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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888628

ABSTRACT

A project of control of a high voltage pulse generator based on Arduino and its peripheral pulse sensor and temperature sensor was proposed for cell irreversible electroporation (IRE) test. By programming Arduino board, the analog photoelectric signal and the partial voltage signal of thermistor collected by pulse and temperature sensors were converted into digital signal and temperature value. The threshold of ECG R wave (>550) and temperature threshold (<37 oC) was set as trigger condition to control an 800 W high voltage pulse generator to release a fixed period pulse. Human lung cancer cells cultured in vitro were used to test and verify, and cell staining was used to evaluate the perforation. The results showed that Arduino and its sensors were sensitive to trigger and feedback. When the high voltage pulse generator was controlled to release 100 pulses with the parameters of 600 V, 1 200 V/cm and 100 ms pulse width, more than 95% of the cells showed nonthermal irreversible electroporation.


Subject(s)
Electroporation , Humans
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2081-2090, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#High-frequency irreversible electroporation (H-FIRE) is a novel, next-generation nanoknife technology with the advantage of relieving irreversible electroporation (IRE)-induced muscle contractions. However, the difference between IRE and H-FIRE with distinct ablation parameters was not clearly defined. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of the two treatments in vivo.@*METHODS@#Ten Bama miniature swine were divided into two group: five in the 1-day group and five in the 7-day group. The efficacy of IRE and H-FIRE ablation was compared by volume transfer constant (Krans), rate constant (Kep) and extravascular extracellular volume fraction (Ve) value of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), size of the ablation zone, and histologic analysis. Each animal underwent the IRE and H-FIRE. Temperatures of the electrodes were measured during ablation. DCE-MRI images were obtained 1, 4, and 7 days after ablation in the 7-day group. All animals in the two groups were euthanized 1 day or 7 days after ablation, and subsequently, IRE and H-FIRE treated liver tissues were collected for histological examination. Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test was applied for comparing any two groups. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Welch's ANOVA test followed by Holm-Sidak's multiple comparisons test, one-way ANOVA with repeated measures followed by Bonferroni test, or Kruskal-Wallis H test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test was used for multiple group comparisons and post hoc analyses. Pearson correlation coefficient test was conducted to analyze the relationship between two variables.@*RESULTS@#Higher Ve was seen in IRE zone than in H-FIRE zone (0.14 ± 0.02 vs. 0.08 ± 0.05, t = 2.408, P = 0.043) on day 4, but no significant difference was seen in Ktrans or Kep between IRE and H-FIRE zones at all time points (all P > 0.05). For IRE zone, the greatest Ktrans was seen on day 7, which was significantly higher than that on day 1 (P = 0.033). The ablation zone size of H-FIRE was significantly larger than IRE 1 day (4.74 ± 0.88 cm2vs. 3.20 ± 0.77 cm2, t = 3.241, P = 0.009) and 4 days (2.22 ± 0.83 cm2vs. 1.30 ± 0.50 cm2, t = 2.343, P = 0.041) after treatment. Apoptotic index (0.05 ± 0.02 vs. 0.73 ± 0.06 vs. 0.68 ± 0.07, F = 241.300, P  0.05). Electrode temperature variations were not significantly different between the two zones (18.00 ± 3.77°C vs. 16.20 ± 7.45°C, t = 0.682, P = 0.504). The Ktrans value (r = 0.940, P = 0.017) and the Kep value (r = 0.895, P = 0.040) of the H-FIRE zone were positively correlated with the number of hepatocytes in the ablation zone.@*CONCLUSIONS@#H-FIRE showed a comparable ablation effect to IRE. DCE-MRI has the potential to monitor the changes of H-FIRE ablation zone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Contrast Media , Electroporation , Follow-Up Studies , Liver/surgery , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Swine
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922078

ABSTRACT

This study firstly introduced the mechanism, benefits and applications of irreversible electroporation(IRE) for tumor ablation. In addition, this study also introduced the most advanced IRE systems cleared by FDA or CFDA and IRE research equipment. The clinically licensed IRE systems include the Nanoknife 3.0 of Angiodynamics, the Dophi


Subject(s)
Electricity , Electroporation , Heart Rate , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787282

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer has a very poor prognosis. Complete surgical resection remains the only current curative treatment. Locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is considered as unresectable because of involvement of celiac and/or mesenteric vessels. The treatment of LAPC is a challenge. Current guidelines suggest systemic therapy. However, the majority of patients will never experience conversion to surgical resection. Thus, in these patients, ablation is an alternative therapy for local control, which causes local destruction while ideally avoiding injury to surrounding healthy tissue. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is an energy delivery system, effective in ablating tumors by inducing irreversible membrane destruction of cells. IRE demonstrated to be safe in previous studies. However, it is not free from complications, even serious. Here, we reported two cases of the IRE in LAPC patients.


Subject(s)
Electroporation , Humans , Membranes , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Prognosis
5.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 172-182, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739545

ABSTRACT

Rheb (Ras homolog enriched in the brain) is a small GTPase protein that plays an important role in cell signaling for development of the neocortex through modulation of mTORC1 (mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1) activity. mTORC1 is known to control various biological processes including axonal growth in forming complexes at the lysosomal membrane compartment. As such, anchoring of Rheb on the lysosomal membrane via the farnesylation of Rheb at its cysteine residue (C180) is required for its promotion of mTOR activity. To test the significance of Rheb farnesylation, we overexpressed a farnesylation mutant form of Rheb, Rheb C180S, in primary rat hippocampal neurons and also in mouse embryonic neurons using in utero electroporation. Interestingly, we found that Rheb C180S maintained promotional effect of axonal elongation similar to the wild-type Rheb in both test systems. On the other hand, Rheb C180S failed to exhibit the multiple axon-promoting effect which is found in wild-type Rheb. The levels of phospho-4EBP1, a downstream target of mTORC1, were surprisingly increased in Rheb C180S transfected neurons, despite the levels of phosphorylated mTOR being significantly decreased compared to control vector transfectants. A specific mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, also could not completely abolish axon elongation characteristics of Rheb C180S in transfected cells. Our data suggests that Rheb in a non-membrane compartment can promote the axonal elongation via phosphorylation of 4EBP1 and through an mTORC1-independent pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Axons , Biological Phenomena , Cysteine , Electroporation , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Hand , Membranes , Mice , Neocortex , Neurons , Phosphorylation , Prenylation , Protein Prenylation , Rats , Sirolimus , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764050

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) gene therapy on the surface markers, multilineage differentiation, viability, apoptosis, cell cycle, DNA damage and senescence of human Dental Pulp-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (hDPSC). METHODS: hDPSCs were isolated from human teeth, and were cultured with 20% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) in minimum essential media-alpha (α-MEM). TGF-β1 gene transfer into hDPSCs was performed by electroporation method after the plasmid was prepared. The transfection efficiency was achieved by using western blot and flow cytometry analyses and GFP transfection. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, multilineage differentiation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, DNA damage and cellular senescence assays were performed by comparing the transfected and non-transfected cells. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism. RESULTS: Strong expression of TGF-β1 in pCMV-TGF-β1-transfected hDPSCs was detected in flow cytometry analysis. TGF-β1 transfection efficiency was measured as 95%. Western blot analysis showed that TGF-β1 protein levels increased at third and sixth days in pCMV-TGF-β1-transfected hDPSCs. The continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in hDPSCs did not influence the immunophenotype and surface marker expression of MSCs. Our results showed that TGF-β1 increased osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, but decreased adipogenic differentiation. Overexpression of TGF-β1 increased the proliferation rate and decreased total apoptosis in hDPSCs (p<0.05). The number of cells at “S” phase was higher with TGF-β1 transfection (p<0.05). Cellular senescence decreased in TGF-β1 transfected group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results reflect that TGF-β1 has major impact on MSC differentiation. TGF-β1 transfection has positive effect on proliferation, cell cycle, and prevents cellular senescence and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Aging , Apoptosis , Blotting, Western , Cellular Senescence , Cell Cycle , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , DNA Damage , Electroporation , Flow Cytometry , Genetic Therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Plasmids , Population Characteristics , Tooth , Transfection , Transforming Growth Factors
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-771515

ABSTRACT

Ralstonia solanacearum strain PRS-84 used in this study was isolated from diseased Pogostemon cablin plants in our previous study.The competent cells of R.solanacearum strain PRS-84 were transformed by electroporation with Tn5 transposon and then were plated on TTC agar plates containing kanamycin to select for kanamycin-resistant colonies.The detection of kanamycin-resistant gene in kanamycin-resistant colonies was performed by PCR.Further,the flanking fragments of Tn5 transposon insertion site in the mutants were amplified by inverse PCR,and the flanking fragments were sequenced and analyzed.The results indicated that the kanamycin-resistant colonies were obtained in the transformation experiment of R.solanacearum strain PRS-84 by electroporation with Tn5 transposon.A specific band of approximately 700 bp was amplified by PCR from kanamycin-resistant colonies.The flanking sequences of Tn5 transposon insertion site in the transformants were obtained by inverse PCR.After sequencing and sequence analysis of Tn5 transposon insertion site in mutants,we preliminarily speculated that the Tn5 transposon inserted in the typ A gene,rec O gene and gid A gene in three mutants,respectively.A random mutagenesis system of R.solanacearum strain PRS-84 by electroporation with Tn5 transposon has been established,and the Tn5 insertion mutants have been obtained.This study might facilitate the creation of mutant library and the discovery of the virulence gene of R.solanacearum isolated from P.cablin.


Subject(s)
DNA Transposable Elements , Electroporation , Genes, Bacterial , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Pogostemon , Microbiology , Ralstonia solanacearum , Genetics , Virulence
8.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 33: 17-28, May. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025039

ABSTRACT

Genetic manipulation of bacteria is a procedure necessary to obtain new strains that express peculiar and defined genetic determinants or to introduce genetic variants responsible for phenotypic modifications. This procedure can be applied to explore the biotechnological potential associated with environmental bacteria and to utilize the functional properties of specific genes when inserted into an appropriate host. In the past years, marine bacteria have received increasing attention because they represent a fascinating reservoir of genetic and functional diversity that can be utilized to fuel the bioeconomy sector. However, there is an urgent need for an in-depth investigation and improvement of the genetic manipulation tools applicable to marine strains because of the paucity of knowledge regarding this. This review aims to describe the genetic manipulation methods hitherto used in marine bacteria, thus highlighting the limiting factors of the different techniques available today to increase manipulation efficiency. In particular, we focus on methods of natural and artificial transformations (especially electroporation) and conjugation because they have been successfully applied to several marine strains. Finally, we emphasize that, to avoid failure, future work should be carried out to establish tailored methodologies for marine bacteria.


Subject(s)
Seawater/microbiology , Bacteria/genetics , Genetic Engineering , Transformation, Bacterial , Genome , Electroporation , Conjugation, Genetic , Metagenomics , Single-Cell Analysis , Genetic Vectors
9.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2018. 170 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-946740

ABSTRACT

A enzima L-Asparaginase (ASNase) é um biofámaco utilizado no tratamento da leucemia linfoblástica aguda, no entanto, a evolução da produção da ASNase como um medicamento desde o final da década de 1970 resultou em apenas quatro alternativas disponíveis no mercado farmacêutico, com relatos de graves reações imunogênicas e toxicidade. Desse modo, a nanotecnologia é uma plataforma que pode ser explorada para administração dessa enzima diminuindo a exposição da mesma a proteases e aumentando a sua meia-vida aparente. Os polimerossomos (PL) são opções que pela nanoestrutura vesicular poderiam encapsular a ASNase em seu core aquoso e pela presença de uma membrana polimérica, são mais robustos que os lipossomos. Assim, neste trabalho objetivou-se desenvolver PL para encapsulação da ASNase como uma alternativa às formulações deste biofármaco existentes. Foram desenvolvidos PL de PEG-PLA, PMPC-PDPA, PEG-PDPA e Pluronic® L-21. Foram estudados fatores relacionados à composição dos copolímeros (fração hidrofílica, responsividade a fatores externos tais como pH e temperatura) e métodos de elaboração (hidratação do filme polimérico, troca de pH e temperatura) bem como foi feita a caracterização dos PL obtidos (tamanho, índice de polidispersão, espessura de membrana, formação de excessivo bulk polimérico, obtenção de micelas). Também foi feito um planejamento racional para encapsulação da ASNase (hidratação direta do filme polimérico e encapsulação por eletroporação, autoagregação com encapsulação por troca de pH ou de temperatura). Para os PL preparados com PEG-PLA, a extrusão resultou em distribuição de tamanhos mais estreitos correspondentes aos valores de PDI de 0,345, 0,144 e 0,081 para PEG45-PLA69, PEG114-PLA153 e PEG114-PLA180, respectivamente. Foi demonstrado que copolímeros com menor fração hidrofóbica resultam em maior eficiência de encapsulação para proteínas, já que possuem volumes aquosos maiores. Com o PMPC25-PDPA72 foi possível encapsular em média três unidades de ASNase por vesículas através da eletroporação ou troca de pH, sendo que no primeiro método houve formação de túbulos e no último método as micelas não foram completamente removidas. Para PEG100-PDPA80, grandes agregados permaneceram após a purificação levando a um PDI alto, mas não foi observada a formação de túbulos, já a troca de pH para este copolímero resultou em maior perda de copolímeros como bulk polimérico precipitado. Para o copolimero tribloco Pluronic® L-121, foi observado que as vesículas eram estáveis durante uma semana à temperatura ambiente, contrariando o que era descrito na literatura. Nesses sistemas, quando preparados por hidratação do filme, a encapsulação da ASNase foi realizada por eletroporação mas a proteína não foi detectada dentro das vesículas. Atribuímos a não-encapsulação à organização da bicamada Pluronic® L-121 sem conformação definida das cadeias poliméricas, dificultando a reorganização do bloco hidrofílico na porção interna do poro durante eletroporação. Por troca de temperatura, cerca de 5 % de ASNase foi encapsulada e o método resultou em total recuperação da atividade da enzima. Desse modo foram obtidos diferentes PL com diferentes características nanoestruturais de acordo com os copolímeros utilizados para carreamento da ASNase


The enzyme L-Asparaginase (ASNase) is a biopharmaceutical used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, still the industrial production of ASNase as a marketable drug since the late 1970s has resulted in only four alternatives available in the pharmaceutical market, with reports of severe immunogenic reactions and toxicity. In this sense, nanotechnology is a platform that can be exploited to administer this enzyme by decreasing its exposure to proteases and increasing its apparent half-life. Polymerosomes (PL) are interesting routes which by its intrinsically vesicular nanostructure could encapsulate the ASNase in its aqueous core and by the presence of a polymeric membrane, being more robust than the liposomes. Thus, in this work it was intended to develop PL for ASNase encapsulation as an alternative to existing formulations of this biopharmaceutical. PL of PEG-PLA, PMPC-PDPA, PEG-PDPA and Pluronic® L-21 were developed. It was studied the copolymers composition (i.e. hydrophilic fraction, responsiveness to external factors such as pH and temperature), PL design (i.e. polymer film hydration, pH change and temperature) and PL characterization (i.e. size, polydispersity index - PDI, membrane thickness, formation of excessive polymer bulk, micelles production). A suitable experimental planning for ASNase encapsulation (i.e. direct hydration of the polymeric film and encapsulation by electroporation, self-aggregation with encapsulation by pH or temperature change) was also performed. For the PL prepared with PEG-PLA, the extrusion resulted in narrower size distribution corresponding to the PDI values of 0.345, 0.144 and 0.081 for PEG45-PLA69, PEG114-PLA153 and PEG114-PLA180, respectively. It has been shown that copolymers with lower hydrophobic fraction result in higher encapsulation efficiency for proteins, since they have larger aqueous volumes. With PMPC25-PDPA72 PL, it was possible to encapsulate three units of ASNase per vesicles through electroporation or pH change. In the first method, tubules were formed and in the latter one the micelles were not completely removed. For PEO100-PDPA80 PL, large aggregates remained after purification leading to a high PDI value, nevertheless no tubule formation was observed, since the pH change for this copolymer resulted in greater loss of copolymers as a precipitated polymer bulk. For the Pluronic® L-121 triblock copolymer PL, it was observed that the vesicles were stable for one week at room temperature, contrary to what was described in the literature. These PLs were prepared by film hydration method and ASNase encapsulation was performed by electroporation, nonetheless the protein was not detected within the vesicles. It is attributed the non-encapsulation to the organization of the Pluronic® L-121 bilayer without defined conformation of the polymer chains, making it difficult to reorganize the hydrophilic block in the internal portion of the pore during electroporation. By temperature change, about 5% of ASNase was encapsulated and the method resulted in complete recovery of enzyme activity. In conclusion, several PLs with a vast range of differential nanostructural characteristics were obtained according to the copolymers used for ASNase loading


Subject(s)
Asparaginase/analysis , Nanostructures/classification , Capsules , Electroporation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy
10.
Biomedical Engineering Letters ; (4): 273-282, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716359

ABSTRACT

The electrical conductivity is a passive material property primarily determined by concentrations of charge carriers and their mobility. The macroscopic conductivity of a biological tissue at low frequency may exhibit anisotropy related with its structural directionality. When expressed as a tensor and properly quantified, the conductivity tensor can provide diagnostic information of numerous diseases. Imaging conductivity distributions inside the human body requires probing it by externally injecting conduction currents or inducing eddy currents. At low frequency, the Faraday induction is negligible and it has been necessary in most practical cases to inject currents through surface electrodes. Here we report a novel method to reconstruct conductivity tensor images using an MRI scanner without current injection. This electrodeless method of conductivity tensor imaging (CTI) utilizes B1 mapping to recover a high-frequency isotropic conductivity image which is influenced by contents in both extracellular and intracellular spaces. Multi-b diffusion weighted imaging is then utilized to extract the effects of the extracellular space and incorporate its directional structural property. Implementing the novel CTI method in a clinical MRI scanner, we reconstructed in vivo conductivity tensor images of canine brains. Depending on the details of the implementation, it may produce conductivity contrast images for conductivity weighted imaging (CWI). Clinical applications of CTI and CWI may include imaging of tumor, ischemia, inflammation, cirrhosis, and other diseases. CTI can provide patient-specific models for source imaging, transcranial dc stimulation, deep brain stimulation, and electroporation.


Subject(s)
Animal Experimentation , Animals , Anisotropy , Brain , Deep Brain Stimulation , Diffusion , Electric Conductivity , Electrodes , Electroporation , Extracellular Space , Fibrosis , Human Body , Inflammation , Intracellular Space , Ischemia , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methods
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare short-, mid-, and long-term follow-up ablation zone volume alterations as well as imaging features on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) after irreversible electroporation (IRE) of primary and secondary liver tumors with findings subsequent to radiofrequency ablation (RFA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Volume assessment of 39 ablation zones (19 RFA, 20 IRE) after intervention was performed at four time intervals (day 0 [t1; n = 39], day 1–7 [t2; n = 25], day 8–55 [t3; n = 28], after day 55 [t4; n = 23]) on dual-phase CT. Analysis of peripheral rim enhancement was conducted. Lesion's volume decrease relative to the volume at t1 was calculated and statistically analyzed with respect to patient's sex, age, ablation modality (IRE/RFA), and history of platinum-based chemotherapy (PCT). RESULTS: No influence of patient's sex or age on ablation volume was detected. The decrease in ablation zones' volume was significantly larger (p < 0.05 for all time intervals) after IRE (arterial phase, 7.5%; venous phase, 9.7% of initial volume) compared to RFA (arterial phase, 39.6%; venous phase, 45.3% of initial volume). After RFA, significantly smaller decreases in the ablation volumes, in general, were detected in patients treated with PCT in their history (p = 0.004), which was not detected after IRE (p = 0.288). In the arterial phase, peripheral rim enhancement was frequently detected after both IRE and RFA. In the venous phase, rim-enhancement was depicted significantly more often following IRE at t1 and t2 (pt1 = 0.003, pt2 < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As per our analysis, ablation zone volume decreased significantly in a more rapid and more profound manner after IRE. Lesion's remodeling after RFA but not IRE seems to be influenced by PCT, possibly due to the type of cell death induced by the different ablation modalities.


Subject(s)
Catheter Ablation , Cell Death , Drug Therapy , Electroporation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver , Tumor Burden
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1581-1590, nov.-dez. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-910773

ABSTRACT

Electrochemotherapy is a local anticancer treatment in which non-permeant chemotherapeutic drugs are associated with electric pulses of well-established parameters. The electric pulses cause pores to open on the plasma membrane and facilitate drug transport, enhancing cytotoxicity and reducing side effects. Assessment of electrochemotherapy effects on Ehrlich solid tumor development in this work aims to evaluate in vivo usage of the electroporator device developed by the Department of Electrical Engineering of Engineering School of UFMG. Therefore, 40 Swiss mice were inoculated with Ehrlich tumor cells, and developed the tumor in solid form. After 21 days, mice were subjected to specific treatment protocols (control, bleomycin, electric pulses and electrochemotherapy); 17 days later they were euthanized and the tumors collected for histopathology analysis. Electrochemotherapy induced discrete weight loss and an inflammatory response in the tumor, which was not seen on the other treatment groups. Bleomycin alone induced necrosis. Both groups showed lower cellular proliferation rates. From this study, it was concluded that the animals tolerated electrochemotherapy treatment under anesthesia and the electroporator device developed by the Engineering School of UFMG was adequate when used in an electrochemotherapy protocol.(AU)


Eletroquimioterapia é uma modalidade de tratamento local contra o câncer em que a administração de quimioterápicos não penetrantes à membrana plasmática é associada à aplicação de pulsos elétricos com parâmetros bem estabelecidos, que abrem poros na membrana plasmática e facilitam a entrada desses fármacos nas células, aumentando sua citotoxicidade e reduzindo efeitos colaterais. A avaliação dos efeitos da eletroquimioterapia sobre o desenvolvimento do tumor sólido de Ehrlich em camundongos Swiss neste trabalho teve como objetivo testar o uso in vivo do aparelho eletroporador desenvolvido pelo Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica da Escola de Engenharia da UFMG. Para tanto, foram utilizados 40 camundongos fêmeas da linhagem Swiss, nos quais foram inoculadas células de tumor de Ehrlich, para o desenvolvimento do tumor na forma sólida. Após 21 dias, os camundongos foram submetidos ao protocolo de tratamento específico (controle, bleomicina, pulsos elétricos e eletroquimioterapia); 17 dias depois foram eutanasiados e seus tumores coletados para análise histopatológica e imuno-histoquímica. A eletroquimioterapia induziu perda de peso discreta e uma resposta inflamatória no tumor que não foi observada nos outros grupos. O grupo bleomicina apresentou maior porcentagem de necrose. Ambos os grupos apresentaram menor índice de proliferação celular. Com este estudo, pode-se concluir que o tratamento sob anestesia foi bem tolerado pelos animais e que o aparelho eletroporador desenvolvido pela Escola de Engenharia da UFMG é adequado para utilização em um protocolo de eletroquimioterapia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor/therapy , Electrochemotherapy/veterinary , Electroporation/veterinary
13.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 30: 118-124, nov. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021652

ABSTRACT

Background: Zymomonas mobilis is a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterium with excellent ethanol-producing capabilities. The RecET recombination system provides an efficient tool for direct targeting of genes in the bacterial chromosome by PCR fragments. Results: The plasmids pSUZM2a-RecET and pSUZM2a-RecE588T were first developed to co-express RecE or RecE588 and RecT for homologous recombination. Thereafter, the PCR fragments of the tetracycline resistance marker gene flanked by 60 bp of adhA (alcohol dehydrogenase I) or adhB (alcohol dehydrogenase II) homologous sequences were electroporated directly into ZM4 cells harboring pSUZM2a-RecET or pSUZM2a-RecE588T. Both adhA and adhB were replaced by the tetracycline resistance gene in ZM4, yielding two mutant strains, Z. mobilis ZM4 ΔadhA and Z. mobilis ZM4 ΔadhB. These two mutants showed varying extent of reduction in ethanol production, biomass generation, and glucose metabolism. Furthermore, enzyme activity of alcohol dehydrogenase II in Z. mobilis ZM4 ΔadhB exhibited a significant reduction compared to that of wild-type ZM4. Conclusion: This approach provided a simple and useful method for introducing mutations and heterologous genes in the Z. mobilis genome.


Subject(s)
Zymomonas/genetics , Homologous Recombination , Plasmids , Recombination, Genetic , Alcohol Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Zymomonas/enzymology , Electroporation , Ethanol/metabolism , Gene Knockout Techniques , Mutation
14.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 117-122, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-105547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2013, human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus emerged in China, causing serious public health concerns and raising the possibility of avian-source pandemic influenza. Thus, the development of an effective vaccine for preventing and rapidly controlling avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is needed. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of a synthetic DNA vaccine against H7 HA antigens in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The synthetic consensus H7 HA DNA vaccine (25 or 50 µg) was administered to BALB/c mice at 0, 14, and 28 days by intramuscular injection followed by electroporation. Humoral and cellular immune responses were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition test and interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay, respectively. RESULTS: H7 HA-vaccinated mice showed 100% seroprotection and seroconversion rate against H7N9 reassortant influenza virus after both second and third immunizations. The geometric mean titer by the hemagglutination inhibition test increased with an increasing number of immunizations. However, there was no significant difference in geometric titer between the two groups injected with 25 and 50 µg of H7 HA DNA vaccine after two (79.98 vs. 107.65, P = 0.39) and three (159.96 vs. 215.28, P = 0.18) doses. In addition, the ELISpot assay revealed that administration of H7 HA DNA vaccine induced potent interferon-gamma production from mouse splenocytes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the humoral and cellular immunogenicity of synthetic consensus H7 HA DNA vaccine in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of the H7 HA DNA vaccine as an efficient tool for the rapid control of emerging influenza A (H7N9) virus.


Subject(s)
Animals , China , Consensus , DNA , Electroporation , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunization , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Injections, Intramuscular , Interferon-gamma , Mice , Orthomyxoviridae , Pandemics , Public Health , Seroconversion
15.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 514-526, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-756974

ABSTRACT

The generation of T cells with maximal anti-tumor activities will significantly impact the field of T-cell-based adoptive immunotherapy. In this report, we found that OKT3/IL-2-stimulated T cells were phenotypically more heterogeneous, with enhanced anti-tumor activity in vitro and when locally administered in a solid tumor mouse model. To further improve the OKT3/IL-2-based T cell manufacturing procedure, we developed a novel T cell stimulation and expansion method in which peripheral blood mononuclear cells were electroporated with mRNA encoding a chimeric membrane protein consisting of a single-chain variable fragment against CD3 and the intracellular domains of CD28 and 4-1BB (OKT3-28BB). The expanded T cells were phenotypically and functionally similar to T cells expanded by OKT3/IL-2. Moreover, co-electroporation of CD86 and 4-1BBL could further change the phenotype and enhance the in vivo anti-tumor activity. Although T cells expanded by the co-electroporation of OKT3-28BB with CD86 and 4-1BBL showed an increased central memory phenotype, the T cells still maintained tumor lytic activities as potent as those of OKT3/IL-2 or OKT3-28BB-stimulated T cells. In different tumor mouse models, T cells expanded by OKT3-28BB RNA electroporation showed anti-tumor activities superior to those of OKT3/IL-2 T cells. Hence, T cells with both a less differentiated phenotype and potent tumor killing ability can be generated by RNA electroporation, and this T cell manufacturing procedure can be further optimized by simply co-delivering other splices of RNA, thus providing a simple and cost-effective method for generating high-quality T cells for adoptive immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD28 Antigens , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Electroporation , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Interleukin-2 , Allergy and Immunology , K562 Cells , Mice , Muromonab-CD3 , Allergy and Immunology , Neoplasms, Experimental , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Pathology , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , T-Lymphocytes , Allergy and Immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily, Member 9 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 297-302, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787562

ABSTRACT

A eletroquimioterapia compreende a utilização conjunta de fármacos antineoplásicos e aplicação regional de pulsos elétricos (eletroporação), maximizando a concentração intracelular destes fármacos, assim propiciando maior ação citotóxica. A bleomicina, fármaco antimicrobiano dotado de propriedade antineoplásica, apresenta restrita penetrabilidade na membrana celular, dada a sua hidrossolubilidade. Todavia, uma vez administrada via intralesional ou intravenosa associada à eletroporação, demonstra citotoxicidade potencializada. Foram utilizados 21 felinos acometidos por carcinoma de células escamosas tegumentar. Padronizou-se o protocolo eletroquimioterápico empregando-se sulfato de bleomicina, pela via intravenosa, na dose de 15U/m2 de superfície corpórea. A eletroporação foi perfilada com eletrodo composto por agulhas, pulsos elétricos com tensão de 1000 V, em onda quadrada unipolar, com duração de 100 microsegundos, totalizando oito ciclos. Verificou-se remissão neoplásica integral em 21 felinos inclusos no estudo (100%). Inexistiram complicações e/ou efeitos adversos decorrentes do procedimento. O protocolo avaliado neste trabalho revelou-se exequível, eficaz e seguro na terapêutica antineoplásica de carcinoma de células escamosas tegumentar felino.


Electrochemotherapy is characterized as a protocol which combines the use of antineoplastic agents and localized application of electric pulses (electroporation) to improve the intracellular concentration of these agents, increasing its cytotoxic action. Bleomycin, an antibiotic agent with antineoplastic properties, is a hydrophilic molecule, having a restricted transport through the cellular membrane. However, when it is administered intralesionally or intravenously and associated to electroporation, its cytotoxicity is maximized. There were utilized 21 cats affected by cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. The electrochemotherapy protocol was standardized using intravenous bleomycin sulfate at a dose of 15U/m2 body surface area. Electroporation was performed using an electrode composed of needles and electric pulses with 1000 V voltage, in unipolar square wave and 100 microseconds duration, totalizing eight cycles. There was complete neoplastic remission in 21 cats (100%). There were no complications or side effects associated with the procedure. The protocol studied in this work showed to be feasible, effective and safe for antineoplastic therapy in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/veterinary , Electroporation/veterinary , Electrochemotherapy , Electrochemotherapy/veterinary , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/veterinary
17.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2016. 130 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-881903

ABSTRACT

O reconhecimento de bactérias invasoras pelas células hospedeiras através do processo autofágico é um fator chave na determinação da infecção bacteriana. Escherichia coli enteroinvasora (EIEC) possui uma proteína, denominada IcsB, que em estudos em Shigella, é responsável pela inativação deste processo de degradação bacteriana. Uma vez que EIEC expressa menos IcsB do que S. flexneri, nos propusemos a investigar o processo autofágico na infecção por EIEC, utilizando as técnicas de mutação gênica por inserção, western-blot, microscopia de fluorescência e eletrônica de transmissão e microarray. Verificamos que a proteína IcsB é um fator de virulência importante na camuflagem de EIEC, pois quando pouco ou nada expresso, há um maior reconhecimento da bactéria pelas células hospedeiras, favorecendo sua menor disseminação. Isto corrobora não somente com a transcrição gênica, mas com a importância da sequência de nucleotídeos deste gene, uma vez que a cepa de E. coli SM124/13 complementada com o icsB de Shigella se mostrou mais eficiente na disseminação dentro da célula hospedeira. De forma interessante, IcsB apresentou um papel inédito na regulação da resposta inflamatória das células HeLa, onde a ausência de IcsB em EIEC promoveu uma intensa perturbação na homeostase da célula hospedeira, com aumento da secreção de IL-6, IL-8 e morte celular. Adicionalmente, ficou evidente que a célula eucariótica responde de maneira distinta frente a infecção por EIEC e Shigella flexneri. EIEC provavelmente ativou o processo autofágico em células humanas de forma não canônica. Nossa hipótese seria de que EIEC é reconhecida pelo processo autofágico, podendo ser este um importante fenômeno de reconhecimento bacteriano que colabore para a menor disseminação intracelular de EIEC, e assim tornar sua doença mais branda, quando comparada com a infecção por Shigella


The invasive bacteria recognition by host cells through autophagy is a key factor for determining bacterial infection. Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) express a protein IcsB, which in Shigella, is known for inactivating the bacterial degradation process. Once EIEC showed less expression of icsB when compared to S. flexneri, we proposed to investigate the autophagy caused by EIEC infection, using techniques such as gene mutation by insertion, western blot, fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and microarray. Our results showed that IcsB protein is an important virulence factor in EIEC because it causes a camouflage of the bacteria in the eukaryotic cell. When there is a low expression of the protein, the cell recognition of the invasive bacteria is high, decreasing the bacteria dissemination. This found confirms the importance of the gene transcription and the gene sequence, since the strain E. coli SM124/13, complemented with icsB from Shigella, showed higher dissemination efficiency inside of the host cell. Interestingly, IcsB showed a new role on regulating the inflammatory response in Hela cells. The absence of IcsB in EIEC generated an intense disturbance of the cell homeostasis, increased the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, and caused cell death. Additionally, our results revealed that eukaryotic cell infected by EIEC or Shigella flexneri showed distinguish responses. In EIEC infection, the autophagy was activated in human cells, but not in a conventional mode. Our hypothesis is that EIEC is recognized by autophagy, being an important cell process for bacterial recognition. This process can cause a decrease in the intracellular spread of EIEC making the infection less severe when compared to the infection caused by Shigella


Subject(s)
Shigella/growth & development , Escherichia coli/classification , Autophagy , Virulence , Electroporation/methods , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Infections/drug therapy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-123553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Resection or enucleation is currently the treatment of choice for small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Irreversible electroporation is a novel ablative method that is used for locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, but little data exists for its use for pancreatic NETs. We report an early experience of IRE for early pancreatic NETs. METHODS: Between April 2014 and March 2015, 3 patients with small (<2 cm) pancreatic NETs were treated with percutaneous IRE. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects during the procedure. Mean hospital stay was 2.6 days. All patients remained disease free on 12-19 months follow up. One patient developed recurrent pancreatitis with pseudocyst formation. CONCLUSIONS: IRE for small tumors of the pancreas is practical and may offer advantages over other thermal ablative techniques, since it preserves vital structures such as blood vessels, bile and pancreatic ducts. Further data regarding the long term disease free interval is required to establish efficacy.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Bile , Blood Vessels , Electroporation , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Methods , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Pancreas , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatitis
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2920-2925, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230852

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC) is characterized by poor prognosis despite recommended concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has emerged as a potential option for the management of unresectable pancreatic cancer. This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and short-term efficacy of open IRE for the treatment of LAPC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Retrospective data of 25 consecutive patients receiving IRE for T3 lesions from July 2015 to June 2016 at a single center were analyzed. The perioperative and long-term IRE-related complications were reviewed to evaluate the safety of the procedure. The tumor reduction and biological response were analyzed through computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging; the serum level of CA19-9 was measured as a secondary endpoint to evaluate the short-term efficacy of IRE.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All patients were successfully treated; the median tumor size was 4.2 cm and the median IRE time was 36 min. Four intraoperative procedure-related complications were observed (16%): two transient hypertensive episodes, one hypotension case, and one transient supraventricular tachycardia case. Nine postoperative complications were described, including three Grade A pancreatic fistulas, three delayed gastric emptying, one acute pancreatitis, one upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and one portal vein thrombosis. The overall rate of stable disease was 28%, 36% achieved partial response, and lower serum CA19-9 levels were recorded in all patients at discharge.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>IRE is feasible for the treatment of LAPC and is a reasonable intervention strategy owing to its combined attributes of safety and efficacy.</p>


Subject(s)
Ablation Techniques , Methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CA-19-9 Antigen , Blood , Electroporation , Methods , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Blood , Pathology , General Surgery , Postoperative Complications , Blood , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 849-854, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755818

ABSTRACT

The experiment aimed to specifically monitor the passage of lactobacilli in vivo after oral administration. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was cloned downstream from the constitutive p32 promoter from L. lactis subsp. cremoris Wg2. The recombinant expression vector, pLEM415-gfp-p32, was electroporated into Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) isolated from goat. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was successfully expressed in L. plantarum. After 2 h post-administration, transformed Lactobacillus could be detectable in all luminal contents. In the rumen, bacteria concentration initially decreased, reached the minimum at 42 h post-oral administration and then increased. However, this concentration decreased constantly in the duodenum. This result indicated that L. plantarum could colonize in the rumen but not in the duodenum.

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Subject(s)
Animals , Duodenum/microbiology , Goats/microbiology , Lactobacillus plantarum/physiology , Rumen/microbiology , Administration, Oral , Electroporation , Fluorescence , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Plasmids/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics
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