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Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 74(3): 309-317, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1407911


Resumen Los avances en la cirugía hepática de los últimos años han permitido resecciones hepáticas más extensa y complejas para el tratamiento de diferentes patologías del hígado sin un aumento excesivo de la morbimortalidad perioperatoria. El desarrollo de diferentes técnicas, tecnologías y herramientas para la evaluación preoperatoria han mejorado la planificación quirúrgica con el uso por ejemplo de las tecnologías audiovisuales e impresión de modelos en 3 dimensiones (3D) de alta fidelidad. Otros avances, han permitido realizar una mejor evaluación funcional del parénquima hepático y una caracterización más precisa de las lesiones con el uso por ejemplo de verde de indocianina, cintigrafía hepática y resonancia magnética con contraste hepatoespecífico. Este artículo describe algunos de los nuevos avances en la evaluación y planificación preoperatoria en cirugía hepática.

Advances in liver surgery in recent years have made it possible to achieve more extensive and complex liver resections for the treatment of different liver diseases without an excessive increase in perioperative morbidity and mortality. The development of different techniques, technologies and tools for preoperative evaluation have improved surgical planning with the use, for example, of audiovisual technologies and printing of high-fidelity 3-dimensional (3D) models. Other advances have allowed a better functional evaluation of the liver parenchyma and a more precise characterization of the lesions with the use, for example of indocyanine green or liver scintigraphy and magnetic resonance with hepatospecific contrast. This article describes some of the new advances in preoperative evaluation and planning in liver surgery.

Humans , Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Radionuclide Imaging , Liver Failure , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Hepatectomy , Indocyanine Green
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 207-212, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928530


This study explored the usefulness of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) in the early assessment of corpora cavernosa fibrosis (CCF). New Zealand male rabbits were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) was injected into the dorsal penis tissue of rabbits in the experimental group. Conventional ultrasound and 2D-SWE examinations were performed before and 20 days after injection. Penile histological analysis was performed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, sirius red staining, and immunohistochemistry. Measurement of 2D-SWE examination results was performed using shear wave elastography quantitative measurement (SWQ). Histological analysis outcomes were the proportion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), collagen fibers (CFs), collagen type I (Col I), and collagen type III (Col III), as well as the SMCs/CFs ratio, measured by sirius red staining. Other histological analysis outcomes were the positive area proportion (PAP) of TGF-β1 (PAPT), fibronectin (PAPF), and Col III (PAPC), measured by immunohistochemistry. After recombinant human TGF-β1 injection, SWQ was higher in the experimental group than that in the control group (P < 0.001); however, there were no differences in conventional ultrasound results. There were significant differences in histological outcomes between the two groups (all P < 0.05). These results indicated that 2D-SWE was superior for identifying early histological changes in CCF.

Animals , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Fibrosis , Male , Penis/pathology , Rabbits , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 290-296, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935940


Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, establish a diagnostic model, and value of ultrasound attenuation parameters (UAP) to diagnose hepatic steatosis in metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and its relevant disorders. Methods: 3770 cases were selected from the Health Examination Center of the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University between October to December 2020. MAFLD diagnosis was based on the Asia-Pacific region MAFLD clinical diagnosis and treatment guidelines. The degree of hepatic steatosis was divided into mild, moderate and severe according to ultrasound imaging. UAP, clinical characteristic indexes, serum biochemical indexes, characteristics of hepatic steatosis and related factors were compared and analyzed in MAFLD patients and healthy controls. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the independent risk factors affecting the progression of hepatic steatosis in MAFLD to establish the diagnostic model. The clinical efficacy of UAP and the new model in diagnosing MAFLD was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). One-way ANOVA was used to compare means among multiple groups. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare non-normally distributed measurement data between the two groups, and rank-sum test was used to compare multiple groups. χ2 test was used to compare count data between groups. Results: Among the 3 770 cases, 650 were MAFLD, with a prevalence rate of 17.24%, and the highest prevalence was 37.23% in the age group of 60-69. The prevalence rate was significantly higher in male than female (30.34% vs. 9.17%). Age-sex analysis showed that the prevalence rate in males aged 30-69 years was 38.26%, and that in females aged over 60 years was 31.94%. UAP was significantly higher in patients with MAFLD than healthy controls (278.55 dB/m vs. 220.90 dB/m, Z=-12.592, P<0.001), and an increasing trend with increased degree of hepatic steatosis (mild:257.20 dB/m, moderate:286.20 dB/m, and severe: 315.00 dB/m) were observed. The cut-off values of UAP for the diagnosis of mild, moderate and severe hepatic steatosis were 243≤UAP<258 dB/m, 258≤UAP<293 dB/m, ≥293 dB/m in MAFLD. The sensitivity and specificity were 67.20%, 93.60%, 95.90%, and 82.10%, 72.00%, and 84.80%, respectively. UAP, alanine aminotransferase and fasting blood glucose were independent risk factors for the progression of hepatic steatosis in MAFLD. The combined MAFLD classification model (UAG model) was established. The AUC of mild, moderate and severe hepatic steatosis in MAFLD were 0.906, 0.907, and 0.946, respectively, and the sensitivity and specificity were 76.50%, 82.10%, 98.00%, and 90.80%, 83.30% and 76.10%, respectively. Conclusion: MAFLD is a common disease in the general population, with a higher incidence in male and elderly female over 30 years of age. UAP can be used as a new noninvasive diagnostic technique to evaluate hepatic steatosis in MAFLD. The UAG model has a good diagnostic efficacy on MAFLD and its relevant disorders, and thus can be used as a guide for evaluating clinical diagnosis and prognosis.

Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Female , Humans , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography/methods
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 81-86, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935912


Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of transient elastography, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis index based on 4 factors (FIB-4) for liver fibrosis in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hunan Children's Hospital between August 2015 to October 2020 to collect liver tissue pathological and clinical data. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) was used to analyze the diagnostic value of liver stiffness measurement (LSM), APRI and FIB-4 in the diagnosis of different stages of liver fibrosis caused by NAFLD in children. Results: The area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of LSM, APRI and FIB-4 for diagnosing liver fibrosis (S≥1) were 0.701 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.579 ~ 0.822, P = 0.011], 0.606 (95%CI: 0.436 ~ 0.775, P = 0.182), and 0.568 (95%CI: 0.397 ~ 0.740, P = 0.387), respectively. The best cut-off values were 6.65 kPa, 21.20, and 0.18, respectively. The AUCs value of LSM, APRI, and FIB-4 for diagnosing significant liver fibrosis (S≥ 2) were 0.660 (95% CI: 0.552 ~ 0.768, P = 0.006), 0.578 (95% CI: 0.464 ~ 0.691, P = 0.182) and 0.541 (95% CI: 0.427 ~ 0.655, P = 0.482), respectively. The best cut-off values were 7.35kpa, 24.78 and 0.22, respectively. The AUCs value of LSM, APRI and FIB-4 for the diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis (S≥ 3) were 0.639 (95% CI: 0.446 ~ 0.832, P = 0.134), 0.613 (95% CI: 0.447 ~ 0.779, P = 0.223) and 0.587 (95% CI: 0.411 ~ 0.764, P = 0.346), respectively. The best cut-off values were 8.55kpa, 26.66 and 0.27, respectively. Conclusion: The transient elastography technique has a better diagnostic value than APRI and FIB-4 for liver fibrosis in children with NAFLD.

Aspartate Aminotransferases , Biomarkers , Child , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Function Tests , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 532-546, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927530


For the detection of steatosis, quantitative ultrasound imaging techniques have achieved great progress in past years. Magnetic resonance imaging proton density fat fraction is currently the most accurate test to detect hepatic steatosis. Some blood biomarkers correlate with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, but the accuracy is modest. Regarding liver fibrosis, liver stiffness measurement by transient elastography (TE) has high accuracy and is widely used across the world. Magnetic resonance elastography is marginally better than TE but is limited by its cost and availability. Several blood biomarkers of fibrosis have been used in clinical trials and hold promise for selecting patients for treatment and monitoring treatment response. This article reviews new developments in the non-invasive assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Accumulating evidence suggests that various non-invasive tests can be used to diagnose NAFLD, assess its severity, and predict the prognosis. Further studies are needed to determine the role of the tests as monitoring tools. We cannot overemphasize the importance of context in selecting appropriate tests.

Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Humans , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(6): 730-738, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349983


ABSTRACT Objective: Identifying significant fibrosis is crucial to evaluate the prognosis and therapeutic interventions in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We assessed the performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, APRI, FIB-4, Forns, NFS and BARD scores in determining liver fibrosis in severe obesity. Subjects and methods: A prospective study included 108 patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Liver biopsy specimens were obtained intraoperatively and classified according to the NAFLD Activity Score. Patients were assessed with serological markers and shear wave velocity of the liver was measured with the Siemens S2000 ultrasound system preoperatively. Optimal cut-off values were determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Results: In the entire cohort prevalence of NAFLD was 80.6%, steatohepatitis 25.9% and significant fibrosis 19.4%. The best tests for predicting significant fibrosis were FIB-4 and Forns scores (both AUROC 0.78), followed by APRI (AUROC 0.74), NFS (AUROC 0.68), BARD (AUROC 0.64) and ARFI (AUROC 0.62). ARFI elastography was successful in 73% of the patients. Higher body mass index (BMI) correlated with invalid ARFI measurements. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI showed 92.3% sensitivity and 82,6% specificity for the presence of significant fibrosis, with AUROC 0.86 and cut-off 1.32 m/s. Conclusions: FIB-4 and Forns scores were the most accurate for the prediction of significant fibrosis in bariatric patients. Applicability and accuracy of ARFI was limited in individuals with severe obesity. In patients with BMI < 42 kg/m2, ARFI elastography was capable for predicting significant fibrosis with relevant accuracy.

Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Acoustics , Biopsy , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(4): 434-445, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360967


Resumen Introducción: la punción con aguja fina guiada por ultrasonografía endoscópica (PAF-USE) permite un diagnóstico de las lesiones sólidas del páncreas (LSP) con una sensibilidad de alrededor del 85 % en la literatura mundial y aún más baja en nuestro medio, por lo cual se requiere explorar nuevos accesorios (agujas) o técnicas tales como la elastografía, que mejoren esta sensibilidad. Esta última permite la cuantificación de la rigidez del tejido con altos grados de precisión y desde 2001 se ha aplicado al diagnóstico de tumores sólidos de diversos órganos como mama y tiroides, músculo, entre otros; y desde 2006 se ha empleado para las LSP y ha demostrado su utilidad como complemento a las herramientas diagnósticas disponibles, ya que mejora la precisión de la biopsia por PAF-USE al seleccionar el área más sospechosa para ser puncionada y también guía el manejo clínico cuando la PAF-USE es negativa o no concluyente. Objetivo: evaluar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la elastografía cuantitativa de strain ratio (SR) obtenida por ecoendoscopia en las LSP teniendo como patrón de oro el diagnóstico citopatológico. Métodos: 71 pacientes (rango de edad: 35-89, media: 62,2 años); de estos, 35 mujeres fueron sometidas a USE para la evaluación de LSP. El diseño del estudio fue de corte transversal, prospectivo y de un solo centro. La USE se realizó con un ecoendoscopio Pentax lineal y un procesador Hitachi-Noblus. La lesión (área A) y un área de referencia B se seleccionaron para calcular la relación de deformación (B/A, SR expresada en %). Se tomó como punto de corte SR para definir las lesiones malignas (duras) SR > 22 teniendo en cuenta la evidencia actualmente disponible; estos resultados se compararon con la citopatología de las muestras obtenidas por punción guiada por USE. Después de la aplicación de criterios de exclusión, se realiza el análisis estadístico de 56 pacientes y se considera el valor p < 0,05. Se calculó la sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP), valor predictivo negativo (VPN) y precisión diagnóstica comparando la elastografía SR con los diagnósticos finales por citopatología. Resultados: la elastografía cuantitativa SR (%) permite detectar las LSP malignas con sensibilidad del 94,6 % (intervalo de confianza [IC] del 95 %: 85,4 %-98,2 %), especificidad del 89,3 % (IC 95 %: 78,5 %-95,0 %), VPP del 89,8 % (IC 95 %: 79,5 %-95,3 %); VPN del 94,3 % (IC 95 %: 84,6 %-98,1 %) y exactitud del 92,0 % (IC 95 %: 85,4 %-95,7 %). Conclusión: la elastografía cuantitativa SR por USE en LSP es un complemento útil que mejora la precisión de la PAF-USE al seleccionar el área más sospechosa para ser puncionada y guiar el manejo clínico cuando la PAF-USE es negativa o no concluyente, ya que tiene una alta sensibilidad y especificad en el diagnóstico de las LSP malignas.

Abstract Introduction: Endoscopic ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration allows performing a diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions with an approximate 85% sensitivity, as referenced in specialized literature, and even lower sensitivity as per local research. To yield better sensitivity and to improve the results, it is required to examine new elements (needles) and techniques like elastography. Elastography helps in the quantification of tissue stiffness with a high level of accuracy. Since 2001, elastography has been applied in diagnosing solid forms of cancer (tumors) that affect organs like breasts, the thyroid, and some muscles. This method which has been used to diagnose solid pancreatic lesions (SPL) since 2006 has proved to be useful as a complementary method to the existing diagnostic techniques. It improves the accuracy of the endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) by selecting the more suspicious area to be punctured, and it also guides the clinical treatment after getting a negative EUS-FNA or a non-conclusive result. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostical performance of the strain ratio (SR) quantitative elastography by ecoendoscopy in solid pancreatic lesions, considering the cytopathologic diagnostic as the gold standard. Methods: 71 patients (age range: 35-89 years old, mean: 62.2 years old); out of those 71 patients, The EUS to diagnose SPL, was performed on 35 women. This was a single-center, prospective cross-sectional study design. The EUS was performed with a Pentax linear endoscope and a Hitachi-Noblus ultrasound. The lesion (area A) and a reference area B were selected to calculate the deformation ratio (B/A, SR expressed as a percentage). SR > 22 was selected as a cut-off point to determine the malignant lesions (solid lesions), considering the evidence currently available. The results were compared with their cytopathology interpretation once that the EUS was performed. After the exclusion criteria was applied, a statistical analysis of 56 patients was performed, considering p < 0,05. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV), the negative predictive value (NPV) and the diagnostic accuracy, were calculated, comparing the elastography SR with the final diagnostics with the cytopathology interpretation. Results: Quantitative elastography SR (%) allows to detect the malignant SPL with sensitivity 94.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.4%-98.2%), specificity of 89.3% (CI 95%: 78,5 %-95,0 %), PPV of 89.8% (CI 95 %: 79,5 %-95,3 %); NPV of 94.3% (IC 95 %: 84,6 %-98,1 %) and an accuracy of 92.0% (CI 95 %: 85,4 %-95,7 %). Conclusion: SR quantitative elastography by Endoscopic Ultrasound, EUS is a suitable complement method that improves the EUS-FNA accuracy, by selecting the most suspicious area to be punctured, and it also guides clinical treatment after getting a negative EUS-FNA or a non-conclusive result, due to its high sensitivity and specificity levels to diagnose malignant SPL.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pancreas , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endosonography , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Patients , Research , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis , Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e1678, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347511


Introducción: La enfermedad por depósito graso no alcohólica constituye una pandemia del mundo contemporáneo. Su espectro silente atraviesa estadios de cronicidad y puede llegar a la cirrosis hepática y sobre esta pudiera desarrollarse un hepatocarcinoma. No existen tratamientos y solo se puede actuar sobre los factores de riesgo. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto citohepatoprotector y antifibrótico del propóleos rojo cubano oral en pacientes con esteatohepatitis no alcohólica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo en pacientes seleccionados de las consultas de Gastroenterología, Endocrinología y Medicina Interna del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras durante el periodo de abril 2017 a abril 2018. El universo de estudio fue de 120 pacientes con diagnóstico imagenológico de hígado graso. La muestra quedó conformada por 70 pacientes con diagnóstico de hígado graso, y que cumplieron criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Las pruebas estadísticas aplicadas fueron análisis de frecuencia y porcentaje para las variables demográficas. La prueba T para las muestras relacionadas evaluó el comportamiento enzimático al inicio y al final del tratamiento y los cambios elastográficos fueron analizados mediante test de Kappa y porcentaje. Resultados: Las variables bioquímicas estudiadas mostraron una disminución estadísticamente significativa al final del tratamiento. Los cambios elastográficos al final del estudio evidenciaron la efectividad del tratamiento, en el cual el 91,4 por ciento de los pacientes evolucionaron hacia el menor grado de fibrosis. Conclusiones: El propóleos rojo cubano demostró ser un apifármaco con acción citohepatoprotectora y antifibrótica de valor terapéutico(AU)

Introduction: Nonalcoholic fat deposition disease is a pandemic in the contemporary world. Its silent spectrum goes through stages of chronicity and it can reach liver cirrhosis and on this a hepatic carcinoma could develop. There are no treatments and medical handling can act on only risk factors. Objective: To evaluate cytohepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect of oral Cuban red propolis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out in selected patients from the Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine consultations at Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital from April 2017 to April 2018. The study universe was 120 patients with imaging diagnosis of fatty liver. The sample consisted of 70 patients with fatty liver diagnosis, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Frequency and percentage analysis for the demographic variables were the statistical tests applied. The T test for the related samples evaluated the enzymatic behavior at the beginning and at the end of the treatment and the elastography changes were analyzed using Kappa and percentage tests. Results: The biochemical variables studied showed statistically significant decrease at the end of the treatment, which evidenced the effectiveness of the treatment. 91.4 percent of the patients progressed to a lower degree of fibrosis. Conclusions: Cuban red propolis proved to be a therapeutic drug with cytohepathoprotective and antifibrotic action(AU)

Humans , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Apitherapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 50(3): e1387, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1357302


Introducción: En la reestadificación del paciente con tumor de recto irradiado, la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico puede identificar la fibrosis y diferenciarla del tumor residual. Objetivo: Determinar la utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado. Métodos: Estudio observacional y descriptivo (serie de casos), en 31 pacientes con tumor de recto irradiado, reestadificados mediante elastografía cualitativa por ultrasonido endoscópico. Para determinar la utilidad de la elastografía se calcularon: sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo, valor predictivo negativo, índice de Youden y concordancia diagnóstica según índice kappa, de la elastografía y del ultrasonido endoscópico por separado, estos resultados fueron comparados en ambas pruebas diagnósticas. El estudio histológico de la pieza quirúrgica fue el estándar de referencia. Resultados: El índice de concordancia del ultrasonido endoscópico (77,4 por ciento), por elastografía (87,1 por ciento). El ultrasonido endoscópico mostró mayor sensibilidad y valor predictivo negativo que la elastografía, por lo que la posibilidad de descartar presencia de tumor con un resultado negativo fue superior. La elastografía tuvo mayor especificidad (77,78 por ciento) y valor predictivo positivo (90,91 por ciento) que el ultrasonido endoscópico (22,22 y 75,86 por ciento); fue más útil para confirmar el diagnóstico de tumor. Conclusiones: La utilidad de la elastografía cualitativa asociada al ultrasonido endoscópico, en la reestadificación del tumor de recto irradiado, consiste en incrementar la especificidad del estudio y discernir mejor entre la fibrosis y el tumor residual(AU)

Introduction: Qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography can identify fibrosis and differentiate it from residual tumor in the re-staging of patients with irradiated rectal tumors. Objective: To determine the usefulness of qualitative endoscopic ultrasound elastography in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor. Methods: An observational and descriptive study (series of cases) was carried out in 31 patients with irradiated rectal tumor, restaged by means of Qualitative elastography by endoscopic ultrasound. To determine the usefulness of elastography, the following were calculated: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index and diagnostic agreement according to kappa, elastography and endoscopic ultrasound separately; these results were compared in both diagnostic tests. The histological study of the surgical specimen was the reference standard. Results: The concordance index of endoscopic ultrasound (77.4 percent), that obtained by elastography (87.1 percent). Endoscopic ultrasound showed greater sensitivity and negative predictive value than elastography, so the possibility of ruling out the presence of a tumor with a negative result was higher. Elastography had greater specificity (77.78 percent) and positive predictive value (90.91 percent) than endoscopic ultrasound (22.22 and 75.86 percent); it was most helpful in confirming the tumor diagnosis. Conclusions: The usefulness of qualitative elastography associated with endoscopic ultrasound, in the re-staging of the irradiated rectal tumor, consists in increasing the specificity of the study, thus allowing a better discernment between fibrosis and residual tumor(AU)

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Neoplasm, Residual , Endosonography/methods , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Neoplasm Staging/methods
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(8): 1167-1171, Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346968


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To explore the values of automated breast volume scanning (ABVS) combined with shear wave elastography (SWE) in the differential diagnosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancers (HER2+BC). METHODS In this study, 28 patients with TNBC and 32 patients with HER2+BC were enrolled. The characteristics of ABVS and virtual touch quantification (VTQ) in SWE of all patients were reviewed. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out and the receiver operating characteristic curves of ABVS and ABVS+VTQ were drawn. RESULTS In ABVS imaging, the microcalcification, posterior echo, internal echo, shape, and edge had significant difference between TNBC and HER2+BC groups (p<0.05). The regular shape was the independent factor for TNBC (p=0.04, odds ratio [OR]=4.479), and the microcalcification in mass was the independent factor for HER2+BC (p=0.01, OR=2.997). In VTQ imaging, the shear wave velocity (SWV)max, SWVmin, and SWVmean in TNBC group were significantly lower than those in HER2+BC group (p<0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of ABVS+VTQ in diagnosing TNBC were higher than those of ABVS alone. CONCLUSIONS ABVS combined with SWE has certain advantages in differentiating TNBC from HER2+BC, which is helpful for the treatment planning and prognosis judgment.

Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast , ROC Curve , Receptor, ErbB-2
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 87(3): 338-345, May-Jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285684


Abstract Introduction Only 5%-15% of thyroid surgical specimens are reported as malignant. Most of the operations are performed due to suspicion of malignancy as a result of fine needle aspiration biopsy but invasiveness, non-diagnostic results and potential repeat biopsies are disadvantages of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of simultaneously using both the strain ratio and elasticity score in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, as well as to assess the compatibility of these two methods. Methods A total of 144 nodules were included in the study. The final histopathologic diagnosis was used as the reference standard. The area under the curve sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off values of the strain ratio and elasticity score were determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The compatibility and comparison of strain ratio and elasticity score were also performed. Results Twenty eight nodules (19.4%) were malignant. The strain ratio and elasticity score results were found to be significantly successful in predicting thyroid malignancy (p < 0.001 for both). Moreover, the area under the curve for the strain ratio and elasticity score were found to be 0.944 and 0.960, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of the elasticity score was found to be superior to that of the strain ratio, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.456). When the compatibility of the strain ratio and elasticity score was examined, the two evaluations were revealed to be statistically consistent with each other (Kappa = 0.767; p < 0.001). When the strain ratio and the elasticity score were used together, the specificity of capturing the correct diagnosis increased from 84.5% to 93.1%. Conclusion When the strain ratio an elasticity score were used together for the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, more accurate results were obtained. Thus, combining both methods may be a promising alternative to fine needle aspiration biopsy in order to prevent unnecessary surgical interventions for suspected thyroid nodules.

Resumo Introdução Apenas 5% a 15% das amostras cirúrgicas de tireoide são relatadas como malignas. A maioria das cirurgias é feita devido à suspeita de lesão maligna como resultado da biópsia por punção aspirativa com agulha fina. Entretanto, invasividade, resultados não diagnósticos e biópsias repetidas são desvantagens desse procedimento. Objetivo Investigar a eficácia do uso simultâneo da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade no diagnóstico diferencial de nódulos tireoidianos, bem como avaliar a compatibilidade desses dois métodos. Método Foram incluídos no estudo 144 nódulos. O diagnóstico histopatológico final foi usado como padrão de referência. A área sob a curva sensibilidade, especificidade e valores de corte da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade foram determinados com a análise da curva Receiver Operating Characteristic. A compatibilidade e comparação da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade também foram feitas. Resultados Eram malignos 28 nódulos (19,4%). Os resultados da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade foram significantemente bem-sucedidos em prever a lesão maligna de nódulos da tireoide (p < 0,001 para ambos). Além disso, as áreas sob a curva para a razão de compressão e o escore de elasticidade foram de 0,944 e 0,960, respectivamente. A acurácia diagnóstica escore de elasticidade foi superior à da razão de compressão, mas essa diferença não foi estatisticamente significante (p = 0,456). Quando a compatibilidade da razão de compressão e do escore de elasticidade foi examinada, as duas avaliações mostraram-se estatisticamente consistentes (Kappa = 0,767; p < 0,001). Quando a razão de compressão e o escore de elasticidade foram usados em conjunto, a especificidade de captar o diagnóstico correto aumentou de 84,5% para 93,1%. Conclusão Quando a razão de compressão e o escore de elasticidade foram usados juntos para o diagnóstico diferencial de nódulos tireoidianos, resultados mais precisos foram obtidos. Assim, o uso combinado dos dois métodos pode ser uma opção promissora à biópsia por punção aspirativa com agulha fina e evitar intervenções cirúrgicas desnecessárias para nódulos tireoidianos suspeitos.

Humans , Thyroid Nodule/surgery , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis, Differential
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 58-64, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251522


Resumen Introducción: la elastografía en tiempo real, 2D-SWE (Supersonic), es una prueba no invasiva que se utiliza para determinar la elasticidad del hígado y, de esa forma, calcular el grado de fibrosis hepática. En Colombia, la prueba se introdujo en 2016 y no existen hasta el momento estudios del comportamiento de la prueba en todos los pacientes hepáticos, solo se han publicado en pacientes sanos y cirróticos. Objetivo: analizar la experiencia de la aplicación de la elastografía en tiempo real, en sujetos atendidos en el centro de enfermedades hepáticas y digestivas de Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de una cohorte de sujetos atendidos entre marzo de 2016 y julio de 2017. Se realizó una historia clínica completa y una prueba de elastografía en tiempo real (Supersonic). Resultados: se incluyeron 654 sujetos, con una mediana de edad de 55 años (rango intercuartílico [RIC]: 45-64). La mediana de valores de fibrosis expresada en kilopascales (kPs) fue de 8,3, con un promedio de 5 mediciones. Se observó una diferencia significativa en el grado de fibrosis entre los grupos de edad y en relación con el diagnóstico final, donde se evidenció una mayor fibrosis en el grupo de enfermedades colestásicas (autoinmune, colangitis biliar primaria [CBP] y superposición autoinmune-CBP). La tasa global de fracaso fue menor al 1%. Conclusiones: es la primera descripción del comportamiento de la prueba a nivel nacional. Los valores de rigidez hepática observados en los diferentes estadios demuestran la utilidad de la prueba para la determinación de la fibrosis hepática en pacientes con diferentes patologías.

Abstract Introduction: Real-time two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) (Supersonic Imagine SA), is a non-invasive test used to determine liver elasticity and calculate the degree of liver fibrosis. In Colombia, this test was introduced in 2016 and, to date, no study has tested its behavior in all liver patients, only in healthy and cirrhotic patients. Objective: To analyze the experience of real-time elastography implementation in subjects treated at the Centro de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study of a cohort of subjects treated between March 2016 and July 2017. A complete medical report and a real-time elastography (Supersonic) test were performed. Results: 654 subjects were included, with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 45-64). The median fibrosis values expressed in kilopascals (kPs) were 8.3, with an average of 5 measurements. There was a significant difference in the degree of fibrosis between the age groups and in relation to the final diagnosis, where there was a greater fibrosis in the cholestatic disease group (autoimmune, primary biliary cholangitis [PBC], and overlap). The overall failure rate was less than 1%. Conclusions: This is the first description of this test behavior in the country. Hepatic stiffness values observed in the different stages demonstrate the usefulness of the test to establish the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with multiple diseases.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fibrosis , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Liver , Medical Records , Elasticity , Research Report , Methods
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 19-24, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279068


Resumen Introducción: La elastografía por ondas de corte (SWE) ha demostrado ser predictiva de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos. Objetivo: Determinar mediante SWE, el punto de corte de la rigidez con mayor especificidad y sensibilidad para detectar nódulos tiroideos que requieren cirugía. Métodos: Estudio transversal de pacientes con nódulos tiroideos evaluados ultrasonográficamente en un periodo de tres años; se empleó la clasificación TI-RADS y mediante SWE se determinó la rigidez de los nódulos. Con el sistema Bethesda se clasificaron las muestras histopatológicas y mediante curva ROC se obtuvo el punto de corte de la rigidez con mayor especificidad y sensibilidad. Resultados: 41 % de los nódulos fue TI-RADS 5 y 59 %, TI-RADS 1-4. En los TI-RADS 5, la mediana de rigidez de los nódulos con categoría IV-VI del sistema Bethesda fue de 35.9 kPa y en los nódulos con TI-RADS 1-4, 21.6 kPa. En los nódulos TI-RADS 5, la rigidez > 32.5 kPa tuvo especificidad de 75 % y sensibilidad de 57 % para detectar los que requieren cirugía; en los TI-RADS 1-4, el valor de corte de 21.5 kPa tuvo especificidad de 63 % y sensibilidad de 51 %. Conclusión: La rigidez determinada por SWE es útil para detectar nódulos que requerirán exploración quirúrgica.

Abstract Introduction: Shear-wave elastography (SWE) has been shown to be predictive of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Objective: To determine, by SWE, the stiffness cutoff point with the highest specificity and sensitivity to detect thyroid nodules that require surgery. Methods: Cross-sectional study of ultrasonographically-evaluated patients for thyroid nodules over a period of three years; the TI-RADS classification system was used, and nodule stiffness was determined by SWE. Histopathological specimens were classified using the Bethesda system, and the stiffness cutoff point with the highest specificity and sensitivity was obtained using ROC curves. Results: Forty-one percent of the nodules were classified as TI-RADS 5, and 59 %, as TI-RADS 1-4. In TI-RADS 5 nodules, median stiffness of those in Bethesda system IV-VI categories was 35.9 kPa; in nodules with TI-RADS 1-4, 21.6 kPa. In TI-RADS 5 nodules, a cutoff point > 32.5 kPa had a specificity of 75 % and sensitivity of 57 % to detect those requiring surgery; in TI-RADS 1 to 4 nodules, a cutoff point of 21.5 kPa had a specificity of 63 % and sensitivity of 51 %. Conclusion: SWE-determined stiffness is useful to detect nodules that require surgical evaluation.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods
Clinics ; 76: e3236, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345810


OBJECTIVES: The aim was to prospectively assess the variation in liver stiffness (LS) and the associated factors for LS progression in a cohort of naïve, non-responder (NR), and sustained virological response (SVR) chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: This was a longitudinal study on CHC patients prospectively followed with serial elastography (Fibroscan®). The LS progression rate was determined, and the associated factors for progression were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 406 patients were followed up for 44 (35-53) months [naïve (29%), NR (24%), and SVR (47%)]. At the end of the follow-up period, the SVR group had a significant decrease in LS [11.8 (9.2) vs. 8.8 (8.4) kPa (p<0.001)], the NR group had a significant increase in LS [6.6 (5.2) vs. 7.1 (4.5) kPa (p=0.069)], and the naïve group had no change in LS [6.3 (3.0) vs. 6.0 (3.8) kPa (p=0.22)]. The related factors for LS progression were lack of SVR (p=0.002) and diabetes (p=0.05). In the non-diabetic SVR group, a negative rate of progression (-0.047 kPa/month) was observed, whereas in the diabetic SVR group, a positive rate of progression (+0.037 kPa/month) was observed. The highest rate of progression was observed in NR with diabetes at the rate of +0.044 kPa/month. CONCLUSION: LS in diabetes patients progresses despite SVR, suggesting the need for a close follow-up of this group post-treatment considering the risk of progression of liver disease even after SVR.

Humans , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Longitudinal Studies , Liver/pathology , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06785, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250490


The objective of this study was to verify the applicability of B-mode ultrasonography, ARFI elastography and CEUS in the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and its Stages in dogs. 24 healthy dogs and 28 with CKD were included. In B-mode, the echogenicity, echotexture and cortico-medullary ratio of the kidneys were verified. By elastography, the shear-wave velocity of the cortical (SWVcort) and medullary (SWVmed) regions were determined and tissue deformity was evaluated. Wash-in, wash-out and peak enhancement (TPic) of the contrast in the renal parenchyma were calculated and homogeneity, presence of filling gaps and distinction of filling phases were evaluated by CEUS. Changes in echogenicity, echotexture and cortico-medullary ratio were observed only in sick patients. There was an increase in SWVcort in CKD, with a cutoff point >2.91m/s. Healthy kidneys were non-deformable and 25% had changes in gray scales. There was an increase in wash-in and TPic, changes in filling characteristics, filling failures and difficulty in distinguishing between the Stages in CEUS in CKD. It was found that dogs with CKD 2, 3 and 4 had greater SWVcort and wash-in values than CKD 1. Elastographic and CEUS changes were observed in dogs with CKD, demonstrating the applicability of ultrasonographic techniques in their diagnosis.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a aplicabilidade da ultrassonografia modo-B, elastografia ARFI e CEUS no diagnóstico da doença renal crônica e seus estágios em cães. Foram incluídos 24 cães saudáveis e 28 com DRC. Pelo modo-B, verificou-se ecogenicidade, ecotextura e relação córtico-medular dos rins. Pela elastografia, foram determinadas as velocidades de cisalhamento das regiões cortical (SWVcort) e medular (SWVmed) e foi avaliada a deformidade tecidual. Calculou-se os temos de wash-in, wash-out e pico de intensidade (TPic) do parênquima renal e avaliou-se homogeneidade, presença de falhas e distinção das fases de preenchimento por contraste por meio de CEUS. Alterações em ecogenicidade, ecotextura e relação córtico-medular foram observadas somente em pacientes doentes. Houve aumento da SWVcort na DRC, com ponto de corte >2.91m/s. Rins saudáveis foram não-deformáveis e 25% apresentou alterações nas escalas de cinza. Houve aumento do wash-in e TPic, alterações nas características de preenchimento, falhas e dificuldade para distinguir as fases de preenchimento do contraste nos rins com DRC. Verificou-se que cães com DRC graus 2, 3 e 4 tiveram valores de SWVcort e wash-in maiores que cães com DRC grau 1. Foram obsrervadas alterações elastográfica e de CEUS em cães com DRC, demonstrando a aplicabilidade destas técnicas ultrassonográficas no seu diagnóstico.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , Congenital Abnormalities , Ultrasonography , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Perfusion , Kidney
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06598, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340345


Objective was to evaluate the accuracy of elastography in the differentiation between normal and cataract lenses One hundred forty-five eyes of 98 dogs were divided into groups according to cataract stage. Forty-twoeyes were submitted to phacoemulsification. Biometric parameters, echogenicity and echotexture patterns of the anterior, posterior and vitreous chambers, lens and retina-choroid-sclera complexes were evaluated by ocular ultrasound in modes A and B. Deformability, and color (blue color = indicated less rigid structures, color red = more rigid structures) of the lenses were evaluated by the elastogram. The shear wave velocity (SWV; m/s) was calculated in three regions of the lens, both in the cortex and in the nucleus. The SWV of nucleus was statistically different between the normal lenses and with cataracts, and between the stages of cataract (P<0.001). Healthy lenses and incipient cataracts had a more rigid nucleus. Mature cataracts presented lowest nuclear rigidity (P<0.001). On cortical region the SWV was significantly higher (P<0.01) in intumescent and incipient cataracts. SWV less than 2.67m/s indicates cataract with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 94%. Values lower than 2.23m/s suggest mature cataract, with sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76%. SWV greater than 2.66 m/s are associated with normal lenses or incipient cataract, presenting sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 84%. Qualitative method allowed differentiation between healthy and affected lenses and the classification of evolutionary stages. There was a correlation between the degree of stiffness of lens in cortical and nuclear regions (p=00165, r=0.37) and between the balanced saline solution quantitative and surgical time (P<0.01, r=0.73). Degree of stiffness of lens did not correlate with parameters of phacoemulsification. Elastographic proved feasible for evaluating the lens of dogs, characterizing the types of cataracts, and demonstrating increased stiffness of the diseased lenses.(AU)

O objetivo foi avaliar a precisão da elastografia na diferenciação entre lentes normais e de catarata. Cento e quarenta e cinco olhos de 98 cães foram divididos em grupos de acordo com o estágio de maturação da catarata. Quarenta e dois olhos foram submetidos à facoemulsificação. Parâmetros biométricos, ecogenicidade e padrões de ecotextura das câmaras anterior, posterior e vítrea, lente e complexos retina-coróide-esclera foram avaliados por ultrassonografia ocular nos modos A e B. A deformabilidade e a coloração (cor azul = indicou estruturas menos rígidas, cor vermelha = estruturas mais rígidas) das lentes foram avaliadas pelo elastograma. A velocidade da onda de cisalhamento (SWV; m/s) foi calculada em três regiões da lente, tanto no córtex quanto no núcleo. A SWV do núcleo foi estatisticamente diferente entre as lentes normais e com catarata e entre os estágios da catarata (P<0,001). Lentes saudáveis e cataratas incipientes tinham um núcleo mais rígido. Cataratas maduras apresentaram menor rigidez nuclear (P<0,001). Na região cortical, a SWV foi significativamente maior (P<0,01) nas cataratas intumescentes e incipientes. Uma SWV menor que 2,67m/s indica catarata com sensibilidade de 72% e especificidade de 94%. Valores inferiores a 2,23m/s sugerem catarata madura, com sensibilidade de 71% e especificidade de 76%. Uma SWV superior a 2,66m/s está associada à catarata normal ou incipiente, apresentando sensibilidade de 94% e especificidade de 84%. O método qualitativo permitiu a diferenciação entre lentes normais de olhos saudáveis e afetadas e a classificação dos estágios evolutivos. A elastografia se mostrara uma ferramenta viável para avaliar as lentes de cães, caracterizando os tipos de catarata e demonstrando maior rigidez das lentes doentes.(AU)

Male , Dogs , Cataract/veterinary , Dogs , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/veterinary , Ultrasonics , Phacoemulsification
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878700


Objective To explore the value of elastography strain ratio(SR)combined with breast ultrasound imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS-US)in the differential diagnosis of breast nodules.Methods A total of 471 breast nodules(from 471 patients)were reclassified by SR combined with BI-RADS-US.With the pathology results as gold standard,the area under the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve(AUC)was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance,and the sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy were compared between the combined method and BI-RADS-US.Results Among the 471 breast nodules,180 nodules were benign and 291 were malignant.The AUC of the combined method was statistically significantly higher than that of BI-RADS-US(0.798 vs. 0.730;Z= 2.583, P= 0.010).SR,BI-RADS-US,and the combined method for diagnosing breast nodules had the sensitivity of 86.6%,99.0%,and 96.6%,the specificity of 67.2%,47.2%,and 63.3%,and the accuracy of 79.2%,79.2%,and 83.9%,respectively.The combined method increased the specificity from 47.2%(BI-RADS-US)to 63.3%(χ

Breast/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Female , Humans , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography, Mammary