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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the clinical efficacy, advantages, and disadvantages of adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder in the treatment of children with outlet obstruction constipation (OOC).@*METHODS@#A total of 168 children with OOC were enrolled in this prospective study. All the subjects were randomly divided into a test group and a control group based on the order of visiting time, 84 in each group. The test group was treated with adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder, and the control group was treated with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder alone. Eleven children in the test group and two children in the control group withdrew from the study since they could not finish the whole treatment course. Finally, 73 children in the test group and 82 children in the control group were included in this analysis. As clinical outcomes, the total score of clinical symptoms and overall response rate were compared between the two groups at weeks 4 and 8 of treatment.@*RESULTS@#There was no significant difference in the total score of clinical symptoms between the two groups at beginning of treatment and at week 4 (P>0.05), while the test group had a significantly lower total score of clinical symptoms than the control group at week 8 (P<0.05). At week 4, there was no significant difference in overall response rate between the two groups (P>0.05), while the test group had a significantly higher overall response rate than the control group at week 8 (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Adaptive biofeedback training combined with oral administration of compound polyethylene glycol 4000-electrolyte powder is significantly associated with improvement of clinical outcomes in the treatment of children with OOC.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Biofeedback, Psychology , Child , Constipation/drug therapy , Electrolytes/therapeutic use , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Powders/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928615

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the influencing factors for the quality of bowel preparation before colonoscopy in children and the association of the interval from the last administration of laxative to the start of colonoscopy (shortly referred to as waiting time) with the quality of bowel preparation.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the children who were admitted to the Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, from January to November 2020, and received bowel preparation with polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder combined with diet control before colonoscopy. According to the score of Boston bowel preparation scale, they were divided into two groups: adequate bowel preparation group (n=337) and inadequate bowel preparation group (n=30). Related data were collected from the children in both groups, including general information, possible influencing factors for the quality of bowel preparation, adverse reactions associated with bowel preparation, duration of colonoscopy, and postoperative diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore the influencing factors for the quality of bowel preparation.@*RESULTS@#The univariate analysis showed that age, body weight, and waiting time were associated with inadequate bowel preparation (P<0.05). The multivariate analysis showed that older age (OR=2.155, 95%CI: 1.087-4.273, P=0.028) and longer waiting time (OR=1.559, 95% CI: 1.191-2.041, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for inadequate bowel preparation. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the cut-off value of waiting time was 5.5 hours in determining whether bowel preparation was adequate or not, with a sensitivity of 90.0%, a specificity of 50.7%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.708. After grouping based on waiting time, it was found that the incidence rate of inadequate bowel preparation in the ≥5.5 hours group was significantly higher than that in the <5.5 hours group [14.0% (27/193) vs 1.7% (3/174), P<0.001].@*CONCLUSIONS@#For children who use polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder combined with diet control for bowel preparation, older age is an independent risk factor for inadequate bowel preparation before colonoscopy, which may be associated with an insufficient dose of polyethylene glycol in older children. Longer waiting time is also an independent risk factor for inadequate bowel preparation, and it is recommended that the waiting time should not exceed 5.5 hours.


Subject(s)
Cathartics , Child , Colonoscopy , Diet , Electrolytes , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Powders , Retrospective Studies
3.
J. Hum. Growth Dev. (Impr.) ; 31(1): 152-176, Jan.-Apr. 2021. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1250162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNG: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a hereditary clinical-electrocardiographic arrhythmic entity with low worldwide prevalence. The syndrome is caused by changes in the structure and function of certain cardiac ion channels and reduced expression of Connexin 43 (Cx43) in the Right Ventricle (RV), predominantly in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract (VSVD), causing electromechanical abnormalities. The diagnosis is based on the presence of spontaneous or medicated ST elevation, characterized by boost of the J point and the ST segment ≥2 mm, of superior convexity "hollow type" (subtype 1A) or descending rectilinear model (subtype 1B). BrS is associated with an increased risk of syncope, palpitations, chest pain, convulsions, difficulty in breathing (nocturnal agonal breathing) and/or Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) secondary to PVT/VF, unexplained cardiac arrest or documented PVT/VF or Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) in the absence of apparent macroscopic or structural heart disease, electrolyte disturbance, use of certain medications or coronary heart disease and fever. In less than three decades since the discovery of Brugada syndrome, the concept of Mendelian heredity has come undone. The enormous variants and mutations found mean that we are still far from being able to concretely clarify a genotype-phenotype relationship. There is no doubt that the entity is oligogenetic, associated with environmental factors, and that there are variants of uncertain significance, especially the rare variants of the SCN5A mutation, with European or Japanese ancestors, as well as a spontaneous type 1 or induced pattern, thanks to gnomAD (coalition) researchers who seek to aggregate and harmonize exome and genome sequencing data from a variety of large-scale sequencing projects and make summary data available to the scientific community at large). Thus, we believe that this in-depth analytical study of the countless mutations attributed to BrS may constitute a real cornerstone that will help to better understand this intriguing syndrome.


INTRODUÇÃO: A Síndrome de Brugada (SBr) é uma entidade arrítmica clínico-eletrocardiográfica hereditária com baixa prevalência mundial. A síndrome é causada por alterações na estrutura e função de certos canais iônicos cardíacos e redução da expressão da Connexina 43 (Cx43) no Ventrículo Direito (VD), predominantemente no Trato de Saída do Ventricular Direito (VSVD), causando anormalidades eletromecânicas. O diagnóstico é baseado na presença de supradesnivelamento de ST espontâneo ou medicamentoso caracterizado por supradesnivelamento do ponto J e do segmento ST ≥2 mm, de convexidade superior "tipo covado" (subtipo 1A) ou modelo retilíneo descendente (subtipo 1B). A SBr está associado a um risco aumentado de síncope, palpitações, dor precordial, convulsões, dificuldade em respirar (respiração agonal noturna) e/ou Morte Cardíaca Súbita (MSC) secundária a PVT/VF, parada cardíaca inexplicada ou PVT/VF documentado ou Fibrilação atrial paroxística (FA) na ausência de doença cardíaca macroscópica ou estrutural aparente, distúrbio eletrolítico, uso de certos medicamentos ou coração coronário e febre. Em menos de três décadas desde a descoberta da síndrome de Brugada, o conceito de hereditariedade mendeliana se desfez. As enormes variantes e mutações encontradas significam que ainda estamos longe de sermos capazes de esclarecer concretamente uma relação genótipo-fenótipo. Não há dúvida de que a entidade é oligogenética associada a fatores ambientais, e que há variantes de significado incerto, principalmente as raras variantes da mutação SCN5A, com ancestrais europeus ou japoneses, bem como padrão espontâneo tipo 1 ou induzido, graças ao gnomAD (coalizão de pesquisadores que buscam agregar e harmonizar dados de sequenciamento de exoma e genoma de uma variedade de projetos de sequenciamento em grande escala e disponibilizar dados resumidos para a comunidade científica em geral). As enormes variantes e mutações encontradas significam que ainda estamos longe de sermos capazes de esclarecer concretamente uma relação genótipo-fenótipo. Assim, acreditamos que este estudo analítico em profundidade das inúmeras mutações atribuídas à BrS pode constituir uma verdadeira pedra angular que ajudará a compreender melhor esta síndrome intrigante.


Subject(s)
Phenotype , Atrial Fibrillation , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Coronary Disease , Heredity , Electrolytes , Brugada Syndrome , Exome , Genotype , Heart , Heart Diseases
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921530

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on post-exercise rehydration of healthy young men in different seasons,and to explore the influence of seasonal adaptability on fluid and electrolyte balance.Methods Fifteen healthy men,aged(24.4±0.5)years,completed 2 trails in a random crossover design both in summer and winter.During recovery,they consumed a drink volume equivalent to 100% of their sweat loss with plain boiled water(the water group)or carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage(the beverage group).Recovery was monitored for further 180 minutes by the collection of blood and urine samples.Results The dehydration time in summer was significantly shorter by about 20 minutes than that in winter(


Subject(s)
Adult , Beverages , Cross-Over Studies , Dietary Carbohydrates , Electrolytes , Fluid Therapy , Humans , Male , Seasons
5.
Med. lab ; 25(1): 363-392, 2021. tab, ilus, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292640

ABSTRACT

Las enfermedades pueden generar un desequilibrio de electrolitos como parte de su fisiopatología, al igual que los medicamentos usados crónicamente y algunas sustancias tóxicas disponibles en nuestro medio. A pesar de todos los datos estadísticos existentes, la incidencia global de los trastornos electrolíticos secundarios a fármacos o sustancias tóxicas permanece desconocida, y, posiblemente, subregistrada; por lo tanto, el objetivo de esta revisión es analizar los trastornos electrolíticos que causan algunos medicamentos y sustancias tóxicas, y describir el mecanismo a través del cual se producen las alteraciones, en particular, del sodio, potasio, magnesio, calcio y fósforo, con el fin de alertar a los profesionales de la salud en el momento de enfrentarse a este tipo de condiciones en su práctica clínica. El conocimiento de los efectos adversos relacionados con medicamentos y tóxicos es importante para prevenir, identificar y gestionar de forma eficaz, complicaciones que son potencialmente peligrosas. Esta revisión pretende ser un referente de apoyo para los profesionales de la salud en estas situaciones


Diseases can generate an electrolyte imbalance as part of their pathophysiology, as well as chronic use of some medications, and toxic substances available in our environment. Despite all the separate statistical data, the overall incidence of fluid and electrolyte disorders secondary to drugs or toxic substances remains unknown, and possibly underreported; therefore, the objective of this review is to analyze electrolyte disorders caused by some medications and toxic substances, and describe the mechanism through which changes in sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus occur, in particular, in order to alert health professionals when facing this type of conditions in their clinical practice. Knowledge of drug and toxic-related adverse effects is important to effectively prevent, identify, and manage complications that can be potentially life-threatening. This review intends to be a reference for supporting health professionals in these situations


Subject(s)
Electrolytes , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase , Diuretics , Ethanol , Toxicity
6.
Med. lab ; 25(1): 361-361, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292620

ABSTRACT

Las alteraciones del equilibrio hidroelectrolítico pueden ser primarias o secundarias al proceso mismo de una enfermedad, a la terapia farmacológica, o en algunos casos a la exposición intencional o no a sustancias tóxicas. El diagnóstico de los trastornos electrolíticos se establece por medio del análisis de laboratorio clínico, pero su interpretación debe ser correlacionada con el contexto clínico del paciente. Los medicamentos pueden interferir con la absorción de los electrolitos, alterar las respuestas hormonales que afectan la homeostasis, o bien impactar de forma directa la función del órgano responsable de mantener el balance electrolítico [1-2]. Entender los mecanismos fisiopatológicos de estas potenciales anormalidades, permite al clínico anticipar, vigilar y corregir de forma temprana, evitando alteraciones graves en el paciente


Subject(s)
Humans , Water-Electrolyte Balance , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Toxic Substances , Drug Therapy , Electrolytes
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 387-395, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128267

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar estratégias terapêuticas para o tratamento de infecções broncopulmonares, utilizando a enrofloxacina de ação rápida e sua associação com suporte e fluidoterapia endovenosa ou suporte e solução oral energética e eletrolítica, por meio da mensuração de parâmetros clínicos, hematológicos, bioquímicos e desenvolvimento corporal de neonatos bovinos. Foram utilizadas 35 bezerras da raça Holandesa, monitoradas desde o nascimento até a sexta semana de vida, divididas aleatoriamente nos grupos: grupo CONTROLE; grupo antibiótico; grupo antibiótico + suporte + fluidoterapia endovenosa; grupo antibiótico + suporte + solução oral; e grupo SUPORTE. Os parâmetros zootécnicos foram avaliados do nascimento até a sexta semana de vida, e os parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos foram avaliados zero, 24, 72 e 120 horas após diagnóstico da broncopneumonia. Os animais do grupo antibiótico + suporte + solução oral apresentaram menores níveis de eosinófilos e maiores níveis de neutrófilos segmentados em comparação aos animais dos demais grupos. Não houve diferença nos parâmetros zootécnicos avaliados. Neste estudo, o tratamento com antibiótico e solução oral ofereceu aos animais melhor aporte para combater a broncopneumonia, favorecendo o organismo a desenvolver uma resposta imune efetiva diante da infecção.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate therapeutic strategies for treatment of bronchopulmonary infections using fast-acting enrofloxacin and its association with support and endovenous fluid or support and oral energy and electrolytic solution, by measuring clinical, hematological, biochemical and development parameters of bovine neonates. Thirty-five Holstein calves, monitored from birth to six weeks of age, were randomly divided into five groups: control group; antibiotic group; antibiotic group + support + intravenous fluid therapy; antibiotic group + support + oral solution; and support group. The performance parameters were evaluated from birth to the 6th week of age and hematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated 0, 24, 72 and 120 hours after diagnosis of bronchopneumonia. Calves of the antibiotic group + support + oral solution group presented lower levels of eosinophils and higher levels of segmented neutrophils compared to the other groups. There was no difference in performance parameters evaluated. In this study, the treatment with antibiotic and oral solution offered the animals had a better contribution to treat bronchopneumonia, favoring the organism to develop an effective immune response to that infection.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Cattle , Bronchopneumonia/veterinary , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Enrofloxacin/administration & dosage , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Animals, Newborn
8.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 93-101, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088929

ABSTRACT

Vomiting and diarrhea are two important clinical signs that can cause significant electrolytic and acid-base imbalances. The purposes of this study were to characterize hydric, electrolytic and acid-base disorders presented by puppies with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and to compare the traditional and quantitative approaches to acid-base status interpretation. Sixty-one animals with a history of vomiting and/or diarrhea were used in this study and the following tests were performed: complete blood count, total plasma protein concentration and hemogasometry. Mean, standard deviation and Kappa values were calculated. The imbalances characterized by both approaches were: 42 (69%) animals without imbalance, 17 (28%) with metabolic alkalosis and 2 (3%) with metabolic acidosis by the traditional approach and 17 (28%) dogs without imbalance, 26 (43%) with metabolic alkalosis and 18 (29%) with metabolic acidosis by the quantitative approach. The agreement calculated between two approaches coincide in 28 cases, with a moderate Kappa value equivalent to 0.459. The most found imbalances were metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and mild dehydration. Most of acid-base disturbances were not identified by the traditional approach, whereas by the quantitative approach, they were easily determined. Thus quantitative approach proved to be superior in identification of possible acid-base imbalances.(AU)


Vômito e diarreia são dois sinais clínicos importantes, que podem causar desequilíbrios eletrolíticos e ácido-base importantes. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar os desequilíbrios hídrico, eletrolítico e ácido-base apresentados por filhotes de cães com gastroenterite hemorrágica e comparar as abordagens de interpretação do equilíbrio ácido-base tradicional e quantitativa. Sessenta e um animais com histórico de vômito e/ou diarreia foram utilizados neste estudo, e os seguintes testes foram realizados: hemograma, concentração de proteína total plasmática e hemogasometria. Média, desvio-padrão e valor de Kappa foram calculados. Os desequilíbrios caracterizados pelas duas abordagens foram: 42 (69%) animais sem desequilíbrio, 17 (28%) com alcalose metabólica e dois (3%) com acidose metabólica, pela abordagem tradicional, e 17 (28%) cães sem desequilíbrio, 26 (43%) com alcalose metabólica e 18 (29%) com acidose metabólica, pela abordagem quantitativa. A concordância calculada entre as duas abordagens coincidiu em 28 casos, com um valor de Kappa moderado, equivalente a 0,459. Os desequilíbrios mais encontrados foram alcalose metabólica, hipocalemia e desidratação leve. A maioria dos distúrbios não foram identificados pela abordagem tradicional, enquanto, pela abordagem quantitativa, foram facilmente determinados. Portanto, a abordagem quantitativa provou-se superior na identificação de possíveis desequilíbrios ácido-base.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Acid-Base Imbalance/veterinary , Dehydration/veterinary , Electrolytes/analysis , Gastroenteritis/veterinary
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 18-24, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088909

ABSTRACT

The use of hypotonic electrolytic solutions in enteral fluid therapy is still understudied in calves. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of maintenance enteral electrolytic solutions with different concentrations of sodium acetate and different osmolarities in calves. For this, 18 Holstein calves, six male and 12 female, 20 days old and weighing around 52kg, were used. The animals were randomly divided into three groups and each group received one of the treatments. The three electrolytic solutions contained the same components in different concentrations, resulting in a hyposmotic, an isosmotic and a hyperosmotic solution. Each animal was maintained in enteral fluid therapy for 12 hours with infusion rate of 15mL kg-1 h-1. Abdominal circumference, body weight, feces consistency, glucose and plasma lactate, pH, pCO2, HCO- 3 and BE were measured at the following times: T0h, T6h, T12h and T24h. The hyposmotic solution did not generate the onset of diarrhea, while the isosmotic and the hyperosmotic did. Regardless of the dose used, acetate did not cause metabolic alkalosis in the evaluated animals. The results suggest that the use of hyposmotic solution in diarrheic calves, dehydrated and without metabolic acidosis, may be clinically important.(AU)


O uso de soluções eletrolíticas hipotônicas na hidratação enteral ainda é pouco estudado em bezerros. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de soluções eletrolíticas enterais de manutenção com diferentes concentrações de acetato de sódio e diferentes osmolaridades em bezerros. Para isso, foram utilizados 18 bezerros, seis machos e 12 fêmeas, holandeses, com 20 dias de nascidos e pesando por volta dos 52kg. Os animais foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos e cada grupo recebeu um dos tratamentos. As três soluções eletrolíticas continham os mesmos componentes, mas em diferentes concentrações, resultando em uma solução hiposmótica, uma isosmótica e uma hiperosmótica. Cada animal foi mantido em hidratação enteral durante 12 horas com taxa de infusão de 15mL kg-1h-1. Foram aferidos perímetro abdominal, peso corporal, consistência das fezes, glicose e lactato plasmático, pH, pCO2, HCO- 3 e excesso de base nos seguintes tempos: T0h, T6h, T12h e T24h. A solução hiposmótica não gerou aparecimento de diarreia, enquanto a isosmótica e a hiperosmótica geraram. Independentemente da dose utilizada, o acetato não causou alcalose metabólica nos animais avaliados. Os resultados sugerem que o uso da solução hiposmótica em bezerros diarreicos, desidratados e sem acidose metabólica, pode ser clinicamente importante.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Osmolar Concentration , Sodium Acetate/administration & dosage , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Fluid Therapy/veterinary , Hypotonic Solutions , Animals, Newborn , Diarrhea
10.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 57(1): e159837, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1122150

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this retrospective study were to determine the main acid-base and electrolytes disorders in hospitalized cattle, using both Henderson-Hasselbalch and the physicochemical approach and to compare their diagnostic and therapeutic utility. A total of 31 medical records were reviewed of bovines admitted to the Large Animal Hospital at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, that met the inclusion criteria of the measurement of blood gases, blood electrolytes and plasma protein on admission before providing any treatment. Using the Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, acid base abnormalities were found in 83.3% of the patients, compared to 93.5% using the physicochemical approach. The principal acid-base disorders found were strong ion acidosis (61.29%) and weak acid acidosis (38.7%); strong ion gap (SIG) acidosis was found in 73.68% of cases showing strong ion acidosis. These results highlight the importance of the diagnosis of acid-base disorders in sick cattle for proper recognition of pathophysiological phenomena and its understanding to guide treatment decisions.(AU)


Os objetivos deste estudo retrospectivo foram determinar os principais distúrbios ácido-base e eletrolíticos em bovinos internados, utilizando a abordagem Henderson-Hasselbalch e a abordagem físico-química comparando a utilidade diagnóstica e terapêutica de tais procedimentos. Foram revisados 31 prontuários de bovinos admitidos no Hospital de Animais de Grande Porte da Universidad Nacional de Colombia, que preencheram os critérios de inclusão da medição de gases sanguíneos, eletrólitos sanguíneos e proteínas plasmáticas na admissão antes de fornecer qualquer tratamento. Com o emprego da abordagem de Henderson-Hasselbalch, as anormalidades da base ácida foram encontradas em 83,3% dos pacientes, enquanto com a abordagem físico-química o valor obtido foi de 93,5%. Os principais distúrbios ácido-base encontrados foram forte acidose iônica (61,29%) e acidose ácida fraca (38,7%). A acidose com Ion Gap Forte (SIG) foi encontrada em 73,68% dos casos com forte acidose iônica. Estes resultados destacam a importância do diagnóstico de distúrbios ácido-base em bovinos doentes para o reconhecimento adequado dos fenômenos fisiopatológicos e sua compreensão para orientar as decisões de tratamento.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acidosis/veterinary , Electrolytes/analysis , Chemical Phenomena , Hyponatremia/veterinary , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Animal
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1922-1928, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1055153

ABSTRACT

This study aims at evaluating the effects of electrolytes, glucose and cortisol levels over heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy newborn calves. Seventeen healthy Holstein calves were evaluated during their first month of life, and the plasma concentrations of glucose, cortisol, calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium and potassium were analyzed. HRV indexes were determined in the time and frequency domains through the analysis of neonatal electrocardiogram recordings. In the first day, low blood levels of phosphorus presented a strong correlation with the HR and the increased high-frequency components of HRV. The plasma concentrations of magnesium decreased significantly throughout the 35 days, revealing a positive association with a decreasing low-frequency components of HRV at day 28. There was a strong correlation between HR, HRV indexes, some plasma electrolytes, glucose and cortisol during the studied period. Variations in the concentrations and correlations observed may be attributed to the adaptive neonatal period in calves.(AU)


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos dos níveis de eletrólitos, glicose e cortisol sobre a frequência cardíaca (FC) e a variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC) em bezerros recém-nascidos e saudáveis. Dezessete bezerros da raça Holandesa foram avaliados durante o primeiro mês de vida e foram analisadas as concentrações plasmáticas de glicose, cortisol, cálcio, magnésio, fósforo inorgânico, sódio e potássio. Os índices VFC foram determinados em domínios de tempo e frequência por meio da análise de gravações do eletrocardiograma neonatal. No primeiro dia, baixos níveis sanguíneos de fósforo correlacionaram-se fortemente com FC e aumento dos componentes de alta frequência da VFC. As concentrações plasmáticas de magnésio diminuíram significativamente ao longo dos 35 dias, revelando correlação positiva com a diminuição dos componentes de baixa frequência da VFC no dia 28. Houve uma forte correlação entre FC, índices de VFC, eletrólitos plasmáticos, glicose e cortisol durante o período estudado. As variações nas concentrações e correlações observadas podem ser atribuídas ao período neonatal adaptativo em bezerros.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Cattle , Hydrocortisone , Electrolytes , Glucose , Heart Rate , Animals, Newborn/physiology
13.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 53(4): 487-497, dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124026

ABSTRACT

Equivalence of results among laboratories is a major mission for medical laboratories. In the Netherlands, medical laboratories only use homogenous, commercial for general chemistry analytes, whereas in Argentina heterogenous, home brew test applications are common. The effect of this practice difference on test accuracy is studied using key features of the accuracy-based EQA program of the Netherlands. Six frozen, human-based, commutable poolsera, covering the (patho) physiological measuring range for 17 general chemistry analytes, were assayed by ~75 Argentinian labs and ~200 Dutch laboratories in 2014. After removal of outliers, harmonization status among laboratories was evaluated by calculating overall mean interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs, %) per analyte and per country for all 6 levels. Evenso, standardization status was evaluated after removal of outliers by calculating overall mean recoveries (%) as compared to the assigned target values per analyte per country for all 6 levels. Absolute median biases were compared to (minimal/desirable) biases derived from biological variation criteria. For serum enzymes interlaboratory CVs in the Argentinian laboratories ranged between 10 and 22%, as compared to 3-6% in the Netherlands. For serum uric acid, creatinine, glucose and total protein, interlaboratory CVs varied between 4.3 and 13.1% in Argentinian labs, as compared to <3.5% in the Netherlands. For serum electrolytes, interlaboratory CVs ranged between 1.8 and 3.8% for Na+; 2.9-5.8% for Cl-; 3.8-7.5% for K+; 9.4-10.4% for Ca2+ and 16.2-22.3% for Mg2+ as compared to ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) and ≤3% (Mg2+) in the Netherlands. Mean recoveries in Argentinian laboratories for e.g. serum creatinine, glucose, CK, Ca2+ and Na+ were 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% and 96-100% respectively, whereas min-max recovery ranges were 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% and 85-115%. In the Netherlands, absolute mean recoveries were overall 98.9% with a SD of 2.0%. Median biases in Argentinian laboratories ranged from -2.9 to 18.2%; -3.1 - 2.6%; -3.3 - 0.5%; -1.1 - 3.8% and -4.3-0% for serum creatinine, glucose, CK, Ca2+ and Na+. In the Netherlands overall mean/median biases were 1.1% (SD=2.0%). Exchange of commutable, value- assigned EQA-materials was helpful for studying the harmonization and standardization status of medical tests in Argentina, and for revealing the future harmonization and standardization potential. The results clearly demonstrate that metrological traceability of test results in Argentina is on average in line with what is expected; yet, the spreading among laboratories is far too high and should be improved.


La equivalencia de resultados entre laboratorios es una mision importante para los laboratorios medicos. En los Paises Bajos, los laboratorios medicos solo usan aplicaciones comerciales homogeneas, regulatoriamente aprobadas (CE-IVD) para analitos quimicos, mientras que en la Argentina son comunes las aplicaciones heterogeneas caseras. El efecto de esta diferencia practica en la precision de la prueba se estudia utilizando caracteristicas clave del programa EQA, basado en la precision, de los Paises Bajos. Se ensayaron seis pools de sueros, congelados, de origen humano, conmutables, que cubrian el rango de medidas (pato)fisiologicas para 17 analitos de quimica clinica. Estos analitos de quimica clinica fueron analizados por ~75 laboratorios argentinos y ~200 laboratorios holandeses en 2014. Despues de eliminar los valores atipicos, el estado de armonizacion entre los laboratorios fue evaluado calculando los coeficientes de variacion interlaboratorios medios globales (CV%) por analito y por pais para los 6 niveles. No obstante, el estado de estandarizacion se evaluo despues de la eliminacion de valores atipicos mediante el calculo de recuperaciones medias generales (%) en comparacion con los valores asignados por analito por pais para los 6 niveles. Los sesgos medios absolutos se compararon con los sesgos (minimos / deseables) derivados de los criterios de variacion biologica. Para enzimas sericas los CV interlaboratorio en los laboratorios argentinos oscilaron entre 10 y 22%, en comparacion con 3-6% en los Paises Bajos. Para el acido urico serico, creatinina, glucosa y proteinas totales, los CV entre laboratorios variaron entre 4,3 y 13,1% en los laboratorios argentinos, en comparacion con <3,5% en los Paises Bajos. Para los electrolitos sericos, los CV interlaboratorios oscilaron entre 1,8 y 3,8% para Na+; 2,9-5,8% para Cl-; 3,8-7,5% para K+; 9,4-10,4% para Ca2+ y 16,2-22,3% para Mg2+ en comparacion a ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) y ≤3% (Mg2+) en los Paises Bajos. Las recuperaciones medias en laboratorios argentinos para, p.ej. la creatinina serica, glucosa, CK, Ca2+ y Na+ fueron 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% y 96-100% respectivamente, mientras que los rangos de recuperacion min-max fueron 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% y 85-115%. En los Paises Bajos, las recuperaciones medias absolutas fueron en general del 98,9% con una desviacion estandar (DE) del 2,0%. La mediana de los sesgos medios de los laboratorios argentinos oscilo entre -2,9 y 18,2%; -3,1 - 2,6%; -3,3 - 0,5%; -1,1 - 3,8% y -4,3-0% para creatinina serica, glucosa, CK, Ca2+ y Na+. En los Paises Bajos, las medias / medianas en general fueron de 1,1% (DE=2,0%). El intercambio de los valores asignados a los materiales EQA, conmutables fue de gran ayuda para la armonizacion y estandarizacion de los ensayos medicos en la Argentina y para revelar el potencial futuro de armonizacion y estandarizacion. Estos resultados claramente demuestran que la trazabilidad metrologica de los resultados de las pruebas en la Argentina esta, en promedio, de acuerdo con lo esperable; sin embargo, la dispersion entre laboratorios es muy grande y deberia ser mejorada.


A equivalencia de resultados entre laboratorios e uma missao importante para os laboratorios medicos. Nos Paises Baixos, os laboratorios medicos so utilizam aplicacoes comerciais homogeneas, aprovadas por regulacoes (CE-IVD) para analitos quimicos, ao passo que na Argentina sao comuns as aplicacoes heterogeneas caseiras. O efeito desta diferenca pratica na exatidao do teste e estudado utilizando caracteristicas essenciais do programa EQA, dos Paises Baixos, baseado na exatidao. Foram ensaiados seis pools de soros, congelados, de origem humana, comutaveis, que abrangiam a faixa de medidas (pato)fisiologicas para 17 analitos quimicos gerais. Esses analitos quimicos foram analisados por ~75 laboratorios argentinos e ~200 laboratorios holandeses em 2014. Apos eliminar os valores atipicos, o estado de harmonizacao entre os laboratorios foi avaliado atraves do calculo dos coeficientes de variacao interlaboratorio meios globais (CV%) por analito e por pais para os 6 niveis. Nao obstante, o estado de padronizacao foi avaliado depois da eliminacao de valores atipicos pelo calculo de recuperacoes medias gerais (%) se comparados com os valores atribuidos por analito por pais para os 6 niveis. Os vieses medios absolutos foram comparados com os vieses (minimos / desejaveis) decorrentes dos criterios de variacao biologica. Para enzimas sericas, os CV interlaboratorio nos laboratorios argentinos oscilaram entre 10 e 22%, em comparacao com 3-6% nos Paises Baixos. Para o acido urico serico, creatinina, glicose e proteinas totais, os CV entre laboratorios variaram entre 4,3 e 13,1% nos laboratorios argentinos, em comparacao com <3,5% nos Paises Baixos para os eletrolitos sericos, os CV interlaboratorios oscilaram entre 1,8 e 3,8% para Na+; 2,9-5,8% para Cl-; 3,8-7,5% para K+; 9,4-10,4% para Ca2+ e 16,2-22,3% para Mg2+ em comparacao com ≤2% (Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+) e ≤3% (Mg2+) nos Paises Baixos. As recuperacoes medias em laboratorios argentinos para, p.ex. a creatinina serica, glicose, CK, Ca2+ e Na+ foram 95-119%; 95-104%; 98-102%; 98-102% e 96-100% respectivamente, enquanto que os intervalos de recuperacao min-max. foram 65-155%; 58-126%; 47-132%; 66-132% e 85-115%. Nos Paises Baixos, as recuperacoes medias absolutas foram em geral de 98,9% com um desvio padrao (DE) de 2,0%. A mediana dos vieses medios dos laboratorios argentinos oscilou entre -2,9 e 18,2%; -3,1 - 2,6%; -3,3 - 0,5%; -1,1 - 3,8% e -4,3-0% para creatinina serica, glicose, CK, Ca2+ e Na+. Nos Paises Baixos, as medias / medianas em geral foram de 1,1% (DE=2,0%). O intercambio dos valores atribuidos aos materiais EQA, comutaveis, foi de grande ajuda para a harmonizacao e padronizacao dos ensaios medicos na Argentina e para revelar o potencial futuro de harmonizacao e padronizacao. Esses resultados demonstram as claras que a rastreabilidade metrologica dos resultados dos testes na Argentina esta de acordo com o esperavel; a dispersao entre laboratorios ainda e muito grande e deveria ser melhorada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reference Standards , Clinical Chemistry Tests , Clinical Chemistry Tests/methods , Laboratories , Physicians , Uric Acid , Weights and Measures , Proteins , Bias , Chemistry, Clinical , Creatinine , State , Electrolytes , Enzymes , Methodology as a Subject , Glucose
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 115-121, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003401

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Preoperative fasting may lead to undesirable effects in the surgical patient in whom there is a stimulus to ingesting clear liquids until 2 hours before anesthesia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastric emptying of two different solutions using ultrasound. Methods: In a prospective, randomized, blind study, 34 healthy volunteers ingested 200 mL of two solutions without residues in two steps: an isotonic solution with carbohydrates, electrolytes, osmolarity of 292 mOsm.L-1, and 36 kcal; and other nutritional supplementation with carbohydrates, proteins, electrolytes, osmolarity of 680 mO.L-1, and 300 kcal. After 2 hours, a gastric ultrasound was performed to assess the antrum area and gastric volume, and the relation of gastric volume to weight (vol.w-1), whose value above 1.5 mL.kg-1 was considered a risk for bronchoaspiration. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was a significant difference between all parameters evaluated 2 hours after the ingestion of nutritional supplementation compared to fasting. The same occurred when the parameters between isotonic solution and nutritional supplementation were compared 2 hours after ingestion. Only one patient had vol.w-1 <1.5 mL.kg-1 2 hours after ingestion of nutritional supplementation; and only one had vol.w-1 >1.5 mL.kg-1 after ingestion of isotonic solution. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that gastric emptying of equal volumes of different solutions depends on their constitution. Those with high caloric and high osmolarity, and with proteins present, 2 hours after ingestion, increased the gastric volumes, which is compatible with the risk of gastric aspiration.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O jejum pré-operatório pode levar a efeitos indesejáveis no paciente cirúrgico, em que há um estimulo à ingestão de líquidos sem resíduos até 2 horas antes da anestesia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o esvaziamento gástrico de duas soluções diferentes por meio da ultrassonografia. Métodos: Em um estudo prospectivo, randomizado, cego, 34 voluntários saudáveis ingeriram 200 mL de duas soluções sem resíduos, em duas etapas: uma solução isotônica com carboidratos, eletrólitos, osmolaridade de 292 mOsm.L-1 e 36 kcal; e outra suplementação nutricional, com carboidratos, proteínas, eletrólitos, osmolaridade de 680 mOs.L-1 e 300 kcal. Após 2 horas, fez-se ultrassonografia gástrica com avaliação da área do antro e volume gástrico e relação do volume gástrico sobre o peso (vol.p-1), cujo valor acima de 1,5 mL.kg-1 foi considerado risco para broncoaspiração. Considerou-se p< 0,05 como estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: Houve diferença significativa entre todos os parâmetros avaliados 2 horas após a ingestão de suplementação nutricional em relação ao jejum. O mesmo ocorreu quando foram comparados os parâmetros entre solução isotônica e suplementação nutricional 2 horas após a ingestão. Apenas um paciente apresentou vol.p-1< 1,5 mL.kg-1 2 horas após a ingestão de suplementação nutricional; e apenas um apresentou vol.p-1 > 1,5 mL.kg-1, após a ingestão de solução isotônica. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstrou que o esvaziamento gástrico de volumes iguais de diferentes soluções depende de sua constituição. Aqueles com alto valor calórico e alta osmolaridade, e com proteínas presentes, 2 horas após a ingestão, aumentaram os volumes gástricos, compatíveis com o risco de aspiração gástrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ultrasonography/methods , Dietary Supplements , Gastric Emptying/physiology , Isotonic Solutions/administration & dosage , Osmolar Concentration , Stomach/diagnostic imaging , Energy Intake/physiology , Carbohydrates/administration & dosage , Proteins/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Fasting/psychology , Electrolytes/administration & dosage
15.
Med. U.P.B ; 38(1): 78-84, 13 de febrero de 2019. tab, Ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-980306

ABSTRACT

La toxicidad por antimoniales tiene múltiples manifestaciones sistémicas, entre ellas, las alteraciones cardiovasculares son de las de mayor gravedad, que pueden, incluso, llevar a la muerte. Reportamos el caso de una paciente anciana que durante el tratamiento con antimoniales para una leishmaniasis cutánea presentó toxicidad cardiaca y hepática con alteraciones electrolíticas como factor perpetuador de su condición clínica y con posterior desarrollo de múltiples episodios de taquicardia ventricular monomórfica y polimórfica. Durante el tratamiento recibió descargas sincrónicas y asincrónicas del desfibrilador, sobreestimulación con marcapasos y reposición de electrolitos, no se logró resolver del cuadro y la paciente falleció. Este reporte sobre la toxicidad de los antimoniales es importante porque están en la primera línea en el manejo de la leishmaniasis, a pesar de sus efectos sobre múltiples sistemas, por tanto, es necesario que los trabajadores de la salud se familiaricen con los signos y síntomas tempranos de su toxicidad.


Toxicity by antimonials has multiple systemic manifestations, including cardiovascular alteration, which is one of the most serious, as it can even lead to death of the patient. This article reports the case of an elderly patient who, during treatment with antimonials for cutaneous leishmaniasis, presented cardiac and hepatic toxicity associated with electrolyte imbalance as a perpetuating factor of her clinical condition, with subsequent development of multiple episodes of mono and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The patient was treated with synchronous and asynchronous defibrillation, overstimulation with pacemaker, and electrolyte replacement; she did not recover and eventually died. This report on the toxicity of antimonials is important as they remain the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis despite their multiple side effects, which can compromise multiple systems. Thus, health care professionals must become familiar with the early signs and symptoms of toxicity.


Toxicity by antimonials has multiple systemic manifestations, including cardiovascular alteration, which is one of the most serious, as it can even lead to death of the patient. This article reports the case of an elderly patient who, during treatment with antimonials for cutaneous leishmaniasis, presented cardiac and hepatic toxicity associated with electrolyte imbalance as a perpetuating factor of her clinical condition, with subsequent development of multiple episodes of mono and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The patient was treated with synchronous and asynchronous defibrillation, overstimulation with pacemaker, and electrolyte replacement; she did not recover and eventually died. This report on the toxicity of antimonials is important as they remain the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis despite their multiple side effects, which can compromise multiple systems. Thus, health care professionals must become familiar with the early signs and symptoms of toxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmania , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Signs and Symptoms , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Electrolytes , Toxicity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719402

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Information on biochemical changes following rapid transfusion of blood mixtures in liver transplantation patients is limited. METHODS: A blood mixture composed of red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and 0.9% saline was prepared in a ratio of 1 unit:1 unit:250 ml. During massive hemorrhage, 300 ml of the blood mixture was repeatedly transfused. A blood mixture sample as well as pre- and post-transfusion arterial blood samples were collected at the first, third, fifth, and seventh bolus transfusions. Changes in pH, hematocrit, electrolytes, and glucose were measured with a point-of-care analyzer. The biochemical changes were described, and the factors driving the changes were sought through linear mixed effects analysis. RESULTS: A total of 120 blood samples from 10 recipients were examined. Potassium and sodium levels became normalized during preservation. Biochemical changes in the blood mixture were significantly related to the duration of blood bank storage and reservoir preservation (average R2 = 0.41). Acute acidosis and hypocalcemia requiring immediate correction occurred with each transfusion. Both the pre-transfusion value of the patient and the blood mixture value were significant predictors of post-transfusion changes in the body (average R2 = 0.87); however, the former was more crucial. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid infusion of blood mixture is relatively safe because favorable biochemical changes occur during storage in the reservoir, and the composition of the blood mixture has little effect on the body during rapid transfusion in liver recipients. However, acute hypocalcemia and acidosis requiring immediate correction occurred frequently due to limited citrate metabolism in the liver recipients.


Subject(s)
Acidosis , Blood Banks , Blood Safety , Blood Transfusion , Citric Acid , Electrolytes , Erythrocytes , Glucose , Hematocrit , Hemorrhage , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypocalcemia , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Metabolism , Plasma , Point-of-Care Systems , Potassium , Sodium
17.
Blood Research ; : 31-37, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hereditary chronic hemolytic anemia with several clinical consequences. Intravascular sickling of red blood cells leads to multi-organ dysfunction. Moreover, several biochemical abnormalities have been associated with SCA. Gum arabic (GA) is an edible dried gummy exudate obtained from Acacia Senegal tree. GA showed antioxidant and cytoprotective activities and demonstrated protection against hepatic, renal, and cardiac toxicities in experimental rats. We hypothesized that regular intake of GA improves renal and liver functions in patients with SCA. METHODS: Forty-seven patients (5–42 yr) carrying hemoglobin SS were recruited. The patients received 30 g/day GA for 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected before administering GA and then after 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Liver enzymes, total protein, albumin, electrolytes, urea, creatinine, and uric acid were determined in the serum. The study was approved by the Al Neelain University Institutional Review Board and Research Ethics Committee Ministry of Health. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT02467257). RESULTS: GA significantly decreased direct bilirubin level [statistical significance (P-value)=0.04]. It also significantly decreased serum alanine transaminase level after 4 weeks, which was sustained till the 8th week. GA, however, had no effect on serum aspartate transaminase level. In terms of renal function, GA decreased serum urea level but the effect was not sustained after the first month. CONCLUSION: GA may alter the disease severity in SCA as demonstrated by its ability to decrease direct bilirubin and urea levels in the serum.


Subject(s)
Acacia , Alanine Transaminase , Anemia, Hemolytic , Anemia, Sickle Cell , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin , Cardiotoxicity , Creatinine , Electrolytes , Erythrocytes , Ethics Committees, Research , Exudates and Transudates , Gingiva , Gum Arabic , Hemoglobin, Sickle , Humans , Liver , Rats , Senegal , Trees , Urea , Uric Acid
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764381

ABSTRACT

Metabolic abnormalities and catheter-related infections are common complications of parenteral nutrition (PN). Particulate contamination is a catheter-related complication can occur when administering PN: mixing the electrolytes, trace elements, vitamins into the PN, or puncturing a rubber stopper at the PN formulation. In addition, the aggregation of the components of the PN solution by a drug incompatibility reaction could be related to particulate contamination. PN contaminated with precipitates, insoluble particles, and bacteria was reported as the cause of the death of a patient. The Food and Drug Administration recommended that the filters be used during PN administration. In-line filters can retain the bacteria and insoluble particles in PN solutions, and prevent their infusion into the patient. Therefore, in-line filters are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN infusion. A 0.2µ filter for lipid-free PN and a 1.2µ filter for lipid-containing PN solutions can be used. On the other hand, when a filter is applied, the infusion rate can decrease and the economic burden will increase for patients requiring long-term PN. In addition, small particles, such as viruses, polymers, and proteins cannot be filtered out completely. In conclusion, in-line filers are recommended to prevent catheter-related complications that can occur during PN administration, but there are no international standardized guidelines. Therefore, standardized guidelines will be needed based on evidence accompanied by clinical trials. In addition, in-line filter applications should be considered in the clinical field depending on the patient's condition.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Catheter-Related Infections , Drug Incompatibility , Electrolytes , Filtration , Hand , Humans , Parenteral Nutrition , Polymers , Rubber , Trace Elements , United States Food and Drug Administration , Vitamins
19.
Medwave ; 19(7): e7683, 2019.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015277

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad de mano-pie-boca es una patología originada en la mayoría de los casos por el virus coxsackie A tipo 16, aunque también puede ser ocasionada por otras cepas de la familia de los coxsackievirus. Dicho virus se propaga principalmente por vía fecal oral y, en menor proporción, por secreciones. Se presenta principalmente en verano, siendo frecuente en niños menores de 10 años. Dentro de dicha enfermedad las lesiones mucocutáneas que evolucionen en necrosis son poco frecuentes, constituyéndose en una complicación severa que requiere hospitalización. En el presente artículo se reporta un caso con diagnóstico de enfermedad mano-pie-boca, que evolucionó hacia lesiones mucocutáneas necróticas, mostrando una respuesta favorable a una terapia de soporte de aciclovir, líquidos y electrolitos.


In most cases, the cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is coxsackievirus A type 16. The infection can also be caused by other strains of coxsackievirus, spreading mainly by the oral-fecal route, while it is less likely to be transmitted through secretions. HFMD occurs mainly in summer and is more common in children under ten. Skin lesions develop during the disease but rarely become necrotic. When present, they are a severe complication requiring hospitalization. This paper reports the case of a patient with HFMD who developed necrotic mucocutaneous lesions that responded favorably to intravenous acyclovir, fluids, and electrolyte support therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Acyclovir/administration & dosage , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/diagnosis , Electrolytes/administration & dosage , Fluid Therapy/methods , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/pathology , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/therapy , Necrosis
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