene expression of PON2 compared with placebo group (p = 0.027). In addition, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly after EPA supplementation compared with control group. Taken together, supplementation with 2 g/day EPA could be atheroprotective via the upregulation of PON2 in patients with T2DM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Identifier: NCT03258840

Aryldialkylphosphatase , Atherosclerosis , Blood Glucose , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dyslipidemias , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fasting , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Gene Expression , Humans , Lipoproteins , Metabolic Diseases , Oxidative Stress , Up-Regulation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760613


BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Adequate dietary fatty acid intake is important for toddlers between 12–24 months of age, as this is a period of dietary transition in conjunction with rapid growth and development; however, actual fatty acid intake during this period seldom has been explored. This study was conducted to assess the intake status of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids by toddlers during the 12–24-month period using 2010–2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of 12–24-month-old toddlers (n = 544) was used to estimate the intakes of α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6), and arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6), as well as the major dietary sources of each. The results were compared with the expected intake for exclusively breastfed infants in the first 6 months of life and available dietary recommendations. RESULTS: Mean daily intakes of ALA, EPA, DHA, LA, and AA were 529.9, 22.4, 37.0, 3907.6, and 20.0 mg/day, respectively. Dietary intakes of these fatty acids fell below the expected intake for 0–5-month-old exclusively breastfed infants. In particular, DHA and AA intakes were 4 to 5 times lower. The dietary assessment indicated that the mean intake of essential fatty acids ALA and LA was below the European and the FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, particularly for DHA, which was approximately 30% and 14–16% lower, respectively. The key sources of the essential fatty acids, DHA, and AA were soy (28.2%), fish (97.3%), and animals (53.7%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the prevailing view of DHA and AA requirements on early brain development, there remains considerable room for improvement in their intakes in the diets of Korean toddlers. Further studies are warranted to explore how increasing dietary intakes of DHA and AA could benefit brain development during infancy and early childhood.

Animals , Arachidonic Acid , Brain , Diet , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Essential , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Growth and Development , Humans , Infant , Korea , Linoleic Acid , Nutrition Surveys
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 421-428, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950481


ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 0.03% to­pical tacrolimus in combination with oral omega (ω) 3 with different ratios of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and antioxidants as adjuvant in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in dogs. Methods: Forty-five dogs with KCS were evaluated monthly for 6 months. Evaluations included performance of the Schirmer tear, fluorescein, and lissamine green tests. Tear film break-up time (TBUT) was assessed. Conjunctival cytology was evaluated at the beginning, middle, and end of the study. Conjunctiva was biopsied at the beginning and end of the study. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (n=15): Group T (topical tacrolimus 0.03%), Group TO (topical tacrolimus + ω-1.5 EPA: 1 DHA), or Group TOA (topical tacrolimus + ω-1 EPA:4.5 DHA + antioxidants). Results: There was a significant improvement in clinical signs in all groups. TBUT increased throughout treatment in all groups; this effect was most pronounced in Group TO. Cytological analysis performed at the end of the study period, showed decreased levels of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and metaplastic and squamous cells in Groups T, TO, and TOA. Histological analysis performed at the end of the study period showed decreased levels of lymphocytes and neutrophils and increased levels of goblet cells. These effects were most pronounced in Group TO. Conclusion: Oral treatment with ω-3 containing a higher proportion of EPA than DHA increased the effectiveness of topical tacrolimus 0.03% in the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in dogs.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do tacrolimus 0,03% tópico associado ao ômega 3 oral, com diferentes proporções de ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA), ácidos docosa-hexaenoicos (DHA) e antioxidantes, como adjuvante no tratamento de cães acometidos por ceratoconjuntivite seca. Métodos: Quarenta e cinco cães atendidos no Hospital Veterinário da UNOESTE portadores de ceratoconjuntivite seca foram avaliados mensalmente por 6 meses pelo Teste Lacrimal de Schirmer, Teste de Fluoresceína, Tempo de Ruptura do Filme Lacrimal, Teste de Rosa Bengala, citologia da conjuntiva no início, meio e fim do projeto e biopsia da conjuntiva no início e final do projeto. Os cães foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos (n=15): grupo T (tacrolimus 0,03% tópico), grupo TO (tacrolimus + ômegas 1.5 EPA/1 DHA oral) e grupo TOA (tacrolimus + ômegas 1 EPA/4,5 DHA + antioxidantes oral). Resultados: Houve uma melhora significativa nos sinais clínicos em ambos os grupos. No tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal todos os grupos apresentaram aumento no decorrer do tratamento, sendo que o grupo TO foi o que apresentou melhor resultado em todos momentos quando comparado aos demais grupos. Ao final do experimento, os grupos T, TO e TOA apresentaram na análise citológica, diminuição de linfócitos, neutrófilos, células metaplásicas e escamosas, e na análise histopatológica, diminuição de linfócitos e neutrófilos e aumento das células caliciformes, com o grupo TO com melhor desempenho. Conclusão: O tratamento oral com ω-3 contendo uma maior proporção de EPA do que o DHA aumentou a eficácia do tacrolimus tópico 0,03% no tratamento de ceratoconjuntivite sicca em cães.

Animals , Dogs , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/administration & dosage , Docosahexaenoic Acids/administration & dosage , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca/veterinary , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca/drug therapy , Administration, Topical , Treatment Outcome , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 68(1): 51-58, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1016810


The western diet is characterized by a high consumption of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and reduced n-3PUFAs, this phenomenon has been parallel to the increase in the prevalence of obesity. The studies that have analyzed the association between serum PUFAs and the influence on the development of adiposity in children is limited and the findings are controversial. The present study compared the ARA/EPA (arachidonic/eicosapentaenoic) PUFA ratio in children with healthy weight vs. obesity in a cross-sectional study. Thirty children were diagnosed with obesity and 32 children with healthy weight determined through the age-specific body mass index (BMI) Z score, according to the WHO. The variables included were weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and the serum ARA/EPA ratio. The Student's t test and Pearson correlation were performed and statistical significance was set at a p <0.05. The project was approved by the local ethics committee of the hospital Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The serum ARA/EPA ratio was significantly higher in children with obesity compared with healthy weight (9.0 vs 5.4; p = 0.012). A statistically significant difference was observed between healthy weight boys and obese boys (p=0.003). Furthermore, the ARA/EPA ratio correlated positively with weight (r=0.336; p=0.008), BMI (r=0.373; p=0.003), WC (r=0.319; p=0.012) and cardio-metabolic risk (r=0.302; p=0.017). When performing a multivariate regression analysis, we identified that BMI was the only variable that remained significant and predicted the ARA/EPA ratio. In conclusion, the serum ARA/EPA ratio differed significantly in relation to weight and was higher in the obese children(AU)

La dieta occidental se caracteriza por un alto consumo de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados n-6(AGPI) y AGPIn-3 reducidos, fenómeno que ha sido paralelo al aumento en la prevalencia de la obesidad. Los estudios que han analizado la asociación entre AGPN en suero y adiposidad en niños son limitados y con hallazgos inconsistentes. El presente estudio comparó la relación ARA/EPA (ácido araquidónico/eicosapentaenoico) AGPI en niños con peso normal vs. obesidad. Es un estudio transversal donde treinta niños fueron diagnosticados con obesidad y 32 niños con peso normal determinado mediante el puntaje z del IMC para la edad, de acuerdo a la OMS. Las variables incluidas fueron peso, IMC, circunferencia de cintura (CC) y la relación ARA/EPA en suero. Se realizó prueba de t de Student y correlación de Pearson, la significación estadística se estableció en p <0,05. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética local del Hospital del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. La relación ARA/EPA en suero fue significativamente mayor en niños con obesidad en comparación con el peso normal (9,0 frente a 5,4; p = 0,012). Además, la relación ARA/EPA se correlacionó positivamente con el peso (r = 0.336; p = 0.008), IMC (r = 0.373; p = 0.003), CC (r = 0.319; p = 0.012). Al realizar un análisis de regresión multivariable, identificamos que el IMC fue la variable predictora que permaneció significativa. En conclusión, la relación de suero ARA/EPA fue significativamente mayor en los niños con obesidad(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Body Mass Index , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analysis , Arachidonic Acid/analysis , Obesity/physiopathology , Body Weights and Measures , Anthropometry , Diet, High-Fat
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714108


BACKGROUND: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effects of omega-3 supplementation on adipocytokine levels in adult prediabetic and diabetic individuals. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Trial Register, World Health Organization Clinical Trial Registry Platform, and Registry from inception to August 1, 2017 for randomized controlled trials. Pooled effects of interventions were assessed as mean difference using random effects model. We conducted a sensitivity, publication bias and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: Fourteen studies individuals (n = 685) were included in the meta-analysis. Omega-3 supplementation increased levels of adiponectin (0.48 µg/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.68; P < 0.00001, n = 10 trials), but effects disappeared after sensitivity analysis. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) levels were reduced (−1.71; 95% CI, −3.38 to −0.14; P = 0.03, n = 8 trials). Treatment duration shorter than 12 weeks was associated with greater reduction than longer treatment duration. Levels of other adipocytokines were not significantly affected. Publication bias could generally not be excluded. CONCLUSION: Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation may increase adiponectin and reduce TNF-α levels in this population group. However, due to overall study heterogeneity and potential publication bias, a cautious interpretation is needed.

Adipokines , Adiponectin , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Population Characteristics , Population Groups , Prediabetic State , Publication Bias , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , World Health Organization
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716064


This study attempted to investigate whether nutrient and food intake were related with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in adults and elderly over 50 years of age in Korea. Questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were conducted on general aspects of the research, and food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were conducted to determine nutritional status. The relative theta power (RTP) through electroencephalography (EEG) measurements, neurocognitive function test (NFT; CNS Vital Signs), and cognitive function was measured. The MCI group consumed significantly lower C18:4, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) among the N-3 fatty acids, N-6 fatty acids dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA), mono unsaturated fatty acids, C22:1, biotin, vitamin D in the nutrients, and sweet potato (12.35g/day, p = 0.015), mackerel (3.38g/day, p = 0.017), mandarin orange (p = 0.016), persimmon (p = 0.013) and apple (p = 0.023) in the food than the normal group did. And the MCI group consumed salted fish (3.14g/day, p = 0.041) and ice-cream (5.01g/day, p = 0.050) at a significantly higher level. Delayed verbal score, delayed visual score, and verbal memory score of the NFT and RTP values of the prefrontal cortex among the EEGs were significantly lower in the MCI group compared to those in the normal group. From this study, we found that nutrient and food intake are closely related to MCI in Korean aged 50 years and older, but more human studies are needed to verify these findings.

Adult , Aged , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Biotin , Citrus sinensis , Cognition , Diospyros , Eating , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Electroencephalography , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Omega-6 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Humans , Ipomoea batatas , Korea , Memory , Cognitive Dysfunction , Nutritional Status , Perciformes , Prefrontal Cortex , Vitamin D
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 58-63, nov. 2017. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021458


Background: Mutation breeding is one of the most important routes to achieving high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) productivity using Schizochytrium. However, few selection strategies have been reported that aim to generate a high DHA content in Schizochytrium lipids. Results: First, culture temperature altered the butanol tolerance of Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1. Second, S. limacinum E8 was obtained by selecting mutants with high butanol tolerance. This mutant exhibited a 17.97% lower proportion of DHA than the parent strain S. limacinum B4D1. Third, a negative selection strategy was designed in which S. limacinum F6, a mutant with poor butanol tolerance, was obtained. The proportion of DHA in S. limacinum F6 was 11.22% higher than that of parent strain S. limacinum B4D1. Finally, the performances of S. limacinum B4D1, E8 and F6 were compared. These three strains had different fatty acid profiles, but there was no statistical difference in their biomasses and lipid yields. Conclusion: It was feasible to identified the relative DHA content of S. limacinum mutants based on their butanol tolerance.

Docosahexaenoic Acids/biosynthesis , Butanols/metabolism , Stramenopiles/genetics , Stramenopiles/metabolism , Selection, Genetic , Temperature , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/metabolism , Biomass , Butanols/toxicity , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Fatty Acids/chemistry , Stramenopiles/drug effects , Fermentation , Mutation
Acta neurol. colomb ; 33(1): 37-45, ene.-mar. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886421


RESUMEN OBJETIVOS: Evaluar los efectos del consumo de ácidos grasos omega 3 en forma de suplementos, complementos o alimentos sobre la función cognitiva de los adultos. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura en las bases de datos Medline y Embase, buscando ensayos clínicos, estudios observacionales, revisiones sistemáticas y estudios experimentales que relacionaran los ácidos grasos omega 3 con función cognitiva y Alzheimer. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios relacionó la suplementación de cápsulas con omega 3, el consumo de pescado u otros alimentos con contenido de omega 3, con resultados en pruebas de función cognitiva, desenlace de enfermedad o imágenes diagnósticas, encontrando en general efectos benéficos, que parecen ser mayores en personas sanas y con mejor función cognitiva de base. Hubo diferencias en los resultados encontrados en los ensayos clínicos y revisiones sistemáticas, que podrían atribuirse a la variabilidad en las dosis de la suplementación, el tiempo de seguimiento y la manera en que se midió la función y el deterioro cognitivo. CONCLUSIÓN: El consumo de ácidos grasos omega 3 en forma de suplementos, complementos o alimentos ricos en estos como el pescado parece tener efectos benéficos en la función cognitiva de las personas adultas.

SUMMARY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of omega 3 fatty acids consumption in the form of dietary supplement, complement or food-products presentation on adult cognitive function. METHODS: A literature review in two databases (Medline and Embase) was undertaken, searching for clinical trials, observational studies, systematic reviews and experimental studies concerning omega-3 fatty acids and their relation with cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: Most studies linked supplementation with omega-3 capsules and consumption of fish and other omega-3 containing foods with results in cognitive function testing, outcomes in diseases or diagnostic imaging and found beneficial effects, which seem to be stronger in healthier persons with better cognitive function at baseline. There were differences in the results found in clinical trials and systematic reviews, which could be attributable to the variability in the supplementation dose, the length of follow-up and the methods used to assess cognitive function and decline. CONCLUSION: The use of omega-3 fatty acids in supplement, complement or food-products presentation seems to have beneficial effects in the cognitive function of healthy adults.

Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Cognition , Fatty Acids , Alzheimer Disease
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166005


Colorectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that there is an association between consumption of dietary fat and colon cancer risk. Not only the amount but also the type and the ratio of fatty acids comprising dietary fats consumed have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of colon cancer. Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been known to inhibit development of colon cancer by downregulating the expression of genes involved in colon carcinogenesis and also by altering the membrane lipid composition. Data from laboratory, epidemiological, and clinical studies substantiate the beneficial role of n-3 PUFAs in preventing colitis and subsequent development of colon cancer. In addition, recent studies suggest that some n-3 PUFAs can be effective as an adjuvant with chemotherapeutic agents and other natural anticancer compounds in the management of colon cancer. In this review, we discuss chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of fish oil derived long chain n-3 PUFAs, particularly EPA and DHA, with focus on synergetic effects of which they exert when combined with chemotherapeutic agents and other natural compounds.

Carcinogenesis , Colitis , Colon , Colonic Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Dietary Fats , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Fish Oils , Membranes , Therapeutic Uses
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297224


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the change in the expression of tight junction protein ZO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and the protective effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (E.coli) LF82 infection.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Caco-2 cell line was used to establish an in vitro model of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 cells were divided into EPA treatment groups (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA) and EPA (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μmol/L EPA)+E.coli LF82 treatment (0, 6, and 12 hours) groups. A microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the cells. MTT assay was used to determine the cell growth curve. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) at both sides of the cell membrane was compared to evaluate the Caco-2 cell model. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to investigate the effects of different concentrations of EPA on the survival rate and apoptosis rate of Caco-2 cells. RT-qPCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells after EPA and/or E.coli LF82 treatment. ELISA was used to measure the change in the level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in culture supernatant.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After EPA treatment (25 and 50 μmol/L), the proliferation of Caco-2 cells was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The EPA treatment (100 and 200 μmol/L) groups had a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of the cells were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The EPA treatment (100 and 200 μmol/L) groups had a significant increase in cell apoptosis rate compared with the control group (P<0.05). The 6- and 12-hour E.coli LF82 treatment groups had decreasing mRNA expression of ZO-1 in Caco-2 cells over the time of treatment and had significantly lower mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the untreated group (P<0.05). The Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed an increase in the mRNA expression of ZO-1 with the increasing concentration of EPA, as well as significantly higher mRNA expression of ZO-1 than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (P<0.05). The Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone for 6 or 12 hours had increasing secretion of TNF-α over the time of treatment and had significantly higher secretion than the untreated Caco-2 cells (P<0.05). The Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 and 25 or 50 μmol/L EPA for 6 or 12 hours showed a reduction in the secretion of TNF-α with the increasing concentration of EPA and had significantly lower secretion than the Caco-2 cells treated with E.coli LF82 alone (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>EPA can effectively prevent the destruction of tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells induced by E.coli LF82 infection and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory factors. Therefore, it has a certain protective effect on intestinal mucosal barrier.</p>

Apoptosis , Caco-2 Cells , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Virulence , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa , Metabolism , Microbiology , RNA, Messenger , Tight Junctions , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Bodily Secretions , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Genetics
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-102837


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Korean Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) education program on oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and serum homocysteine (Hcy) level in elderly Korean women. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study employing non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design. The DASH group (n=27) underwent the DASH education program for 12 weeks, whereas the control group (n=21) was provided one education session. The survey was conducted before and after the intervention period. RESULTS: In DASH group, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intakes significantly increased after the intervention as compared to prior to the intervention. No significant differences were found in the control group. After the intervention, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and Hcy levels significantly decreased in the DASH group but not in the control group. CONCLUSION: The DASH education program was effective in reducing oxidative stress and Hcy levels in elderly Korean women.

Aged , Antioxidants , Diet , Education , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Female , Homocysteine , Humans , Hypertension , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Oxidative Stress
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016; 29 (2): 497-502
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-176382


The viscera of 10 kinds of marine fishes were collected for fish oil extraction and detection of DHA and EPA, two most important polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fish oil extraction ratio for the evaluated fishes varied from 0.95% to 10.18% [wt%]. Pseudosciaena crocea presented the highest fish oil yield, followed by Mustelus manazo, Hippoglossus and Sciaenopsocellatus. A gas chromatography method was then established for analysis of EPA/DHA. The EPA concentration [in methyl ester form] in the fish oil varied from 1.39 to 10.65[mg/g]. Epinephelus awoara presented the highest EPA concentration [p<0.05], followed by Epinephelussp, Sciaenopsocellatus and Hippoglossus. The DHA concentration [in methyl ester form] in the fish oil varied from 0.58 to 37.02 [mg/g]. Epinephelus awoara presented the highest DHA concentration [p<0.05], followed by Sciaenopsocellatus, Pseudosciaena crocea and Hippoglossus. No strict positive correlation between the EPA/DHA concentration and the sea depth where the fish live was observed. The fishes living in middle depth presented highest EPA/DHA concentration

Animals , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/analysis , Docosahexaenoic Acids/analysis , Viscera , Chromatography, Gas
Vitae (Medellín) ; 23(3): 194-201, 2016. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-988497


Antecedentes: Los ácidos grasos de la familia omega 3 son ampliamente estudiados actualmente por los diversos efectos que tienen sobre los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad cardiovascular. La comida de mar es la principal fuente natural de estos compuestos. Objetivos: En este artículo se verifico la exactitud en la extracción de grasa en pescado, entre dos métodos, utilizando uno de los más empleados como es el B&D de 1959, comparado con el SOXTEC, un método más actualizado con equipos más modernos y se validó el método de cuantificación de algunos AG w3 por cromatografía de gases. Métodos: Se realizó la extracción de grasa por los métodos SOXTEC y Bligh & Dyer, con la utilización de un Material de Referencia Certificado (SMR 1946), para evaluar la exactitud, posteriormente se validó un método de cuantificación de los ácidos grasos α-Linolénico, Eicosapentaenoico y Docosahexaenoico por cromatografía de gases. Resultados: Se encontró que el método propuesto por Bligh & Dyer en 1959 fue el más exacto, ya que mostró mejores porcentajes de recuperación. También se encontró que la validación del método de cuantificación de los ácidos grasos más importantes de la familia omega 3 cumplió con todos los parámetros evaluados en la validación. Conclusión: En conclusión siendo el SOXTEC un método más moderno el cual emplea equipos de última tecnología, es el Bligh & Dyer el método más efectivo para la extracción de la grasa en pescado y la cromatografía de gases permite la cuantificación de AG con precisión y exactitud, ya que cumple con los parámetros evaluados.

Background: Omega 3 family fatty acids are currently widely studied for the diverse effects they have on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Seafood is the main natural source of these compounds. Objetives: In this paper the accuracy is verified on the fat extraction in fish, between two methods, using one of the most employees as it is the Bligh & Dyer since 1959, compared with SOXTEC, one more updated method with more modern equipment and validated quantification method for some omega 3 fatty acids by gas chromatography. Methods: Fat extraction was performed by SOXTEC and Bligh & Dyer with the use of a Certified Reference Material (SRM 1946). After having assessed the accuracy of both systems, a quantification method of α-Linolenic, Eicosapentaenoic, and Docosahexaenoic fatty acids was validated through gas chromatography. Results: It was found that the method proposed by Bligh & Dyer in 1959 is the most accurate because it showed better recovery percentages. Also, it was found that the quantification validation method of the most important omega 3 fatty acids complies with every parameter assessed throughout the validation. Conclusions: In conclusion SOXTEC being a more modern method which uses the latest technology, the Bligh & Dyer is the most effective method for removing fat in fish and gas chromatography allows quantification of fatty acids with precision and accuracy as meets the evaluated parameters.

Humans , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Docosahexaenoic Acids , Chromatography, Gas
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 14 (1): 149-157
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-154876


Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world, and an important cause of gastrointestinal disorders, may be involved in the pathogenesis of some extra-gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as an increase in blood levels of certain inflammatory markers. Anti-bacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 fatty acids have been studied in several research studies. The purpose of the present study was the comparison of the effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication, serum levels of some inflammatory markers and total antioxidant capacity. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 97 Helicobacter pylori positive patients [64 patients in the two intervention groups and 33 in the control group], received 2 grams daily of Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Docosahexaenoic Acid or Medium Chain Triglyceride oil as placebo, along with conventional tetra-drug Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen, for 12 weeks. Helicobacter pylori eradication test and measurement of concentration of interleukine-6, interleukine-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and total antioxidant capacity were performed after the intervention. There was no significant difference in eradication rate of the infection, levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity among the three groups, while the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were statistically different. Eicosapentaenoic Acid or Docosahexaenoic Acid supplementation had no significant differential impact on the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, and serum levels of interleukine-6 and total antioxidant capacity. However, it had a desirable effect on the levels of interleukine-8 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Helicobacter pylori positive patients

Humans , Female , Male , Helicobacter pylori , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/pharmacology , Docosahexaenoic Acids/pharmacology , Inflammation , Antioxidants , Double-Blind Method , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , C-Reactive Protein
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-12341


Cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a hypercatabolic state, characterized by reduced appetite and weight loss due to ongoing loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue. CACS occurs mainly in patients with advanced cancer; thus, weight loss in CACS is often associated with poor prognosis and decreased survival. A large number of studies have been conducted on various pharmacologic agents for palliation of cancer-related anorexia. The purpose of this article is to review the pre-existing pharmacologic agents used for CACS and to evaluate the evidence from current studies on each pharmacologic agent. First, appetite stimulants such as corticosteroids, progestins, cyproheptadine, and cannabinoid have been shown to be beneficial by improving appetite and helping with weight changes even if they had no effect on survival rate. Several other agents with anti-inflammatory effects (e.g., eicosapentaenoic acid, thalidomide, and melatonin), prokinetic agents (e.g., metoclopramide), anabolic agents (e.g., androgens and growth hormone), antipsychotics (e.g., mirtazapine and olanzapine), and antiemetics have also been studied in patients in CACS; however further investigations would be required to confirm the beneficial effects.

Adipose Tissue , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Anabolic Agents , Androgens , Anorexia , Antiemetics , Antipsychotic Agents , Appetite , Appetite Stimulants , Cachexia , Cyproheptadine , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Progestins , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Thalidomide , Weight Loss
Journal of Stroke ; : 168-176, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24744


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Alterations in blood fatty acid (FA) composition are associated with cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether plasma FA composition was related to stroke severity and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 156 patients with first-episode cerebral infarction, within 7 days of symptom onset. The proportion of FAs was analyzed using gas chromatography, and the summation of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3-PUFA), 18:3 omega3 alpha-linolenic acid, 20:3 omega3 eicosatrienoic acid, 20:5 omega3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and 22:6 omega3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was reported as Sigmaomega3-PUFAs. Stroke severity was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission. Poor functional outcome was defined by modified Rankin scale (mRS) > or =3 at three months after the index stroke. RESULTS: Lower proportions of EPA (beta=-0.751), DHA (beta=-0.610), and Sigmaomega3-PUFAs (beta=-0.462) were independently associated with higher NIHSS score, after adjusting for stroke subtype, hemoglobin, high density lipoprotein, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting glucose, 16:0 palmitic acid, and Sigmasaturated fatty acids. Moreover, a lower proportion of DHA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04-0.88), and Sigmaomega3-PUFAs (OR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.84) showed an independent relationship with poor functional outcome after adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, NIHSS score, stroke subtype, and 16:0 palmitic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that omega3-PUFAs correlated with stroke severity on admission and functional outcomes at 3 months. omega3-PUFAs are potential blood biomarkers for prognosis of acute non-cardiogenic ischemic stroke patients.

alpha-Linolenic Acid , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cerebral Infarction , Chromatography, Gas , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fasting , Fatty Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Glucose , Humans , Lipoproteins , Palmitic Acid , Plasma , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
Rev. chil. nutr ; 41(3): 319-327, set. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-728341


ω-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFA) of marine origin, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) present in fatty fish or blue fish, have different beneficial effects on human health especially at the cardiovascular level. From the late observations in the 1960s, basic, clinic and epidemiological evidence have established significant cardio protective effects for these fatty acids in reducing the morbidity and mortality from the disease. The cardiovascular benefits of ω-3 LCPUFA of marine origin are targeted on various inflammatory and metabolic pathways which are regulated by these fatty acids, particularly in the vascular endothelium, the inflammatory response and cardiac cells activity. EPA and DHA are transformed into a variety of eicosanoids and docosanoids which have strong anti-inflammatory actions antagonizing the proinflammatory actions of ω-6 LCPUFA. The different molecular mechanisms by which these fatty acids exert cardio protective effects and the clinical and epidemiological evidence demonstrating the reduction in the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases are discussed.

Los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga ω-3 (AGPICL ω-3) de origen marino, principalmente el ácido eicosapentaenoico (EPA) y el ácido docosahexaenoico (DHA), presentes especialmente en pescados grasos o azules, producen diversos efectos saludables en la salud humana, especialmente a nivel cardiovascular. Desde la década de 1960 han surgido múltiples evidencias básico-clínicas y epidemiológicas que establecen que estos ácidos grasos ejercen un significativo efecto cardioprotector, produciendo una disminución de la morbilidad y de la mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular. El EPA y el DHA son transformados eicosanoides y docosanoides que tienen poderosos efectos antiinflamatorios y que antagonizan el efecto proinflamatorio de AGPICL ω-6. Los beneficios a nivel cardiovascular atribuidos a los AGPICL ω-3 de origen marino se centran, principalmente, en la regulación de vías metabólicas de la respuesta inflamatoria en el endotelio vascular y en la actividad de las células cardíacas. Esta revisión discute las diferentes evidencias metabólicas, clínicas y epidemiológicas que demuestran como el consumo de AGPICL ω-3 de origen marino puede reducir la morbilidad y mortalidad por enfermedad cardiovascular.

Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Docosahexaenoic Acids , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated , Diet, Healthy
Oman Medical Journal. 2014; 29 (1): 39-45
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138199


The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid combined with vitamin C in comparison with the pure form of eicosapentaenoic acid on the serum concentration of malondialdehyde, erythrocyte activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the serum level of total antioxidant capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eighty one male diabetic patients, aged 33-63 years, were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups. The subjects consumed 500 mg/d pure eicosapentaenoic acid, 200 mg/d vitamin C, 500 mg eicosapentaenoic acid and 200 mg/d vitamin C or placebo depending on their groups. In fasting blood samples, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were determined via the enzymatic method [Randox kit] and the serum total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde and vitamin C concentrations were estimated by colorimetric methods. Administration of pure eicosapentaenoic acid in diabetic patients increased superoxide dismutase by 4%, glutathione peroxidase 53%, total antioxidant capacity 36% and decreased malondialdehyde significantly by 25%. Prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid combined with vitamin C demonstrated a significant increment for superoxide dismutase activity by 3% and for glutathione peroxidase activity by 52% during the study, but no significant change was seen for total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde, respectively. There was a significant decrease in FBS and HbA[1c] following prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid with/without vitamin C along the study, although these changes were not significant between the study groups. It is concluded that prescription of eicosapentaenoic acid in the pure form reduces oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients; albeit, it does not alleviate hyperglycemia. Combination of vitamin C and eicosapentaenoic acid does not improve antioxidant property of eicosapentaenoic acid

Humans , Male , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Ascorbic Acid , Superoxide Dismutase , Glutathione Peroxidase , Antioxidants , Malondialdehyde
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190167


PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the impact of nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with one-year dietary supplementation with omega (omega)-3 on the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and arachidonic acid (AA). METHODS: Fifteen patients with chronic generalized periodontitis were treated with scaling and root planing. The test group consisted of seven patients (43.1+/-6.0 years) supplemented with omega-3, consisting of EPA plus DHA, three capsules, each of 300 mg of omega-3 (180-mg EPA/120-mg DHA), for 12 months. The control group was composed of eight patients (46.1+/-11.6 years) that took a placebo capsule for 12 months. The periodontal examination and the serum levels of DPA, EPA, DHA, and AA were performed at baseline (T0), and 4 (T1), and 12 (T2) months after therapy. RESULTS: In the test group, AA and DPA levels had been reduced significantly at T1 (P<0.05). AA and EPA levels had been increased significantly at T2 (P<0.05). The DeltaEPA was significantly higher in the test compared to the placebo group at T2-T0 (P=0.02). The AA/EPA had decreased significantly at T1 and T2 relative to baseline (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with omega-3 supplementation significantly increased the EPA levels and decreased the AA/EPA ratio in serum after one year follow-up. However, no effect on the clinical outcome of periodontal therapy was observed.

Arachidonic Acid , Capsules , Dietary Supplements , Eicosapentaenoic Acid , Fatty Acids , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Periodontitis , Root Planing