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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e301, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341240

ABSTRACT

Abstract Patients with implantable electric stimulation devices are challenging to the anesthesiologist since these cases demand a comprehensive knowledge about how the device operates, the indications for the implant and the implications that must be addressed during the perioperative period. This article is intended to provide the reader with clear and structured information so that the anesthesiologist will be able to safely deal with the situation of a patient with an implantable cardiac stimulation device, who has been programmed for emergent surgery. A search for the scientific evidence available was conducted in Pubmed / Medline, ScienceDirect, OVID, SciELO), for a non-systematic review. The incidence of the use of cardiac electric stimulation devices has been growing. Their operation is increasingly complex, and demands being constantly updated on the knowledge in the area.


Resumen El paciente portador de un dispositivo de estimulación eléctrica cardiaca implantable se convierte en un reto para el anestesiólogo debido a que implica un conocimiento integral que abarca su funcionamiento, las indicaciones que llevaron a su implante y las implicaciones que se deben abordar en el perioperatorio. Este artículo busca proporcionar al lector información clara y estructurada que le permita al anestesiólogo enfrentarse de forma segura al escenario de un paciente con un dispositivo de estimulación eléctrica cardiaca implantable programado para cirugía emergente. Se realizó una búsqueda de la evidencia científica disponible en bases de datos (Pubmed / Medline, ScienceDirect, OVID, SciELO), para una revisión no sistemática. La incidencia en el uso de dispositivos de estimulación eléctrica cardiaca viene en aumento. Su funcionamiento es cada vez más complejo lo cual implica una actualización permanente del conocimiento en esta área.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial , Perioperative Period , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices , Radiography , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electric Stimulation/methods , Anesthesiologists
2.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e570, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347461

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El panorama demográfico en el mundo está cambiando. La población mayor de 60 años es el segmento que está creciendo más rápidamente y en el que las enfermedades del tejido óseo se presentan con más frecuencia, lo que aumenta la demanda de materiales y tecnologías apropiadas para restaurar estos tejidos. Objetivo: Analizar la información que se ha generado sobre el desarrollo de biomateriales compuestos para la reparación ósea, con énfasis en la identificación de las tecnologías emergentes basadas en el uso del campo electromagnético, sus aplicaciones y potencialidades. Métodos: Se consultaron trabajos científicos publicados en libros, revistas, patentes y tesis. El 80 por ciento de la documentación seleccionada pertenece al periodo 2010-2019. Análisis e integración de la información: Los métodos identificados fueron clasificados en cinco grupos: electrodeposición química, ya sea por electrólisis, electroforesis o síntesis electroforética in situ; electroporación; electrohilado; control magnético distal y bioestimulación electromagnética de células y tejidos, directamente o por la introducción de dispositivos que convierten la energía electromagnética en energía mecánica. Conclusiones: Estos métodos permiten la conformación de matrices celulares y acelulares compuestas y, además, dispositivos bioestimuladores con control de los parámetros de construcción y acción, de tal manera, que se logran procesos con mayor grado de reproducibilidad y a la medida de los requerimientos específicos para cada paciente(AU)


Introduction: The global demographic panorama is changing. The population aged over 60 years is the fastest growing segment, as well as the one where bone tissue diseases are most common, increasing the demand of appropriate materials and technologies to restore those tissues. Objective: To analyze the information so far generated about the development of composite biomaterials for bone repair, with an emphasis on the identification of emerging technologies based on the use of the electromagnetic field, its applications and potential. Methods: An analysis was performed of scientific papers published in books, journals, patents and theses. Of the documentation selected, 80 percent was from the period 2010-2019. Data analysis and integration: The methods identified were classified into five groups: chemical electrodeposition, be it by in situ electrophoretic synthesis, electrolysis or electrophoresis; electroporation; electrospinning; distal magnetic control and electromagnetic biostimulation of cells and tissues, either directly or incorporating devices which convert electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy. Conclusions: These methods permit the conformation of composite cellular and acellular matrices as well as biostimulator devices controlling construction and action parameters in such a way that the processes obtained display greater reproducibility and are more in keeping with the specific requirements of each patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Biocompatible Materials/analysis , Electric Stimulation/methods , Electromagnetic Fields
3.
Brasil; CONITEC; abr. 2021.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1378092

ABSTRACT

CONTEXTO: Os PCDT são documentos que visam garantir o melhor cuidado de saúde diante do contexto brasileiro e dos recursos disponíveis no SUS. Podem ser utilizados como materiais educativos aos profissionais de saúde, auxílio administrativo aos gestores, regulamentação da conduta assistencial perante o Poder Judiciário e explicitação de direitos aos usuários do SUS. Os PCDT são os documentos oficiais do SUS que estabelecem critérios para o diagnóstico de uma doença ou agravo à saúde; tratamento preconizado, com os medicamentos e demais produtos apropriados, quando couber; posologias recomendadas; mecanismos de controle clínico; e acompanhamento e verificação dos resultados terapêuticos a serem seguidos pelos gestores do SUS. Os PCDT devem incluir recomendações de condutas, medicamentos ou produtos para as diferentes fases evolutivas da doença ou do agravo à saúde de que se tratam, bem como aqueles indicados em casos de perda de eficácia e de surgimento de intolerância ou reação adversa relevante, provocadas pelo medicamento, produto ou procedimento de primeira escolha. A lei reforçou a análise baseada em evidências científicas para a elaboração dos protocolos, destacando os critérios de eficácia, segurança, efetividade e custo-efetividade para a formulação das recomendações sobre intervenções em saúde. Para a constituição ou alteração dos PCDT, a Portaria GM n° 2.009 de 2012 instituiu na Conitec uma Subcomissão Técnica de Avaliação de PCDT, com as competências de definir os temas para novos protocolos, acompanhar sua elaboração, avaliar as recomendações propostas e as evidências científicas apresentadas, além da revisão periódica dos PCDT vigentes, em até dois anos. A Subcomissão Técnica de Avaliação de PCDT é composta por representantes de Secretarias do Ministério da Saúde interessadas na elaboração de diretrizes clínicas: Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde, Secretaria de Atenção Especializada à Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Secretaria Especial de Saúde Indígena e Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde. Após concluídas as etapas de definição do tema e escopo do PCDT, de busca, seleção e análise de evidências científicas e consequente definição das recomendações, a aprovação do texto é submetida à apreciação do Plenário da Conitec, com posterior disponibilização deste documento para contribuição de sociedade, por meio de consulta pública (CP) pelo prazo de 20 dias, antes da deliberação final e publicação. A consulta pública é uma importante etapa de revisão externa dos PCDT. O Plenário da Conitec é o fórum responsável pelas recomendações sobre a constituição ou alteração de PCDT, além dos assuntos relativos à incorporação, exclusão ou alteração das tecnologias no âmbito do SUS, bem como sobre a atualização da Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME). É composto por treze membros, um representante de cada Secretaria do Ministério da Saúde ­ sendo o indicado pela Secretaria de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde (SCTIE) o presidente do Plenário ­ e um representante de cada uma das seguintes instituições: ANVISA, Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar - ANS, Conselho Nacional de Saúde - CNS, Conselho Nacional de Secretários de Saúde - CONASS, Conselho Nacional de Secretarias Municipais de Saúde - CONASEMS e Conselho Federal de Medicina - CFM. Cabe à Secretaria-Executiva, exercida pelo Departamento de Gestão e Incorporação de Tecnologias e Inovação em Saúde (DGITIS/SCTIE), a gestão e a coordenação das atividades da Conitec. Conforme o Decreto n° 7.646 de 2011, o Secretário de Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Insumos Estratégicos em Saúde deverá submeter o PCDT à manifestação do titular da Secretaria responsável pelo programa ou ação a ele relacionado antes da sua publicação e disponibilização à sociedade. APRESENTAÇÃO: A proposta de atualização do PCDT de Miastenia Gravis é uma demanda que cumpre o Decreto nº 7.508 de 28 de junho de 2011 e as orientações previstas no artigo 26º e o parágrafo único, sobre a responsabilidade do Ministério da Saúde de atualizar os Protocolos Clínicos e Diretrizes Terapêuticas. Este PCDT apresenta a atualização da versão publicada em 2015, com inclusão do exame complementar de diagnóstico dosagem sérica de anticorpos de acetilcolina (anti-AChR). DELIBERAÇÃO INICIAL: Os membros da Conitec presentes na 88ª Reunião do Plenário, realizada nos dias 07, 08 e 09 de julho de 2020, deliberaram para que o tema fosse submetido à consulta pública com recomendação preliminar favorável à publicação deste Protocolo. CONSULTA PÚBLICA: A Consulta Pública nº 27/2020 foi realizada entre os dias 21 de julho a 10 de agosto de 2020. A seguir é apresentado o resumo da análise das contribuições recebidas, ressaltando-se que foram consideradas apenas as encaminhadas no período estipulado e por meio do sítio eletrônico da Conitec. Os dadosforam avaliados quantitativa e qualitativamente, considerando asseguintes etapas: a) leitura de todas as contribuições, b) identificação e categorização das ideias centrais, e c) discussão acerca das contribuições. Foram recebidas ao todo 34 contribuições. A grande maioria dos participantes (n= 33; 97%) classificou a proposta de PCDT como boa ou muito boa na avaliação geral.


Subject(s)
Clinical Protocols/standards , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Thymectomy/instrumentation , Unified Health System , Brazil , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Acetylcholine/blood , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Plasmapheresis/instrumentation , Diagnosis, Differential , Electric Stimulation/methods , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(4): e8770, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089354

ABSTRACT

Early mobilization is beneficial for critically ill patients because it reduces muscle weakness acquired in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive cycle ergometry (PCE) on the nitrous stress and inflammatory cytometry in critically ill patients. This was a controlled, randomized, open clinical trial carried out in a 16-bed intensive care unit. The patients were randomized into four groups: Control group (n=10), did not undergo any therapeutic intervention during the study; PCE group (n=9), lower-limb PCE for 30 cycles/min for 20 min; FES group (n=9), electrical stimulation of quadriceps muscle for 20 min; and FES with PCE group (n=7), patients underwent PCE and FES, with their order determined randomly. The serum levels of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukins 6 and 10 were analyzed before and after the intervention. There were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between the groups. The results revealed reduced nitric oxide concentrations one hour after using PCE (P<0.001) and FES (P<0.05), thereby indicating that these therapies may reduce cellular nitrosative stress when applied separately. Tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were reduced after the PCE intervention (P=0.049). PCE and FES reduced nitric oxide levels, demonstrating beneficial effects on the reduction of nitrosative stress. PCE was the only treatment that reduced the tumor necrosis factor alpha concentration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive/methods , Cytokines/blood , Critical Illness/therapy , Nitrosative Stress/physiology , Biomarkers/blood , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Electric Stimulation/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intensive Care Units
5.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2020. 46 p. il., graf., tab..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1150852

ABSTRACT

A estimulação elétrica (EE) tem sido usada no tratamento de lesões crônicas apresentando resultados favoráveis no fechamento da lesão cutânea entre outras aplicações clínicas. No entanto, a literatura carece de estudos avaliando se os efeitos da EE no fechamento da lesão oral. Diante disso, torna-se relevante investigar os efeitos da EE durante o processo de reparo da lesão oral em camundongos (Swiss). Métodos: Noventa animais foram divididos em grupos: Controle (C; n=45) que receberam a aplicação da EE com o aparelho desligado e Teste (EE; n=45) que receberam a EE (100 µA; 9 kHz; 660 mVpp; 1x/dia por 3 dias). Uma lesão de espessura total foi realizada com punch de biópsia de 1,5 mm de diâmetro. Os animais foram eutanasiados no 1o, 3o e 5o dia após a confecção da lesão. As amostras foram fixadas em paraformaldeído 4%, descalcificadas em ácido fórmico 20% e emblocadas em parafina. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: fechamento clínico da lesão; distância de reparação epitelial (DRE) e conjuntiva (DRC), concentração de citocinas IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α e VEGF; porcentagem de fibras colágenas e quantificação das proteínas de sinalização Smad2. Resultados: A área de fechamento clínico foi reduzida no grupo EE no 5º dia de avaliação (p=0,01). As DRE e DRC do grupo EE apresentaram menor distância em todos os tempos avaliados (p<0,05) com reduzida concentração de IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 e VEGF (p<0,05). Não houve diferença na porcentagem de fibras colágenas e na phospho-Smad2. Conclusão: A EE teve efeito positivo nos parâmetros clínicos e histológicos com modulação da resposta inflamatória no início do processo de reparo da lesão(AU)


Background: Since Electrical Stimulation (ES) has used for chronic wounds treatment and other clinical applications showing favorable results in wound closure, it was hypothesized whether it could bring good results in oral wound closure. The aim was to investigate the ES effects during the oral wound healing process in mice (Swiss). Methods: Ninety animals were divided in groups: Control (C; n=45) which received a fictitious ES application, i.e. the ES applicance was shutted off and ES (ES; n=45) which received ES (100 µA; 9 kHz; 660 mVpp) once time a day for 3 days consecutively. A full thickness wound was done using a 1.5 mm diameter biopsy punch in the hard palate. The animals were euthanized on 1st, 3rd and 5th day post-wounding. The samples were fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. The parameters evaluated were: clinical wound closure; distance of epithelial and connective wound edges (EWD and CWD); cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10), TNF-α and VEGF by multiplex, percentage of collagen fibers and Smad proteins. Results: Clinical wound closure area was reduced on day 5 in ES group (p = 0.01). Both EWD and CWD distance were shorter in all times (p < 0.05) with a reduction of inflammatory cytokines production (p < 0.05). There were no difference in collagen percentage and phospho-Smad2. Conclusion: ES had a positive effect on clinical and histomorphometric wound closure outcomes showing a modulation of inflammatory response in the beginning of wound healing(AU)


Subject(s)
Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Wound Healing/drug effects , Electric Stimulation/methods , Re-Epithelialization/drug effects , Surgical Wound/complications
6.
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2019. 91 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-980723

ABSTRACT

A recessão gengival é um problema muito comum na clínica odontológica, podendo afetar até 100% da população. Mesmo as melhores técnicas cirúrgicas para recobrimento radicular apresentam certa variação em seus resultados, e muitas estratégias são usadas para acelerar o processo de cicatrização. Uma delas é a aplicação de uma estimulação elétrica local para ativar o reparo tecidual. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar clinicamente e através da quantificação de diversos biomarcadores, os resultados de 6 meses do retalho posicionado coronalmente (CAF), associado ou não à um protocolo de eletroestimulação (E) para o tratamento de recessões gengivais. Para isso, 60 pacientes portadores de recessões gengivais unitárias Classe I e II de Miller, foram divididos em 2 grupos: CAF+E (n=30): retalho avançado coronalmente seguido de estimulação elétrica e grupo CAF (n=30): retalho avançado coronalmente e estimulação SHAM. Os resultados clínicos e centrados no paciente foram avaliados no baseline e 6 meses após os procedimentos. O fluido crevicular dos sítios tratados foi analisado para citocinas, colagenases e seus inibidores. Aos seis meses, ambos os grupos obtiveram porcentagem significativa de recobrimento e redução da recessão, sendo de 79,4 ±27,2% para o CAF e 85,9±17,4% para o CAF+E (p=0,6). O recobrimento radicular completo foi obtido em 53% e 56% dos defeitos tratados com CAF e CAF+E, respectivamente (p=0,9). Aos 7 dias, pacientes do grupo CAF+E relataram menor desconforto pós-operatório (p=0,04). A expressão de IL1ß, IL-6, TNF-α e VEGF foi reduzida significantemente no grupo CAF+E aos 7 e 14 dias (p˂0,05), já a concentração das MMPs e TIMPs não mostrou diferença entre os grupos em nenhum dos períodos avaliados. A estimulação elétrica não apresentou benefícios adicionais quando associada ao CAF em termos de recobrimento radicular para o tratamento de recessões gengivais. Entretanto, o protocolo de eletroterapia utilizado promoveu menor desconforto pós-operatório e modulação favorável dos marcadores inflamatórios durante a primeira semana de reparo(AU)


Gingival recession is a very common problem in dentistry and can affect up to 100% of the population. Even the best surgical techniques for root coverage have some variation in their results, and many strategies are used to accelerate the healing process. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinically and through the quantification of several biomarkers, the 6-month results of the coronally advanced flap (CAF), associated or not to an electrostimulation protocol (E) for the treatment of gingival recessions. For this, 40 patients with Miller Class I and II gingival recessions were divided into 2 groups: CAF+E (n=20): advanced flap coronally followed by electrical stimulation and CAF group (n=20): advanced flap coronally and SHAM stimulation. Clinical and patient-centered outcomes were assessed at baseline and 6 months post- procedure. The crevicular fluid of the treated sites was analyzed for cytokines, collagenases and their inhibitors. At six months, both groups had a significant percentage of root coverage and recession reduction, being 79.4±27.2% for CAF and 85.9 ± 17.4% for CAF+E (p=0.6). Complete root coverage was obtained in 53% and 56% of the defects treated with CAF and CAF+E, respectively (p=0.9). At 7 days, patients in the CAF+E group reported less postoperative discomfort (p=0.04). The expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and VEGF was significantly reduced in the CAF+E group at 7 and 14 days (p˂0.05), whereas the concentration of MMPs and TIMPs showed no difference between groups in any of the evaluated periods. Electrical stimulation did not present additional benefits when associated with CAF in terms of root coverage for the treatment of gingival recessions. However, the electrotherapy protocol used promoted less postoperative discomfort and favorable modulation of inflammatory markers during the first week of healing(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Gingival Recession/complications , Surgery, Plastic/adverse effects , Electric Stimulation/methods
7.
Clinics ; 74: e1334, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8 weeks of strength training (ST) combined with whole-body electrical stimulation (EMS) on morphofunctional adaptations in active individuals. METHODS: Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly distributed into the following groups: an untrained control (UN) group (n=16), an ST group (n=21) or an ST combined with EMS (ST+EMS) group (n=21). Both intervention groups (the ST and ST+EMS groups) performed 3 exercises (biceps curl, back squats and high-pulley tricep extensions) twice a week for 8 weeks. The subjects performed 3 sets of 8 to 12 maximum repetitions (MRs) with a 90-second rest duration between sets. The ST+EMS group performed the resistance training exercises wearing a whole-body suit that provided electrical stimulation at frequencies between 80-85 Hz, with a continuously bipolar impulse duration and pulse breadth of 350 µs. The intensity for each muscle group was controlled by Borg's category ratio (CR)-10 scale; the intensity started at 5-6 and eventually reached 7-8. One-repetition maximum strength (1RM) and muscle thickness (MT) were measured before and after the training intervention. MT was evaluated in the biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii (TB), and vastus lateralis (VL). RESULTS: No differences (p>0.05) were found between the ST and ST+EMS groups. Improvements (p<0.05) in the absolute values of the morphofunctional parameters after the training protocol were observed. Significant differences were found between both the intervention groups and the UN group (p<0.05). The ST+EMS group presented high percentage changes (p<0.05) in muscular strength for the 1RMsquat (43.2%, ES=1.64) and the MT of the BB (21.6%, ES=1.21) compared to the ST (20.5%, ES=1.43, 11.9%, ES=0.77) group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the combination of ST+EMS may promote alterations in muscle strength and MT in healthy active subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Electric Stimulation/methods , Muscle Strength/physiology , Resistance Training/methods , Random Allocation
8.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(2): 219-225, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-959314

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Revisar as evidências sobre segurança da eletroestimulação neuromuscular quando utilizada em unidade de terapia intensiva. Métodos: Revisão sistemática, sendo a busca realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE (acessado via PubMed), PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL e EMBASE, além de busca manual de referências em estudos randomizados. Foram incluídos ensaios clínicos randomizados que comparassem aplicação da eletroestimulação neuromuscular com grupo controle ou placebo em unidades de terapia intensiva, e que contivessem informações sobre segurança da técnica nos desfechos, sendo considerado como segurança dados de variáveis hemodinâmicas e informações sobre efeitos adversos. Resultados: Os artigos foram analisados por dois revisores independentes, e a análise dos dados foi descritiva. A busca inicial encontrou 1.533 artigos; destes, foram incluídos somente 4 ensaios clínicos randomizados. Dois estudos avaliaram segurança por meio das variáveis hemodinâmicas, e somente um deles mostrou aumento nas frequências cardíacas, respiratória e lactato, porém sem relevância clínica. Os outros dois estudos avaliaram a segurança por meio do relato de efeitos adversos; um expôs que 15% dos pacientes apresentaram sensação de picada, sem alteração clinicamente relevante; o outro relatou apenas que um paciente sofreu queimadura superficial por configuração incorreta dos parâmetros. Conclusão: A eletroestimulação neuromuscular é uma técnica segura para ser aplicada em pacientes graves, porém deve ser aplicada por profissional treinado e utilizando parâmetros corretos, baseados em evidências.


ABSTRACT Objective: To review the evidence on the safety of neuromuscular electrical stimulation when used in the intensive care unit. Methods: A systematic review was conducted; a literature search was performed of the MEDLINE (via PubMed), PEDro, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE databases, and a further manual search was performed among the references cited in randomized studies. Randomized clinical trials that compared neuromuscular electrical stimulation to a control or placebo group in the intensive care unit and reporting on the technique safety in the outcomes were included. Hemodynamic variables and information on adverse effects were considered safety parameters. Articles were independently analyzed by two reviewers, and the data analysis was descriptive. Results: The initial search located 1,533 articles, from which only four randomized clinical trials were included. Two studies assessed safety based on hemodynamic variables, and only one study reported an increase in heart rate, respiratory rate and blood lactate, without clinical relevance. The other two studies assessed safety based on reported adverse effects. In one, 15% of patients described a prickling sensation, without any clinically relevant abnormalities. In the other, one patient suffered a superficial burn due to improper parameter configuration. Conclusion: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is safe for critically ill patients; however, it should be applied by duly trained professionals and with proper evidence-based parameters.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units , Muscular Diseases/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Critical Illness/therapy , Electric Stimulation/adverse effects , Electric Stimulation/methods , Hemodynamics
9.
Rev. chil. neurocir ; 43(1): 8-14, July 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-869773

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Para utilizar un meta-análisis de todos los casos reportados de la estimulación cerebral profunda (DBS) para ladistonía para determinar cuáles son los factores significativos resultados influencia relacionada con el destino. La escala demovimiento Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM), la medida más informado, fue elegida como la principal medida de resultado paraeste análisis. Material y Métodos: Una búsqueda en MEDLINE identificaron 137 pacientes que se sometieron a DBS para ladistonía en 24 estudios que tenían puntuaciones individuales BFM. Datos de los pacientes individuales, incluyendo la edad deinicio de la distonía, la edad de la cirugía, el género, la distribución de la distonía, la etiología de la distonía, la presencia decaracterísticas asociadas, anormalidad de las imágenes preoperatorias, cirugías estereotáxica anteriores, el núcleo estimulado,el tipo de anestesia que se utiliza, el tiempo de respuesta a la estimulación, y el momento de la evaluación de resultadosse introdujeron en una base de datos de SPSS para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: La media BFM cambio porcentual(mejora en la puntuación postoperatoria de la línea de base) fue 51,8% (rango - 34% a 100%). Significativamente se lograronmejores resultados con la estimulación del globo pálido interno (GPI) que con la estimulación de la parte posterior del núcleolateral ventral (VLP) del tálamo (p = 0,0001)...


Introduction: To use a meta-analysis on all reported cases of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for dystonia to reevaluate the good effect using the GPi as a target, which factors significant influence outcome related to the target. The Burke-Fahn-Marsden (BFM) movement scale, the most reported measure, was chosen as the primary outcome measure for this analysis. Material and Methods: Computerized MEDLINE searches on English literature search identified 137 patients who underwent BBS for dystonia in 24 studies that had individual BFM scores. The study was done with statistical analysis by intention to treat. Statistical analysis was made with a significant p- value of 0.05. For the comparison of pre- and postoperative scores, a test Wilcoxon signed was used. Results: The mean BFM percentage change (improvement in postoperative score from baseline) was 46.3 percent(range - 34 percent to 100 percent)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Dystonia/etiology , Dystonia/therapy , Deep Brain Stimulation/methods , Stereotaxic Techniques , Stereotypic Movement Disorder , Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale , Electric Stimulation/methods
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(7): 486-489,
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787260

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of levobupivacaine on neuromuscular transmission and neuromuscular blockade produced by pancuronium in vitro. METHODS: Thirty rats were distributed into groups (n = 5) according to the drug used alone or in combination: Group I - levobupivacaine (5 µg.mL-1); Group II - pancuronium (2 µg.mL-1); Group III - pancuronium (2 µg.mL-1) + levobupivacaine (5µg.mL-1). The following parameters were evaluated: 1) amplitude of diaphragmatic response to indirect stimulation, before and 60 minutes after the addition of levobupivacaine and pancuronium alone, and after the addition of levobupivacaine combined with pancuronium; 2) membrane potentials (MP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPP). RESULTS: Levobupivacaine alone did not alter the amplitude of muscle response and MP. In preparations previoulsy exposed to levobupivacaine, the block with pancuronium was significantly denser (90.2 ± 15.2%), showing a significant difference (p=0.031) in comparison to the block produced by pancuronium alone (48.9% ± 9.8%). There was a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of MEPPs. CONCLUSION: Levobupivacaine potentiated the neuromuscular blockade produced by pancuronium, confirming a presynaptic action by a decrease in miniature endplate potentials.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Pancuronium/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/analogs & derivatives , Synaptic Transmission/drug effects , Neuromuscular Blockade , Neuromuscular Junction/drug effects , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Diaphragm/drug effects , Diaphragm/innervation , Rats, Wistar , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/pharmacology , Synaptic Transmission/physiology , Models, Animal , Drug Therapy, Combination , Electric Stimulation/methods , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Membrane Potentials/physiology , Neuromuscular Junction/physiology
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 31(2): 138-142, Feb. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775560

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe a novel approach for implanting intramuscular electrodes in the diaphragm through videolaparoscopy. METHODS: We used twelve pigs for this videolaparoscopic technique, which permits at the same time to explore the diaphragm, to locate its motor points and to fix the electrodes in the diaphragm bilaterally. In this technique we used three trocars: one portal for a 10-mm 0° viewing angle laparoscope, one portal for the manipulation of structures and another for electrode implantation. RESULTS: All animals survived the procedure without pneumothorax/capnothorax or other complication. Implanted electrodes provided an appropriate interface between the muscle and the electrical current generator, and electroventilation was satisfactorily generated in all animals. CONCLUSION: This videolaparoscopic technique with three trocars enables the exploration and identification of motor points and an efficient fixation of one or two electrodes in each hemidiaphragm.


Subject(s)
Animals , Laparoscopy/methods , Abdominal Muscles/surgery , Electrodes, Implanted , Swine , Diaphragm/surgery , Diaphragm/physiology , Models, Animal , Electric Stimulation/methods , Operative Time
12.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1051112

ABSTRACT

Se presentan dos casos de pacientes con parálisis facial periférica aguda y crónica respectivamente, en los que se utilizó el mismo tratamiento kinésico basado en electroestimulación muscular selectiva combinado con masoterapia y reeducación de músculos faciales. Ambos pacientes recuperaron las funciones básicas de oclusión básica de ojos y boca como así también mímica y simetría facial. En el caso del paciente con parálisis facial aguda, se obtuvieron resultados funcionales en menor número de sesiones. El inicio precoz del tratamiento kinésico podría ser considerado como un factor que favorecería la pronta recuperación del paciente. No se registraron efectos no esperados con el uso de corrientes eléctricas para la recuperación del trofismo de los músculos faciales


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation/methods , Muscles , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Facial Paralysis/therapy
13.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 19(6): 466-472, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may influence the transmission of electrical stimuli through to the skin, thus affecting both evoked torque and comfort perception associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES). This could seriously affect the effectiveness of NMES for either rehabilitation or sports purposes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of skinfold thickness (SFT) on maximal NMES current intensity, NMES-evoked torque, and NMES-induced discomfort. METHOD: First, we compared NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked torque between two subgroups of subjects with thicker (n=10; 20.7 mm) vs. thinner (n=10; 29.4 mm) SFT. Second, we correlated SFT to NMES current intensity, NMES-induced discomfort, and NMES-evoked knee extension torque in 20 healthy women. The NMES-evoked torque was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. The discomfort induced by NMES was assessed with a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: NMES-evoked torque was 27.5% lower in subjects with thicker SFT (p=0.01) while maximal current intensity was 24.2% lower in subjects with thinner SFT (p=0.01). A positive correlation was found between current intensity and SFT (r=0.540, p=0.017). A negative correlation was found between NMES-evoked torque and SFT (r=-0.563, p=0.012). No significant correlation was observed between discomfort scores and SFT (rs=0.15, p=0.53). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the amount of subcutaneous adipose tissue (as reflected by skinfold thickness) affected NMES current intensity and NMES-evoked torque, but had no effect on discomfort perception. Our findings may help physical therapists to better understand the impact of SFT on NMES and to design more rational stimulation strategies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skinfold Thickness , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Electric Stimulation , Quadriceps Muscle/physiology , Isometric Contraction/physiology , Torque , Electric Stimulation/methods , Knee
14.
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 26(3): 139-143, 2015. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-868961

ABSTRACT

Fecal incontinence (FI) is associated with low self-esteem and quality of life. Nowadays, multimodal pelviperineal rehabilitation (MPPR) has become the preferred treatment. Purpose: To evaluate our results of multimodal pelviperineal rehabilitation (MPPR) in patients diagnosed with fecal incontinence (FI). Methods: Historic cohort study using a prospectively maintained database from patients with FI that underwent MPPR between years 1999 and 2012. FI was classified according to Jorge-Wexner´s scale, at the beginning (Winitial) and the end (Wfinal) of treatment. In July 2013 a survey was carried out to measure follow-up Wexner score (Wfollow-up) and pelvic muscle training. Statystical analysis was performed using Chi square test, Fisher Test, Mann-Whitney and Odds Ratio. Significant p value < 0.05. Results: One hundred and thirteen patients completed treatment, median age 67 years-old (r: 24-91) and 83 percent female. Median scores for Winitial and Wfinal were 9 points (r: 3-19) and 3 points (r: 0-13), respectively (p < 0.001). In July 2013, 68 (61 percent) patients were available for follow-up. Wexner score at the beginning, end and follow-up were as follows: 9 (i: 3-19), 3 (i:0-12) and 4 (i:0-19), respectively. There were significant differences between Winitial and Wfollow-up (p < 0.001), but not between Wfinal and Wfollow-up (p = 0.23). There were 20 patients (29 percent) who kept training their pelvic muscles and 48 (71 percent) who did it very rarely or did not do it at all. It was the latter group who showed an increased risk to obtain worst score in Wfollow-up (OR = 3.89; CI 95 percent: 1.26-11.9; p = 0.0175). Conclusion: FI patients treated with MPPR show good short and long-term results.


Introducción: La incontinencia fecal (IF) se asocia a menor calidad de vida en quienes la sufren. Actualmente, la rehabilitación pelviperineal multimodal (RPPM) es el tratamiento inicial de elección. Objetivo: Evaluar los resultados de la RPPM en pacientes con IF. Método: Estudio de cohorte histórica de pacientes con IF que recibieron RPPM entre 1999-2012. Se utilizó la escala de Jorge-Wexner para medir laIF, al inicio (Wi) y fin (Wf) del tratamiento. Se aplicó una encuesta en julio de 2013 para medir el Wexner de seguimiento (Ws) y mantención de ejercicios terapéuticos. Análisis estadístico: prueba de c2, prueba exacta de Fisher, Mann-Whitney y Odds Ratio. Significancia estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: Hubo 113 pacientes que completaron el tratamiento. La mediana de edad fue 67 años (i: 24-91) y 83 porciento género femenino. La mediana de Wi fue de 9 puntos (i: 3-19) y la mediana de Wf fue de 3 puntos (i: 0-13) (p < 0,001). Se logró contactar a 68 pacientes para el seguimiento, en ellos la mediana del puntaje de Wi, Wf y Wsfue de 9 (i: 3-19), 3 (i:0-12) y 4 (i:0-19), respectivamente. Hubo diferencia significativa entre Wi y Ws (p < 0,001), pero no entre Wf y Ws (p = 0,23). Veinte pacientes (29 por ciento) realizaron ejercicios terapéuticos regularmente y 48 (71 por ciento) nunca o raramente; este último grupo es factor de riesgo para obtener peores resultados (OR = 3,89; CI 95 porciento: 1,26-11,9; p = 0,0175). Conclusión: El tratamiento con RPPM en pacientes con IF tiene buenos resultados a corto y largo plazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biofeedback, Psychology/methods , Exercise Therapy , Electric Stimulation/methods , Fecal Incontinence/rehabilitation , Combined Modality Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Pelvic Floor , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 32(2): 684-689, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-714329

ABSTRACT

La oseointegración se ha optimizado favorablemente en los últimos años y tecnologías variadas se han aplicado para mejorar esta condición. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer la relación entre la aplicación de cargas eléctricas y su capacidad de mejorar la oseointegración en un modelo animal. 16 conejos de raza New Zealand, de 3 a 6 meses, fueron divididos en dos grupos. En ambos se realizo la instalación de 4 implantes de titanio especialmente diseñados para esta investigación, dos en cada tibia, utilizando técnicas de compresión. En el grupo experimental se aplico cargas eléctricas a nivel de extremidades inferiores durante 30 minutos por día mientras duraba el tiempo previo a la eutanasia de los animales realizada finalmente a los 21 y 42 días, momento en el cual fue realizada la prueba de torque de retiro con un torquímetro manual; posteriormente, los bloque con los implantes fueron retirados y se procesaron con técnicas histológicas de rutina para la tinción de Hematoxilina y Eosina; se realizo una observación descriptiva mediante microscopia óptica y los resultados numéricos fueron analizados con el análisis de varianza y posteriormente utilizando el test F con un nivel de significancia de 5%. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en el torque de retiro de implantes a los 21 días y a los 42 días; no se observaron diferencias significativas entre el grupo control y el grupo experimental; histológicamente, no se observaron diferencias en el patrón de osificación, la disposición de elementos u otras condiciones histológicas de la reparación. Se puede concluir que la administración de cargas eléctricas en este modelo experimental no contribuye a la formación de tejido óseo perimplantar.


Osseointegration has been optimized in the last years; differents technologies has been applied to improve this condition. The aim of this research is to understand the relationship between the application of electric charges and their ability to improve osseointegration in an animal model. Sixteen New Zealand white male rabbits, 3 to 6 months of age, were divided into two groups. In both was inserted a 4 titanium implants designed for this research, two on each tibia; compression techniques was conducted for to install the implant. In the experimental group electric charges at the level of lower limbs was applied for 30 minutes per day; the euthanasia of the animals was performed at 21 and 42 days, at which time was obtained the measurement of the retirement torque with a manual torque wrench; subsequently, the blocks with implants were removed and processed with routine histological techniques with hematoxylin and eosin; a descriptive observation was performed by optical microscopy and the numerical results were analyzed by analysis of variance and then using the F test with a significance level of 5%. The results showed significant differences in removal torque of implants at 21 and 42 days; no significant differences between the control group and the experimental group were observed; Histologically, no differences in elements disposition or other histological repair conditions were observed. It can be concluded that the administration of electric charges in this experimental model does not contribute to the formation of perimplant bone tissue.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Osseointegration/physiology , Dental Implantation/methods , Electric Stimulation/methods , Bone Regeneration/physiology
16.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 80(1): 48-53, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-704086

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O potencial evocado miogênico vestibular (VEMP) gerado por estimulação galvânica (GVS) reflete uma resposta vestíbulo-espinhal. A resposta obtida no músculo sóleo é bifásica, primeiro com componente de curta latência (CL), em torno de 60 ms, e depois com o de média latência (ML), em torno de 100 ms. O componente de CL associa-se à função otolítica (sáculo e utrículo), e o de ML, aos ductos semicirculares. Objetivo: Descrever os valores de referência do VEMP com estimulação galvânica em indivíduos normais. Casuística e método: Forma de estudo transversal; o VEMP foi gerado por GVS de 2mA/400 ms, aplicada bilateralmente, sob frequência de 5-6 ms. Testou-se resposta no músculo sóleo de 13 sujeitos saudáveis, com idade média de 56 anos. Os sujeitos permaneceram de pé, com cabeça girada contralateral ao GVS aplicado na mastoide. Na configuração catodo direito, anodo esquerda, 30 GVS foi aplicado, seguidos de mais 30 com configuração inversa. Os componentes de CL e de ML da resposta vestibular foram analisados. Resultado: Os componentes de CL e de ML foram semelhantes em ambas as pernas. O valor médio de CL foi 54 ms, e o de ML, 112 ms. Conclusão: Os componentes de CL e de ML do VEMP solear foram replicáveis, sendo medidas úteis de função do trato vestíbulo-espinhal. .


Introduction: The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) generated by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is related to the vestibulo-spinal pathway. The response recorded from soleus muscle is biphasic with onset of short latency (SL) component around 60 ms and medium latency (ML) component around 100 ms. The first component reflects otolith function (sacule and utricle) and the last deals with semicircular canals. Aim: To describe VEMP generated by GVS. Methods: In this cross-sectional clinical study, VEMP was generated by 2mA/400 ms binaural GVS, frequency of 5-6 ms that was recorded from soleus muscles of 13 healthy adults, mean age 56 years. The subjects remained standing, head turned contralateral to the GVS applied to the mastoid. Thirty GVS were applied to the mastoid in the position cathode right anode left, followed by 30 in inverted position. SL and ML were measured. Results: SL and ML components were recorded from both legs of all participants and were similar. The average of SL component was 54 ms and of ML was 112 ms. Conclusion: The components SL and ML of the VEMP response in soleus were reproducible and are useful measures of vestibular-spinal function. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Electric Stimulation/methods , Galvanic Skin Response/physiology , Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electromyography , Postural Balance
17.
Fisioter. pesqui ; 20(4): 322-329, out.-dez. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-699047

ABSTRACT

O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o efeito da estimulação diafragmática elétrica transcutânea (EDET) sobre a força e endurance muscular respiratória, expansibilidade toracoabdominal e variáveis espirométricas de indivíduos com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC). Oito pacientes com DPOC submetidos à fisioterapia respiratória receberam tratamento com EDET duas vezes por semana durante 06 semanas, totalizando 12 sessões. Antes e depois do tratamento eles foram avaliados pelos seguintes parâmetros: pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx); pressão expiratória máxima (PEmáx); cirtometria axilar, xifoideana e abdominal; e espirometria. Após o teste Shapiro-Wilk, o teste t de Student pareado e o teste Mann-Whitney foram aplicados para a comparação dos dois estágios (antes e após a EDET). Para a comparação dos estágios antes, após (pós-1a sessão), 1ª, 2ª, 3ª e 4ª semana, a ANOVA seguida do teste de Tukey foram aplicados (p<0,05). De acordo com os resultados obtidos, foi observado que a EDET promoveu aumento significativo em: PImáx (47,3%); PEmáx (21,7%); cirtometria axilar (55,5%); xifoideana (59,2%) e abdominal (74,2%), mas não nas variáveis espirométricas. Na análise longitudinal (nas 4 semanas seguintes) o aumento encontrado na PImáx e na expansibilidade toracoabdominal foi mantido. Assim conclui-se que a EDET promoveu melhora na força muscular respiratória e na expansibilidade toracoabdominal em pacientes com DPOC sem alteração nas variáveis espirométricas; e alguns parâmetros foram mantidos nas quatro semanas seguintes...


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS) on respiratory muscle strength and endurance, thoracic-abdominal expansibility and spirometric variables of subjects with chronic as obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Eight COPD patients submitted to respiratory physiotherapy received treatment with TEDS twice a week for 06 weeks, totaling 12 sessions. Before and after TEDS they were evaluated by the following parameters: maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP); maximal expiratory pressure (MEP); axillary, xiphoid and abdominal cyrtometry; and spirometry. After the Shapiro-Wilk test, the paired Student's-t test and the Mann-Whitney test were applied for comparison of the two stages (before and after TEDS). For comparison of the before, after (post-1st session), 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th week stages, the ANOVA followed by Tukey test were applied (p<0.05). In accordance with the results obtained it was observed that TEDS promoted significant increase in: MIP (47.3%); MEP (21.7%); axillary (55.5%); xiphoid (59.2%) and abdominal (74.2%) cyrtometry, but not in the spirometric variables. In longitudinal analysis (in the 4 following weeks) the increase found in MIP and in thoracic-abdominal expansibility was maintained. Thus, we conclude that TEDS promoted improvement in respiratory muscle strength and thoracic-abdominal expansibility in COPD patients without alterations in spirometric variables, and some parameters were maintained in the following 4 weeks...


El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la estimulación diafragmática eléctrica transcutánea (EDET) sobre la fuerza y endurance muscular respiratoria, expansibilidad toracoabdominal y variables espirométricas de individuos con enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC). Ocho pacientes con EPOC sometidos a fisioterapia respiratoria recibieron tratamiento con EDET dos veces por semana durante 6 semanas, totalizando 12 sesiones. Antes y después del tratamiento fueron evaluados por los siguientes parámetros: presión inspiratoria máxima (PImáx); presión expiratoria máxima (PEmáx); cirtometría axilar, xifoidea y abdominal; y espirometría. Después del test Shapiro-Wilk, el test t de Student pareado y el test Mann-Whitney fueron aplicados para la comparación de los dos niveles (antes y después de la EDET). Para la comparación de los niveles antes, después (post-1a sesión), 1ª, 2ª, 3ª y 4ª semana, la ANOVA seguida del test de Tukey fueron aplicados (p<0,05). De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, fue observado que la EDET promovió aumento significativo en: PImáx (47,3%); PEmáx (21,7%); cirtometría axilar (55,5%); xifoidea (59,2%) y abdominal (74,2%), pero no en las variables espirométricas. En el análisis longitudinal (en las 4 semanas siguientes) el aumento encontrado en la PImáx y en la expansibilidad toracoabdominal fue mantenido. Así se concluye que la EDET promovió mejora en la fuerza muscular respiratoria y en la expansibilidad toracoabdominal en pacientes con EPOC sin alteración en las variables espirométricas; y algunos parámetros fueron mantenidos en las cuatro semanas siguientes...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/rehabilitation , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Electric Stimulation/instrumentation , Electric Stimulation/methods , Forced Expiratory Volume , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation
18.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 17(5): 479-486, out. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-689926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although a number of studies have compared the influence of different electrical pulse parameters on maximum electrically induced torque (MEIT) and discomfort, the role of phase duration has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the variation in muscle torque and discomfort produced when electrically stimulating quadriceps femoris using pulsed current with three different phase durations in order to establish whether there are any advantages or disadvantages in varying the phase duration over the range examined. METHOD: This is a two repeated-measures, within-subject study conducted in a research laboratory. The study was divided into 2 parts with 19 healthy young adults in each part.In part 1, MEIT was determined for each phase duration (400, 700, and 1000 µs), using a biphasic pulsed current at a frequency of 50 Hz. In part 2, stimulus amplitude was increased until the contractions reached 40% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and the associated discomfort produced by each phase duration was measured. RESULTS: In part 1 of the study, we found that the average MEITs generated with each phase duration (400, 700, and 1000 µs) were 55.0, 56.3, and 58.0% of MVIC respectively, but the differences were not statistically significant (p=.45). In part 2, we found a statistically significant increase in discomfort over the same range of phase durations. The results indicate that, for a given level of torque production, discomfort increases with increasing phase duration (p=.008). CONCLUSIONS: Greater muscle torque cannot be produced by increasing the stimulus phase duration over the range examined. Greater discomfort is produced by increasing the stimulus phase duration. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Electric Stimulation/methods , Quadriceps Muscle/physiology , Electric Stimulation/adverse effects , Time Factors , Torque
19.
J. bras. pneumol ; 39(4): 490-494, June-August/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-686602

ABSTRACT

Every year, a large number of individuals become dependent on mechanical ventilation because of a loss of diaphragm function. The most common causes are cervical spinal trauma and neuromuscular diseases. We have developed an experimental model to evaluate the performance of electrical stimulation of the diaphragm in rabbits using single-channel electrodes implanted directly into the muscle. Various current intensities (10, 16, 20, and 26 mA) produced tidal volumes above the baseline value, showing that this model is effective for the study of diaphragm performance at different levels of electrical stimulation.


A cada ano um grande número de pessoas perde a função do diafragma tornando-se dependentes de ventilação mecânica. As principais causas são o trauma raquimedular da região cervical e as doenças neuromusculares. Desenvolvemos um modelo experimental para avaliar o desempenho da estimulação elétrica do diafragma em coelhos com eletrodos monocanais implantados diretamente neste músculo. Foram aplicadas diferentes intensidades de correntes (10, 16, 20 e 26 mA), as quais geraram volumes correntes acima dos valores basais, mostrando que este modelo é eficaz para estudar o desempenho do diafragma sob diferentes tipos de estimulação elétrica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rabbits , Diaphragm/physiopathology , Electric Stimulation/methods , Phrenic Nerve/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Electrodes, Implanted , Electric Stimulation/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results , Respiration, Artificial
20.
Braz. j. phys. ther. (Impr.) ; 17(3): 281-288, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-680653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interferential electrical stimulation (IES), which may be linked to greater penetration of deep tissue, may restore blood flow by sympathetic nervous modulation; however, studies have found no association between the frequency and duration of the application and blood flow. We hypothesized that 30 min of IES applied to the ganglion stellate region might improve blood flow redistribution. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IES on metaboreflex activation in healthy individuals. METHOD: Interferential electrical stimulation or a placebo stimulus (same protocol without electrical output) was applied to the stellate ganglion region in eleven healthy subjects (age 25±1.3 years) prior to exercise. Mean blood pressure (MBP), heart rate (HR), calf blood flow (CBF) and calf vascular resistance (CVR) were measured throughout exercise protocols (submaximal static handgrip exercise) and with recovery periods with or without postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO+ and PECO -, respectively). Muscle metaboreflex control of calf vascular resistance was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve when circulation was occluded from the area under the curve from the AUC without circulatory occlusion. RESULTS: At peak exercise, increases in mean blood pressure were attenuated by IES (p<0.05), and the effect persisted under both the PECO+ and PECO- treatments. IES promoted higher CBF and lower CVR during exercise and recovery. Likewise, IES induced a reduction in the estimated muscle metaboreflex control (placebo, 21±5 units vs. IES, 6±3, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Acute application of IES prior to exercise attenuates the increase in blood pressure and vasoconstriction during exercise and metaboreflex activation in healthy subjects. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Electric Stimulation/methods , Regional Blood Flow , Vasodilation/physiology , Cross-Over Studies , Hemodynamics/physiology
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