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1.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(2): eabc281, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, CONASS, SES-SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1398019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DC), heart failure (HF), and worsening left atrial function (LAF). Patients with DC and FMR may present left atrial dysfunction resulting from both ventricular dysfunction and valve disease, but it is unknown whether the presence of valve disease will lead to greater LAF impairment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between LAF parameters and FMR degree in patients with DC. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study included 214 patients with DC, 46 without FMR (control group) and 168 with mild, moderate or severe FMR. An LAF analysis was performed by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and atrial volumetric variation. RESULTS: LAF analyzed by STE by means of reservoir strain, conduit strain and active contraction strain was reduced in the sample, with values of 14.3%, 8.49% and 5.92%, respectively. FMR degree was significantly associated with reservoir strain (0.27 ± 0.16 versus 0.15 ± 0.09; p < 0.001) and contraction strain (19.2 ± 7.3 versus 11.2 ± 2.7; p < 0.001). FMR was also associated with a reduced LAF assessed by volumetric analysis: total atrial emptying fraction of 0.51 ± 0.13 versus 0.34 ± 0.11 and active atrial emptying fraction of 0 .27 ± 0.16 versus 0.15 ± 0.09 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a population with DC, FMR was associated with reduced LAF assessed by STE and atrial volume variation.


FUNDAMENTO: A insuficiência mitral funcional (IMF) está associada à miocardiopatia dilatada (MD), à insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e à piora da função atrial esquerda (FAE). A FAE pode decair tanto pela disfunção ventricular quanto pela valvopatia, mas não se sabe se esta leva a um prejuízo maior da FAE. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a relação entre a piora de parâmetros de FAE com o grau de IMF, em pacientes com MD. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo observacional transversal, que incluiu 214 pacientes com MD, sendo 46 sem IMF (controle) e 168 com IMF discreta, moderada ou grave. A análise da FAE foi realizada por ecocardiografia por speckle tracking (STE) e por variação volumétrica atrial. RESULTADOS: A FAE, analisada por STE­ por meio do strain de reservatório, conduto e contração ativa ­ encontrou-se reduzida na amostra, com valores respectivos de 14,3%, 8,49% e 5,92%. O grau de IMF associou-se significativamente com os valores do strain de reservatório (0,27±0,16 versus 0,15±0,09; p <0,001. CONCLUSÃO: Em uma população com MD, a presença de IMF associa-se à redução da FAE de reservatório e de contração, avaliada por STE e pela variação volumétrica atrial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/complications , Atrial Function, Left/physiology , Mitral Valve Insufficiency/physiopathology , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Ventricular Dysfunction/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Valve Disease/complications , Heart Failure/physiopathology
2.
In. Soeiro, Alexandre de Matos; Leal, Tatiana de Carvalho Andreucci Torres; Accorsi, Tarso Augusto Duenhas; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Oliveira Junior, Múcio Tavares de; Caramelli, Bruno; Kalil Filho, Roberto. Manual da residência em cardiologia / Manual residence in cardiology. Santana de Parnaíba, Manole, 2 ed; 2022. p.342-347, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352400
3.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 35(3): eabc287, 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1411754

ABSTRACT

Descreve-se o caso de um homem de 19 anos assintomático com fibroma de ventrículo esquerdo em acompanhamento por 15 anos, sem tratamento.(AU)


Here we describe a case of a 19-year-old asymptomatic man with a left ventricular fibroma on follow-up for 15 years with no treatment required.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Fibroma/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/complications , Heart Ventricles/abnormalities , Myocardium/pathology , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac
4.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 34(3)2021. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292264

ABSTRACT

A cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito é uma desordem hereditária caracterizada pela substituição fibrogordurosa do músculo cardíaco. O manejo clínico busca reduzir os riscos de morte súbita e melhorar a qualidade de vida, aliviando os sintomas arrítmicos e de insuficiência cardíaca. O ecocardiograma é o exame inicial para a investigação da cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito, podendo apresentar dilatação das câmaras direitas e disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito. Este relato chama atenção por envolver o diagnóstico de cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito em paciente atleta. Mulher, 47 anos, maratonista, sem história familiar de morte súbita cardíaca, deu entrada na emergência com palpitação associada à pré-síncope. O eletrocardiograma da admissão mostrava taquicardia ventricular. O ecocardiograma revelou aumento de câmaras cardíacas direitas e disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito. O cateterismo cardíaco não evidenciou doença coronária obstrutiva. A paciente foi orientada acerca da necessidade de suspensão de atividades físicas, porém, 3 meses depois, foi readmitida com instabilidade hemodinâmica por nova taquicardia ventricular, tendo sido cardiovertida. Realizou ressonância cardíaca, que evidenciou áreas de discinesia e formação de microaneurismas em ventrículo direito. Foi diagnosticada com cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito, tendo sido com cardioversor desfibrilador implantável, amiodarona e betabloqueador. A diferenciação entre a cardiomiopatia arritmogênica do ventrículo direito e o coração do atleta representa um desafio, devido à sobreposição de alterações estruturais que coexistem nessas entidades, daí a importância da análise integrada de fatores clínicos, eletrocardiográficos e morfofuncionais.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Tachycardia, Ventricular/diagnosis , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/genetics , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/mortality , Heart Failure , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Electric Countershock/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Heart Transplantation/methods , Defibrillators, Implantable , Catheter Ablation/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Amiodarone/administration & dosage , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254158

ABSTRACT

Mulher de 18 anos com histórico de síncope, angina e palpitações há um ano. Uma indicação crucial era artéria coronária direita dilatada na ecocardiografia transtorácica. Os achados da tomografia computadorizada resultaram no diagnóstico da origem anômala da artéria coronariana esquerda proveniente da síndrome da artéria pulmonar.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Pulmonary Artery/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/surgery , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Bland White Garland Syndrome/pathology , Bland White Garland Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , X-Rays , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Creatine Kinase/blood , Electrocardiography , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods
6.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 38(1): 20-28, abr. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003634

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Previamente se desarrolló una nueva metodología de ayuda diagnóstica para los registros Holter fundamentada en los sistemas dinámicos y la teoría de probabilidad, a partir de la información registrada en 21 horas. Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad diagnóstica de esta metodología durante 19 horas, comparándola con los resultados convencionales del Holter y con los resultados del método matemático aplicado en 21 horas. Materiales y Métodos: fueron evaluados 80 casos de pacientes mayores a 20 años, 10 con registro Holter normal y 70 diagnosticados de forma convencional con diferentes patologías cardíacas. Se establecieron los rangos para las frecuencias cardíacas y de número de latidos por hora en 21 y 19 horas; luego, se calculó la probabilidad de ocurrencia de estos, lo que permitió diferenciar estados de normalidad y enfermedad aguda a partir de tres parámetros. Se comparó el diagnóstico físico-matemático con el diagnóstico convencional, tomado como Gold Standard. Resultados: De los casos normales, dos presentaron probabilidad menor o igual a 0,217 y ocho probabilidades mayores o igual a 0,304; ningún caso de enfermedad aguda presentó valores con probabilidad menor o igual a 0,217, mientras que todos presentaron valores mayores o iguales a 0,304, tanto para los registros Holter evaluados en 21 como en 19 horas. Conclusiones: Se confirmó la utilidad clínica de la metodología ante una reducción del tiempo de evaluación a 19 horas, obteniendo diagnósticos objetivos con base en la auto-organización matemática del fenómeno.


Abstract Background: a new method to help evaluate 21-hour holter recordings based on dynamic systems and the theory of probability was previously developed Aim: to evaluate the diagnostic value of this methodology in the analysis of 19 hr compared to conventional holter analysis over a 21-hr recording. Methods: the holter recordings of 80 subjects aged over 20 years old were analyzed. Ten subjects had a normal holter and 70 conventionally diagnosed as abnormal. Ranges for heart rate and number of beats in 21 or 19 hours were determined. The probability of their occurrence was calculated using 3 parameters. The mathematically derived diagnosis was compared to the clinical diagnosis, considered a gold standard. Results: Among normal cases the calculated probability was ≤ 0.217 in 2 cases and ≥0.304 in 8. No case with acute disease presented probability values ≤0.217; all had probability values ≥0.304, both in 21 and 19 hour recordings. Conclusion: the mathematical methodology described was clinically useful allowing a reduction in recording time from 21 to 19 hr. Clinical diagnosis may be inferred from the mathematical organization of a holter recording.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Time Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Probability , Heart Rate/physiology
7.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(6): 667-671, nov.- dez. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-980025

ABSTRACT

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a classic form of chronic myocardial disease with a broad phenotypical spectrum. We report an atypical case of a patient with biventricular arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy. Although the current diagnosis criteria are the most widely accepted ones, they focus solely on the right ventricular phenotype. The use of late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance in this patient was essential for the diagnosis and assessment of the left ventricular involvement extent. This tool allows a broader use of current diagnosis criteria for this disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia , Cardiomyopathies , Phenotype , Stroke Volume , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Electrocardiography/methods , Heart Ventricles
8.
ABC., imagem cardiovasc ; 31(4)Out.- Dez. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-963978
10.
RELAMPA, Rev. Lat.-Am. Marcapasso Arritm ; 31(3)jul.-set. 2018. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-967786

ABSTRACT

Relato de caso de um paciente de 78 anos de idade, portador de marcapasso dupla-câmara há mais de 10 anos por doença do nó sinusal, bloqueio atrioventricular de primeiro grau e bloqueio de ramo direito, que se apresentou com taquicardia de QRS largo incessante e alternância de morfologia do QRS entre deflagração e inibição do canal ventricular


We describe the case of a 78-year-old patient who received a dual-chamber pacemaker implant ten years ago due to sick sinus syndrome, first degree heart block and right bundle branch block and now presents with an incessant wide QRS tachycardia with alternating morphology between deflagration and inhibition of the pacemaker's ventricular channel


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Tachycardia, Paroxysmal/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Paroxysmal/therapy , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Diagnosis, Differential , Pacemaker, Artificial , Bundle-Branch Block , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrophysiology/methods , Atrioventricular Block , Heart Atria , Heart Ventricles , Amiodarone/therapeutic use
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(2): f:173-l:189, mar.-abr. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-882961

ABSTRACT

A cardiomiopatia crônica da doença de Chagas (CCDC) é resultante de miocardite fibrosante focal de baixa intensidade, mas incessante, causada pela infecção persistente do T cruzi, associada à inflamação mediada por mecanismos imunes adversos. Cerca de 30% dos infectados desenvolvem, ao longo da vida, a forma crônica cardíaca da doença de Chagas com manifestação clínica proteiforme, que pode incluir morte súbita, sintomas e sinais de insuficiência cardíaca, eventos cardioembólicos, arritmia e sintomas anginoides. A morte súbita e a progressão da insuficiência cardíaca (IC) são os mecanismos mais comuns de óbito nesta condição. Os aspectos prognósticos mais relevantes são sintomas de IC avançada (CF III/IV da NYHA), cardiomegalia, disfunção sistólica do VE e taquicardia ventricular não sustentada. A prevenção dos eventos cardioembólicos é aspecto importante no manejo dos pacientes com CCDC. Agentes anticoagulantes orais devem ser indicados para pacientes com risco elevado, conforme a presença de um conjunto de fatores de risco: disfunção sistólica do VE, aneurisma apical, alteração da repolarização ventricular ao ECG e idade avançada. O tratamento da IC na CCDC segue os mesmos princípios aplicados à IC secundária à cardiomiopatia dilatada de outras etiologias


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cardiomyopathies/mortality , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/mortality , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/mortality , Death, Sudden , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Mitral Valve , Tricuspid Valve , Trypanosoma cruzi/parasitology
13.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-906785

ABSTRACT

A miocardiopatia não compactada (MNC) é uma cardiopatia rara e congênita. Sua origem, possivelmente, ocorre durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, devido às alterações genéticas, cursando com insuficiência cardíaca, arritmia, precordialgia e tromboembolismo venoso. Nesse estudo, descreve-se o caso de uma mulher de 34 anos de idade, diagnosticada com MNC e em acompanhamento em hospital terciário, no oeste do interior paulista, junto ao departamento de Cardiologia. Inicialmente, a paciente apresentou sintomas arrítmicos associados à precordialgia, refratários ao tratamento antiarrítmico. O quadro progrediu, havendo dispneia e sudorese. Diante disso, iniciou-se investigação aprofundada, cogitando-se MNC. Objetivou-se demonstrar o quadro clínico inicial, a progressão da sintomatologia e a eficácia do seguimento realizado pelos profissionais que a assistem


Noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCC) is a rare congenital heart disease possibly originating during embryonic development due to genetic changes, and resulting in heart failure, arrhythmia, precordialgia and venous thromboembolism. This study describes the case of a 34-year-old woman, diagnosed with NCC in follow-up with the Cardiology Department at a tertiary hospital in the west of the state of São Paulo. Initially, the patient presented arrhythmic symptoms associated with precordialgia, refractory to antiarrhythmic treatment; the symptoms progressed, with dyspnea and excessive sweating. Therefore, an in-depth investigation was initiated, considering NCC. The objective was to demonstrate the initial clinical symptoms, progression of the symptomatology, and the effectiveness of the follow-up performed by the attending professionals


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Tertiary Healthcare , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Prognosis , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Amiodarone/administration & dosage
14.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 468-473, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142158

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: El consumo de yerba mate (YM) (Ilex paraguariensis) es común en Sudamérica y se extiende a todo el mundo. Contiene muchas sustancias bioactivas que pueden ser beneficiosas. También existe la opinión de que puede tener efectos nocivos sobre el ritmo cardíaco, pero no encontramos investigaciones al respecto. Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto agudo de YM sobre el ritmo, en pacientes enviados para realizar un Holter. Método: Realizamos un estudio clínico seudoexperimental, de tipo antes y después. Tomamos 50 pacientes consumidores habituales de YM y se les realizó un Holter tomando YM y otro luego de 24 sin consumir. También se controló el uso de otros productos que pudieran interferir. Resultados: El 52% fueron mujeres y la edad, de 55 ± 15 años. El 78% tenía al menos un factor de riesgo vascular, el 44% cardiopatía estructural y el 90% tomaba medicación cardiovascular. La frecuencia cardíaca (FC) con y sin YM fue similar. Solo la FC mínima horaria fue menor tomando YM (61 ± 10 vs. 63 ± 9, p = 0.021). No hubo diferencia significativa en la incidencia de arritmias sostenidas, no sostenidas ni en la extrasistolia ventricular. El total de extrasístoles supraventriculares fue mayor sin YM (952 ± 3,538 vs. 1,294 ± 5,201, p = 0.014) y la cantidad máxima horaria también (86 ± 302 vs. 107 ± 360, p = 0.032). No hubo diferencia en la variabilidad de la FC. Conclusiones: En pacientes cardiológicos tomadores de YM, su consumo de la forma habitual no se asoció con cambios importantes de la FC ni con un aumento en la incidencia de arritmias. Hubo menos actividad ectópica supraventricular.


Abstract Introduction: The consumption of yerba mate (YM) (Ilex paraguariensis) is common in South America and is now used all over the world. It contains many bioactive substances that can be beneficial. There is also the opinion that it may have harmful effects on heart rhythm, but no studies have been found on this. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of YM on heart rhythm in patients referred for a Holter study. Method: A before and after pseudo-experimental clinical study was conducted by performing a Holter on 50 habitual users of YM, and another one after 24 without YM consumption. The use of other products that could interfere was also controlled. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 55 ± 15 years, and 52% were women. At least one vascular risk factor was found in 78%, with 44% structural heart disease, and 90% taking cardio- vascular medication. The heart rate (HR) with and without YM was similar. Only the minimum hourly HR was lower when taking YM (61 ± 10 vs. 63 ± 9, P = .021). There was no significant diffe- rence in the incidence of sustained or non-sustained arrhythmias, or in ventricular extrasystoles. The total number of supra-ventricular premature beats was higher without YM (952 ± 3,538 vs. 1,294 ± 5,201, P = .014) and also the maximum hourly (86 ± 302 vs. 107 ± 360, P = .032). There was no difference in HR variability. Conclusions: In cardiology patients, usual users of YM, habitual consumption was not associated with significant changes in HR or an increase in the incidence of arrhythmias. There was less ectopic supraventricular activity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Ilex paraguariensis/chemistry , Heart Rate/drug effects , Plant Extracts/adverse effects , Incidence , Risk Factors , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Atrial Premature Complexes/epidemiology
15.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 88(5): 376-380, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142145

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La prolongación del intervalo QT se asocia con arritmias ventriculares y muerte súbita. Objetivo: Determinar el valor del intervalo QTc en recién nacidos sanos y evaluar su comportamiento durante los primeros meses de vida. Métodos: Recién nacidos sanos a término de marzo-noviembre 2016 en el Hospital General de Occidente del Estado de Jalisco, México. Se les practicó un electrocardiograma de 12 derivaciones a una velocidad de 25 mm/s durante las primeras 48 h. Se midió el intervalo QT en DII y se calculó el QTc mediante la fórmula de Bazett. Los pacientes a los que se detectó prolongación del QTc en sus primeras 48 h se valoraron al mes con ECG y ecocardiograma. Si persistieron con QTc alargado se revaloraron a los 6 meses con ECG, Holter de 24 h y estudio electrocardiográfico a padres y hermanos. Los que persistieron con QTc alargado se revaloraron a los 9 meses con ECG. Resultados: Se incluyeron 548 pacientes. La media del intervalo QTc al nacimiento fue de 459 ms; durante este período 33 pacientes presentaron un QTc mayor de 470 ms, los cuales fueron evaluados al mes mediante un nuevo estudio electrocardiográfico, obteniendo una media del intervalo QTc de 446 ms. A los 6 meses se evaluaron 16 pacientes, con una media del intervalo QTc de 434 ms. A los 9 meses se evaluaron 6 pacientes, con una media del intervalo QTc de 438 ms, y solo 4 pacientes persistieron con QTc prolongado. Conclusiones: El intervalo QTc en nuestros pacientes es más prolongado en comparación con otras poblaciones y muestra una normalización paulatina.


Abstract Introduction: QT interval prolongation is associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death syndrome. Objective: To determine the value of QTc interval in healthy newborns in a general hospital in Jalisco, Mexico, and their outcome during their first months of life. Methods: The study included healthy newborns from March to November 2016, in the Hospital General of Occidente in Jalisco, Mexico. A 12-lead electrocardiogram was performed at a speed of 25 mm/s during the first 48 h of life. The QT interval was measured in lead DII, and the QTc interval was calculated using the Bazett formula. Patients detected with QTc prolongation were assessed monthly with an ECG and echocardiogram. If they persisted with prolonged QTc interval, they were re-evaluated at 6 months with an ECG, 24 h Holter, and electrocardiography study on parents and siblings. Those who persisted with prolonged QTc interval were evaluated with an ECG at 9 months. Results: The study included 548 patients. The mean QTc interval at birth was 459 ms; during this period 33 patients has a QTc greated that 470 ms; which were evaluated monthly with a new electrocardiographic study, obtaining a mean QTc interal of 446 ms. At 6 months 16 patients were evaluated, with a mean QTc interval of 434 ms. At 9 months, 6 patients were found to have a mean QTc interval of 438 ms, and only 4 patients persisted with a prolonged QTc interval. Conclusions: The QTc interval in our population is prolonged compared to other populations and with a gradual return to normal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Death, Sudden/epidemiology , Electrocardiography/methods , Time Factors , Long QT Syndrome/complications , Echocardiography , Pilot Projects , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Hospitals, General/methods , Mexico/epidemiology
16.
Rev. méd. Hosp. José Carrasco Arteaga ; 9(3): 270-274, Nov. 2017. Tablas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1006715

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Las enfermedades cardiovasculares constituyen el 31 % de mortalidad en todo el mundo con relación a las diferentes causas de mortalidad. Estudios realizados señalan que una de las causas más frecuente de ingreso hospitalario por enfermedad cardiovascular son las arritmias. Sea utilizado para su diagnóstico la monitorización ambulatoria dinámica o Electrocardiográfica de Holter. Debida a la alta incidencia de arritmias en pacientes con corazón estructuralmente sano, es importante asociar la clínica con el tipo de arritmia más frecuente en los diversos grupos etarios y así poder intervenir de manera oportuna ante esta patología. El objetivo fue determinar la frecuencia, tipo de arritmias y su asociación clínica en pacientes con corazón estructuralmente sano a través del HOLTER electrocardiográfico. MÉTODO: Es un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, en 67 pacientes que acudieron ambulatoriamente a monitorización Holter electrocardiográfica en el período noviembre 2011 a 2012 en el Hospital de Especialidades José Carrasco Arteaga, Cuenca - Ecuador. RESULTADOS: En relación a la caracterización sociodemográfica, la edad media de los pacientes fue de 43 años, (sexo femenino 64.17 %, sexo masculino 35.83 %), con mayor número de casos en el grupo etario de 18 a 64 años, la ocupación más frecuente fue de empleado privado 35.82 %, seguido de estudiantes 22.39 % y empleado público 20.89 %. Las arritmias más frecuentes fueron las extrasístoles ventriculares y supraventriculares con un 70.15 %, seguidas de las taquiarritmias (paroxismos de taquicardia supraventriculares) con 8.95 % y los trastornos de la conducción (BAV de I grado) con 7.46 %. El motivo de consulta más común fueron las palpitaciones en el 74.42 %, de los cuales el 60.47 % presentaron extrasístoles ventriculares y supraventriculares. Los que acudieron por precordialgia (4.65 %) se encontró que el 100 % presentaron taquiarritmias (paroxismos de taquicardia supraventricular). CONCLUSIONES: Se concluyó que la arritmia más frecuente registrada en pacientes con corazón estructuralmente sano son las extrasístoles ventriculares y supraventriculares, las cuales se asociaron con palpitaciones como síntoma principal. No se encontró un tipo específico de arritmia para cada grupo etario, pero coincidieron en mayor frecuencia con la presencia de extrasístole ventricular y extrasístole supraventricular. En mayor porcentaje los pacientes fueron de sexo femenino, adultos y con ocupación de empleado privado. (AU)


BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases represent the 31 % of worldwide mortality if compared to other diseases. Studies indicate thatthemostfrequent cause of hospital admission for cardiovascular diseasewas arrhythmia,whichwas diagnosed by dynamic ambulatorymonitoring or ECGHolter monitor. Due to the high incidence of arrhythmia in patients with structurally normal hearts, it is importanttoassociate the clinicwith themostfrequenttype ofarrhythmiain the variousage groups so as to be able to act on time when dealing with this pathology. The aim was to determine the frequency, type of arrhythmia and it was clinical association in adults with structurally normal hearts through the ECGHolter. METHODS: It was a retrospective descriptive study carried out in outpatients who underwent ECG Holter monitoring during November 2011 to 2012 at Jose Carrasco Arteaga Specialties Hospital, Cuenca ­ Ecuador. RESULTS: In regard to the socio demographic information,theaverageage of patientswas 43 years (64.17 % female, 35.83 % male), with the highest number of cases in the 18-64 age group. The most frequent occupation was private employment (35.82 %) followed by 22.39 % students and 20.89 % public employees. The most common arrhythmias were ventricular and supraventricular extra systoles with 70.15 %, followed by tachyarrhythmia (paroxysms of supraventricular tachycardia) with 8.95 % and conduction disorders (BAV grade I) with 7.46 %. The most common reason for consultationwas palpitations (74.42%) ofwhich 60.47%had ventricular and supraventricular extra systoles. In those who were attended for chest pain (4.65 %) it was found that 100 % had tachyarrhythmia (paroxysmal supraventriculartachycardia). Conclusions : It was concluded that the most common arrhythmia registered in patients with structurally normal hearts was ventricular and supraventricular extrasystoles, which were associated with palpitations as the main symptom. No specific type of arrhythmia for each age group was found, butthey frequently coincide with the presence of premature ventricular and supraventricular extrasystoles. The highest percentage of patients was female adults who were private employees as theirlabor occupatio (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Ventricular Premature Complexes , Heart
18.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 27(3): 238-242, jul.-set. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-875568

ABSTRACT

Os pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC) têm tendências hemorrágicas e trombóticas e, por isso, a indicação de anticoagulantes é complexa nos indivíduos com fibrilação atrial (FA). A FA é a arritmia mais frequente na DRC, sendo o tromboembolismo e o ictus suas principais complicações. A introdução de novos anticoagulantes orais diretos (DOACs) tem se mostrado superior aos antagonistas da vitamina K, tanto na prevenção de tromboembolismos sistêmicos como no risco de sangramento. Contudo, devem ser prescritos com cautela nesse grupo de pacientes. Para os indivíduos com DRC e clearance renal entre 30 e 50 ml/min, as doses da dabigatrana e da rivaroxabana devem ser reduzidas, no caso de pacientes com elevado risco de sangramento, não havendo necessidade de reduzir as doses de apixabana e edoxabana. Em pacientes com clearance renal entre 15 e 29 ml/min o uso da dabigatrana é contraindicado, a rivaroxabana e a edoxabana não exigem ajuste terapêutico e a dose de apixabana deve ser ajustada. Nenhum dos DOACs é indicado em pacientes com clearance renal < 15 mg/min. Outro problema da terapêutica com os DOACs é o custo do medicamento, muito superior aos dos antagonistas da vitamina K, trazendo algumas implicações clínicas relevantes: suspensão terapêutica por restrições econômicas, que mesmo quando transitória, coloca o paciente em risco de eventos tromboembólicos devido à perda rápida de seus efeitos anticoagulantes e pela possibilidade de hipercoagulabilidade paradoxal. A maior parte da população é tratada em hospitais públicos e recebe os antagonistas de vitamina K. Por isso, enquanto a relação custo-efetividade dos DOACs não for esclarecida, a prevenção e o tratamento de pacientes com DRC e FA com os antagonistas de vitamina K estão consagrados e podem trazer benefícios para esse grupo de pacientes


Patients with chronic renal disease (CRD) have hemorrhagic and thrombotic tendencies, therefore the indication of anticoagulants is complex in individuals with atrial fibrillation (AF). AF is the most frequent arrhythmia in CRD, and thromboembolism and cerebral stroke are its main complications. The introduction of new oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has proven to be superior to vitamin K antagonists in preventing systemic thromboembolisms and bleeding risk. However, they should be prescribed with caution in this group of patients. For individuals with CRD and renal clearance between 30 and 50 ml/min, the doses of dabigatran and rivaroxaban should be reduced, in the case of patients with high risk of bleeding, and it is not necessary to reduce the doses of apixaban and edoxaban. In patients with renal clearance between 15 and 29 ml/min, the use of dabigatran is contraindicated, rivaroxaban and edoxaban do not require therapeutic adjustment, and the dose of apixaban should be adjusted. No DOACs is indicated in patients with renal clearance < 15 mg/min. Another problem with DOACs therapy is the cost of the medication, which is much higher than that of vitamin K antagonists, with some important clinical implications: therapeutic suspension due to economic restrictions, even if temporary, place the patient at risk of thromboembolic events due to the rapid loss of anticoagulant effects and the possibility of paradoxical hypercoagulability. Most of the population is treated in public hospitals, and receives vitamin K antagonists. Therefore, while the cost-effectiveness ratio of DOACs has not been clarified, prevention and treatment of patients with CRD and AF with vitamin K antagonists is consecrated, and can bring benefits for this group of patients


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Risk Factors , Stroke/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Thromboembolism/therapy , Warfarin/adverse effects , Factor X , Prevalence , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Rivaroxaban/therapeutic use , Dabigatran/adverse effects , Dabigatran/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/therapy
19.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 26(4): 253-260, out.-dez.2016.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831560

ABSTRACT

As arritmias na cardiopatia chagásica (CCH) são responsáveis por incapacitação física e morte em indivíduos adultos em faixa etária precoce e produtiva, decorrendo daí a necessidade de sua abordagem criteriosa e, às vezes, mais agressiva para se obter controle completo. As arritmias cardíacas mais encontradas na CCH são as bradiarritmias e as taquicardias. Entre as bradicardias estão as alterações sinoatriais e os bloqueios atrioventriculares, cujo tratamento padrão é o emprego de implante de marcapasso definitivo. Entre as taquiarritmias, encontram-se as supraventriculares ­ extrassístoles atriais, taquicardia atrial ectópica, "flutter" atrial e fibrilação atrial ­ que provocam morbidades como progressão para disfunção ventricular esquerda e fenômenos tromboembólicos, e as ventriculares, cujo desfecho pode ser a morte súbita instantânea. A abordagem deve ser, inicialmente, por meio de eletrocardiograma de 12 derivações, pela gravação ambulatorial (Holter), ecocardiograma, teste ergométrico, e por fim, o estudo eletrofisiológico e a ressonância nuclear magnética. O tratamento farmacológico pode ser conduzido com o uso dos fármacos existentes em nosso mercado, como amiodarona, propafenona e sotalol. O tratamento invasivo, pode consistir em ablação por cateter, embora com resultados ainda abaixo de índices confortadores, devido à possibilidade de recidivas. O uso de cardiodesfibrilador implantável é a última alternativa, que também tem suas limitações


Arrhythmias in Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCM) are responsible for physical disability and death in adults in early and productive age group, from which arises the need for a judicious and sometimes more aggressive approach to achieve the complete control. The arrhythmias most common in CCM are bradyarrhythmias and tachycardias. Among the bradycardias are the sinoatrial changes and atrioventricular blocks, whose standard treatment is the use of permanent pacemaker implantation. Among tachyarrhythmias are the supraventricular ones - atrial extrasystoles, ectopic atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation - causing morbidity and progression of left ventricular dysfunction and thromboembolic events, and the ventricular ones, whose outcome can be the instantaneous sudden death. The approach should be initially through 12-lead electrocardiogram, by ambulatory ECG recording (Holter), echocardiogram, stress testing, and finally the electrophysiological study and magnetic resonance imaging. Pharmacological treatment can be conducted with the use of marketed drugs such as amiodarone, propafenone and sotalol. The invasive treatment may consist of catheter ablation, although the results are still below comforting rates due to the possibility of recurrence. The use of implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the last alternative, which also has its limitations


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Chagas Cardiomyopathy/rehabilitation , Ventricular Dysfunction/therapy , Sotalol/pharmacology , Propafenone/pharmacology , Echocardiography , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Exercise Test , Amiodarone/pharmacology
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