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1.
Rev. cuba. med ; 60(3): e1678, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347511

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La enfermedad por depósito graso no alcohólica constituye una pandemia del mundo contemporáneo. Su espectro silente atraviesa estadios de cronicidad y puede llegar a la cirrosis hepática y sobre esta pudiera desarrollarse un hepatocarcinoma. No existen tratamientos y solo se puede actuar sobre los factores de riesgo. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto citohepatoprotector y antifibrótico del propóleos rojo cubano oral en pacientes con esteatohepatitis no alcohólica. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio longitudinal prospectivo en pacientes seleccionados de las consultas de Gastroenterología, Endocrinología y Medicina Interna del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras durante el periodo de abril 2017 a abril 2018. El universo de estudio fue de 120 pacientes con diagnóstico imagenológico de hígado graso. La muestra quedó conformada por 70 pacientes con diagnóstico de hígado graso, y que cumplieron criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Las pruebas estadísticas aplicadas fueron análisis de frecuencia y porcentaje para las variables demográficas. La prueba T para las muestras relacionadas evaluó el comportamiento enzimático al inicio y al final del tratamiento y los cambios elastográficos fueron analizados mediante test de Kappa y porcentaje. Resultados: Las variables bioquímicas estudiadas mostraron una disminución estadísticamente significativa al final del tratamiento. Los cambios elastográficos al final del estudio evidenciaron la efectividad del tratamiento, en el cual el 91,4 por ciento de los pacientes evolucionaron hacia el menor grado de fibrosis. Conclusiones: El propóleos rojo cubano demostró ser un apifármaco con acción citohepatoprotectora y antifibrótica de valor terapéutico(AU)


Introduction: Nonalcoholic fat deposition disease is a pandemic in the contemporary world. Its silent spectrum goes through stages of chronicity and it can reach liver cirrhosis and on this a hepatic carcinoma could develop. There are no treatments and medical handling can act on only risk factors. Objective: To evaluate cytohepatoprotective and antifibrotic effect of oral Cuban red propolis in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was carried out in selected patients from the Gastroenterology, Endocrinology and Internal Medicine consultations at Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital from April 2017 to April 2018. The study universe was 120 patients with imaging diagnosis of fatty liver. The sample consisted of 70 patients with fatty liver diagnosis, who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Frequency and percentage analysis for the demographic variables were the statistical tests applied. The T test for the related samples evaluated the enzymatic behavior at the beginning and at the end of the treatment and the elastography changes were analyzed using Kappa and percentage tests. Results: The biochemical variables studied showed statistically significant decrease at the end of the treatment, which evidenced the effectiveness of the treatment. 91.4 percent of the patients progressed to a lower degree of fibrosis. Conclusions: Cuban red propolis proved to be a therapeutic drug with cytohepathoprotective and antifibrotic action(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Apitherapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Longitudinal Studies
2.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(1): 58-64, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251522

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la elastografía en tiempo real, 2D-SWE (Supersonic), es una prueba no invasiva que se utiliza para determinar la elasticidad del hígado y, de esa forma, calcular el grado de fibrosis hepática. En Colombia, la prueba se introdujo en 2016 y no existen hasta el momento estudios del comportamiento de la prueba en todos los pacientes hepáticos, solo se han publicado en pacientes sanos y cirróticos. Objetivo: analizar la experiencia de la aplicación de la elastografía en tiempo real, en sujetos atendidos en el centro de enfermedades hepáticas y digestivas de Bogotá, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de una cohorte de sujetos atendidos entre marzo de 2016 y julio de 2017. Se realizó una historia clínica completa y una prueba de elastografía en tiempo real (Supersonic). Resultados: se incluyeron 654 sujetos, con una mediana de edad de 55 años (rango intercuartílico [RIC]: 45-64). La mediana de valores de fibrosis expresada en kilopascales (kPs) fue de 8,3, con un promedio de 5 mediciones. Se observó una diferencia significativa en el grado de fibrosis entre los grupos de edad y en relación con el diagnóstico final, donde se evidenció una mayor fibrosis en el grupo de enfermedades colestásicas (autoinmune, colangitis biliar primaria [CBP] y superposición autoinmune-CBP). La tasa global de fracaso fue menor al 1%. Conclusiones: es la primera descripción del comportamiento de la prueba a nivel nacional. Los valores de rigidez hepática observados en los diferentes estadios demuestran la utilidad de la prueba para la determinación de la fibrosis hepática en pacientes con diferentes patologías.


Abstract Introduction: Real-time two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) (Supersonic Imagine SA), is a non-invasive test used to determine liver elasticity and calculate the degree of liver fibrosis. In Colombia, this test was introduced in 2016 and, to date, no study has tested its behavior in all liver patients, only in healthy and cirrhotic patients. Objective: To analyze the experience of real-time elastography implementation in subjects treated at the Centro de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas in Bogotá, Colombia. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study of a cohort of subjects treated between March 2016 and July 2017. A complete medical report and a real-time elastography (Supersonic) test were performed. Results: 654 subjects were included, with a median age of 55 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 45-64). The median fibrosis values expressed in kilopascals (kPs) were 8.3, with an average of 5 measurements. There was a significant difference in the degree of fibrosis between the age groups and in relation to the final diagnosis, where there was a greater fibrosis in the cholestatic disease group (autoimmune, primary biliary cholangitis [PBC], and overlap). The overall failure rate was less than 1%. Conclusions: This is the first description of this test behavior in the country. Hepatic stiffness values observed in the different stages demonstrate the usefulness of the test to establish the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with multiple diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fibrosis , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Liver , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Medical Records , Elasticity , Research Report , Methods
3.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(1): 19-24, ene.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1279068

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La elastografía por ondas de corte (SWE) ha demostrado ser predictiva de malignidad en nódulos tiroideos. Objetivo: Determinar mediante SWE, el punto de corte de la rigidez con mayor especificidad y sensibilidad para detectar nódulos tiroideos que requieren cirugía. Métodos: Estudio transversal de pacientes con nódulos tiroideos evaluados ultrasonográficamente en un periodo de tres años; se empleó la clasificación TI-RADS y mediante SWE se determinó la rigidez de los nódulos. Con el sistema Bethesda se clasificaron las muestras histopatológicas y mediante curva ROC se obtuvo el punto de corte de la rigidez con mayor especificidad y sensibilidad. Resultados: 41 % de los nódulos fue TI-RADS 5 y 59 %, TI-RADS 1-4. En los TI-RADS 5, la mediana de rigidez de los nódulos con categoría IV-VI del sistema Bethesda fue de 35.9 kPa y en los nódulos con TI-RADS 1-4, 21.6 kPa. En los nódulos TI-RADS 5, la rigidez > 32.5 kPa tuvo especificidad de 75 % y sensibilidad de 57 % para detectar los que requieren cirugía; en los TI-RADS 1-4, el valor de corte de 21.5 kPa tuvo especificidad de 63 % y sensibilidad de 51 %. Conclusión: La rigidez determinada por SWE es útil para detectar nódulos que requerirán exploración quirúrgica.


Abstract Introduction: Shear-wave elastography (SWE) has been shown to be predictive of malignancy in thyroid nodules. Objective: To determine, by SWE, the stiffness cutoff point with the highest specificity and sensitivity to detect thyroid nodules that require surgery. Methods: Cross-sectional study of ultrasonographically-evaluated patients for thyroid nodules over a period of three years; the TI-RADS classification system was used, and nodule stiffness was determined by SWE. Histopathological specimens were classified using the Bethesda system, and the stiffness cutoff point with the highest specificity and sensitivity was obtained using ROC curves. Results: Forty-one percent of the nodules were classified as TI-RADS 5, and 59 %, as TI-RADS 1-4. In TI-RADS 5 nodules, median stiffness of those in Bethesda system IV-VI categories was 35.9 kPa; in nodules with TI-RADS 1-4, 21.6 kPa. In TI-RADS 5 nodules, a cutoff point > 32.5 kPa had a specificity of 75 % and sensitivity of 57 % to detect those requiring surgery; in TI-RADS 1 to 4 nodules, a cutoff point of 21.5 kPa had a specificity of 63 % and sensitivity of 51 %. Conclusion: SWE-determined stiffness is useful to detect nodules that require surgical evaluation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06785, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1250490

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to verify the applicability of B-mode ultrasonography, ARFI elastography and CEUS in the diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and its Stages in dogs. 24 healthy dogs and 28 with CKD were included. In B-mode, the echogenicity, echotexture and cortico-medullary ratio of the kidneys were verified. By elastography, the shear-wave velocity of the cortical (SWVcort) and medullary (SWVmed) regions were determined and tissue deformity was evaluated. Wash-in, wash-out and peak enhancement (TPic) of the contrast in the renal parenchyma were calculated and homogeneity, presence of filling gaps and distinction of filling phases were evaluated by CEUS. Changes in echogenicity, echotexture and cortico-medullary ratio were observed only in sick patients. There was an increase in SWVcort in CKD, with a cutoff point >2.91m/s. Healthy kidneys were non-deformable and 25% had changes in gray scales. There was an increase in wash-in and TPic, changes in filling characteristics, filling failures and difficulty in distinguishing between the Stages in CEUS in CKD. It was found that dogs with CKD 2, 3 and 4 had greater SWVcort and wash-in values than CKD 1. Elastographic and CEUS changes were observed in dogs with CKD, demonstrating the applicability of ultrasonographic techniques in their diagnosis.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a aplicabilidade da ultrassonografia modo-B, elastografia ARFI e CEUS no diagnóstico da doença renal crônica e seus estágios em cães. Foram incluídos 24 cães saudáveis e 28 com DRC. Pelo modo-B, verificou-se ecogenicidade, ecotextura e relação córtico-medular dos rins. Pela elastografia, foram determinadas as velocidades de cisalhamento das regiões cortical (SWVcort) e medular (SWVmed) e foi avaliada a deformidade tecidual. Calculou-se os temos de wash-in, wash-out e pico de intensidade (TPic) do parênquima renal e avaliou-se homogeneidade, presença de falhas e distinção das fases de preenchimento por contraste por meio de CEUS. Alterações em ecogenicidade, ecotextura e relação córtico-medular foram observadas somente em pacientes doentes. Houve aumento da SWVcort na DRC, com ponto de corte >2.91m/s. Rins saudáveis foram não-deformáveis e 25% apresentou alterações nas escalas de cinza. Houve aumento do wash-in e TPic, alterações nas características de preenchimento, falhas e dificuldade para distinguir as fases de preenchimento do contraste nos rins com DRC. Verificou-se que cães com DRC graus 2, 3 e 4 tiveram valores de SWVcort e wash-in maiores que cães com DRC grau 1. Foram obsrervadas alterações elastográfica e de CEUS em cães com DRC, demonstrando a aplicabilidade destas técnicas ultrassonográficas no seu diagnóstico.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Congenital Abnormalities , Ultrasonography , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Perfusion , Kidney
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06598, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340345

ABSTRACT

Objective was to evaluate the accuracy of elastography in the differentiation between normal and cataract lenses One hundred forty-five eyes of 98 dogs were divided into groups according to cataract stage. Forty-twoeyes were submitted to phacoemulsification. Biometric parameters, echogenicity and echotexture patterns of the anterior, posterior and vitreous chambers, lens and retina-choroid-sclera complexes were evaluated by ocular ultrasound in modes A and B. Deformability, and color (blue color = indicated less rigid structures, color red = more rigid structures) of the lenses were evaluated by the elastogram. The shear wave velocity (SWV; m/s) was calculated in three regions of the lens, both in the cortex and in the nucleus. The SWV of nucleus was statistically different between the normal lenses and with cataracts, and between the stages of cataract (P<0.001). Healthy lenses and incipient cataracts had a more rigid nucleus. Mature cataracts presented lowest nuclear rigidity (P<0.001). On cortical region the SWV was significantly higher (P<0.01) in intumescent and incipient cataracts. SWV less than 2.67m/s indicates cataract with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 94%. Values lower than 2.23m/s suggest mature cataract, with sensitivity of 71% and specificity of 76%. SWV greater than 2.66 m/s are associated with normal lenses or incipient cataract, presenting sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 84%. Qualitative method allowed differentiation between healthy and affected lenses and the classification of evolutionary stages. There was a correlation between the degree of stiffness of lens in cortical and nuclear regions (p=00165, r=0.37) and between the balanced saline solution quantitative and surgical time (P<0.01, r=0.73). Degree of stiffness of lens did not correlate with parameters of phacoemulsification. Elastographic proved feasible for evaluating the lens of dogs, characterizing the types of cataracts, and demonstrating increased stiffness of the diseased lenses.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar a precisão da elastografia na diferenciação entre lentes normais e de catarata. Cento e quarenta e cinco olhos de 98 cães foram divididos em grupos de acordo com o estágio de maturação da catarata. Quarenta e dois olhos foram submetidos à facoemulsificação. Parâmetros biométricos, ecogenicidade e padrões de ecotextura das câmaras anterior, posterior e vítrea, lente e complexos retina-coróide-esclera foram avaliados por ultrassonografia ocular nos modos A e B. A deformabilidade e a coloração (cor azul = indicou estruturas menos rígidas, cor vermelha = estruturas mais rígidas) das lentes foram avaliadas pelo elastograma. A velocidade da onda de cisalhamento (SWV; m/s) foi calculada em três regiões da lente, tanto no córtex quanto no núcleo. A SWV do núcleo foi estatisticamente diferente entre as lentes normais e com catarata e entre os estágios da catarata (P<0,001). Lentes saudáveis e cataratas incipientes tinham um núcleo mais rígido. Cataratas maduras apresentaram menor rigidez nuclear (P<0,001). Na região cortical, a SWV foi significativamente maior (P<0,01) nas cataratas intumescentes e incipientes. Uma SWV menor que 2,67m/s indica catarata com sensibilidade de 72% e especificidade de 94%. Valores inferiores a 2,23m/s sugerem catarata madura, com sensibilidade de 71% e especificidade de 76%. Uma SWV superior a 2,66m/s está associada à catarata normal ou incipiente, apresentando sensibilidade de 94% e especificidade de 84%. O método qualitativo permitiu a diferenciação entre lentes normais de olhos saudáveis e afetadas e a classificação dos estágios evolutivos. A elastografia se mostrara uma ferramenta viável para avaliar as lentes de cães, caracterizando os tipos de catarata e demonstrando maior rigidez das lentes doentes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Male , Dogs , Cataract/veterinary , Dogs , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/veterinary , Ultrasonics , Phacoemulsification
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878700

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the value of elastography strain ratio(SR)combined with breast ultrasound imaging reporting and data system(BI-RADS-US)in the differential diagnosis of breast nodules.Methods A total of 471 breast nodules(from 471 patients)were reclassified by SR combined with BI-RADS-US.With the pathology results as gold standard,the area under the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve(AUC)was employed to evaluate the diagnostic performance,and the sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy were compared between the combined method and BI-RADS-US.Results Among the 471 breast nodules,180 nodules were benign and 291 were malignant.The AUC of the combined method was statistically significantly higher than that of BI-RADS-US(0.798 vs. 0.730;Z= 2.583, P= 0.010).SR,BI-RADS-US,and the combined method for diagnosing breast nodules had the sensitivity of 86.6%,99.0%,and 96.6%,the specificity of 67.2%,47.2%,and 63.3%,and the accuracy of 79.2%,79.2%,and 83.9%,respectively.The combined method increased the specificity from 47.2%(BI-RADS-US)to 63.3%(χ


Subject(s)
Breast/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Diagnosis, Differential , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Female , Humans , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Ultrasonography, Mammary
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880447

ABSTRACT

The methods of monitoring the thermal ablation of tumor are compared and analyzed in recent years. The principle method results and insufficient of ultrasound elastography and quantitative ultrasound imaging are discussed. The results show that ultrasonic tissue signature has great development space in the field of real-time monitoring of thermal ablation, but there are still some problems such as insufficient monitoring accuracy difficulty in whole-course monitoring and insufficient


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Hyperthermia, Induced , Liver/surgery , Neoplasms/surgery , Ultrasonography
9.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 385-402, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879639

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound is a non-invasive, real-time, inexpensive, radiation-free and easily repeatable method, usually used for liver imaging. In recent years, new ultrasound examination techniques for liver diseases such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound and elastography have been rapidly developed, which can effectively identify intrahepatic space-occupying lesions, assess the degree of liver fibrosis and portal hypertension, and monitor the effects of treatment. Therefore, these technologies play an important diagnostic role in clinical liver diseases and have therapeutic interventional value. This guideline classifies the instrument set-up, patient preparation, and physician examination methods through multimodal ultrasound examinations (gray-scale ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastic ultrasound) for liver diseases. In addition, liver diseases multimodal ultrasound technology diagnostic criteria for diffuse hepatic lesions (inflammatory lesions, fibrosis, and sclerosis), multiple space-occupying lesions, and interventional procedures have been defined and standardized. Concurrently, we also recommend the ultrasound monitoring time interval and diagnostic report writing standard for liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Humans , Hypertension, Portal , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(6): 2135-2140, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1142306

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of ARFI elastography for the complementary diagnosis of canine prostatic alterations. Twenty-two healthy dogs and 45 with prostatic alterations were diagnosed by the association of general and specific physical exams. Complete blood count, B-mode and Doppler ultrasound were performed. For the elastography study, tissue homogeneity and deformity were verified using the elastogram, and the shear velocities of the left and right lobes of all prostates were obtained. The change in tissue homogeneity was observed in 62.2% of the animals, while the shear speed was significantly higher in dogs with prostatic alterations, with a cut-off point > 2.35m/s as an indication of change. All animals in both groups were non-deformable. It was concluded that ARFI elastography is capable of providing qualitative and quantitative results that assist in the diagnosis of canine prostatic alterations in a non-invasive way.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a aplicabilidade da elastografia ARFI na complementação diagnóstica das alterações prostáticas em cães. Foram avaliados 22 cães saudáveis e 45 com alterações prostáticas, diagnosticadas pela associação de exames físicos geral e específico, hemograma, ultrassonografia modo B e Doppler. No estudo elastográfico, foram verificadas a homogeneidade e a deformidade tecidual, pelo elastograma, e obtidas as velocidades de cisalhamento dos lobos esquerdo e direito de todas as próstatas. A alteração de homogeneidade tecidual foi observada em 62,2% dos animais, enquanto a velocidade de cisalhamento se mostrou significativamente maior em cães com alterações prostáticas, com ponto de corte >2,35m/s como indicativo de alteração. Todos os animais de ambos os grupos se apresentaram não deformáveis. Concluiu-se que a elastografia ARFI é capaz de fornecer resultados qualitativos e quantitativos que auxiliam no diagnóstico das alterações prostáticas caninas de forma não invasiva.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Prostate/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler/veterinary
11.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 49(3): e511, jul.-set. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1144485

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para definir una adecuada estrategia terapéutica en el cáncer de recto es preciso una correcta estadificación. El ultrasonido endoscópico es un método de estadiaje preciso que define la profundidad del tumor y el estado nodal. En los tumores tratados con radioterapia disminuye su rentabilidad por la fibrosis que se origina en la pared rectal; indistinguible de los elementos de malignidad. La elastografía brinda la posibilidad de resolver esta limitación. Objetivo: Ofrecer una actualización sobre la elastografía por ultrasonido endoscópico en el diagnóstico del paciente con tumor rectal. Desarrollo: La elastografía se basa en las alteraciones que en la elasticidad del tejido inducen la fibrosis y el cáncer. Determina si un tejido es maligno o benigno mediante el análisis de su dureza. Se obtienen imágenes que se expresan en un mapa de colores superpuestas a la imagen convencional del ultrasonido endoscópico. Muchas investigaciones demuestran su elevada sensibilidad y especificidad en tumores de páncreas y ganglios linfáticos, algunas en tumores de esófago, sin embargo muy pocas en el cáncer rectal. Conclusiones: La elastografía ha mejorado el diagnóstico y seguimiento oncológico del paciente con tumor rectal(AU)


Introduction: To define an adequate therapeutic strategy in rectal cancer, a correct staging is necessary. For this, advanced diagnostic means have been developed to evaluate the rectal wall. Endoscopic Ultrasound a fundamental technique; combines endoscopic image with ultrasound; in tumors treated with radiotherapy, its profitability decreases due to fibrosis that originates in the rectal wall; indistinguishable from the elements of malignancy. Elastography offers the possibility of resolving this limitation. Objective: To offer an update on elastography by endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis of the patient with rectal tumor. Development: Elastography is based on the alterations that fibrosis and cancer induce in the elasticity of the tissue. Determine if a tissue is malignant or benign by analyzing its hardness. Images are obtained that are expressed on a color map superimposed on the conventional endoscopic ultrasound image. Many investigations demonstrate its high sensitivity and specificity in tumors of the pancreas and lymph nodes, some in esophageal tumors, however very few in rectal cancer. Conclusions: Elastography has improved the diagnosis and oncological follow-up of the patient with rectal tumor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity/radiation effects , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Lymph Nodes
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1646-1652, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131575

ABSTRACT

The objective was to establish the reference standards for elastography of the main structures of the canine stifle joint. The medial meniscus, patellar and cruciate ligaments of thirty healthy beagles was evaluated by B-mode and ARFI elastography (n=60 joints). Analysis detected a positive correlation of the shear wave velocity (SWV) of structures according to age. Patellar ligament presented a gradual stiffness increase in relation to age, while medial meniscus and cruciate ligament were more rigid in puppies than in adults. However, greater stiffness of these structures was observed in elderly animals. Elasticity of each structure was evaluated according to gender and reproductive status. Females presented greater stiffness of all structures, with SWV differing 0.3 and 0.36m/s between genders. Only the medial meniscus was not stiffer in neutered animals when compared to intact animals, differing only 0.02m/s in menisci and 0.4 to 0.47m/s in ligaments between groups. These findings corroborate with literature data that states a higher prevalence of ligament insufficiency in elderly dogs, females and neutered animals. It was concluded that ARFI elastography of the canine stifle joint is feasible and its application can be potentially effective in early diagnosis of ligament and meniscal changes.(AU)


O objetivo foi estabelecer os padrões normais para elastografia das principais estruturas da articulação do joelho em cães. O menisco medial, ligamento patelar e cruzado de trinta beagles saudáveis foram avaliados pelo modo B e elastografia ARFI (n=60 articulações). A análise detectou uma correlação positiva da velocidade de cisalhamento (SWV) das estruturas com a idade. O ligamento patelar apresentou um aumento gradual da rigidez em relação à idade, enquanto o menisco medial e o ligamento cruzado foram mais rígidos em filhotes do que em adultos. Entretanto, observou-se maior rigidez dessas estruturas em idosos. A elasticidade de cada estrutura foi avaliada de acordo com o sexo e o estado reprodutivo. As fêmeas apresentaram maior rigidez em todas as estruturas, com SWV diferente de 0,3 e 0,36m/s entre os sexos. Somente o menisco medial não foi mais rígido nos animais castrados quando comparado não castrados, diferindo apenas 0,02m/s no menisco e 0,4 a 0,47m/s nos ligamentos entre os grupos. Esses achados corroboram com dados da literatura que afirmam maior prevalência de insuficiência ligamentar em cães idosos, fêmeas e animais castrados. Concluiu-se que a elastografia ARFI da articulação do joelho canino é viável e sua aplicação pode ser eficaz no diagnóstico precoce de alterações ligamentares e meniscais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Patellofemoral Joint/diagnostic imaging , Meniscus/diagnostic imaging , Knee Joint/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/veterinary , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/veterinary
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1154-1162, July-Aug. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131491

ABSTRACT

This study set out to determine normal values for acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography of the superficial digital flexor tendon, deep digital flexor tendon, accessory ligament of the deep digital flexor tendon and suspensory ligament in horses. Twenty-four horses were submitted to conventional sonographic assessment and elastography imaging (quantitative ARFI method) of distal forelimb tendons and ligaments at nine anatomical regions. Elastograms depicted tendons and ligaments in orange to red tones consistent with greater stiffness. Shear wave velocity was higher in the longitudinal compared to the cross-sectional plane but did not differ significantly between the left and right forelimbs. The suspensory ligament was stiffer compared to remaining structures in the cross-sectional plane. Ligaments were stiffer than tendons and the deep digital flexor tendon was stiffer than the superficial digital flexor tendon in the longitudinal plane. Target structures were stiffer in male compared to female horses and stiffness tended to increase with age. ARFI elastography proved to be a feasible and reproducible imaging modality for assessment of distal forelimb tendons and ligaments in horses. Qualitative features derived from stiffness quantification in these structures can be applied to horses with musculoskeletal disorders, as well as to other animal species.(AU)


Este trabalho objetivou estabelecer valores de referência por meio da elastografia ARFI ("Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse") do tendão flexor digital superficial, tendão flexor digital profundo, ligamento acessório inferior e ligamento suspensor do boleto em equinos hígidos. Vinte e quatro equinos foram submetidos aos exames ultrassonográfico e elastográfico (método ARFI quantitativo) dos tendões e ligamentos da porção distal do membro torácico, em nove regiões anatômicas diferentes. Os elastogramas mostraram tendões e ligamentos de coloração alaranjada a vermelha, que representam maior rigidez. Não houve diferenças em relação ao membro avaliado; as velocidades de cisalhamento foram maiores nos planos longitudinais. No plano transversal, os ligamentos suspensores foram mais rígidos em comparação aos demais. No plano longitudinal, os ligamentos mostraram-se mais rígidos que os tendões, e o tendão flexor digital profundo, mais rígido que o tendão flexor digital superficial. As estruturas mostraram-se mais rígidas nos machos, e houve uma tendência à maior rigidez em animais mais velhos. A elastografia ARFI comprovou ser um método viável e reprodutível para avaliação dos tendões e ligamentos dos membros torácicos de equinos. As características qualitativas obtidas a partir da rigidez dessas estruturas podem ser utilizadas para testes em equinos com distúrbios musculoesqueléticos e também em outras espécies animais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Tendons/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/veterinary , Horses , Ligaments/diagnostic imaging , Musculoskeletal System/diagnostic imaging
14.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(1): 8-17, 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115596

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivos: presentar el desarrollo de modelos educativos para el aprendizaje de dos técnicas endoscópicas vigentes, ampliamente difundidas y de gran implicación clínica, con la única intención de permitir la adquisición de destrezas básicas y avanzadas a residentes y gastroenterólogos. Materiales y métodos: se idearon dos modelos sencillos, de muy bajo costo, fácilmente reproducibles y reutilizables, con los cuales se logra ejecutar la totalidad de los procedimientos descritos. Además, permiten al operador integrar el desarrollo de habilidades y la adquisición de los conceptos teóricos mínimos requeridos, sin las presiones generadas por el riesgo existente de complicaciones. Resultados: la tendencia actual a nivel mundial se conduce hacia el desarrollo de modelos de enseñanza que aceleren la curva de aprendizaje, así como de procedimientos altamente exigentes y asociados a complicaciones potencialmente graves. Con estos modelos es posible poner a prueba al endoscopista, mediante una evaluación continua y supervisada. Su implementación en unidades de gastroenterología es sencilla, sin la necesidad de una inversión superlativa o el desplazamiento a otros países. Conclusiones: se trata de un gran aporte al desarrollo científico y educativo de nuestro país, ya que la creación y la implementación de nuevas técnicas endoscópicas y su aprendizaje no deben ser asumidos por los pacientes. En este punto, estamos de acuerdo con los conceptos emitidos por diferentes asociaciones médicas respecto a que los cursos teórico-prácticos de corta duración -y en algunas ocasiones virtuales- no constituyen una formación mínima, requerida para lograr la acreditación.


Abstract Objectives: This article presents the development of educational models for learning two widespread recent endoscopic techniques which have great clinical implications. Its sole intention is to allow acquisition of basic and advanced skills by residents and gastroenterologists. Materials and methods: Two simple, very low cost, easily reproducible and reusable models were devised. Procedures are fully described in ways that allow the operator to integrate the development of skills and acquisition of the minimum theoretical concepts required without the pressures generated by risks of complications. Results: The current global trend is to develop teaching models that accelerate the learning curve for highly demanding procedures that are associated with potentially serious complications. With these models it is possible to test endoscopists through continuous supervised evaluations. Implementation by gastroenterology units can be done easily without the need for large investments or travel to other countries. Conclusions: This is a great contribution to the scientific and educational development of Colombia since neither development of new endoscopic techniques nor the process of learning how to perform them should put patients at risk. We agree with the ideas of numerous medical associations regarding theoretical-practical courses of short duration even though some virtual sessions, "do not constitute the minimum training required needed for accreditation".


Subject(s)
Humans , Models, Educational , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Myotomy , Teaching , Ultrasonics , Low Cost Technology , Learning Curve
15.
Clinics ; 75: e1670, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133460

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), and the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index are widely used to assess liver fibrosis. However, efficacies of these methods in the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ARFI elastography combined with either AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and Child-Pugh (CP) class for the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)-related cirrhosis. METHODS: The shear wave velocities of 104 patients with clinically confirmed CHB-related cirrhosis were determined using the ARFI; and clinical serum markers (e.g. ALT, AST, PLT) were used to calculate the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. Cirrhosis patients were scored according to their CP class. The ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index were compared with the CP class. The efficacy of each indicator in diagnosis was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the ARFI combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index, which is used to predict decompensated cirrhosis. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in gender and age among CP classes A, B, and C patients (p>0.05). The ARFI values and the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index of patients with CP classes A, B, and C were significantly different (p<0.05). With an increasing CP class, the ARFI, AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 values increased. The correlation between the ARFI and the CP class was stronger than that between the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index and the CP class. The area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of decompensated cirrhosis using the ARFI was 0.841, which was higher than that for the AAR, APRI, and FIB-4 index. According to the area under the curve results, no significant differences were found when the ARFI was combined with either the AAR, APRI, or FIB-4 index and when the ARFI alone was used. CONCLUSIONS: The ARFI value has a strong correlation with the CP class. Therefore, ARFI elastography complements CP class in the assessment of the hepatic functional reserve in patients with CHB-related cirrhosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Acoustics , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Biopsy , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Liver/pathology , Liver Cirrhosis/blood , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnostic imaging
16.
Clinics ; 75: e1594, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the risk stratification tool for thyroid nodules, and ultrasound elastography is not routinely used for the differential diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The current study aimed to compare the diagnostic parameters of ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology, using surgical pathology as the reference standard. METHODS: In total, 205 patients with abnormal thyroid function test results underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology on the basis of the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging-Reporting and Data System classification and strain ultrasound elastography according to the ASTERIA criteria. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimens was performed according to the 2017 World Health Organization classification system. Moreover, a beneficial score analysis for each modality was conducted. RESULTS: Of 265 nodules, 212 measured ≥1 cm. The strain index value increased from benign to malignant nodules, and the presence of autoimmune thyroid diseases did not affect the results (p>0.05 for all categories). The sensitivities of histopathological examination, ultrasound elastography, and fine-needle aspiration cytology for detection of nodules measuring ≥1 cm were 1, 1, and 0.97, respectively. The working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was similar between strain ultrasound elastography and fine-needle aspiration cytology for highly and moderately suspicious nodules. However, for mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules, the working area for detecting nodule(s) in a single image was higher in strain ultrasound elastography than in fine-needle aspiration cytology. CONCLUSION: Strain ultrasound elastography for highly and moderately suspicious nodules facilitated the detection of mildly suspicious, unsuspicious, and benign nodules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Thyroid Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/methods , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyrotropin/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Nodule/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential
17.
Clinics ; 75: e1691, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133437

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Imaging diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy has conventionally used ultrasonography. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a recent ultrasound technological advancement that has shown promise in the important medical problem of differentiating between benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes based on quantitative measurements of elasticity modulus. However, widely varying elasticity modulus metrics and regions-of-interest (ROIs) were used in existing studies, leading to inconsistent findings and results that are hard to compare with each other. METHODS: Using a large dataset of 264 cervical lymph nodes from 200 patients, we designed a study comparing three elasticity modulus metrics (Emax, Emean, and standard deviation-SD) with three different ROIs to evaluate the effect of such selections. The metric values were compared between the benign and malignant node groups. The different ROI and metric selections were also compared through receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. RESULTS: For all ROIs, all metric values were significantly different between the two groups, indicting their diagnostic potential. This was confirmed by the ≥0.80 area under the curve (AUC) values achieved with these metrics. Different ROIs had no effect on Emax, whereas all ROIs achieved high performance at 0.88 AUC. For Emean, the smallest ROI focusing on the area of the highest elasticity achieved the best diagnostic performance. In contrast, the larger ROIs achieved higher performances for SD. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrated the effect of elasticity modulus and ROI selection on the diagnostic performance of SWE on cervical lymphadenopathy. These new findings help guide relevant future studies and clinical applications of this important quantitative imaging modality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Breast Neoplasms , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Reproducibility of Results , Ultrasonography , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Differential , Elastic Modulus , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Neck/diagnostic imaging
18.
Clinics ; 75: e1720, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133375

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies are recommended for the detection of suspicious thyroid nodules. However, the best approach regarding suspicious ultrasound features for thyroid nodules is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of location and size of thyroid nodules on the diagnostic performance of strain ultrasound elastography. In addition, this study evaluated whether ultrasound elastography predicts malignancy in thyroid nodules. METHODS: Data regarding the size, depth, and distance from the carotid artery of nodules, the elasticity contrast index, and the nature of nodules were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the depth (p=0.092) and the distance from the carotid artery (p=0.061) between benign and suspicious nodules. Suspicious nodules were smaller than benign nodules (p<0.0001, q=23.84) and had a higher elasticity contrast index (p<0.0001, q=21.05). The depth of nodules and the size of the nodule were not associated with the correct value of the elasticity contrast index (p>0.05 for both). The diagnostic performance of ultrasound elastography was not affected by the distance of the nodules from the carotid artery if they were located ≥15 mm from the carotid artery (p=0.5960). However, if the suspicious nodules were located <15 mm from the carotid artery, the diagnostic accuracy was hampered (p=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: The strain ultrasound elastography should be carefully evaluated when small thyroid nodules are located near the carotid artery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Elasticity Imaging Techniques/methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Diagnosis, Differential
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826383

ABSTRACT

To explore the value of conventional ultrasound combined with shear-wave elastography in the quantitative evaluation of sciatic nerve crush injury in rabbit models. Forty healthy male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (=10 in each group):three crush injury (CI) groups (2,4,and 8 weeks after crush) and control group (without injury). The thickness and stiffness of the crushed sciatic nerves and denervated triceps surae muscles were measured at different time points and compared with histopathologic parameters. Inter-reader variability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients. Compared with the control group,the inner diameters of the sciatic nerves significantly increased in the 2-week CI group [(1.65±0.34) mm (0.97±0.15) mm,=0.00] but recovered to the nearly normal level in the 8-week CI group [(1.12±0.18) mm (0.97±0.15) mm,=0.06];however,compared with control group [(8.75±1.02)kPa],the elastic modulus of the nerves increased significantly in all the CI groups [2-week:(14.77±2.53) kPa;4-week:(19.12±3.46) kPa;and 8-week:(28.39±5.26) kPa;all =0.00];pathologically,massive hyperplasia of collagen fibers were found in the nerve tissues. The thickness of denervated triceps surae muscle decreased gradually,and the elastic modulus decreased 2 weeks after injury but increased gradually in the following 6 weeks;pathologically,massive hyperplasia of collagen fibers and adipocytes infiltration were visible,along with decreased muscle wet-weight ratio and muscle fiber cross-sectional area. The inter-reader agreements were good. Conventional ultrasound combined with shear-wave elastography is feasible for the quantitative evaluation of the morphological and mechanical properties of crushed nerves and denervated muscles.


Subject(s)
Animals , Crush Injuries , Diagnostic Imaging , Elastic Modulus , Elasticity Imaging Techniques , Male , Muscle, Skeletal , Pathology , Rabbits , Random Allocation , Sciatic Nerve , Wounds and Injuries , Ultrasonography
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