Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 69
Filter
1.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.545-547, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352997
2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(3): 315-318, May-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250096

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mechanical ventilation in prone position is an alternative strategy for patients with acute respiratory discomfort syndrome (ARDS) to improve oxygenation in situations when traditional ventilation modalities have failed. However, due to the significant increase in ARDS cases during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the experimental therapeutic use of potentially arrhythmogenic drugs, cardiopulmonary resuscitation in this unusual position could be needed. Therefore, we will review the available scientific evidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prone position.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prone Position , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Electric Countershock/methods , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/instrumentation
3.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292264

ABSTRACT

A cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito é uma desordem hereditária caracterizada pela substituição fibrogordurosa do músculo cardíaco. O manejo clínico busca reduzir os riscos de morte súbita e melhorar a qualidade de vida, aliviando os sintomas arrítmicos e de insuficiência cardíaca. O ecocardiograma é o exame inicial para a investigação da cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito, podendo apresentar dilatação das câmaras direitas e disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito. Este relato chama atenção por envolver o diagnóstico de cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito em paciente atleta. Mulher, 47 anos, maratonista, sem história familiar de morte súbita cardíaca, deu entrada na emergência com palpitação associada à pré-síncope. O eletrocardiograma da admissão mostrava taquicardia ventricular. O ecocardiograma revelou aumento de câmaras cardíacas direitas e disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito. O cateterismo cardíaco não evidenciou doença coronária obstrutiva. A paciente foi orientada acerca da necessidade de suspensão de atividades físicas, porém, 3 meses depois, foi readmitida com instabilidade hemodinâmica por nova taquicardia ventricular, tendo sido cardiovertida. Realizou ressonância cardíaca, que evidenciou áreas de discinesia e formação de microaneurismas em ventrículo direito. Foi diagnosticada com cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito, tendo sido com cardioversor desfibrilador implantável, amiodarona e betabloqueador. A diferenciação entre a cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito e o coração do atleta representa um desafio, devido à sobreposição de alterações estruturais que coexistem nessas entidades, daí a importância da análise integrada de fatores clínicos, eletrocardiográficos e morfofuncionais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/genetics , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/mortality , Heart Failure , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Electric Countershock/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Heart Transplantation/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable , Catheter Ablation/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 90(1): 69-76, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131008

ABSTRACT

Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a frequent arrhythmia; its prevalence is near 2% in the general population; in Mexico, more than one-half million people are affected. AF needs to be considered as a public health problem. Because AF is an independent risk factor associated with mortality, due to embolic events, heart failure, or sudden death; early diagnosis is of utmost importance. In unstable patients with a recent onset of AF, electrical cardioversion should be practiced. In stable patients, once thromboembolic measures have been taken, it is necessary to assess whether it is reasonable to administer an antiarrhythmic drug to restore sinus rhythm or performed electrical cardioversion. For recidivating cases of paroxysmal and persistent presentation, the most effective strategy is performed pulmonary vein isolation with either radiofrequency or cryoballoon energy. Permanent AF is that in which recovery of sinus rhythm is not possible, the distinguishing feature of this phase is the uncontrollable variability of the ventricular frequency and could be treated pharmacologically with atrioventricular (AV) nodal blockers or with a VVIR pacemaker plus AV nodal ablation. The presence of AF has long been associated with the development of cerebral and systemic (pulmonary, limb, coronary, renal, and visceral) embolism. The prevention of embolisms in “valvular” AF should perform with Vitamin K antagonists (VKA). For patients with AF not associated with mitral stenosis or a mechanical valve prosthesis, a choice can be made between anticoagulant drugs, VKA, or direct oral anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents have the weakest effect in preventing embolism.


Resumen La fibrilación auricular (FA) es una arritmia frecuente; su prevalencia es cercana al 2% en la población general, en México se ven afectados más de medio millón de personas por eso debe considerarse como un problema de salud pública. Debido a que la FA es un factor de riesgo independiente asociado a mortalidad, por eventos embólicos, insuficiencia cardíaca o muerte súbita, la identificación y diagnóstico temprano es de suma importancia. En el inicio reciente de FA en pacientes inestables, se debe practicar la cardioversión eléctrica. En pacientes estables, una vez que se han tomado medidas tromboembólicas, es necesario evaluar si es razonable administrar un medicamento antiarrítmico para restaurar el ritmo sinusal o realizar una cardioversión eléctrica. Para los casos que recidivan, ya sea paroxística o persistente, la estrategia más efectiva es realizar el aislamiento de la venas pulmonares con radiofrecuencia o crioablación con balón. La FA permanente es aquella en la que no es posible la recuperación del ritmo sinusal, la característica distintiva de esta fase de la FA es la variabilidad incontrolable de la frecuencia ventricular. Puede tratarse farmacológicamente con bloqueadores nodales AV o con un marcapasos VVIR mas ablación del nodo AV. La presencia de FA se ha asociado durante mucho tiempo con el desarrollo de embolia cerebral y sistémica (pulmonar, de extremidades, coronaria, renal y visceral). La prevención de embolias en la FA “valvular” debe realizarse con antagonistas de la vitamina K (AVK). Para los pacientes con FA no asociados con estenosis mitral o una prótesis valvular mecánica, se puede elegir entre medicamentos anticoagulantes, AVK o anticoagulantes orales directos (DOAC). Los agentes antiplaquetarios tienen el efecto más débil para prevenir la embolia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cryosurgery/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Radiofrequency Ablation/methods , Mexico/epidemiology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 348-359, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149093

ABSTRACT

Resumen La fibrilación auricular es la arritmia más frecuente en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca. Se relaciona con insuficiencia cardíaca, insuficiencia renal, embolismo sistémico y más días de estancia y mortalidad. La fibrilación auricular en el periodo posquirúrgico de la cirugía cardíaca (FAPCC) suele aparecer en las primeras 48 horas. Los principales mecanismos que producen la aparición y el mantenimiento de la FAPCC son el aumento del tono simpático y la respuesta inflamatoria. Los factores de riesgo adjuntos son la edad avanzada, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, enfermedad renal crónica, cirugía valvular, fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo menor de 40% e interrupción de fármacos bloqueadores β. Existen instrumentos que han demostrado predecir la aparición de FAPCC. El tratamiento profiláctico con bloqueadores β y amiodarona se relaciona con disminución de la aparición de FAPCC. Dada su naturaleza transitoria, se sugiere que el tratamiento inicial de FAPCC sea el control de la frecuencia cardíaca y sólo en caso de que el tratamiento no consiga el retorno al ritmo sinusal está indicada la cardioversión eléctrica. Se desconoce cuál debe ser el seguimiento a largo plazo y sólo se conocen en escasa medida las complicaciones más allá de este periodo. La FAPCC no es una arritmia benigna ni aislada en los pacientes sometidos a operación cardíaca, por lo que la identificación de los factores de riesgo, su prevención y el seguimiento en el ámbito ambulatorio deben formar parte de las unidades dedicadas a la atención y los cuidados de estos pacientes.


Abstract Atrial fibrillation is the most frequent arrhythmia in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. It is associated with heart failure, renal insufficiency, systemic embolism and increase in days of in-hospital and mortality. Atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery (FAPCC) usually appears in the first 48 h after surgery. The main mechanisms involved in the appearance and maintenance of FAPCC are the increase in sympathetic tone and the inflammatory response. The associated risk factors are advanced age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, valve surgery, fraction of ejection of the left ventricle less 40% and the withdrawal of beta-blocker drugs. There are instruments that have been shown to predict the appearance of FAPCC. Prophylactic treatment with beta-blockers and amiodarone, is associated with a decrease in the appearance of FAPCC. Given its transient nature, it is suggested that the initial treatment of FAPCC be the heart rate control and only if the treatment does not achieve a return to sinus rhythm, the use of electrical cardioversion is suggested. It is unknown what should be the long-term follow-up and complications beyond this period are little known. FAPCC is not a benign or isolated arrhythmia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, so the identification of risk factors, their prevention, and follow-up in the outpatient setting, should be part of the units dedicated to the care and care of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/methods , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Risk Factors , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects
7.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 276-285, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916531

ABSTRACT

As taquicardias de QRS estreito apresentam origem supraventricular. O histórico clínico, exame físico e eletrocardiograma na sala de emergência constituem-se nas principais ferramentas para o tratamento do quadro. As taquicardias que apresentam instabilidade hemodinâmica devem ser, imediatamente, revertidas através de cardioversão elétrica sincronizada. Aquelas que se apresentam como estáveis hemodinamicamente podem, se regulares, ser tratadas através de manobras vagais ou através do uso de fármacos endovenosos. Se irregulares, podem caracterizar fibrilação e flutter atrial, sendo, então, avaliados a duração do episódio e o risco de tromboembolismo para determinar não apenas a necessidade de anticoagulação, mas também a estratégia para tratamento do quadro, seja através do controle da frequência cardíaca ou do controle do ritmo, este último podendo ser alcançado através do uso de fármacos (propafenona oral ou amiodarona endovenosa) ou da cardioversão elétrica sincronizada. Dessa forma, o papel do clínico na sala de emergência é fundamental para garantir a condução adequada dos episódios de taquicardia supraventricular, especialmente, na prevenção ou pronta intervenção em caso de deterioração hemodinâmica relacionada ao quadro


Narrow QRS tachycardias are supraventricular in origin. The clinical history, physical exam, and electrocardiogram in the emergency room are the main tools used to manage this condition. Tachycardias that present haemodynamic instability must be promptly reverted through synchronized electrical cardioversion. Those that present haemodynamic stability may be treated with vagal maneuvers or intravenous drugs. If irregular, they may take the form of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and in this case, the duration of the episode and the thromboembolic risk are evaluated to determine not only the need for anticoagulation, but also the treatment strategy, whether through heart rate or rhythm control. The latter may be achieved through the use of drugs (oral propafenone or intravenous amiodarone) or synchronized electrical cardioversion. The role of the clinician in the emergency room is therefore fundamental in ensuring adequate conduct of episodes of supraventricular tachycardia, especially in prevention or prompt intervention in case of haemodynamic deterioration related to the condition


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Therapeutics , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/diagnostic imaging , Emergencies , Atrial Fibrillation , Propafenone/adverse effects , Propafenone/therapeutic use , Bundle-Branch Block/diagnosis , Electric Countershock/methods , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Verapamil/adverse effects , Verapamil/therapeutic use , Adenosine/adverse effects , Adenosine/therapeutic use , Prevalence , Electrocardiography/methods , Amiodarone/therapeutic use
8.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(3): 302-311, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-916547

ABSTRACT

A incidência exata de parada cardiorrespiratória (PCR) mesmo em países com registros clínicos bem estruturados ainda é desconhecida, mas as estimativas variam de 180.000 a mais de 450.000 mortes anuais. A etiologia mais comum da PCR é a doença cardiovascular isquêmica que ocasiona no desenvolvimento de arritmias letais. A sobrevivência decorrente da PCR apresenta desfechos divergentes. No cenário extra-hospitalar, os estudos relataram taxas de sobrevida de 1% a 6%. Três revisões sistemáticas de alta hospitalar sobre a PCR extra-hospitalar mostraram 5% a 10% de sobrevida entre aqueles tratados através de serviços médicos de emergência e 15% quando o distúrbio do ritmo era a fibrilação ventricular (FV). O suporte básico de vida consiste em ressuscitação cardiopulmonar (RCP) e, quando disponível, desfibrilação com desfibrilador externo automático (DEA). As chaves para a sobrevivência após a PCR são reconhecimento e tratamento precoces, especificamente, início imediato de excelente RCP e desfibrilação precoce. O presente artigo discutirá os princípios do suporte básico de vida em adultos do pré-hospitalar à sala de emergência, conforme descritos nas Diretrizes de Ressuscitação Cardiopulmonar e Atendimento Cardiovascular de Emergência do ILCOR e AHA, atualizadas em novembro de 2017


The exact incidence of cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) even in countries with well-structured clinical records is still unknown, but estimates range from 180,000 to over 450,000 annual deaths. The most common etiology of CRA is ischemic cardiovascular disease, resulting in the development of lethal arrhythmias. Survival of CRA shows divergent outcomes. In the out-of-hospital setting, studies have reported survival rates of 1% to 6%. Three systematic reviews of hospital discharge on extra-hospital CRA showed 5% to 10% survival between those treated by emergency medical services and 15% when the rhythm disorder was ventricular fibrillation (VF). Basic life support consists of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, when available, defibrillation with an automatic external defibrillator (AED). The keys to survival of CRA are early recognition and treatment, specifically, immediate onset of excellent CPR and early defibrillation. This article will discuss the basics of adult life support from prehospital to emergency room, as outlined in the ILCOR and AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care, updated in November 2017


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation/methods , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Emergency Treatment/methods , Prehospital Care/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Defibrillators, Implantable , Defibrillators , Electrodes , Heart Arrest/etiology , Amiodarone/therapeutic use
9.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(1): 13-16, jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-905674

ABSTRACT

Relatamos o caso de paciente portadora de anomalia de Ebstein, submetida a transplante cardíaco heterotópico após insucesso na correção cirúrgica. Apesar da melhora clínica inicial, a paciente permanecia dispneica em decorrência de dissincronia sistólica entre os corações gerada por flutter atrial do coração nativo. Após a cardioversão desse flutter, o eletrocardiograma já apresentava espontaneamente o sincronismo sistólico entre ambos os corações. Houve significativa melhora tanto clínica como ecocardiográfica do coração nativo. A redução da frequência cardíaca do coração nativo após reversão do flutter colaborou para a melhora de seu desempenho hemodinâmico, caracterizando ser essa disfunção secundária à taquicardia.


We report the case of a patient with Ebstein Anomaly, submitted to heterotopic cardiac transplantation after a failed surgical correction. Despite the initial clinical improvement, the patient remained dyspneic due to systolic dyssynchronism between the hearts, generated by atrial flutter of the native heart. After flutter cardioversion, the electrocardiogram already presented systolic synchronism between both hearts. There was a significant clinical and echocardiographic improvement of the native heart. The heart rate reduction of the native heart after flutter reversal led to hemodynamic improvements, characterizing it as being secondary to tachycardia


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Heart , Heart Defects, Congenital , Heart Rate , Heart Transplantation/methods , Atrial Flutter/diagnosis , Ebstein Anomaly , Echocardiography/methods , Electric Countershock/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right
10.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 30(4): f:145-l:149, out.-dez. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-879920

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Com o aumento da expectativa de vida da população e a consequente maior incidência de arritmias, que podem necessitar de cardioversão elétrica e crescente desenvolvimento e indicação de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis, torna-se necessária a reavaliação do comportamento desses dispositivos após a aplicação de terapia elétrica, especialmente naqueles pacientes dependentes de estimulação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a variação do limiar de captura ventricular após choque terapêutico para tratamento de taquiarritmias supraventriculares, em condições de prá- tica clínica diária. Método: Entre julho de 2009 e maio de 2015, foram avaliados pacientes portadores de dispositivos cardíacos eletrônicos implantáveis, na cidade de Araras (SP, Brasil), que necessitaram de cardioversão elétrica, sendo determinados os limiares de captura ventricular antes e imediatamente após a terapia. A avaliação teve como objetivo analisar a variação desse parâmetro, que reflete item de segurança do dispositivo. Resultados: Foram incluídos 12 pacientes tratados em 13 episódios de taquiarritmias supraventriculares (fibrilação e taquicardia atriais), com média de idade de 71,6 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino, com tempo variável de implante do dispositivo, não sendo encontrada variação significativa do limiar de captura ventricular antes e após a cardioversão elétrica. Conclusão: Não há variação significativa do limiar de captura ventricular após cardioversão elétrica em pacientes com taquiarritmias supraventriculares


Background: With the increase in the population's life expectancy, a greater incidence of cardiac arrhythmias is observed. These arrhythmias may require treatment with electric cardioversion. Furthermore, with the increase in the development and indications for cardiac implantable electronic devices, the behavior of these devices after electric therapy must be reevaluated, especially in patients who depended on cardiac stimulation. This study aimed to evaluate the ventricular captured threshold variance after therapeutic countershock for the treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in daily practice conditions. Method: From July 2009 to May 2015, patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices requiring electric cardioversion were evaluated, in Araras (SP, Brazil). Captured threshold variance before and immediately after therapy was determined. The evaluation aimed at analyzing the variance of this parameter, which reflects a safety feature of the device. Results: 12 patients were included, presenting with 13 episodes of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias (atrial tachycardia and fibrillation). Mean age was 71.6 years, with a prevalence of males and variable device implant times. No significant ventricular captured threshold variation was found before and after electric cardioversion. Conclusion: There is no significant variation of ventricular captured threshold variance after electric cardioversion in patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Electric Countershock/methods , Pacemaker, Artificial , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/therapy , Atenolol , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Bisoprolol , Electrodes , Heart , Heart Atria , Sinoatrial Node
12.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(3): 205-210, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-875326

ABSTRACT

tratamento da FA, os pacientes podem ser submetidos a atendimentos eletivos ou de emergência para a reversão do ritmo, incluindo a cardioversão química ou elétrica, bem como o tratamento intervencionista de ablação por cateter, visando a melhora dos sintomas e da qualidade de vida. Em todas as modalidades do tratamento, a terapia anticoagulante oral (ACO) é um dos pilares do tratamento da FA, indispensável para a prevenção de eventos tromboembólicos. A incorporação dos chamados "anticoagulantes de ação direta" (DOAC) no arsenal do tratamento representou um novo paradigma, com estudos randomizados controlados e as evidências de mundo real demonstrando resultados de eficácia e segurança comparáveis com relação à varfarina, com a vantagem de menor interação medicamentosa e alimentar e menor risco de hemorragias catastróficas. O uso de DOAC para o manejo de pacientes que serão submetidos ao procedimento de ablação por cateter para o tratamento intervencionista da FA ou cardioversão elétrica/química é hoje uma realidade cada vez mais presente e tem respaldo dos estudos randomizados controlados e das experiências em vários centros hospitalares mundiais, com esquema e programação mais simples e melhor comodidade no manejo da anticoagulação


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. During the course of AF, patients may be submitted to elective or emergency approaches for rhythm reversal, including pharmacological or electrical cardioversion, as well interventional treatment with catheter ablation, to improve the symptoms and quality of life. In all treatment modalities, it is important to emphasize that oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC) is one of the pillars of AF treatment, and is indispensable for preventing thromboembolic events. The incorporation of so-called "direct oral anticoagulants" (DOACs) into the arsenal of treatment represented a new paradigm, with randomized controlled trials and real-world clinical evidence demonstrating comparable efficacy and safety to warfarin, with the advantage of less drug and food interaction and less risk of catastrophic bleeding. The use of DOACs for the management of patients undergoing catheter ablation for interventional AF treatment or electrical/pharmacological cardioversion is increasingly used and supported by randomized controlled trials and experiences in several worldwide hospital centers, with a simpler regimen and programming and easier management of anticoagulation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Electric Countershock/methods , Catheter Ablation/methods , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/therapy , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/therapeutic use
13.
In. Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Rios, Isabel Cristina; Takaoka, Flávio. Anestesia e bioética / Anesthesia and bioethics. São Paulo, Atheneu, 8; 2017. p.3459-3480.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-848066
14.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(4): 305-313, Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-827859

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in adults. Atrial stunning is defined as the temporary mechanical dysfunction of the atrial appendage developing after AF has returned to sinus rhythm (SR). Objectives: We aimed to evaluate atrial contractile functions by strain and strain rate in patients with AF, following pharmacological and electrical cardioversion and to compare it with conventional methods. Methods: This study included 41 patients with persistent AF and 35 age-matched control cases with SR. All the AF patients included in the study had transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography performed before and after. Septum (SEPsSR), left atrium (LAsSR) and right atrium peak systolic strain rate (RAsSR) were defined as the maximum negative value during atrial contraction and septum (SEPε), left atrium (LAε) and right atrium peak systolic strain (RAε) was defined as the percentage of change. Parameters of two groups were compared. Results: In the AF group, 1st hour and 24th hour LAε, RAε, SEPε, LAsSR, RAsSR, SEPsSR found to be significantly lower than in the control group (LAε: 2.61%±0.13, 3.06%±0.19 vs 6.45%±0.27, p<0.0001; RAε: 4.03%±0.38, 4.50%±0.47 vs 10.12%±0.64, p<0.0001; SEPε: 3.0%±0.22, 3.19%±0.15 vs 6.23%±0.49, p<0.0001; LAsSR: 0.61±0.04s-1, 0.75±0.04s- 1 vs 1.35±0.04s-1, p<0.0001; RAsSR: 1.13±0.06s-1, 1.23±0.07s-1 vs 2.10±0.08s- 1, p<0.0001; SEPsSR: 0.76±0.04s- 1, 0.78±0.04s- 1 vs 1.42±0.06 s- 1, p<0.0001). Conclusion: Atrial strain and strain rate parameters are superior to conventional echocardiographic parameters for the evaluation of atrial stunning in AF cases where SR has been achieved.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia mais comum em adultos. Define-se atordoamento atrial como a disfunção mecânica temporária do apêndice atrial que se desenvolve depois de reversão da FA ao ritmo sinusal (RS). Objetivos: Avaliar as funções atriais contráteis através de strain atrial e strain rate em pacientes com FA, após cardioversão farmacológica e elétrica, assim como compará-los com os métodos convencionais. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 41 pacientes com FA persistente e 35 controles com RS e pareados por idade. Todos os pacientes com FA incluídos neste estudo foram submetidos a ecocardiografia transtorácica e transesofágica antes e após. Strain rates de pico sistólico do septo (SEPsSR), do átrio esquerdo (LAsSR) e do átrio direito (RAsSR) foram definidas como o máximo valor negativo durante contração atrial. Strains de pico sistólico do septo (SEPε), do átrio esquerdo (LAε) e do átrio direito (RAε) foram definidas como porcentagem de mudança. Resultados: No grupo com FA, os parâmetros LAε, RAε, SEPε, LAsSR, RAsSR e SEPsSR da 1a hora e da 24a hora foram significativamente mais baixos que no grupo controle (LAε: 2,61%±0,13; 3,06%±0,19 vs 6,45%±0,27; p<0,0001; RAε: 4,03%±0,38; 4,50%±0,47 vs 10,12%±0,64; p<0,0001; SEPε: 3,0%±0,22; 3,19%±0,15 vs 6,23%±0,49; p<0,0001; LAsSR: 0,61±0,04s-1; 0,75±0,04s-1 vs 1,35±0,04s-1; p<0,0001; RAsSR: 1,13±0,06s-1; 1,23±0,07s-1 vs 2,10±0,08s-1; p<0,0001; SEPsSR: 0,76±0,04s-1; 0,78±0,04s-1 vs 1,42±0,06 s-1; p<0,0001). Conclusão: Os parâmetros strain atrial e strain rate são superiores aos parâmetros ecocardiográficos convencionais para avaliar atordoamento atrial em pacientes com FA que reverteram ao RS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Function/physiology , Myocardial Stunning/physiopathology , Atrial Appendage/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systole/physiology , Time Factors , Electric Countershock/methods , Echocardiography , Reproducibility of Results , Myocardial Stunning/diagnostic imaging , Statistics, Nonparametric , Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging
15.
Clinics ; 71(5): 251-256, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782836

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether the serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 level is an independent predictor of recurrence after catheter ablation for persistent atrial fibrillation. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with persistent atrial fibrillation were enrolled and underwent catheter ablation. The serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 level was detected before ablation and its relationship with recurrent arrhythmia was analyzed at the end of the follow-up. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 12.1±7.2 months, 21 (36.2%) patients had a recurrence of their arrhythmia after catheter ablation. At baseline, the matrix metalloproteinase-9 level was higher in the patients with recurrence than in the non-recurrent group (305.77±88.90 vs 234.41±93.36 ng/ml, respectively, p=0.006). A multivariate analysis showed that the matrix metalloproteinase-9 level was an independent predictor of arrhythmia recurrence, as was a history of atrial fibrillation and the diameter of the left atrium. CONCLUSION: The serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 level is an independent predictor of recurrent arrhythmia after catheter ablation in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/surgery , Atrial Fibrillation/enzymology , Catheter Ablation/methods , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/blood , Postoperative Period , Recurrence , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Time Factors , Electric Countershock/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 106(2): 84-91, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-775086

ABSTRACT

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in adults, and is encountered in 10-15% of the patients with hyperthyroidism. Unless euthyroidism is restored, pharmacological or electrical cardioversion is controversial in patients with AF who remain hyperthyroid. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of electrical cardioversion and predictors of AF recurrence in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients. Methods: The study included 33 hyperthyroid (21 males) and 48 euthyroid (17 males) patients with persistent AF. The patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam before undergoing electrical cardioversion delivered by synchronized biphasic shocks. Rates of AF recurrence were recorded. Results: Mean follow-up was 23.63 ± 3.74 months in the hyperthyroid group and 22.78 ± 3.15 months in the euthyroid group (p = 0.51). AF recurred in 14 (43.8%) and 21 (44.7%) patients in each group, respectively (p = 0.93). Multivariate regression analysis in each group showed that AF duration was the only predictor of AF recurrence, with odds ratios of 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 - 1.82, p = 0.02) in the hyperthyroid group and 1.42 (95% CI = 1.05 - 1.91, p= 0.02) in the euthyroid group. Conclusion: Rates of long-term AF recurrence were similar in successfully cardioverted hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients. The only predictor of AF recurrence in both groups was AF duration.


Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia mais comum em adultos e é encontrada em 10-15% dos pacientes com hipertireoidismo. A menos que haja retorno ao eutireoidismo, a cardioversão farmacológica ou elétrica é controversa em pacientes com FA que permanecem com hipertireoidismo. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da cardioversão elétrica e os preditores de recorrência de FA em pacientes com hipertireoidismo e eutireoidismo. Métodos: O estudo incluiu pacientes com FA persistente, dos quais 33 (21 homens) apresentavam hipertireoidismo e 48 (17 homens) eutireoidismo. Os pacientes foram sedados com midazolam endovenoso antes de serem submetidos à cardioversão elétrica com choques sincronizados bifásicos. As taxas de recorrência da FA foram registradas. Resultados: O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 23,63 ± 3,74 meses no grupo com hipertireoidismo e 22,78 ± 3,15 meses no grupo com eutireoidismo (p = 0,51). A FA recorreu em 14 (43,8%) e 21 (44,7%) pacientes em cada grupo, respectivamente (p = 0,93). Uma análise de regressão multivariada em cada grupo mostrou que a duração da FA foi o único preditor de recorrência de FA com odds ratios de 1,38 (intervalo de confiança [IC] 95% = 1,05 - 1,82, p = 0,02) no grupo com hipertireoidismo e 1,42 (IC 95% = 1,05 - 1,91, p = 0,02) no grupo com eutireoidismo. Conclusão: As taxas de recorrência da FA a longo prazo foram semelhantes em pacientes com hipertireoidismo e eutireoidismo submetidos com sucesso à cardioversão. A duração da FA foi o único preditor de recorrência da FA em ambos os grupos.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Electric Countershock/methods , Hyperthyroidism/physiopathology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Electrocardiography , Follow-Up Studies , Hyperthyroidism/complications , Recurrence , Reference Values , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 28(4): 155-166, out.-dez. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-788752

ABSTRACT

A tempestade elétrica em portadores de cardiodesfibriladores implantáveis é a ocorrência de pelo menos três intervenções apropriadas, resultante de taquicardia ventricular ou fibrilação ventricular, em 24 horas. É preditor de mau prognóstico e a terapia varia de medicamentos até transplante cardíaco. Este estudo teve por objetivo revisar orientações de diagnóstico e prevenção, visando ao tratamento (farmacológico, intervencionista e cirúrgico) da tempestade elétrica em portadores desses dispositivos. Compilamos publicações no Medline/PubMed e em revistas nacionais. O tratamento das condições basais e desencadeantes, como insuficiência cardíaca e insuficiência coronária, reduziu a morte súbita. A miodarona, betabloqueadores, lidocaína e magnésio são a base terapêutica. A ablação por cateter reduz arritmias e choques, estabiliza o ritmo e melhora o prognóstico. A taquicardia ventricular com substrato permite a abordagem de um circuito estável. A compreensão dos mecanismos e as melhorias no mapeamento eletrofisiológico possibilitam seu uso na fibrilação ventricular. Diferentes condições necessitam de abordagem cirúrgica, eliminando focos arritmogênicos e/ou permitindo o remodelamento,utilizando ressincronização, tratamentos para coronariopatia, valvopatias e cardiopatias congênitas, ressecção endocárdica guiada por eletrofisiologia e transplante em pacientes refratários. Atuando no sistema nervoso, aneuromodulação é alternativa. Durante anestesia peridural torácica, a denervação simpática cardíaca tem efeitos consistentes e persistentes. De modo semelhante à denervação simpática renal, pode ser um novo horizonte. Concluímos que identificar a causa é fundamental. O tratamento dos fatores causais melhora o controle e o prognóstico. Amiodarona, bloqueadores beta-adrenérgicos, lidocaína e magnésio são opções. Procedimento ablativo deve ser ponderado para taquicardia e fibrilação ventricular. Abordagem cirúrgica e neuromodulação...


Electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the occurrence of at least three appropriate interventions resulting from tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation within 24 hours. It a predictor of poor prognosis and its treatment may vary from drug therapy to heart transplantation. Our objectivewas to review diagnostic and prevention guidelines aiming at the treatment (drug therapy, interventional and surgical treatment) of electrical storm in patients using these devices. We analyzed publications from Medline/PubMed and Brazilian medical journals. The treatment of baseline conditions and triggers, such as heart failure and coronary insufficiency, reduced sudden death. Amiodarone, betablockers, lidocaine and magnesium are the therapeutic basis. Catheter ablation reduces shock and arrhythmia, stabilizes rhythm and improves prognosis. Ventricular tachycardia with substratum allows the approach of a stable circuit. Understanding the mechanismsand improvements in electrophysiological mapping enables the use of catheter ablation in ventricular fibrillation.Different conditions require a surgical approach, eliminating arrhythmogenic cores and/or allowing cardiac remodeling, using cardiac resynchronization therapy, treatment for coronary artery disease, valve disease,congenital heart disease, electrophysiology-guided endocardial resection and heart transplantation in refractory patients. Neuromodulation is an alternative that acts on the nervous system. During thoracic epidural anesthesia, cardiac sympathetic denervation has consistent and persisting effects. Similarly, renal denervation may be anotherfuture possibility. In conclusion, identifying the cause is essential. Treatment of baseline factors improves control and prognosis. Amiodarone, betablockers, lidocaine and magnesium are pharmacological options. Catheterablation may be considered for tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Surgical approach and neuromodulation...


Subject(s)
Humans , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Electric Countershock/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects , Tachycardia/complications , Tachycardia/therapy , Catheter Ablation/methods , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/administration & dosage , Ventricular Fibrillation/complications , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy , Secondary Prevention/methods , Sympathectomy/methods , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/methods
18.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jul; 18(3): 306-311
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-162328

ABSTRACT

Context: Electrical cardioversion is a short painful procedure to regain normal sinus rhythm requiring anaesthesia for haemodynamic stability, sedation, analgesia and early recovery. Aims: To compare propofol and etomidate as sedatives during cardioversion. Settings and Design: Single centred, prospective and randomized single blind study comprising 60 patients. Subjects and Methods: Patients more than 18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists I/II/III grades undergoing elective cardioversion, randomly divided to receive propofol 1 mg/kg intravenous (IV) bolus followed by 0.5 mg/kg (Group P, n = 30) or etomidate (Group E, n = 30) 0.1 mg/kg followed by 0.05 mg/kg. All patients received IV fentanyl (1 μg/kg) before procedure. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP [SBP], diastolic BP [DBP], mean arterial pressure), respiratory rate, Aldrete recovery score (ARS) and Ramsay sedation score (RSS) were assessed at 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30 min post cardioversion. Incidence of hypotension, respiratory depression and side effects were compared. Statistical analysis used: Student’s unpaired t‑test, Chi‑square test and Mann–Whitney test. P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Group P showed significant fall in SBP, DBP, and mean BP at 2 min after cardioversion. Hypotension (33.3% Group P vs. 16.65% Group E) occurred more with propofol (P < 0.05). Group E showed better ARS at 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. Time required to attain RSS = 2 (659.1 s Group P and 435.7 s Group E) indicated longer recovery with propofol. Left atrial size (35.5-42.5 mm) did not affect success rate of cardioversion (80% Group P vs. 83.3% Group E). Incidence of myoclonus (Group E 26.67% vs. Group P 0%) showed significant difference. Conclusions: Etomidate/fentanyl is superior over propofol/fentanyl during cardioversion for quick recovery and haemodynamic stability.


Subject(s)
Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Electric Countershock/methods , Etomidate/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Propofol/administration & dosage
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1552-1558, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177070

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Electric cardioversion has been successfully used in terminating symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Nevertheless, largescale study about the acute cardiovascular events following electrical cardioversion of AF is lacking. This study was performed to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical consequences of acute cardiovascular events following electrical cardioversion of AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 1100 AF patients (mean age 60+/-11 years) who received cardioversion at four tertiary hospitals. Hospitalizations for stroke/transient ischemic attack, major bleedings, and arrhythmic events during 30 days post electric cardioversion were assessed. RESULTS: The mean duration of anticoagulation before cardioversion was 95.8+/-51.6 days. The mean International Normalized Ratio at the time of cardioversion was 2.4+/-0.9. The antiarrhythmic drugs at the time of cardioversion were class I (45%), amiodarone (40%), beta-blocker (53%), calcium-channel blocker (21%), and other medication (11%). The success rate of terminating AF via cardioversion was 87% (n=947). Following cardioversion, 5 strokes and 5 major bleedings occurred. The history of stroke/transient ischemic attack (OR 6.23, 95% CI 1.69-22.90) and heart failure (OR 6.40, 95% CI 1.77-23.14) were among predictors of thromboembolic or bleeding events. Eight patients were hospitalized for bradyarrhythmia. These patients were more likely to have had a lower heart rate prior to the procedure (p=0.045). Consequently, 3 of these patients were implanted with a permanent pacemaker. CONCLUSION: Cardioversion appears as a safe procedure with a reasonably acceptable cardiovascular event rate. However, to prevent the cardiovascular events, several risk factors should be considered before cardioversion.


Subject(s)
Aged , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bradycardia/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL