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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 89-98, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The study explores the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the governing vessel (GV) on proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment.@*METHODS@#Healthy male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham, model and EA. Cognitive impairment was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion in the model and EA groups. Rats in the EA group were treated with EA at Shenting (GV24) and Baihui (GV20) for 7 d. Neurological deficit was scored using the Longa scale, the learning and memory ability was detected using the Morris water maze (MWM) test, and the proteomic profiling in the hippocampus was analyzed using protein-labeling technology based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ). The Western blot (WB) analysis was used to detect the proteins and validate the results of iTRAQ.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the model group, the neurological deficit score was significantly reduced, and the escape latency in the MWM test was significantly shortened, while the number of platform crossings increased in the EA group. A total of 2872 proteins were identified by iTRAQ. Differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified between different groups: 92 proteins were upregulated and 103 were downregulated in the model group compared with the sham group, while 142 proteins were upregulated and 126 were downregulated in the EA group compared with the model group. Most of the DEPs were involved in oxidative phosphorylation, glycolipid metabolism and synaptic transmission. Furthermore, we also verified 4 DEPs using WB technology. Although the WB results were not exactly the same as the iTRAQ results, the expression trends of the DEPs were consistent. The upregulation of heat-shock protein β1 (Hspb1) was the highest in the EA group compared to the model group.@*CONCLUSION@#EA can effect proteomic changes in the hippocampus of rats with cognitive impairment. Hspb1 may be involved in the molecular mechanism by which acupuncture improves cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Electroacupuncture , Proteomics , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Hippocampus
2.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 162-169, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971327

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at Neiguan (PC 6) on myocardial fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), and to explore the contribution of interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF- β 1) to the effects.@*METHODS@#Nine 12-weeks-old Wistar Kyoto (WKY) male rats were employed as the normal group. Twenty-seven SHRs were equally randomized into SHR, SHR+EA, and SHR + sham groups. EA was applied at bilateral PC 6 once a day 30 min per day in 8 consecutive weeks. After 8-weeks EA treatment at PC 6, histopathologic changes of collagen type I (Col I), collagen type 1 (Col 1) and the levels of IGF-1, 1L-1 β, TGF- β 1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were examined in myocardial tissure respectively.@*RESULTS@#After 8-weeks EA treatment at PC 6, the enhanced myocardial fibrosis in SHRs were characterized by the increased mean fluorescence intensity of Col I and Col 1 in myocardium tissue (P<0.01). All these abnormal alterations above in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared with the SHR group (P<0.01). Meanwhile, the increased levels of IL-1 β, IGF-1, TGF-β 1 in serum or myocardial tissue of SHRs, diminished MMP 9 mRNA expression in SHRs were also markedly inhibited after 8 weeks of EA treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, the contents of IL-1 β, IGF-1, TGF-β 1 in myocardial tissue were positively correlated with the systolic blood pressure and hydroxyproline respectively (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA at bilateral PC 6 could ameliorate cardiac fibrosis in SHRs, which might be mediated by regulation of 1L-1 β/IGF-1-TGF- β 1-MMP9 pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Male , Rats, Inbred WKY , Electroacupuncture , Hypertension/therapy , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Interleukin-1beta , Rats, Inbred SHR , Essential Hypertension , Myocardium/pathology , Collagen Type I , Fibrosis
3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 61-68, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971318

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention on the vasoconstriction of cerebral artery smooth muscle cells after cerebral infarction.@*METHODS@#Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table: the model group (n=24), the EA group (n=24), and the normal group (n=6). The model and the EA groups were divided into different time subgroups at 0.5, 1, 3, and 6 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), with 6 rats in each subgroup. MCAO model was established using intraluminal suture occlusion method. The EA group was given EA treatment at acupoint Shuigou (GV 26) instantly after MCAO for 20 min. The contents of cerebrovascular smooth muscle MLCK, the 3 subunits of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) MYPT1, PP1c-δ and M20, as well as myosin-ATPase activity were detected using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The overall expression level of the MYPT1 and PP1c-δ in the model group was significantly higher (P<0.01). After EA intervention, the 0.5 h group expression level was close to that of the normal group (P>0.05), and the other subgroups were still significantly higher than the normal group (P<0.01). After EA intervention, the expression level of each subgroup was significantly lower than the corresponding model group. There was a significant difference between the 0.5 and 1 h subgroups (P<0.01), while a difference was also observed between the 3 and 6 h subgroups (P<0.05). The dynamic change rule gradually increased with the prolongation of infarction time within 6 h after infarction.@*CONCLUSION@#EA intervention can inhibit contraction of cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells and regulate smooth muscle relaxation by regulating MLCK pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Rats, Wistar , Electroacupuncture , Cerebral Infarction/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth , Acupuncture Points , Brain Ischemia/therapy
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 108-114, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970111

ABSTRACT

Radiation-induced brain injury is a serious complication after cranio-cerebral radiotherapy, which affects the patient's quality of life and survival. A large number of studies have shown that various mechanisms such as neuronal apoptosis, blood-brain barrier damage, and synaptic dysfunction may be related to radiation-induced brain injury. Acupuncture has an important role in clinical rehabilitation of various brain injuries. As a new type of acupuncture, electroacupuncture has the characteristics of strong control ability, uniform and long-lasting stimulation, and is widely used in clinic. This article reviews the effects and mechanisms of electroacupuncture on radiation-induced brain injury, in order to provide a theoretical basis and experimental support for reasonable clinical application.


Subject(s)
Humans , Electroacupuncture , Quality of Life , Brain , Brain Injuries , Blood-Brain Barrier
5.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 309-316, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream protein gastermin D (GSDMD) in rats with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), and to explore the potential mechanism of EA on the treatment of PDM.@*METHODS@#Forty healthy female SD rats without pregnancy were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, an EA group and an ibuprofen group, 10 rats in each group. PDM model was prepared by injection of estradiol benzoate and oxytocin. Except the control group, the rats in each group were subcutaneously injected with estradiol benzoate for 10 days, and oxytocin was injected on the 11th day. The rats in the EA group were intervened with EA (dense wave, frequency of 50 Hz) at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) at the same time of modeling, once a day, 20 min each time, for 10 consecutive days. The rats in the ibuprofen group were treated with 0.8 mL of ibuprofen by gavage (concentration of ibuprofen solution was 1.25 mg/mL) for 10 consecutive days. After modeling, the writhing reaction was observed. After intervention, the HE staining method was used to observe the histological morphology of uterus and evaluate the pathological damage score of uterus; ELISA method was used to detect the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α); Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis related spot like protein (ASC), caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N and inflammatory factors (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-18) in uterine tissue.@*RESULTS@#In the model group, a large number of vacuolar degeneration and death of endometrial epithelial cells, spiral arterioles congestion in lamina propria and neutrophil infiltration were observed. In the EA group, there was a small amount of vacuolar degeneration and death of endometrial epithelial cells, a small amount of spiral arterioles congestion in the lamina propria, and a small amount of neutrophils infiltration. In the ibuprofen group, there was very small number of degeneration and death of endometrial epithelial cells, and no obvious arterial congestion was found in lamina propria, and neutrophil infiltration was occasionally seen. Compared with the control group, in the model group the number of writhing was increased (P<0.01), the writhing reaction score and serum level of PGF2α and PGF2α/PGE2 value were increased (P<0.01), the level of PGE2 was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the EA group and the ibuprofen group the number of writhing were decreased (P<0.05), the latency of writhing was prolonged (P<0.01), the writhing reaction scores and serum levels of PGF2α and PGF2α/PGE2 values were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the levels of PGE2 were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N, IL-1β and IL-18 in the uterine tissues of rats was increased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N, IL-1β and IL-18 in the uterine tissues of rats was decreased in the EA group and the ibuprofen group (P<0.01, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the EA group and the ibuprofen group in the above indexes (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA could alleviate pain and uterine tissue injury in rats with PDM. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in rat uterine tissues, thereby inhibiting pyroptosis and its inflammatory factors release.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Caspases , Dinoprost , Dinoprostone , Dysmenorrhea , Electroacupuncture , Ibuprofen , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Oxytocin , Phosphate-Binding Proteins , Pyroptosis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Uterus
6.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 239-244, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969978

ABSTRACT

Electroacupuncture may play a role in treatment of learning and memory impairment after ischemic stroke by regulating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway, nerve growth factor (NGF)/tyrosine kinase-A (TrkA) signaling pathway, Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, erythropoietin-producing hepatocyte (Eph)/ephrin signaling pathway. The interactions among these pathways should be further explored in treatment of learning and memory impairment after ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Electroacupuncture , Ischemic Stroke , Learning , Signal Transduction/physiology
7.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 197-202, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969971

ABSTRACT

The paper introduces GAO Wei-bin's clinical experience in acupuncture treatment for neurogenic bladder. In association with the etiology, the location and types of neurogenic bladder and in accordance with nerve anatomy and meridian differentiation, the acupoints are selected accurately in treatment. Four acupoint prescriptions are allocated. For frequent urination and urinary incontinence, the foot-motor-sensory area of scalp acupuncture, Shenshu (BL 23) and Huiyang (BL 35) are used. For all kinds of urine retention, especially the patients who are not suitable for acupuncture at the lumbar region, Zhongji (CV 3), Qugu (CV 2), Henggu (KI 11) and Dahe (KI 12) are selected. For all kinds of urine retention, Zhongliao (BL 33) and Ciliao (BL 32) are applicable. For the patients with both dysuria and urinary incontinence, Zhongliao (BL 33), Ciliao (BL 32) and Huiyang (BL 35) are chosen. In treatment of neurogenic bladder, both biao (root causes) and ben (primary symptoms) are considered, as well as the accompanying symptoms; and electroacupuncture is combined accordingly. During the delivery of acupuncture, the sites where the acupoints located are detected and palpated so as to rationally control the depth of needle insertion and the operation of reinforcing and reducing needling techniques.


Subject(s)
Humans , Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic/etiology , Acupuncture Therapy/adverse effects , Meridians , Electroacupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Urinary Retention , Urinary Incontinence
8.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 158-162, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969965

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the clinical effect of electroacupuncture at Baliao points in patients with erectile dysfunction after stroke.@*METHODS@#A total of 58 patients with erectile dysfunction after stroke were randomly divided into an observation group (29 cases, 1 case dropped off, 1 case discontinued) and a control group (29 cases, 1 case dropped off). Both groups were given basic treatment, including routine medical treatment, routine acupuncture treatment, rehabilitation training and pelvic floor biofeedback electrical stimulation treatment. The observation group was treated with electroacupuncture at Baliao points, and the control group was treated with shallow acupuncture combined with electroacupuncture at the control points (8 points at 20 mm horizontally beside Baliao points), continuous wave, frequency in 50 Hz, current intensity in 1-5 mA, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The 5-item version of the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) score, erectile dysfunction effect on quality of life (ED-EQoL) score and pelvic floor muscle contraction amplitude were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the IIEF-5 scores and the contraction amplitude of fast muscle fiber, comprehensive muscle fiber and slow muscle fiber in the two groups were higher than those before treatment (P<0.05), the ED-EQoL scores were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the changes of above indexes in the observation group were larger than the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at Baliao points can improve the erectile function of patients with erectile dysfunction after stroke, increase the contraction amplitude of pelvic floor muscles, and promote the quality of life of patients.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Electroacupuncture , Erectile Dysfunction , Quality of Life , Stroke , Pelvic Floor , Acupuncture Points , Treatment Outcome
9.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 135-140, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) combined with electroacupuncture (EA) on rehabilitation after abdominal surgery.@*METHODS@#A total of 320 patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly divided into a combination group (80 cases), a TEAS group (80 cases, 1 case discontinued), an EA group (80 cases, 1 case discontinued) and a control group (80 cases, 1 case discontinued). The patients in the control group received enhance recovery after surgery (ERAS) standardized perioperative management. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, the TEAS group was treated with TEAS at Liangmen (ST 21) and Daheng (SP 15); the EA group was treated with EA at Neiguan (PC 6), Hegu (LI 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Shangjuxu (ST 37) and Xiajuxu (ST 39); the combination group was treated with TEAS combined with EA, with continuous wave, 2-5 Hz in frequency, and the intensity was tolerable to the patients, 30 min each time, once a day, from the first day after surgery, until the anus resumed spontaneous defecation and the oral intake of solid food was tolerated. The gastrointestinal-2 (GI-2) time, first exhaust time, first defecation time, first tolerance of oral intake of solid food time, time of first get out of bed and hospital stay were observed in all the groups; the pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score and incidence rates of nausea and vomiting 1, 2, 3 days after surgery were compared in all the groups; after treatment, the acceptability of each treatment was evaluated by patients in each group.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the control group, the GI-2 time, first exhaust time, first defecation time, first tolerance of oral intake of solid food time were shortened (P<0.05), the VAS scores 2, 3 days after surgery were decreased (P<0.05) in the combination group, the TEAS group and the EA group; those in the combination group were shorter and lower than the TEAS group and the EA group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the time of hospital stay in the combination group, the TEAS group and the EA group were shortened (P<0.05), and that in the combination group was shorter than the TEAS group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#TEAS combined with EA can accelerate the recovery of gastrointestinal function in patients after abdominal surgery, relieve postoperative pain, and shorten hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Humans , Electroacupuncture , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation , Acupuncture Points , Gastrointestinal Tract , Pain, Postoperative
10.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 60-66, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969948

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at different frequencies on learning and memory functions, as well as the relevant proteins of brain insulin signal transduction pathway in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice and explore the effect mechanism of EA in treatment of AD.@*METHODS@#Seventy-two SPF Kunming male mice were randomized into a blank group, a sham-operation group, a model group, a 2 Hz EA group, a 15 Hz EA group and a 30 Hz EA group, 12 mice in each one. In the model group and each EA group, AD model were established by the injection with streptozotocin (ST2) solution (8 mg/kg) into the left lateral ventricles. In the sham-operation group, 0.9% sodium chloride solution of the same volume was injected into the left lateral ventricles. After successful modeling, in each EA group, EA was applied at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Dazhui" (GV 14) and "Shenshu" (BL 23) with corresponding frequencies, once daily. One course of EA intervention consisted of 7 treatments and 2 courses were given totally at interval of 1 day. After modeling and intervention, Morris water maze test was conducted for the mice of each group. Using immunohistochemistry and Western blot method, the protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) was detected in the hippocampal of the mice after intervention.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the blank group, in the model group, the 2 Hz, 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all extended (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was reduced (P<0.01) after modeling. When compared with the blank group, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all extended (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was reduced (P<0.01) in the model group after intervention. In the 2 Hz, 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups, the escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all shortened (P<0.01), and the number of crossing the platform was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01) after intervention when compared with the model group. The escape latency and the first time of crossing the platform were all shortened (P<0.01, P<0.05), and the number of crossing the platform was increased (P<0.05) in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups in comparison with the 2 Hz EA group. The protein expression levels of IR, IRS-1 and PI3K were reduced in the model group when compared with those of the blank group (P<0.01, P<0.05); and these protein expression levels were increased in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups compared with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Compared with the 2 Hz EA group, the protein expression levels of IR, IRS-1 and PI3K were all elevated in the 15 Hz and 30 Hz EA groups (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#The learning and memory function of AD mice may be improved through regulating brain insulin signaling transconduction pathway with electroacupuncture, and electroacupuncture at 15 Hz and 30 Hz obtains the overall better effect compared with the intervention at 2 Hz.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hippocampus/metabolism , Insulin/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Signal Transduction
11.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 53-59, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969947

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the hypoglycemic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Tianshu" (ST 25) combined with metformin on rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as its effect on expression of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and pancreas.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into a blank group (6 rats) and a model establishing group (30 rats). The rats in the model establishing group were fed with high-fat diet and treated with intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) to establish T2DM model. The rats with successful model establishment were randomly divided into a model group, a control group, a metformin group, an EA group and a combination group, 6 rats in each group. The rats in the EA group were treated with EA at "Tianshu" (ST 25), dense-disperse wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency and 2 mA in current intensity, 20 min each time. The rats in the metformin group were treated with intragastric administration of metformin (190 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (2 mL/kg). The rats in the combination group were treated with EA at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and intragastric administration of metformin. The rats in the control group were treated with intragastric administration of 0.9% sodium chloride solution with the same dose. All the treatments were given once a day for 5 weeks. After the intervention, the body mass and random blood glucose were detected; the serum insulin level was detected by ELISA; the expression of AMPK and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) in liver and pancreas was detected by Western blot method; the expression of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) was detected by immunofluorescence.@*RESULTS@#①Compared with the blank group, the body mass in the model group was decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the body mass in the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05); the body mass in the EA group and the combination group was lower than the metformin group (P<0.05). Compared with the blank group, the random blood glucose in the model group was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group, the random blood glucose in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.01). The random blood glucose in the combination group was lower than the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ②Compared with the blank group, the insulin level in the model group was decreased (P<0.05); compared with the model group, the insulin level in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was all increased (P<0.05). The insulin level in the combination group was higher than the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ③Compared with the blank group, the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue was decreased (P<0.05), and the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in pancreatic tissue was increased (P<0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, the protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was increased (P<0.05, P<0.01); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group was increased (P<0.05); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05); the protein expression of p-AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05). The protein expression of AMPK and p-AMPK in liver tissue in the combination group was higher than that in the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05); the protein expression of AMPK in pancreatic tissue in the EA group and the combination group was less than that in the metformin group (P<0.05), and the expression of p-AMPK protein in pancreatic tissue in the combination group was less than that in the metformin group and the EA group (P<0.05). ④Compared with the blank group, the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the model group was increased (P<0.01); compared with the model group, the expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the metformin group, the EA group and the combination group was decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression of PGP9.5 in pancreatic tissue in the EA group was lower than the metformin group and the combination group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at "Tianshu" (ST 25) could promote the effect of metformin on activating AMPK in liver tissue of T2DM rats, improve the negative effect of metformin on AMPK in pancreatic tissue, and enhance the hypoglycemic effect of metformin. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of pancreatic intrinsic nervous system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acupuncture Points , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Blood Glucose , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Electroacupuncture , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulins , Metformin , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 36-39, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the effect of electroacupuncture at Tinghui (GB 2) and Benshen (GB 13) combined with routine rehabilitation training and simple routine rehabilitation training on abnormal auditory response in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).@*METHODS@#A total of 70 children with ASD were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 35 cases in each group. The control group was given routine rehabilitation training. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, the observation group was given electroacupuncture at Tinghui (GB 2) and Benshen (GB 13), disperse-dense wave, frequency in 2 Hz/10 Hz, 20 min each time, and 1 day off after 6 days of treatment. Both groups were treated for 12 weeks. The incidence of abnormal auditory response, the scores of childhood autism rating scale (CARS) and autism behavior checklist (ABC) were compared between the two groups before and after treatment.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the total incidences of abnormal auditory response in the two groups and the incidences of dull and hypersensitive auditory response in the observation group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05). The total incidence of abnormal auditory response and the incidence of hypersensitive auditory response in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, CARS and ABC scores of both groups were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture at Tinghui (GB 2) and Benshen (GB 13) combined with routine rehabilitation training can reduce the incidence of abnormal auditory response and improve the core symptoms in children with ASD, and the clinical effect is better than the simple routine rehabilitation training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Electroacupuncture , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Acupuncture Points , Medicine , Pain
13.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 19-22, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture (acupuncture for regulating mind and relieving depression) combined with sertraline hydrochloride tablet and simple sertraline hydrochloride tablet for post-stroke depression (PSD).@*METHODS@#A total of 76 patients with PSD were randomized into an observation group (38 cases, 6 cases dropped off) and a control group (38 cases, 4 cases dropped off). Both groups were treated with conventional treatment i.e. controlling blood pressure and anti-inflammation. Sertraline hydrochloride tablet was given orally in the control group, 20 mg a time, once a day. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture was applied at Baihui (GV 20), Yintang (GV 24+), Neiguan (PC 6), Taichong (LR 3), etc. in the observation group, Baihui (GV 20) and Yintang (GV 24+) were connected to electroacupuncture, with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency, 30 min a time, once a day, 6 times a week. Treatment of 8 weeks was required in both groups. Before and after treatment, the scores of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), Barthel index (BI) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were observed respectively, the therapeutic efficacy and rate of adverse reactions were evaluated in the two groups.@*RESULTS@#After treatment, the scores of HAMD, NIHSS and PSQI were lower while BI scores were higher than those before treatment in both groups (P<0.05); the scores of HAMD, NIHSS and PSQI in the observation group were lower while BI score was higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 93.8% (30/32) in the observation group, which was higher than 70.6% (24/34) in the control group (P<0.05). The rate of adverse reactions was 9.4% (3/32) in the observation group, which was lower than 32.4% (11/34) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Tiaoshen Jieyu acupuncture combined with sertraline hydrochloride tablet can improve the depression degree, neurological function, activity of daily living and sleep quality in patients with post-stroke depression, the clinical efficacy is superior to simple sertraline hydrochloride, and can alleviate the adverse reactions caused by medication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sertraline/adverse effects , Depression/etiology , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture , Stroke/complications , Acupuncture Points , Treatment Outcome , Tablets
14.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 590-596, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986966

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of electroacupuncture on osteoarthritis in rats and explore the possible mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty SD rats were randomly divided into osteoarthritis model group, electro-acupuncture group and control group (n=10), and in the former two groups, early osteoarthritis was induced using a modified DMM surgical modeling method. After successful modeling, the rats in the electro-acupuncture group were treated with electro-acupuncture at bilateral "Housanli" and "Anterior knee point". Behavioral tests of the rats were performed and scored using the LequesneMG scale. Subchondral bone degeneration was observed in each group, and serum levels of IL-1β, ADAMTS-7, MMP-3 and COMP were measured using ELISA. The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β, Wnt-7B, β-catenin, ADAMTS-7, and MMP-3 in the cartilage tissue of the knee joints were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#In behavioral tests, the rats in the model and electroacupuncture groups had significantly higher LequesneMG scores after modeling than those in the control group (P < 0.05). After 20 days of treatment, LequesneMG scores were significantly lowered in rats in the electroacupuncture as compared with the model rats (P < 0.05). Imaging examination revealed obvious subchondral bone damage in both the electroacupuncture group and the model group, but the damages were significantly milder with former group. Compared with the model rats, the rats receiving electroacupuncture had significantly lower serum levels of IL-1β, ADAMTS-7, MMP-3 and COMP (P < 0.05) with also lower expressions of IL-1β, Wnt-7B, β-catenin, ADAMTS-7 and MMP-3 in the cartilage tissues at both the mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture can alleviate joint pain and improve subchondral bone damage in rats with osteoarthritis by reducing IL-1β levels in the joint cartilage tissue and serum to alleviate joint inflammation and by reducing such cytokines as ADAMTS-7 and MMP-3 via regulating the Wnt-7B/β-catenin signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Electroacupuncture , Matrix Metalloproteinase 3/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , beta Catenin/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Cartilage, Articular , Inflammation/metabolism
15.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 320-323, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982689

ABSTRACT

In October 2021, an international collaborative study on the use of electroacupuncture (EA) to treat inflammation was published in the journal Nature by Dr. Qiufu Ma's team. Based on the results of EA on inflammation in the mouse model of lipopolysaccharide inflammatory storm, the study showed that the distal effect of acupuncture can be achieved by "driving the vagus-adrenal axis (through the adrenal medulla, by releasing catecholamines)." PROKR2Cre-marked sensory neurons, which innervate the deep hindlimb fascia but not the abdominal fascia, are crucial for driving this axis. The study suggests the existence of specificity distribution of acupoints, that different EA stimulation intensities or different needle penetration depths have different therapeutic effects, that photosensitive stimulation may be a substitute for needle acupuncture, and that massage, stretching and body movements may also activate PROKR2Cre-markable dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and elicit anti-inflammatory effects. However, results of some other studies are contrary to the conclusions of Ma's team. For examples: low-intensity EA at GB30 point significantly reduced the inflammation in the rat model of persistent inflammation, which is more relevant to the real daily acupuncture practice, and this effect was partly related to the adrenal cortex and associated with the stimulation of corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone; manual acupuncture (similar to the low-intensity EA) at KI3, Zhichuan point (an extra point), etc. was effective in a severe COVID-19 patient with sepsis; stimulating ST25 with low-intensity EA or manual acupuncture was effective against gastrointestinal inflammations; the above mentioned points are not in an area enriched with PROKR2Cre-marked sensory nerve endings. Evidence shows that the mechanism of EA against inflammation includes modulating multi-systems, multi-levels and multi-targets, which does not limit to "driving the vagus-adrenal axis." Please cite this article as: Fan AY. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of electroacupuncture involves the modulation of multiple systems, levels and targets and is not limited to "driving the vagus-adrenal axis." J Integr Med. 2023; 21(4):320-323.


Subject(s)
Mice , Rats , Animals , Electroacupuncture , COVID-19/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Inflammation/therapy , Acupuncture Points
16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 397-406, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982688

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Abnormalities in the gut microbiota and intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels are implicated in the pathogenesis of functional constipation (FC). Electro-acupuncture (EA) has been shown to improve constipation-related symptoms and rebalance the gut microbiota. However, it is currently unknown whether the gut microbiota is a key mechanistic target for EA or how EA promotes gut motility by regulating the gut microbiota and SCFAs. Therefore, we assessed the effects of EA in FC mice and pseudo-germfree (PGF) mice to address these questions.@*METHODS@#Forty female Kunming mice were randomly separated into a normal control group (n = 8), an FC group (n = 8), an FC + EA group (n = 8), a PGF group (n = 8) and a PGF + EA group (n = 8). The FC group and FC + EA group were treated with diphenoxylate to establish the FC model; the PGF group and PGF + EA group were given an antibiotic cocktail to initiate the PGF model. After maintaining the model for 14 d, mice in the FC + EA and PGF + EA groups received EA stimulation at the ST25 and ST37 acupoints, once a day, 5 times per week, for 2 weeks. Fecal parameters and intestinal transit rate were calculated to assess the efficacy of EA on constipation and gastrointestinal motility. Colonic contents were used to quantify gut microbial diversity using 16S rRNA sequencing, and measure SCFA concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#EA significantly shortened the first black stool defecation time (P < 0.05) and increased the intestinal transit rate (P < 0.01), and fecal pellet number (P < 0.05), wet weight (P < 0.05) and water content (P < 0.01) over 8 h, compared with the FC group, showing that EA promoted gut motility and alleviated constipation. However, EA treatment did not reverse slow-transit colonic motility in PGF mice (P > 0.05), demonstrating that the gut microbiota may play a mechanistic role in the EA treatment of constipation. In addition, EA treatment restored the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio and significantly increased butyric acid generation in FC mice (P < 0.05), most likely due to the upregulation of Staphylococcaceae microorganisms (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA-mediated resolution of constipation occurs through rebalancing the gut microbiota and promoting butyric acid generation. Please cite this article as: Xu MM, Guo Y, Chen Y, Zhang W, Wang L, Li Y. Electro-acupuncture promotes gut motility and alleviates functional constipation by regulating gut microbiota and increasing butyric acid generation in mice. J Integr Med. 2023; Epub ahead of print.


Subject(s)
Mice , Female , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Butyric Acid/pharmacology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Constipation/therapy , Acupuncture Therapy , Electroacupuncture/methods
17.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 459-469, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate autophagy-related mechanisms of electroacupuncture (EA) action in improving gastrointestinal motility in mice with functional constipation (FC).@*METHODS@#According to a random number table, the Kunming mice were divided into the normal control, FC and EA groups in Experiment I. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used to observe whether it antagonized the effects of EA in Experiment II. An FC model was established by diphenoxylate gavage. Then the mice were treated with EA stimulation at Tianshu (ST 25) and Shangjuxu (ST 37) acupoints. The first black stool defecation time, the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and intestinal transit rate were used to assess intestinal transit. Colonic tissues underwent histopathological assessment, and the expressions of autophagy markers microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and Beclin-1 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The expressions of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT)-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway members were investigated by Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The relationship between enteric glial cells (EGCs) and autophagy was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, localization analysis, and electron microscopy.@*RESULTS@#EA treatment shortened the first black stool defecation time, increased the number, weight, and water content of 8-h feces, and improved the intestinal transit rate in FC mice (P<0.01). In terms of a putative autophagy mechanism, EA treatment promoted the expressions of LC3 and Beclin-1 proteins in the colonic tissue of FC mice (P<0.05), with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and LC3 significantly colocalized. Furthermore, EA promoted colonic autophagy in FC mice by inhibiting PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The positive effect of EA on intestinal motility in FC mice was blocked by 3-MA.@*CONCLUSION@#EA treatment can inhibit PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the colonic tissues of FC mice, thereby promoting EGCs autophagy to improve intestinal motility.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Electroacupuncture , Beclin-1 , Signal Transduction , Constipation/therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Autophagy , Neuroglia/metabolism , Mammals/metabolism
18.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 448-458, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of electroacupuncture (EA) in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo.@*METHODS@#Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were used as AD models and received EA at Yingxiang (LI 20, bilateral) and Yintang (GV 29) points for 20 days. For certain experiments, SAMP8 mice were injected intravenously with human fibrin (2 mg). The Morris water maze test was used to assess cognitive and memory abilities. The changes of tight junctions of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in mice were observed by transmission electron microscope. The expressions of fibrin, amyloid- β (Aβ), and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBa-1) in mouse hippocampus (CA1/CA3) were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot or immunohistochemical staining. The expression of fibrin in mouse plasma was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 and claudin-5 in hippocampus were detected by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis of hippocampal neurons was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining.@*RESULTS@#Fibrin was time-dependently deposited in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice and this was inhibited by EA treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, EA treatment suppressed the accumulation of Aβ in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice (P<0.01), which was reversed by fibrin injection (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EA improved SAMP8 mice cognitive impairment and BBB permeability (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, EA decreased reactive oxygen species levels and neuroinflammation in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice, which was reversed by fibrin injection (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Mechanistically, EA inhibited the promoting effect of fibrin on the high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1)/toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) signaling pathways (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#EA may potentially improve cognitive impairment in AD via inhibition of fibrin/A β deposition and deactivation of the HMGB1/TLR4 and RAGE/NADPH signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Mice , Humans , Animals , NADP/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , Electroacupuncture , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Hippocampus/metabolism , Amyloid beta-Peptides/metabolism
19.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 783-792, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Tongdu Tiaoshen (promoting the circulation of the governor vessel and regulating the spirit) electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on pyroptosis mediated by peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) and explore the potential mechanism of EA for the prevention and treatment of CIRI.@*METHODS@#A total of 110 clean-grade male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a model group, an EA group, an EA + inhibitor group and an agonist group, 22 rats in each group. In the EA group, before modeling, EA was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20), "Fengfu" (GV 16) and "Dazhui" (GV 14), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/5 Hz in frequency, 1 to 2 mA in intensity, lasting 20 min; once a day, consecutively for 7 days. On the base of the intervention as the EA group, on the day 7, the intraperitoneal injection with the PPARγ inhibitor, GW9662 (10 mg/kg) was delivered in the EA + inhibitor group. In the agonist group, on the day 7, the PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone hydrochloride (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. At the end of intervention, except the sham-operation group, the modified thread embolization method was adopted to establish the right CIRI model in the rats of the other groups. Using the score of the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), the neurological defect condition of rats was evaluated. TTC staining was adopted to detect the relative cerebral infarction volume of rat, TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis of cerebral cortical nerve cells and the transmission electron microscope was used to observe pyroptosis of cerebral cortical neural cells. The positive expression of PPARγ and nucleotide-binding to oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in the cerebral cortex was detected with the immunofluorescence staining. The protein expression of PPARγ, NLRP3, cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-1 (caspase-1), gasdermin D (GSDMD) and GSDMD-N terminal (GSDMD-N) in the cerebral cortex was detected with Western blot. Using the quantitative real-time fluorescence-PCR, the mRNA expression of PPARγ, NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD of the cerebral cortex was detected. The contents of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in the cerebral cortex of rats were determined by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were increased (P<0.01), pyroptosis was severe, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were elevated (P<0.01); and the protein expression of GSDMD-N and contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were increased (P<0.01) in the model group. When compared with the model group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were decreased (P<0.01), pyroptosis was alleviated, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ were increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01), the protein expression of GSDMD-N was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were lower (P<0.01) in the EA group and the agonist group; while, in the EA + inhibitor group, the protein expression of PPARγ was increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), the mRNA expression of caspase-1 was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were lower (P<0.01). When compared with the EA + inhibitor group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), pyroptosis was alleviated, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ were increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01), the protein expression of GSDMD-N was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were declined (P<0.01) in the EA group. Compared with the agonist group, in the EA group, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the mRNA expression of PPARγ was decreased (P<0.01) and the protein expression of GSDMD-N was elevated (P<0.05); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were higher (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Tongdu Tiaoshen EA pretreatment can attenuate the neurological impairment in the rats with CIRI, and the underlying mechanism is related to the up-regulation of PPARγ inducing the inhibition of NLRP3 in the cerebral cortex of rats so that pyroptosis is affected.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , PPAR gamma/genetics , Pyroptosis , Interleukin-18 , Electroacupuncture , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Cerebral Cortex , Cerebral Infarction/therapy , Caspases , RNA, Messenger
20.
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 766-770, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the immediate analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with diclofenac sodium on acute gouty arthritis (AGA).@*METHODS@#A total of 90 patients with AGA were randomly divided into a low-dose medication (LM) group (30 cases, 1 case was eliminated, 1 case dropped off), a conventional medication (CM) group (30 cases, 1 case dropped off) and a combination of acupuncture and medication (AM) group (30 cases ). The LM group was given oral administration of 50 mg diclofenac sodium sustained-release capsule; the CM group was given oral administration of 100 mg diclofenac sodium sustained-release capsule; on the basis of the treatment of LM group, the AM group was treated with electroacupuncture at ashi points, Dadu (SP 2), Taichong (LR 3), Taibai (SP 3), Neiting (ST 44), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Zusanli (ST 36) and Yinlingquan (SP 9) on the affected side, and Taichong (LR 3) and Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6) and Yinlingquan (SP 9) were connected to electroacupuncture respectively, continuous wave, 2 Hz in frequency. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of pain before treatment and after 10 min, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h of treatment completion, joint tenderness and swelling scores before treatment and after 10 min and 6 h of treatment completion were compared, and the rate of diclofenac sodium addition within 24 h after treatment completion was recorded among the three groups.@*RESULTS@#After 10 min of treatment completion, the scores of VAS, joint tenderness and joint swelling in the AM group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the VAS score in the AM group was lower than that in the other two groups (P<0.05). After 2, 4 and 6 h of treatment completion, the VAS scores of the three groups were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the scores in the AM group were lower than those in the LM group (P<0.05). After 6 h of treatment completion, the joint tenderness scores of the three groups and the joint swelling scores of the AM group and the CM group were lower than those before treatment (P<0.05), and the joint tenderness and swelling scores of the AM group were lower than those of the LM group (P<0.05). The rate of diclofenac sodium addition was 3.3 % (1/30) and 3.4 % (1/29) in the AM group and the CM group, respectively, which were lower than 17.9% (5/28) in the LM group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture combined with diclofenac sodium have a good immediate analgesic effect in the treatment of AGA, and have the advantages of small dosage of analgesic drugs and less adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diclofenac , Electroacupuncture , Arthritis, Gouty/drug therapy , Delayed-Action Preparations , Acupuncture Therapy , Arthralgia
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