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Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232525, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249239


Abstract The coupling of a ligand with a molecular receptor induces a signal that travels through the receptor, reaching the internal domain and triggering a response cascade. In previous work on T-cell receptors and their coupling with foreign antigens, we observed the presence of planar molecular patterns able to generate electromagnetic fields within the proteins. These planes showed a coherent (synchronized) behavior, replicating immediately in the intracellular domain that which occurred in the extracellular domain as the ligand was coupled. In the present study, we examined this molecular transduction - the capacity of the coupling signal to penetrate deep inside the receptor molecule and induce a response. We verified the presence of synchronized behavior in diverse receptor-ligand systems. To appreciate this diversity, we present four biochemically different systems - TCR-peptide, calcium pump-ADP, haemoglobin-oxygen, and gp120-CD4 viral coupling. The confirmation of synchronized molecular transduction in each of these systems suggests that the proposed mechanism would occur in all biochemical receptor-ligand systems.

Resumo A ligação de um ligante com um receptor molecular induz um sinal que viaja através do receptor, chegando ao domínio interno e disparando uma cascata de resposta. Em trabalhos anteriores em receptores de células T e sua ligação com antígenos estranhos, observamos a presença de padrões moleculares planares capazes de gerar campos eletromagnéticos dentro das proteínas. Esses planos mostraram um comportamento coerente (sincronizado), replicando, instantaneamente, no domínio intracelular o que ocorreu no domínio extracelular, enquanto o ligante era acoplado. No presente estudo, examinamos essa transdução - a capacidade de um sinal de acoplamento de penetrar profundamente a molécula receptora e induzir uma resposta. Verificamos a presença de um comportamento coerente em sistemas diversos de receptor-ligante. Para apreciar essa diversidade, apresentamos quatro sistemas bioquímicos diferentes: TCR-peptídeo, ADP-bomba de cálcio, hemoglobina-oxigênio e gp120-CD4 acoplamento viral. A confirmação de transdução molecular sincronizada em cada um desses sistemas sugere que o mecanismo proposto ocorreria em todos os sistemas bioquímicos receptor-ligante.

Signal Transduction , Electromagnetic Fields , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Ligands
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929038


Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC)‍-based therapy has been regarded as one of the most revolutionary breakthroughs in the history of modern medicine owing to its myriad of immunoregulatory and regenerative properties. With the rapid progress in the fields of osteo- and musculoskeletal therapies, the demand for MSC-based treatment modalities is becoming increasingly prominent. In this endeavor, researchers around the world have devised new and innovative techniques to support the proliferation of MSCs while minimizing the loss of hallmark features of stem cells. One such example is electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure, which is an alternative approach with promising potential. In this review, we present a critical discourse on the efficiency, practicability, and limitations of some of the relevant methods, with insurmountable evidence backing the implementation of EMF as a feasible strategy for the clinically relevant expansion of MSCs.

Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , Electromagnetic Fields , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Signal Transduction
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1159-1172, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927771


It is known that low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can promote the differentiation and maturation of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROBs) cultured in vitro. However, the mechanism that how ROBs perceive the physical signals of PEMFs and initiate osteogenic differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the promotion of osteogenic differentiation of ROBs by 0.6 mT 50 Hz PEMFs and the presence of polycystin2 (PC2) located on the primary cilia on the surface of ROBs. First, immunofluorescence staining was used to study whether PC2 is located in the primary cilia of ROBs, and then the changes of PC2 protein expression in ROBs upon treatment with PEMFs for different time were detected by Western blotting. Subsequently, we detected the expression of PC2 protein by Western blotting and the effect of PEMFs on the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as the expression of Runx-2, Bmp-2, Col-1 and Osx proteins and genes related to bone formation after pretreating ROBs with amiloride HCl (AMI), a PC2 blocker. Moreover, we detected the expression of genes related to bone formation after inhibiting the expression of PC2 in ROBs using RNA interference. The results showed that PC2 was localized on the primary cilia of ROBs, and PEMFs treatment increased the expression of PC2 protein. When PC2 was blocked by AMI, PEMFs could no longer increase PC2 protein expression and ALP activity, and the promotion effect of PEMFs on osteogenic related protein and gene expression was also offset. After inhibiting the expression of PC2 using RNA interference, PEMFs can no longer increase the expression of genes related to bone formation. The results showed that PC2, located on the surface of primary cilia of osteoblasts, plays an indispensable role in perceiving and transmitting the physical signals from PEMFs, and the promotion of osteogenic differentiation of ROBs by PEMFs depends on the existence of PC2. This study may help to elucidate the mechanism underlying the promotion of bone formation and osteoporosis treatment in low-frequency PEMFs.

Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Electromagnetic Fields , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteogenesis/genetics , Rats , TRPP Cation Channels/physiology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-941031


OBJECTIVE@#To explore whether the effect of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) in promoting osteoblast mineralization and maturation is related to the primary cilia, polycystin2 (PC2) and sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.@*METHODS@#We detected the expression levels of PC2, sAC, PKA, CREB and their phosphorylated proteins in primary rat calvarial osteoblasts exposed to 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMFs for 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. We blocked PC2 function with amiloride hydrochloride and detected the changes in the activity of sAC/PKA/CREB signal pathway and the mineralization and maturation of the osteoblasts. These examinations were repeated in the osteoblasts after specific knockdown of PC2 via RNA interference and were the co-localization of PC2, sAC, PKA, CREB and their phosphorylated proteins with the primary cilia were using immunofluorescence staining. The expressions of PC2 and the signaling proteins of sAC/PKA/CREB pathway were detected after inhibition of primary ciliation by RNA interference.@*RESULTS@#The expression levels of PC2, sAC, p-PKA and p- CREB were significantly increased in the osteoblasts after exposure to PEMFs for different time lengths (P < 0.01). Blocking PC2 function or PC2 knockdown in the osteoblasts resulted in failure of sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway activation and arrest of osteoblast mineralization and maturation. PC2, sAC, p-PKA and p-CREB were localized to the entire primary cilia or its roots, but PKA and CREB were not detected in the primary cilia. After interference of the primary cilia, PEMFs exposure no longer caused increase of PC2 expression and failed to activate the sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway or promote osteoblast mineralization and maturation.@*CONCLUSION@#PC2, located on the surface of the primary cilia of osteoblasts, can perceive and transmit the physical signals from PEMFs and promote the mineralization and maturation of osteoblasts by activating the PC2/ sAC/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.

Animals , Cell Differentiation , Electromagnetic Fields , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis/genetics , Rats , Signal Transduction
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 40(2): e570, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347461


Introducción: El panorama demográfico en el mundo está cambiando. La población mayor de 60 años es el segmento que está creciendo más rápidamente y en el que las enfermedades del tejido óseo se presentan con más frecuencia, lo que aumenta la demanda de materiales y tecnologías apropiadas para restaurar estos tejidos. Objetivo: Analizar la información que se ha generado sobre el desarrollo de biomateriales compuestos para la reparación ósea, con énfasis en la identificación de las tecnologías emergentes basadas en el uso del campo electromagnético, sus aplicaciones y potencialidades. Métodos: Se consultaron trabajos científicos publicados en libros, revistas, patentes y tesis. El 80 por ciento de la documentación seleccionada pertenece al periodo 2010-2019. Análisis e integración de la información: Los métodos identificados fueron clasificados en cinco grupos: electrodeposición química, ya sea por electrólisis, electroforesis o síntesis electroforética in situ; electroporación; electrohilado; control magnético distal y bioestimulación electromagnética de células y tejidos, directamente o por la introducción de dispositivos que convierten la energía electromagnética en energía mecánica. Conclusiones: Estos métodos permiten la conformación de matrices celulares y acelulares compuestas y, además, dispositivos bioestimuladores con control de los parámetros de construcción y acción, de tal manera, que se logran procesos con mayor grado de reproducibilidad y a la medida de los requerimientos específicos para cada paciente(AU)

Introduction: The global demographic panorama is changing. The population aged over 60 years is the fastest growing segment, as well as the one where bone tissue diseases are most common, increasing the demand of appropriate materials and technologies to restore those tissues. Objective: To analyze the information so far generated about the development of composite biomaterials for bone repair, with an emphasis on the identification of emerging technologies based on the use of the electromagnetic field, its applications and potential. Methods: An analysis was performed of scientific papers published in books, journals, patents and theses. Of the documentation selected, 80 percent was from the period 2010-2019. Data analysis and integration: The methods identified were classified into five groups: chemical electrodeposition, be it by in situ electrophoretic synthesis, electrolysis or electrophoresis; electroporation; electrospinning; distal magnetic control and electromagnetic biostimulation of cells and tissues, either directly or incorporating devices which convert electromagnetic energy into mechanical energy. Conclusions: These methods permit the conformation of composite cellular and acellular matrices as well as biostimulator devices controlling construction and action parameters in such a way that the processes obtained display greater reproducibility and are more in keeping with the specific requirements of each patient(AU)

Humans , Biocompatible Materials/analysis , Electric Stimulation/methods , Electromagnetic Fields
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(2): 139-148, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153165


ABSTRACT Background: The use of technological devices is growing rapidly, and the use of cell phones increases in parallel. Dependence on technological devices is a particular factor in this increased exposure. Many studies have been performed on this electromagnetic field, but no definite conclusions have been drawn. Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate exposure to electromagnetic field, cell phone use behaviors, the specific absorption rate (SAR) values, and changes in health occurring after exposure in university students. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 1,019 volunteer students aged 18-24 years at the Niğde Ömer Halisdemir and Recep Tayip Erdoğan Universities in 2018-2019. The questions were based on a survey of the literature. Results: The students spent an average 4-8 hours per day on their cell phones, and findings such as headache (p=0.002), concentration deficit (p=0.001), tiredness on waking in the morning (p=0.001), hyperactivity (p=0.001), general feeling of fatigue (p=0.001), and lethargy (p=0.001) increased in a statistically significant manner with length of use. Conclusions: Participants exhibited high levels of cell phone use and experienced biological, behavioral, and sleep problems. They also had very little knowledge about specific SAR values, an important criterion concerning cell phones.

RESUMO Introdução: O uso de dispositivos tecnológicos está crescendo rapidamente e o uso de telefone celulares aumenta em paralelo. A dependência de dispositivos tecnológicos é um fator nesse aumento de exposição. Diversos estudos sobre o campo eletromagnético foram realizados, mas nenhuma conclusão definitiva foi alcançada. Objetivo: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar a exposição ao campo eletromagnético, os comportamentos de uso do telefone celular, os valores de absorção específica (specific absorption rate — SAR) dos telefones celulares utilizados e as alterações na saúde ocorridas após a exposição em adolescentes universitários. Métodos: Um questionário foi aplicado a 1.019 alunos voluntários com idades entre 18-24 anos nas universidades Niğde Ömer Halisdemir e Recep Tayip Erdoğan em 2018-2019. As perguntas foram baseadas em um levantamento bibliográfico. Resultados: Os estudantes gastaram em média 4-8 horas por dia em seus celulares, e achados como cefaleia (p=0,002), dificuldade de concentração (p=0,001), cansaço ao acordar pela manhã (p=0,001), hiperatividade (p=0,001), sensação geral de fadiga (p=0,001) e letargia (p=0,001) aumentaram de forma estatisticamente significativa com o tempo de uso. Conclusões: Os participantes exibiram altos níveis de uso de telefone celular e problemas biológicos, comportamentais e de sono. Eles também tinham pouco conhecimento sobre valores específicos de SAR, um critério importante para telefones celulares.

Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Cell Phone , Cell Phone Use , Students , Universities , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(2): 282-286, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287821


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), ultrasound (US), and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) combination with TENS and US therapy alone in patients with supraspinatus tear. METHODS: Forty patients were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups as follows: PEMF (n=20) and Sham (n=20) groups. PEMF was applied to the first group at a frequency of 50 Hz, 25 G intensity, and 20 min/session. The device was turned off while PEMF was applied to the second group. Diathermy (US) and electrotherapy (TENS) were applied to both groups for 10 sessions. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Scale, and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) were used as outcome measures. RESULTS: In both groups, there was a significant improvement in the NRS, UCLA Shoulder Scale, and SPADI scores after treatment compared with pretreatment (p<0.05). In the comparison of the difference between the pretreatment and posttreatment measurement values between the groups, no significant difference was found between PEMF and Sham groups according to the NRS (p=0.165), UCLA Shoulder Scale (p=0.141), and SPADI (p=0.839) scores. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, a combination of PEMF therapy with conventional physical therapy modalities was not found to be superior to the conventional therapy alone, and adding it to the routine treatment of symptomatic supraspinatus tear would not provide any additional benefit.

Humans , Electric Stimulation Therapy , Magnetic Field Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Rotator Cuff , Shoulder Pain/therapy , Electromagnetic Fields
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2020. 70 p. il., graf., tab..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1150925


A utilização de estimulação biofísica através da modalidade de campo eletromagnético pulsado (CEMP) para o tratamento de diversas condições no tecido ósseo tem despertado o interesse científico há décadas. Entretanto, a grande variedade nos parâmetros e protocolos utilizados e a divergência de resultados na literatura dificultam o estabelecimento de uma metodologia que seja eficaz no contexto da terapia com implantes osseointegrados. Dessa forma, torna-se importante avaliar o efeito de diferentes tempos de aplicação do CEMP padronizado em diferentes momentos no processo de osseointegração de implantes de titânio inseridos em tíbias de ratos. Para isso, foram utilizados 60 animais (Rattus norvegicus, variação albinus, Wistar), randomizados em três grupos experimentais: controle, teste A (GTA) submetidos por 3 horas de CEMP, e teste B (GTB) com 1 hora de CEMP, sendo que, a exposição ocorreu em 5 dias semanalmente durante o período experimental. Todos os animais receberam implantes em ambas as tíbias, e a aplicação do CEMP ocorreu apenas nos grupos teste com parâmetros fixos de ± 1 mT, 15 Hz, com 25 ciclos repetidos por 200 microssegundos. Após a eutanásia as peças foram separadas e preparadas para o teste mecânico, análises histomorfométricas, microtomografia computadorizada (µCT) e ensaios biológicos in vitro. Os dados foram tabulados e a análise de variância ANOVA foi aplicada, com nível de significância de 5%. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que, GTB apresentou melhores resultados em comparação ao GTA nos testes de torque de remoção em 07 dias; no volume ósseo e densidade mineral óssea, ambos em 07, 21 e 45 dias; na proliferação celular em 21 dias, na viabilidade celular em 07 e 45 dias, no conteúdo de proteína total em 07 dias e nódulos de mineralização em 03 e 07 dias. O GTA apresentou melhor desempenho na avaliação da espessura do osso trabecular em 03 dias e na proliferação celular em 03 e 45 dias comparado ao GTB. Os grupos teste apresentaram resultados superiores ao controle nas avaliações de contato osso-implante, espessura do osso trabecular, na viabilidade celular, conteúdo de proteína total e fosfatase alcalina. Na análise histomorfométrica e no número de trabéculas não houve diferenças entre os grupos teste. Com os resultados pode-se concluir que, a aplicação do campo eletromagnético pulsado como um bioestimulador foi efetivo na otimização dos eventos no tecido ósseo que acarretam na osseointegração, especialmente quando aplicado por menor tempo e nos períodos iniciais do reparo ósseo(AU)

The use of biophysical stimulation through the pulsed electromagnetic field modality (PEMF) for the treatment of various conditions in bone tissue has aroused scientific interest for decades. However, the wide variety of parameters and protocols used and the divergence of results in the literature make it difficult to establish a methodology that is effective in the context of therapy with osseointegrated implants. Thus, it is important to evaluate the effect of different application times of the standardized PEMF at different times in the osseointegration process of titanium implants inserted in tibiae of rats. For this, 60 animals (Rattus norvegicus, variation albinus, Wistar) were used, randomized in three experimental groups: control, test A (GTA) submitted for 3 hours of CEMP, and test B (GTB) with 1 hour of PEMF, and the exposure occurred in 5 days weekly during the trial period. All animals received implants in both tibiae, and the application of PEMF only occurred in the test groups with fixed parameters ± 1 mT, 15 Hz, with 25 cycles repeated for 200 microseconds. After euthanasia, the pieces were separated and prepared for mechanical testing, histomorphometric analysis, computed microtomography (µCT) and in vitro biological tests. Data were tabulated and ANOVA analysis of variance was applied, with a significance level of 5%. The results obtained revealed that, GTB presented better results in comparison to GTA in the removal torque tests in 07 days; in bone volume and bone mineral density, both at 07, 21 and 45 days; cell proliferation in 21 days, cell viability in 07 and 45 days, total protein content in 07 days and mineralization nodules in 03 and 07 days. GTA performed better in assessing trabecular bone thickness in 03 days and in cell proliferation in 03 and 45 days compared to GTB. The test groups showed results superior to the control in assessments of boneimplant contact, trabecular bone thickness , in cell viability, total protein content and alkaline phosphatase. In the histomorphometric analysis and in the number of trabeculae, there were no differences between the test groups. With the results it can be concluded that the application of the pulsed electromagnetic field as a biostimulator was effective in the optimization of the events in the bone tissue that result in osseointegration, especially when applied for a shorter time and in the initial periods of bone repair(AU)

Osseointegration , Electromagnetic Fields , Bone-Anchored Prosthesis/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828975


Objective@#This study aimed to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) on the cervical spinal cord (CSC) of rats and the possible protective effect of luteolin (LUT) against CSC tissue damage.@*Methods@#Quantitative data were obtained stereological, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histopathological techniques. We investigated morphometric value, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level, and the expression of high-mobility group box 1 protein molecules, as well as histological changes.@*Results@#The total number of motor neurons in the EMF group significantly decreased in comparison with that in the control group ( < 0.05). In the EMF + LUT group, we found a significant increase in the total number of motor neurons compared with that in the EMF group ( < 0.05). SOD enzyme activity in the EMF group significantly increased in comparison with that in the control group ( < 0.05). By contrast, the EMF+LUT group exhibited a decrease in SOD level compared with the EMF group ( < 0.05).@*Conclusion@#Our results suggested that exposure to EMF could be deleterious to CSC tissues. Furthermore, the protective efficacy of LUT against SC damage might have resulted from the alleviation of oxidative stress caused by EMF.

Animals , Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Electromagnetic Fields , Luteolin , Pharmacology , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Spinal Cord , Radiation Effects
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828200


Concerning on the safety risks caused by electromagnetic interference of patients implanted with high-risk active implantable medical devices in the environment of domestic MUs, this study evaluates and focuses on the requirements of electromagnetic compatibility in domestic and international standards for rail transit vehicles, the main mechanism of risks caused by EMI, the actual measurement of environmental data in MUs and the working performance of various active implantables in the compartment. The test results shows that all kinds of active implantable medical device samples works normally in the CRH2A EMU in China, and there is still a large margin between the measured radiation emission in MU and the limit required by the standards.

China , Electromagnetic Fields , Electromagnetic Radiation , Humans , Pacemaker, Artificial , Prostheses and Implants
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828169


Wireless power transfer (WPT) is a new power transmission way, which can be widely used in electric vehicles and other fields. Its electromagnetic environment must be analyzed to ensure safe application. A low-power wireless power transfer system experimental platform was built, with 25 W receiving power and 47 kHz resonant frequency, which was used to carry out animal experiments. Treatment mice were exposed to environment of wireless power transfer system for 5 h a day and 6 days as one cycle. At the end of every cycle, learning memory behavior of mice were detected in T-shaped maze. The exposure experiment lasted for 12 weeks. Finally, immune parameters, sex hormones and part of organ physiological structure were detected. The results are as follows: as exposure time increased, memory behavior of mice did not change obviously with no statistical difference in sex hormone either ( > 0.05), the concentration of immune factors including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) significantly increased ( < 0.05), and the structure of some organs showed some changes. The experimental results show that the environment of the wireless power transfer system has no effect on the memory behavior of mice, and has some effect on physiological properties of mice.

Animals , Cytokines , Electric Power Supplies , Electricity , Electromagnetic Fields , Gonadal Steroid Hormones , Memory , Mice , Wireless Technology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942708


The complex electromagnetic field environments in magnetic resonance imaging system(MRI) can have a significant impact on patients carrying implants, the RF heating problems being particularly important. To ensure the safety of the patients, it is necessary to understand the distribution of tissue temperature in the MRI environment and its changes over time. Based on the analysis of tissue temperature rise in MRI, this paper constructs a bird cage coil for generating RF field in MRI system, and constructs ASTM standard/improved phantom and single-cavity pacemaker finite element models, use time-domain finite difference (FDTD) to simulate. Firstly, the correctness of the simulation software and simulation method was validated according to the method of ISO. Then the distribution of the electric field, SAR and temperature field and the temperature change with time were calculated in the environment of 64 MHz, 2 W/kg. The difference in temperature rise with blood heat exchange and no blood heat exchange (standard/improved phantom) was specifically compared. The simulation results show that there are electric field and SAR hotspots near the electrode tip, the wire tail and the case of pacemaker. There are high SAR values on both sides of the phantom, and the shorter the distance from the coil, the higher the SAR. The temperature field distribution is similar to the SAR distribution; the temperature is higher in the area around the end of the wire and the case of pacemaker because the heat accumulation is higher around this area. At the same time, blood heat exchange can reduce the temperature rise to a certain extent.

Electromagnetic Fields , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Models, Theoretical , Phantoms, Imaging , Prostheses and Implants , Temperature
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 282-289, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011624


Abstract Introduction: In daily life biological systems are usually exposed to magnetic field forces at different intensities and frequencies, either directly or indirectly. Despite negative results, the therapeutic use of the low dose magnetic field has been found in recent studies. The effect of magnetic field forces on cochlear cells is not clear in the literature. Objective: In our study, we first applied in vivo pulsed magnetic fields to laboratory rats to investigate the effects on cochlea with distortion product otoacoustic emission test followed by histopathological examinations. Methods: Twelve rats were included in this study, separated into two groups as study group and control group. The rats in the study group were exposed to 40 Hz pulsed magnetic field for 1 h/day for 30 days; the hearing of the rats was controlled by otoacoustic emission test. Also, their cochleas were removed and histochemical examination was performed by Caspase-3, Caspase-9, and TUNEL methods. Results: A statistically significant difference was determined (p < 0.05) when the hearing thresholds of the groups obtained by using 5714 Hz and 8000 Hz stimuli were compared by Kruskal-Wallis test. A significant reaction was observed in the study group, especially in the outer ciliated cells during immunohistochemical examinations by using Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 methods. A significantly positive difference was determined in the study group, especially at the outer ciliated cells and the support cells of the corti organ, when compared to the control group (p < 0.05) by the TUNEL method. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, the very low dose magnetic field, which is considered to be used for therapeutic purposes recently, can cause both auditory function defects and histopathologic damage in cochlear cells.

Resumo Introdução: Os sistemas biológicos são geralmente expostos a forças de campo magnético em diferentes intensidades e frequências, direta ou indiretamente, na vida diária. Apesar dos resultados negativos, o uso terapêutico do campo magnético de baixa dose tem sido encontrado em estudos recentes. O efeito das forças do campo magnético sobre as células cocleares não está claro na literatura. Objetivo: Em nosso estudo, aplicamos pela primeira vez campos magnéticos pulsados in vivo em ratos de laboratório para investigar os efeitos na cóclea através do teste de emissão otoacústica por produto de distorção e análises histopatológicas. Método: Doze ratos foram incluídos neste estudo, os quais foram separados em dois grupos, grupo de estudo e grupo controle. Os ratos do grupo de estudo foram expostos a campo magnético pulsado de 40 Hz por 1 hora/dia por 30 dias, e a audição dos ratos foi controlada por testes de emissão otoacústica. Além disso, suas cócleas foram colhidas e o exame histoquímico foi feito pelos métodos caspase-3, caspase-9 e TUNEL. Resultados: Foi determinada uma diferença estatisticamente significante (p < 0,05) quando os limiares auditivos dos grupos obtidos por meio dos estímulos de 5714 Hz e 8000 Hz foram comparados pelo teste de Kruskal-Wallis. Uma reação significante foi observada no grupo de estudo, especialmente nas células ciliadas externas nas análises imuno-histoquímicas, com os métodos caspase-3 e caspase-9. Uma diferença significantemente positiva foi determinada no grupo de estudo, especialmente nas células ciliadas externas e nas células de suporte do órgão de Corti, quando comparadas com o grupo controle (p < 0,05) pelo método TUNEL. Conclusão: De acordo com os resultados do nosso estudo, o campo magnético de dose baixa, que tem sido considerado para uso terapêutico recentemente, pode causar defeitos na função auditiva e danos histopatológicos nas células cocleares.

Animals , Male , Rats , Cochlea/pathology , Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/pathology , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous , Statistics, Nonparametric
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 719-723, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002283


Mobile phone use has increased rapidly. The central nervous system has been shown to be adversely affected by its electromagnetic field (EMF) resulting in headache and sleep disturbances. How the cells make up the CNS and are affected by EMF is unclear. However, because of their central role in inflammation through diverse stimuli including radiation, this study aimed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields induced by mobile phones on mast cells in rat dura mater. A total of 18 adult, female, SpragueDawley rats were divided into two groups. The choice of female rats for his study was based on recent surveys demonstrating that mobile phone use is more frequent and prolonged among females. The study group was exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field (1 h/day for 45 days). In the end of the study, duramater tissue was extracted and stained using Toluidine blue. Mast cells were counted and results were analysed using Student t test. Mean mast cell number was 202.33±9.82 and 456.78±35.01 in the control and study groups, respectively (p<0.05). Analysis of serum electrolyte and immunoglobulin E levels showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The study showed that mobile phone exposure increased mast cell number and degranulation in rat dura mater. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical implications of these findings.

El uso del teléfono móvil ha aumentado rápidamente. Se ha demostrado que el sistema nervioso central (SNC) se ve afectado de manera adversa debido al campo electromagnético (CEM) que produce dolor de cabeza y trastornos del sueño. No está claro cómo se ve afectada la composición celular del SNC por el CEM. Sin embargo, debido a su función principal en la inflamación a través de diversos estímulos que incluyen la radiación, este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar los efectos de los campos electromagnéticos inducidos por los teléfonos móviles en los mastocitos de la duramadre de ratas. Un total de 18 ratas Sprague-Dawley adultas, hembras, se dividieron en dos grupos. Se usaron ratas hembras para este estudio en base a investigaciones recientes que han demostrado que el uso de teléfonos móviles es más frecuente y prolongado en las mujeres. Los grupos de estudio fueron expuestos a un campo electromagnético de 900 MHz (1 h / día durante 45 días). Al término del estudio, fue extirpado el tejido de la duramadre y teñido con azul de toluidina. Se contaron los mastocitos y se analizaron los resultados utilizando la prueba t de Student. La cantidad media de células cebadas fue de 202,33 ± 9.82 y 456,78 ± 35,01 en los grupos control y estudio, respectivamente (p <0,05). El análisis del electrolito sérico y los niveles de inmunoglobulina E no mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos (p> 0,05). El estudio mostró que la exposición a teléfonos móviles aumentó el número de mastocitos y la desgranulación en la duramadre de las ratas. Se requieren estudios adicionales para evaluar las implicaciones clínicas de estos hallazgos.

Animals , Rats , Cell Phone , Dura Mater/radiation effects , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Mast Cells/radiation effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 35(3): 95-101, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116407


Debido al acelerado envejecimiento de la población, cada vez es mayor la cantidad de usuarios portado-res de dispositivos electrónicos cardíacos implan-tables (DECI). Muchos de estos pacientes se verán enfrentados a procedimientos dermatológicos que con frecuencia utilizan equipos de electrocirugía. Es-tos tienen riesgo potencial de producir interferencias electromagnéticas (IEM), y por lo tanto alterar el fun-cionamiento de estos dispositivos. Si bien no todos los DECI tienen las mismas características, las nuevas tec-nologías de estos dispositivos han disminuido, aunque no eliminado completamente, el riesgo de IEM. Este artículo tiene como propósito revisar el tema y recopilar las recomendaciones generales que todo dermatólogo debe conocer tanto en la fase preoperatoria, intraoperatoria, como postoperatoria al utilizar equipos de electrocirugía en un paciente con DECI.

Due to the accelerated population aging, an increa-sing number of users is carrying cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Many of these patients will face dermatological procedures that often use electrosurgical equipment. The latter has the poten-tial to produce electromagnetic interference (EMI), and therefore alter the operation of these devices. While not all CIEDs have the same characteristics, new technologies for these devices have decreased if not eliminated completely the risk of EMI.The purpose of this article is to review CIED topic and compile general recommendations that every dermatologist should be aware of, both in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases when using electrosurgery equipment in a patient with CIED.

Humans , Pacemaker, Artificial , Defibrillators, Implantable , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects , Electrosurgery/methods , Dermatologic Surgical Procedures , Postoperative Care , Preoperative Care , Heart-Assist Devices , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
São José dos Campos; s.n; 2019. 55 p. il., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1016892


A doença periodontal (DP) resulta de uma infecção polimicrobiana complexa, levando à destruição dos tecidos periodontais, como consequência da perturbação da homeostase entre a microbiota subgengival e os mecanismos de defesas do hospedeiro em indivíduos suscetíveis. A deficiência estrogênica (DE) é a causa mais comum de osteoporose. A osteoporose é definida como uma doença crônica, multifatorial, provenientes de uma desordem esquelética que promove fragilidade óssea pela redução de sua massa. Vários estudos experimentais têm demonstrado que a estimulação com Campo Eletromagnético Pulsátil (CEMP) pode promover a osteogênese e potencialmente aumentar a mineralização óssea e também, reduzir a inflamação aguda e crônica em tecidos moles e duros. Frente a isso, este estudo teve como objetivo, avaliar por meio da histomorfometria, imunoistoquímica e microtomografia computadorizada (MicroCT), a influência do CEMP na DP induzida em ratas ovariectomizadas e Sham. Para a pesquisa, foram utilizadas 60 ratas adultas (Rattus norvegicus, variação albinus, Wistar) com 3 meses de idade, pesando em torno de 300 gramas e em todos os animais a DP foi induzida. As ratas foram randomizadas em dois grupos experimentais, contendo 30 animais cada, classificados em ovariectomia simulada (Sham) e Ovariectomizada (Ovz), respectivamente. Os grupos foram divididos em dois subgrupos com 15 animais cada: Sham-S (n=15): não receberam terapia com CEMP e este foi nosso grupo controle. Sham-CEMP (n=15): receberam terapia com CEMP. Ovz­O (n=15): não receberam terapia com CEMP. Ovz­CEMP (n=15): receberam terapia com CEMP. As análises histomorfométrica, e MicroCT foram realizadas e os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA) e teste de Tukey, ambos com nível de significância convencional de 95% e não apresentaram nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante. Na análise semiquantitativa para os biomarcadores RANKL e OPG, o subgrupo Ovz-O apresentou maior expressão do biomarcador RANKL e menor expressão do biomarcador OPG em relação aos outros subgrupos. Na análise quantitativa da expressão do biomarcador TRAP não foi encontrado nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significante. Apesar de não encontramos evidências significativas da terapia com CEMP na DP em ratas ovariectomizadas, o presente estudo nos sugere que o CEMP pode apresentar um efeito benéfico na remodelação óssea(AU)

Periodontal disease (PD) results from a complex polymicrobial infection, leading to the destruction of periodontal tissues as a consequence of the disturbance of homeostasis between the subgingival microbiota and the host defense mechanisms in susceptible individuals. Estrogen deficiency is the most common cause of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is defined as a chronic, multifactorial disease from a skeletal disorder that promotes bone fragility by reducing its mass. Several experimental studies have shown that Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) stimulation can promote osteogenesis and potentially increase bone mineralization and also reduce acute and chronic inflammation in soft and hard tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate, through histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry and computerized microtomography (MicroCT), the influence of PEMF on PD induced in ovariectomized and Sham rats. For the research, 60 adult rats (Rattus norvegicus, albinus variant, Wistar) at 3 months of age, weighing around 300 grams were used and in all animals PD was induced. The rats were randomized into two experimental groups, containing 30 animals each, classified as simulated ovariectomy (Sham) and Ovariectomized (Ovz), respectively. The groups were divided into two subgroups with 15 animals each: Sham-S (n = 15): did not receive PEMF therapy and this was our control group. Sham-PEMF (n = 15): received PEMF therapy. Ovz-O (n = 15): did not receive PEMF therapy. Ovz-PEMF (n = 15): received PEMF therapy. The histomorphometric and MicroCT analyzes were performed and the data were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test, both with a 95% significance level and did not present any statistically significant difference. In the semiquantitative analysis for RANKL and OPG biomarkers, the Ovz-O subgroup showed higher expression of the RANKL biomarker and lower expression of the OPG biomarker in relation to the other subgroups. In the quantitative analysis of TRAP biomarker expression no statistically significant difference was found. Although we did not find significant evidence of PEMF therapy in PD in ovariectomized rats, the present study suggests that PEMF may have a beneficial effect on bone remodeling(AU)

Humans , Periodontal Diseases/complications , Osteoporosis/drug therapy , Bone Remodeling/physiology , Electromagnetic Fields/adverse effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763018


Technological advances of mankind, through the development of electrical and communication technologies, have resulted in the exposure to artificial electromagnetic fields (EMF). Technological growth is expected to continue; as such, the amount of EMF exposure will continue to increase steadily. In particular, the use-time of smart phones, that have become a necessity for modern people, is steadily increasing. Social concerns and interest in the impact on the cranial nervous system are increased when considering the area where the mobile phone is used. However, before discussing possible effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) on the human body, several factors must be investigated about the influence of EMFs at the level of research using in vitro or animal models. Scientific studies on the mechanism of biological effects are also required. It has been found that RF-EMF can induce changes in central nervous system nerve cells, including neuronal cell apoptosis, changes in the function of the nerve myelin and ion channels; furthermore, RF-EMF act as a stress source in living creatures. The possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure have not yet been proven, and there are insufficient data on biological hazards to provide a clear answer to possible health risks. Therefore, it is necessary to study the biological response to RF-EMF in consideration of the comprehensive exposure with regard to the use of various devices by individuals. In this review, we summarize the possible biological effects of RF-EMF exposure.

Apoptosis , Brain , Cell Phone , Central Nervous System , Electromagnetic Fields , Human Body , In Vitro Techniques , Ion Channels , Magnets , Models, Animal , Myelin Sheath , Nervous System , Neurons , Smartphone
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774004


Objective To compare the effects of 50-Hz 0.6-mT low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields(PEMFs) and 50-Hz 1.8-mT sinusoidal alternating electromagnetic fields(SEMFs) in preventing bone loss in tail-suspended rats,with an attempt to improve the prevention and treatment of bone loss caused by weightlessness.Methods Tail-suspension rat models were used to simulate microgravity on the ground. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups[control group,hindlimb-suspended(HLS) group,HLS+PEMFs group,and HLS+SEMFs group],with 10 rats in each group. In the PEMFs treatment group and SEMFs treatment group,the intervention was 90 min per day. Rats were sacrificed after four weeks. Bone mineral density(BMD) of femur and vertebra was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and biomechanical strength by AG-IS biomechanical instrument. Serum osteocalcin(OC),tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b(Tracp 5b),parathyroid hormone(PTH),and cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) were detected by ELISA. The microstructure of bone tissue was observed by Micro-CT and HE staining.Results The BMD of the femur(P=0.000) and vertebrae(P=0.001) in the HLS group was significantly lower than in the control group;the BMD of the femurs(P=0.001) and vertebrae(P=0.039) in the HLS+PEMFs group was significantly higher than in the HLS group;the BMD of the femurs in the HLS+SEMFs group was significantly higher than in the HLS group(P=0.003),but the BMD of the vertebrae showed no significant difference(P=0.130). There was no significant difference in the BMD of the femur(P=0.818) and vertebrae(P=0.614) between the HLS+PEMFs group and the HLS+SEMFs group. The maximum load(P=0.000,P=0.009) and elastic modulus(P=0.015,P=0.009) of the femurs and vertebrae in the HLS group were significantly lower than those in the control group;the maximum load of the femur(P=0.038) and vertebrae(P=0.087) in the HLS+PEMFs group was significantly higher than that in the HLS group,but the elastic modulus was not significantly different from that in the HLS group(P=0.324,P=0.091). The maximum load(P=0.190,P=0.222) and elastic modulus(P=0.512,P=0.437) of femurs and vertebrae in the HLS+SEMFs group were not significantly different from those in the HLS group. There were no significant differences in the maximum load and elastic modulus of femurs(P=0.585,P=0.948) and vertebrae(P=0.668,P=0.349) between the HLS+PEMFs group and the HLS+SEMFs group. The serum OC level in the HLS group was significantly lower than that in the control group(P=0.000),and the OC level in HLS+PEMFs group(P=0.000) and HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.006) were significantly higher than that in the HLS group. The serum Tracp 5b concentration in the HLS group was significantly higher than that in the control group(P=0.011). There was no significant difference between the HLS+PEMFs group(P=0.459) and the HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.469) compared with the control group.Serum Tracp 5b concentrations in the HLS+PEMFs group(P=0.056) and the HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.054) were not significantly different from those in the HLS group. The PTH(P=0.000) and cAMP concentrations(P=0.000) in the HLS group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The PTH(P=0.000,P=0.000) and cAMP concentrations(P=0.000,P=0.000) in the HLS+PEMFs group and the HLS+SEMFs group were significantly higher than in the HLS group. The femoral cancellous bone of the HLS group was very sparse and small compared with the control group. The density and volume of the cancellous bone were similar among the control group,HLS+PEMFs group,and HLS+SEMFs group. Compared with the control group,the HLS group had lower BMD(P=0.000),bone volume (BV)/tissue volume(TV)(P=0.000),number of trabecular bone (Tb.N)(P=0.000),and trabecular thickness(Tb.Th)(P=0.000) and higher trabecular bone dispersion(Tb.Sp)(P=0.000) and bone surface area(BS)/BV(P=0.000). Compared with the HLS group,the HLS+PEMFs group and the HLS+SEMFs group had significantly lower Tb.Sp(P=0.000,P=0.000) and BS/BV(P=0.000,P=0.000) and significantly increased BMD(P=0.000,P=0.000),BV/TV(P=0.001,P=0.004),Tb.Th(P=0.000,P=0.001),and Tb.N(P=0.000,P=0.001). The trabecular thickness significantly differed between the HLS+PEMFs group and the HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.024). The HLS group(P=0.000),HLS+PEMFs group(P=0.000),and HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.000) had the significantly lower osteoblast density on the trabecular bone surface than the control group;however,it was significantly higher in the HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.000) and the HLS+PEMFs group(P=0.000) than in the HLS group. The HLS group had significantly lower density of osteoblasts in the endothelium than the control group(P=0.000);however,the density of osteoblasts was significantly higher in HLS+PEMFs group(P=0.000) and HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.000) than HLS group and was significantly higher in HLS+PEMFs group than in HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.041). Compared with the control group,a large number of fatty cavities were produced in the bone marrow cavity in the HLS group,but the fat globules remarkably decreased in the treatment groups,showing no significant difference from the control group. The number of adipose cells per mm bone marrow in the HLS group was 4 times that of the control group(P=0.000);it was significantly smaller in the HLS+PEMFs group(P=0.000) and HLS+SEMFs group(P=0.000) than in the HLS group,whereas the difference between the HLS+PEMFs group and the HLS+SEMFs group was not statistically significant(P=0.086). Conclusions 50-Hz 0.6-mT PEMFs and 50-Hz 1.8-mT SEMFs can effectively increase bone mineral density and biomechanical values in tail-suspended rats,increase the concentration of bone formation markers in rat blood,activate the cAMP pathway by affecting PTH levels,and thus further increase the content of osteoblasts to prevent the deterioration of bone micro-structure. In particular,PEMFs can prevent the reduction of bone mineral density and maximum load value by about 50% and increase the bone mass of tail-suspended rats by promoting bone formation.

Absorptiometry, Photon , Animals , Bone Density , Electromagnetic Fields , Femur , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Weightlessness
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774003


Objective To observe the effect of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields(PEMFs) on bone formation in rat osteoblasts(ROBs) and explore the mechanism of action of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP)/protein kinase A(PKA)/cyclic adenosine effect binding protein(CREB) signaling pathway.Methods The skulls of newborn Wistar rats were harvested,and the ROBs were obtained by multiple enzymatic digestion methods for subculture. After treatment with 50 Hz 0.6 mT PEMFs for 3,6,and 9 days,the alkaline phosphatase(ALP) concentration in ROBs was detected;after 0,15,30,60,90,and 120 min,the expression of bone formation-related factor(RUNX2),the protein expression of osteogenesis-associated transcription factor(OSX),the cAMP concentration,as well as the protein expressions of p-PKA,p-CREB,and CREB were detected. The p-CREB nuclear translocation was observed. After interference with IFT88 by RNA interference,the expressions of RUNX2,OSX,p-PKA,and p-CREB protein in ROBs were detected.Results After treatment with PEMFs for 3,6,and 9 days,the ALP activity values in ROBs were 24.356±4.911,37.688±2.151,and 39.922±5.486,respectively,which were significantly higher than 18.531±2.401(P=0.0121),33.675±4.366(P=0.0324),and 36.574±1.339(P=0.0134) in the control groups. RUNX2 and OSX activities in ROBs were significantly higher than untreated group after PEMFs treatment for 30(P=0.0042 and P=0.0058),60(P=0.0097 and P=0.0079),and 90 min(P=0.0083 and P=0.0098). After PEMFs treatment for 30(P=0.0012) and 60 min(P=0.0035),the cAMP concentrations in ROBs were significantly higher than that in untreated group. After PEMFs treatment for 15(P=0.0018),30(P=0.0087),90(P=0.0250),and 120 min(P=0.0350),the p-PKA levels in ROBs were significantly higher than that in the untreated group. After PEMFs treatment for 15(P=0.0075),30(P=0.0017),60(P=0.0074),and 90 min(P=0.0096),the level of p-CREB in the ROBs was significantly higher than in the untreated group. After PEMFs treatment of ROBs for 15 min,CREB phosphorylated and accumulated in the nuclei. PKA and p-PKA were co-localized with primary cilia and stained,and it was found that p-PKA was localized on the primary cilia. After the primary cilia was removed by RNA interference,the protein expression levels of p-PKA(F=78.602,P=0.0270),p-CREB(F=76.082,P=0.0089),RUNX2(F=41.064,P=0.0230) and OSX(F=57.524,P=0.0310) were significantly lower than those of the non-interfered group.Conclusion PEMFs promote bone formation in ROBs by activating the primary cilia-associated cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway.

Animals , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases , Electromagnetic Fields , Osteoblasts , Osteogenesis , Rats , Rats, Wistar