Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 297
Filter
1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0026, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376786

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe an innovative animal model of eye transplantation used in rabbits. Methods: six Dutch-belted male rabbits were submitted to lateral orbitotomy in the right eye, wide retrobulbar anatomy exposure, dissection of the structures, identification and distal section of the optic nerve followed by anastomosis either by vicryl (group 1) or fibrin glue (group 2). Electroretinography recording was performed before the section of the optic nerve and every 30 seconds after, to monitor the function of retina. Left eye was used as control group. Results: After optic nerve resection and anastomosis, stable ERG amplitude of the right eye was lost after 302 seconds in group 1 and after 296 seconds on group 2. Left eye kept longer stable ERG amplitude curves. Conclusions: The animal model of whole eye transplantation was effective in describing a novel technique to be used in rabbits, with success of the anatomic procedure. Further studies will clarify the best anastomosis methods and maintenance of function of the receptor organ. Translational relevance: this animal model of whole eye transplantation provides a novel perspective for blind patients and the research models, since we describe a novel mammal animal model. This model can be used as basis of a human model of whole eye transplantation in future studies.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever uma técnica cirúrgica inovadora para transplante de olho em um modelo animal em coelhos. Métodos: Seis coelhos machos com Dutch Belted foram submetidos à orbitotomia lateral do olho direito, com ampla exposição da anatomia retrobulbar, dissecção do cone muscular, exposição e secção distal do nervo óptico seguida de anastomose por vicryl (Grupo 1) ou cola de fibrina (Grupo 2). O registro da eletrorretinografia foi realizado antes da secção do nervo óptico e a cada 30 segundos após, para monitorar a função da retina. O olho esquerdo foi usado como grupo controle. Resultados: Após a ressecção do nervo óptico, a estabilidade da amplitude da eletrorretinografia foi perdida no olho direito após 302 segundos no Grupo 1 e após 296 segundos no Grupo 2. O olho esquerdo manteve eletrorretinografia estável por períodos mais longos. Conclusão: O modelo animal de transplante total de olho foi eficaz em descrever uma nova técnica cirúrgica para ser utilizada em laboratório com coelhos, com sucesso do procedimento anatômico. Novos estudos esclarecerão os melhores métodos de anastomose e manutenção da função do órgão receptor.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Optic Nerve/surgery , Retina/physiology , Electroretinography , Eye/transplantation , Orbit/surgery , Rabbits , Retinal Ganglion Cells/physiology , Anastomosis, Surgical , Eye Enucleation , Models, Animal , Slit Lamp Microscopy
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 84(4): 367-373, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Stargardt disease is the most common type of juvenile-onset macular dystrophy. It is bilateral and symmetrical in appearance, affects the macula, and its main characteristic is the loss of central vision that starts in the first or second decade of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the profile of the patients evaluated at the Complexo Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, as well as describe the electroretinographic findings with the full-field electroretinogram in these patients. Methods: An observational, retrospective study was performed by analysis of records and electroretinographic examinations of 27 patients with Stargardt disease and fundus flavimaculatus who were treated at the Complexo Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná's Department of Ocular Electrophysiology and Neuro-Ophthalmology between 1997 and 2014. The patients included in this study presented clinical features, fundus examination and/or electroretinographic findings compatible with Stargardt disease. Results: The visual acuity in the best eye varied from 0 to 1.6 logMAR (20/20 to 20/800) with an average of 0.89 ± 0.42 logMAR. The age at onset of symptoms varied from since birth to 36 years old (average 19.2 ± 9.2) with the majority of patients having symptom onset in the first or second decade of life. The mean time from the disease's first symptoms until the diagnosis was 7.3 years. In the fundus examination, every patient presented some kind of abnormality. In the electroretinogram analysis, the majority of patients had results that differed from those of sample controls, i.e., reduced amplitude and increased implicit time in the photopic and scotopic phases. Conclusions: The visual acuity and the age at symptoms onset in this study were compatible with the natural history of this dystrophy. The typical fundus appearance of Stargardt disease and altered electroretinogram were more frequent because of the delay until diagnosis. New prospective studies are necessary to evaluate these patients based on emergent technologies.


RESUMO Objetivo: A doença de Stargardt é a forma mais comum de distrofia macular de início juvenil. É bilateral e simétrica em aparência, afeta a mácula e sua característica principal é a diminuição da visão central que geralmente inicia-se na primeira ou segunda década de vida. O objetivo do estudo é descrever o perfil clínico dos pacientes avaliados no Complexo Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, bem como descrever os achados eletrorretinográficos destes pacientes com o eletrorretinograma de campo total. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo observacional retrospectivo, baseado na análise de prontuários e eletrorretinograma de 27 pacientes com Doença de Stargardt e Fundus Flavimaculatus, atendidos em consulta oftalmológica no ambulatório de Eletrofisiologia Ocular e Neuro-Oftalmologia do Complexo Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, entre 1997 e 2014. Os pacientes incluídos no estudo apresentavam quadro clínico, fundoscopia e/ou achados eletrorretinográficos compatíveis com a doença. Resultados: A acuidade visual no melhor olho variou de 0 a 1,6 logMAR (20/20 a 20/800), com média de 0,89 ± 0,42 logMAR. A idade de aparecimento dos sintomas variou desde o nascimento a 36 anos (19,2 ± 9,2), sendo a maioria nas 1ª e 2ª década de vida. Em relação ao tempo entre o início dos sintomas e o diagnóstico, a média foi de 7,3 anos. Na fundoscopia, todos os pacientes apresentaram alguma alteração. Na análise do eletrorretinograma, a maioria dos pacientes demonstrou resultados que diferem da amostra de pacientes controles, ou seja, amplitudes reduzidas e tempos de culminação aumentados nas fases fotópicas e escotópicas. Conclusões: A acuidade visual e idade de início de aparecimento dos sintomas encontrados neste estudo são compatíveis com a evolução desta distrofia. Achados fundoscópicos típicos da doença de Stargardt e eletrorretinograma alterados foram mais frequentes em decorrência do atraso no diagnóstico. Novos estudos prospectivos são necessários para avaliar estes pacientes, fundamentando-se em novas tecnologias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Macular Degeneration , Brazil/epidemiology , Fluorescein Angiography , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Electroretinography , Fundus Oculi , Stargardt Disease , Hospitals , Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Macular Degeneration/epidemiology
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): e0025, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1288629

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Ocular involvement can occur at any time, and it may affect 10% of patients in the secondary stage, and from 2% to 5% in the tertiary stage. Uveitis is the most common presentation of ocular syphilis, affecting 0.4% to 8% of patients with systemic disease. Chorioretinitis is the most common posterior alteration. We present the case of a 53-year-old male patient, presenting with bilateral low visual acuity and nyctalopia for 3 years. His physical examination revealed decreased pupillary reflex, anterior vitreous cells, physiologic papillae, arteriolar attenuation, reduced foveal reflex, diffuse retinal pigment epithelium atrophy, peripapillary and perivascular punctate pigment accumulation and peripheral chorioretinitis. Full-field electroretinogram was extinct in both eyes. Treponemal syphilis test was positive. Previously diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa, evolved to blindness, despite proper treatment. Our case shows syphilis as a significant cause of blindness. Atypical presentations of retinitis pigmentosa must warn ophthalmologists to etiologies of pseudoretinitis pigmentosa, such as syphilis.


RESUMO A sífilis é uma infecção sexualmente transmissível causada pela espiroqueta Treponema pallidum. A sífilis ocular pode ocorrer em qualquer estágio da doença, chegando a 10% na forma secundária e a 2% a 5% em sua forma terciária. A uveíte é a manifestação ocular mais comum, ocorrendo em 0,4% a 8% dos pacientes com a doença sistêmica. A coriorretinite é a manifestação mais comum do segmento posterior. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, com queixa de baixa acuidade visual e nictalopia há ٣ anos. Seu exame físico revelou lentificação dos reflexos pupilares, celularidade no vítreo anterior, papilas fisiológicas, atenuação arteriolar, redução do reflexo foveal, atrofia difusa do epitélio pigmentar da retina, acúmulo punctato de pigmento em regiões peripapilar e perivascular e coriorretinite periférica. Eletrorretinograma de campo total extinto em ambos os olhos. O teste treponêmico foi positivo. Foi previamente diagnosticado como portador de retinose pigmentar, evoluindo com cegueira, a despeito do tratamento correto instituído. Esse caso mostra a sífilis como importante causadora de cegueira. Casos atípicos de retinose pigmentar devem alertar o oftalmologista para causas de pseudorretinose pigmentar, como a sífilis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Syphilis/complications , Retinitis Pigmentosa/etiology , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Syphilis Serodiagnosis/methods , Fluorescein Angiography , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/drug therapy , Visual Acuity , Uveitis, Posterior/diagnosis , Uveitis, Posterior/etiology , Retinitis Pigmentosa/diagnosis , Blindness/etiology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Electroretinography , Fundus Oculi
4.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(2): 128-130, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137943

ABSTRACT

Resumo Apresentamos um caso de distrofia macular oculta bilateral, em paciente de 70 anos com queixa de baixa acuidade visual progressiva, sem achados fundoscópicos ou angiográficos justificáveis. Foram realizados exames de imagem do sistema nervoso central que afastaram lesões expansivas e testes eletrofisiológicos que sugeriram diagnóstico.


Abstract We report a case of bilateral occult macular dystrophy in a 70-year-old woman with progressive low visual acuity, without justifiable fundoscopic or angiographic findings. Imaging tests were done to excluding expansive lesions and electrophysiological tests that suggested the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Visual Acuity , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Electrophysiology/methods , Electroretinography/methods , Macular Degeneration/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
5.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(5): 363-371, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019434

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: As a class of psychostimulant drugs, amphetamines are widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, and hallucinogenic properties. Many of these effects result from acute increases in dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission. Following the onset of these effects, 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine produces persistent damage to dopamine and serotonin nerve terminals, resulting in long-lasting neurotoxicity. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of treatment with low dose of methylenedioxymethamphetamine on retinal function of C57BL/6 mice and its underlying mechanisms. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into two groups (n=10): one group was treated with phosphate buffered saline by intraperitoneal injection daily; the other group was treated with 1 mg/kg methylenedioxymethamphetamine by intraperitoneal injection daily for three months. Electroretinography was used to test retinal function every month. H&E staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay were used to evaluate the retinal morphology and histology. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assays were used to measure markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. Gene and protein expression was detected by real-time PCR and western blot. Results: Three-month treatment with methylenedioxymethamphetamine induced significant retinal dysfunction via photoreceptor cell apoptosis by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Conclusions: These results suggest that long-term treatment with methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases inflammatory responses in photoreceptor cells resulting in retinal dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, this investigation provides preclinical rationale for the retina damage caused by the methylenedioxymethamphetamine abuse.


RESUMO Objetivos: Como uma classe de drogas psicoesti mulantes, as anfetaminas são amplamente usadas por suas propriedades estimulantes, eufóricas e alucinógenas. Muitos desses efeitos resultam de aumentos agudos na neurotransmissão da dopamina e da serotonina. Após o início desses efeitos, a 3,4-metilenedioximetanfetamina produz danos persistentes nos terminais nervosos de dopamina e serotonina, resultando em neurotoxicidade duradoura. O objetivo desta investigação foi avaliar os efeitos do tratamento baixa dose de metilenedioximetanfetamina na função da retina em camundongos C57BL/6 e seus mecanismos subjacentes. Métodos: Camundongos C57BL/6 foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (n=10): um grupo foi tratado com solução salina tamponada de fosfato por injeção intraperitoneal diária; o outro grupo foi tratado com 1 mg/kg de metilenedioximetanfetamina por injeção intraperitoneal diária durante 3 meses. Eletroretinografia foi utilizada para testar a função da retina a cada mês. A coloração H&E e análise com deoxinucleotidil terminal transferase foram utilizados para avaliar a morfologia e histologia da retina. Testes de imunoabsorção enzimática foram utilizados para medir marcadores de estresse oxidativo e fatores inflamatórios. A expressão de genes e proteínas foi detectada por PCR em tempo real e western blot. Resultados: O tratamento de três meses com metilenedioximetanfetamina induziu disfunção de retina significativa por apoptose de células fotorreceptoras por estresse oxidativo e resposta inflamatória. Conclusões: Estes resultados sugerem que o tratamento a longo prazo com metilenedioximetanfetamina aumenta as respostas inflamatórias em células fotorreceptoras, resultando em disfunção de retina em camundongos C57BL/6. Assim, a investigação foence uma justificação pré-clínica para os danos na retina causados pelo abuso de metilenedioximetanfetamina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Retinal Degeneration/drug therapy , Eye Injuries/drug therapy , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine/toxicity , Retinal Degeneration/genetics , Eye Injuries/genetics , Blotting, Western , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Electroretinography , Mice, Inbred C57BL
6.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 999-1005, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766830

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We report a case of fundus albipunctatus discovered in a young patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 7.6-year-old female showed numerous small whitish-yellow flecks in the perimacular area and retinal periphery. Dark adapted 0.01 electroretinography (ERG) and dark adapted 3.0 ERG were profoundly reduced. At 26 months after the first visit, the best-corrected visual acuities were 1.0 right eye and 0.9 left eye. There were no pigmented lesions, atrophic lesions, or vascular abnormalities in the retina. Humphrey and Goldmann visual field tests were performed, but neither of the tests revealed any scotomas or other visual field defect. The number and size of characteristic numerous small whitish-yellow retinal flecks seemed almost unchanged. In spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the subretinal hyper-reflective lesions spanned the retinal pigment epithelium and the external limiting membrane. ERG showed improved dark adapted responses (dark adapted 0.01 ERG and dark adapted 3.0 ERG) after prolonged dark adaptation (2.5 hours). No family member showed any abnormal findings. CONCLUSIONS: Fundus albipunctatus is a rare disease in Koreans. We report a case diagnosed using fundus photography, SD-OCT, visual field tests, and ERG after prolonged dark adaptation (2.5 hours).


Subject(s)
Child , Female , Humans , Dark Adaptation , Electroretinography , Membranes , Photography , Rare Diseases , Retina , Retinal Pigment Epithelium , Retinaldehyde , Scotoma , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Visual Field Tests , Visual Fields
7.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(6): 524-528, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973855

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Alström syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by mutations to the ALMS1 gene and clinical findings of childhood obesity, diabetes mellitus, dilated cardiomyopathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive cone-rod dystrophy, which may result in blindness. Ocular manifestations occur in the first decade of life with nystagmus, blepharospasm, and photophobia leading to progressive and severe reductions in visual acuity. This study describes the retinal structure and functional aspects of four patients (8 eyes) from two different families as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and full-field electroretinography. There was a correlation between morphological and functional findings, evidenced by typical funduscopic changes of retinal dystrophy in spectral domain-OCT and electrophysiological analyses. Foveal characteristics include a single layer of undifferentiated photoreceptors with retinal disorganization mainly from external segments, in agreement with previous reports in the literature. Fundus autofluorescence showed areas of hyperautofluorescence interspersed by hypoautofluorescence dots suggesting, respectively, involvement and atrophy of retinal pigmented epithelial cells in the macular zone. Electroretinographic analyses showed early dysfunction of the cones followed by rapid rod deterioration.


RESUMO A síndrome de Alström é uma doença rara caracterizada por mutações no gene AMLS 1 e achados clínicos de obesidade infantil, diabetes mellitus, cardiomiopatia dilatada, surdez neurossensorial e distrofia de cones e bastonetes progressiva, que podem resultar em cegueira. Manifestações oftalmológicas ocorrem na primeira década de vida com nistagmo, blefaroespasmo e fotofobia, levando a reduções progressivas e graves na acuidade visual. Este estudo descreve a estrutura da retina e os aspectos funcionais de quatro pacientes (oito olhos) de duas famílias dis tintas, conforme determinado por tomografia de coerência óptica, autoflourescência de fundo de olho e eletrorretinograma de campo total. Houve correlação entre os achados morfológicos e funcionais evidenciados por alterações fundoscópicas típicas da distrofia retiniana no domínio espectral-OCT e análises eletrofisiológicas. As características foveais incluem uma única camada de fotorreceptores indiferenciados com desorganização retiniana principalmente nos segmentos externos, de acordo com relatos prévios da literatura. A autofluorescência de fundo mostrou áreas de hiperautofluorescência, sugerindo, respectivamente, envolvimento e atrofia das células do epitélio pigmentar da retina na região macular. Análises eletrorretinográficas mostram disfunção precoce de cones, seguida de rápida deteriorização da haste.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Adult , Retinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Alstrom Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Diseases/physiopathology , Visual Acuity , Family Health , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Electroretinography , Alstrom Syndrome/physiopathology , Optical Imaging , Cone Dystrophy/diagnostic imaging
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 81(5): 408-413, Sept.-Oct. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950489

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the safety of single intravitreal injection of each of two concentrations of 0.1 ml of sunitinib (1 and 10 mg/ml), 0.1 ml of a drug-free dispersion containing solid lipid nanoparticles, and 0.1 ml of a drug-free dispersion containing polymeric nanocapsules for analyzing the possible toxic effects using electrophysiology and histology in albino rabbit retina. Methods: We conducted an experimental controlled study of 20 eyes of albino rabbits. Intravitreal injections of each specific agent were applied to one eye per rabbit in each 5-rabbit group, while the contralateral eyes received no treatment and were used as controls. Results: We noted no electroretinographic changes in the sunitinib (1 and 10 mg/ml) or in solid lipid nanoparticles groups. However, we observed significant abnormalities in ocular morphology and in the electroretinogram in the nanocapsules group. At the histological level, only the nanocapsules group demonstrated abnormal changes, including severe edema and cytoplasmic vacuole formation. Conclusions: While nanocapsules intravitreal injections indicated retinal toxic effects, sunitinib and solid lipid nanoparticles intravitreal injections were not toxic to the retina. Our results suggest that a sunitinib preparation with solid lipid nanoparticles for controlled release may offer a significant therapeutic approach for vasoproliferative ocular disease.


RESUMO Objetivos: O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a segurança da injeção intravítrea de 0,1 ml de sunitinibe em duas concentrações (1 mg/ml e 10 mg/ml), 0,1 ml de dispersão contendo nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas sem droga e 0,1 ml de dispersão contendo nanocápsulas poliméricas livre de drogas analisando os possíveis efeitos tóxicos à retina de coelhos albinos detectados pela eletrofisiologia e histologia por microscopia óptica. Métodos: Um estudo controlado experimental foi rea­lizado com 20 olhos de coelhos albinos. Foram realizadas injeções intravítrea de duas concentrações diferentes de suniti­nibe, uma dispersão contendo nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas e uma dispersão contendo nanocápsulas. O olho contralateral não recebeu tratamento e foi utilizado como controle. Resultados: Não foram observadas alterações eletrorretinográficas nos grupos do sunitinibe (1 mg/ml e 10 mg/ml) e no grupo das nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas. No grupo das nanocápsulas, houve alterações significativas tanto na morfologia, quanto na amplitude e tempo das ondas do eletrorretinograma. Ao estudo histológico, somente o grupo das nanocápsulas apresentou al­terações degenerativas (núcleos tumefeitos) com acentuado edema e formação de vacúolos citoplasmáticos, sugerindo toxidade retiniana. Conclusões: As injeções intravítreas de sunitinibe e nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas não foram tóxicas para a retina. No entanto, nanocápsulas mostraram ser tóxicas para a retina. Sendo assim, a possibilidade de poder combinar o potencial de uma droga que possui a capacidade de inibir duas importantes vias da angiogênese, às vantagens de liberação controlada das nanopartículas lipídicas sólidas, pode ser um importante recurso terapêutico para doenças vasoproliferativas oculares.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Retina/drug effects , Vitreous Body/drug effects , Intravitreal Injections , Sunitinib/pharmacology , Electroretinography , Nanocapsules , Nanoparticles
9.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(4): 211-213, jul.-ago. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-959093

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Incontinência pigmentar, também conhecida como síndrome de Bloch-Sulzberger, é uma doença rara de herança dominante ligada ao X cujas manifestações clínicas incluem lesões dermatológicas típicas combinadas com acometimento neurológico, oftalmológico e dentário. Alterações oculares são comuns e variadas, sendo o acometimento da retina o mais frequente e associado a perda visual severa. Foi relatado um caso de uma criança com perda visual grave decorrente de glaucoma, sem alteração retiniana significativa.


ABSTRACT Incontinentia pigmenti, also known as Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome, is a rare dominant X-linked inheritance disease whose clinical manifestations include typical dermatological lesions combined with neurological, ophthalmic and dental involvement. Ocular involvment is common and diverse and retinal changes are the most frequent and associated with serious visual loss. We reported a case of a child with severe visual loss due to glaucoma, with no significant retinal changes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Incontinentia Pigmenti/complications , Glaucoma/etiology , Ophthalmic Solutions , Atrophy , Incontinentia Pigmenti/genetics , Case Reports , Trabeculectomy , Visual Acuity , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma/therapy , Administration, Oral , Mitomycin/administration & dosage , Electroretinography , Retinal Pigment Epithelium/pathology , Bimatoprost/administration & dosage , Gonioscopy , Intraocular Pressure , Acetazolamide/administration & dosage
10.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 77(2): 102-104, mar.-abr. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899121

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the following work is to document the phenotypic expression variability in Best Disease in first-degree relatives. The information was collected by assessing medical notes, interviewing the patient and obtaining photographic record of the diagnostic methods to which the patient was submitted. Data was analyzed along with a thorough review of the literature. A series of cases were reported in which the patient presenting the phenotypic characteristics of the disease has first degree relatives without ophthalmic findings during examination, but present an abnormal pattern on the electro-oculogram (EOG). Our article reveals the importance of electrophysiological exams in the diagnosis of Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, including the prevention of its clinical manifestation (autosomal dominant), providing concrete subsidies for genetic counseling.


Resumo O objetivo do presente trabalho é a documentação da variabilidade de expressão fenotípica da Doença de Best em parentes de primeiro grau. As informações foram obtidas por meio de revisão do prontuário, entrevista com o paciente e registro fotográfico dos métodos diagnósticos aos quais os pacientes foram submetidos. Dados foram analisados junto a uma extensa revisão da literatura. Relatamos uma série de casos, no qual o paciente que apresenta as alterações fenotípicas da doença tem familiares de primeiro grau sem alterações ao exame oftalmológico, porém os mesmos apresentam padrão anormal de eletro-oculograma (EOG). O nosso artigo revela a importância dos exames eletrofisiológicos no diagnóstico da distrofia macular viteliforme de Best, inclusive no que se refere à prevenção de sua manifestação clínica (autossômica dominante), fornecendo subsídios concretos para o aconselhamento genético.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy/diagnosis , Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy/genetics , Phenotype , Fluorescein Angiography , Medical Records , Interview , Chloride Channels , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Electrooculography , Electrophysiology , Electroretinography , Photograph , Bestrophins , Genes, Recessive , Mutation/genetics
11.
Journal of Sleep Medicine ; : 31-34, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766218

ABSTRACT

Although it is well known that sleep disturbances can be developed in complete blindness, normally entrained circadian rhythm was observed in the majority of patients with partial blindness. Here, we describe a case with circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder in partial loss of light perception. A 58-year-old man presented with difficulty in sleep initiation and excessive daytime sleepiness after retinal surgery. The electroretinography revealed partial impairment of light perception in the right side and preserved light perception in the left side. He was diagnosed as circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder due to impaired light perception. While taking 2 mg of melatonin regularly at 9 every night, his sleep cycle and difficulty in sleep initiation were gradually improved and became fully normalized after 2 weeks. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder could be developed even in partial blindness. Melatonin supplements could effectively improve the circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder in partial blindness, like as in complete blindness.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Blindness , Circadian Rhythm , Electroretinography , Melatonin , Retinaldehyde
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(5): 1505-1513, set.-out. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-947128

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to establish normal baseline ERG values of 23 anesthetized deer belonging to 8 neotropical species (Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Mazama gouazoubira, Mazama nana, Mazama bororo, Ozotocerus bezoarticus, Odocoileus virginianus and Blastocerus dichotomus). Only right eyes were studied. Chemical restraint was performed using xylazine associated with ketamine, IM, for M. americana, M. gouazoubira, M. nemorivaga, M. nana, M. bororo, O. bezoarticus and O. virginianus. A combination of tiletamine/zolazepam diluted in xylazine 2% was used for B. dichotomus individuals. After 20min of dark adaptation, electroretinograms were obtained using a handheld electroretinography (ERG) machine using the QuickRetCheck Protocol at three different light intensities: 0.01cd.s/m2, 3cd.s/m2, and 10cd.s/m2. After light adaptation, photopic phase was recorded. A-wave amplitude recorded during pattern mixed rod/cone response in M. americana was significantly lower when compared to B. dichotomus. No other differences were observed between the species studied. ERG in Neotropical deer is applicable using a portable ERG system and did not show differences among species in relation to the retinal response at different light intensities. Therefore, the lifestyle of the species is more dictated by the selection pressure of the environment than by physiological factors.(AU)


Objetivou-se estabelecer valores de referência para eletrorretinografia (ERG) de 23 cervídeos anestesiados, de oito espécies neotropicais (Mazama americana, Mazama nemorivaga, Mazama gouazoubira, Mazama nana, Mazama bororo, Ozotocerus bezoarticus, Odocoileus virginianus e Blastocerus dichotomus). Somente os olhos direitos foram estudados. A contenção química foi realizada com cetamina/xilazina, IM, nas seguintes espécies: M. americana, M. gouazoubira, M. nemorivaga, M. nana, M. bororo, O. bezoarticus e O. virginianus. Para o B. dichotomus, foi utilizada a associação de tiletamina/zolazepam e xilazina. Após 20 minutos de adaptação ao escuro, os eletrorretinogramas foram obtidos com aparelho portátil de ERG, utilizando-se o protocolo "QuickRet Check", em três intensidades de luz: 0.01cd.s/m2, 3cd.s/m2 e 10cd.s/m2. Após adaptação à luz, realizou-se a fase fotóptica. Os valores para amplitude da onda A durante a resposta padrão mista de cones/bastonetes em M. americana foram significativamente menores quando comparados aos do B. dichotomus. Não foram observadas outras diferenças entre as espécies. A realização de ERG em cervídeos neotropicais é aplicável utilizando-se aparelho portátil e não demonstrou diferenças quanto à resposta retiniana a diferentes intensidades de luz. Dessa forma, o estilo de vida das espécies é ditado mais pela pressão de seleção do ambiente do que por fatores fisiológicos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Antelopes/classification , Electroretinography/methods , Animals, Wild
13.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 210-216, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714907

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of various electroretinography (ERG) to the diagnosis of inner retinal dysfunction induced by mild intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in a rat glaucoma model. For inner retinal function measurements, available photopic ERG protocols were applied under various light conditions including monochromatic combinations, which complement conventional scotopic ERG. Three episcleral veins in the right eyes of Sprague-Dawley rats were cauterized to induce an experimental model of glaucoma, leading to mild IOP elevation. ERG responses were measured before surgery and at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after cauterization. We first confirmed that the amplitude reduction in the standard photopic b-wave was almost comparable to the amplitudes of scotopic a- and b-waves in glaucomatous eyes over time. We have implemented additional photopic ERG protocols under different stimulus conditions, which consisted of a longer duration and different monochromatic combinations. Such a change in the stimulations resulted in more pronounced differences in response between the two groups. Especially in normal animals, blue stimulation on a green background produced the largest b-wave and photopic negative response (PhNR) amplitudes and caused more pronounced oscillatory potential (OP) wavelets (individual components). In glaucomatous eyes, blue stimulation on a green background significantly reduced PhNR amplitudes and abolished the robust OP components. These results, by providing the usefulness of blue on green combination, suggest the applicable photopic ERG protocol that complements the conventional ERG methods of accessing the progression of glaucomatous damage in the rat retina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Cautery , Complement System Proteins , Diagnosis , Electroretinography , Glaucoma , Intraocular Pressure , Models, Theoretical , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Retina , Retinaldehyde , Veins
14.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 16-27, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739524

ABSTRACT

The retinal degeneration resulting from elevated intraocular pressure was evaluated through functional and morphological analyses, for better understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Ocular hypertension was induced via unilateral episcleral venous cauterization in rats. Experimental time was set at 1 and 3 days, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-operation. Retinal function was analyzed using electroretinography. For morphological analysis, retinal tissues were processed for immunochemistry by using antibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor and calcium-binding proteins. Apoptosis was analyzed using the TUNEL method and electron microscopy. Amplitudes of a- and b-wave in scotopic and photopic responses were found to be reduced in all glaucomatous retinas. Photopic negative response for ganglion cell function significantly reduced from 1-day and more significantly reduced in 2-week glaucoma. Calcium-sensing receptor immunoreactivity in ganglion cells remarkably reduced at 8 weeks; conversely, protein amounts increased significantly. Calcium-binding proteins immunoreactivity in amacrine cells clearly reduced at 8 weeks, despite of uneven changes in protein amounts. Apoptosis appeared in both photoreceptors and ganglion cells in 8-week glaucomatous retina. Apoptotic feature of photoreceptors was typical, whereas that of ganglion cells was necrotic in nature. These findings suggest that elevated intraocular pressure affects the sensitivity of photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells, and leads to apoptotic death. The calcium-sensing receptor may be a useful detector for alteration of extracellular calcium levels surrounding the ganglion cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Amacrine Cells , Antibodies , Apoptosis , Calcium , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Cautery , Electroretinography , Ganglion Cysts , Glaucoma , Immunochemistry , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Intraocular Pressure , Methods , Microscopy, Electron , Ocular Hypertension , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing , Retina , Retinal Degeneration , Retinal Ganglion Cells , Retinaldehyde
15.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 11(1): 20-27, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic vascular complications are associated with elevated concentrations of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). These substances can be originated endogenously by hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress, but also by dietary intake. There is indirect evidence suggesting that these complications can be prevented by lowering AGEs levels by dietary or pharmacological interventions, however its clinical benefits are still not clear enough because this would require long periods of treatment. Specific neuro-ophthalmologic tests like Multifocal Electroretinogram (MFERG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) can detect retinal and myelinic nerve early changes, and thus could represent good methods to study the results of certain interventions in shorter lapses. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the effects of a pharmacological intervention designed to lower AGEs levels, on these variables. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 7 patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2), with more than 5 and less than 10 years of disease, without clinically evident micro and macrovascular disease, without renal failure, hypothyroidism nor vitamin B12 deficiency, whose AGEs dietary intake was moderately elevated or high (according to dietary recalls). Upon admission, a clinical evaluation, urine and blood samples were obtained for routine labs, plus ultrasensitive C Reactive Protein (usCRP) as an inflammatory marker, and carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) as representative of AGEs. Then a complete ophthalmologic evaluation was performed, including fundus, MFERG and VEP. After the initial evaluation, placebo capsules were prescribed (12 daily capsules, 4 with each main meal) during 3 months, repeating the same initial evaluation at completion of this period. Then the active treatment followed, with capsules containing cholestyramine (4 capsules containing 500 mg each, totaling 6 g per day). Patients were cited each month, to register adverse events and repeating the same evaluation after this second 3 months period. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 2 male patients, mean age was 55.1 ± 3.8 years, and diabetes was managed with metformin plus other oral agents or o insulin (4 cases). In addition, 4 patients received lipid lowering and 4 antihypertensive drugs. Metabolic control and lipid levels were variable (ranges of HbA1c 6.2-8.4%, LDL cholesterol 45-141 mg/dL, triglycerides 70-220 mg/dL). AGEs levels represented by CML were highly variable (median 31.7, range min-max 3.4-58.9 ug/uL). Basal usCRP was also variable (median 405.9, range min-max 265.6-490.7 mg/L). The treatment was well tolerated, except for mild constipation associated with cholestiramine intake. No significant changes in electroretinography or evoked potentials were observed when comparing the initial placebo period with cholestyramine treatment. A significant increase in triglyceride levels and decrease of vitamin D levels after cholestyramine treatment was observed. No changes were detected in serum concentrations of CML, usCRP or glycemic control, after treatment. The latter variables were not correlated with neurophthalmologic studies. DISCUSSION: In this preliminary study we did not observe changes in MFERG nor VEP after 6 g/day cholestyramine treatment, which did not induce lowering of CML levels. This could be attributed to the many limitations of a pilot study, such as a small sample size, short duration of treatment, reduced doses. However this design allowed to evaluate the patients´ tolerance to the drug and rule out adverse effects, in order to plan further studies using the necessary doses to obtain lowering of AGEs


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Retina , Cholestyramine Resin/administration & dosage , Glycation End Products, Advanced/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Electroretinography , Pilot Projects , Glycation End Products, Advanced/blood , Evoked Potentials, Visual , Lysine/analogs & derivatives , Lysine/drug effects , Lysine/blood
16.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(6): 603-611, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896636

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective : to determine the functional and morphological effects at rabbits retina of PS80 concentration used in the preparation of intravitreal drugs. Methods: eleven New Zealand rabbits received a intravitreal injection of 0.1ml of PS80. As control, the contralateral eye of each rabbit received the same volume of saline. Electroretinography was performed according to a modified protocol, as well as biomicroscopy and retina mapping before injection and seven and ten days after. Animals were euthanized in the 30th day and the retinas were analyzed by light microscopy. Results: eyes injected with PS80 did not present clinical signs of intraocular inflammation. Electroretinography did not show any alteration of extent and implicit time of a and b waves at scotopic and photopic conditions. There were no morphological alterations of retinas at light microscopy. Conclusion: intravitreal injection of PS80 in the used concentration for intravitreal drug preparations do not cause any functional or morphological alterations of rabbit retinas. These results suggest that PS80 is not toxic to rabbit retinas and may be safely used in the preparation of new lipophilic drugs for intravitreal injection.


RESUMO Objetivo: determinar os efeitos funcionais e morfológicos na retina de coelhos da concentração de PS80 utilizada na preparação de drogas intravítreas. Métodos: onze coelhos New Zealand receberam injeção intravítrea de 0,1ml de PS80. Como controle, o olho contralateral de cada coelho recebeu o mesmo volume de soro fisiológico. Foram realizados eletrorretinogramas de acordo com o protocolo modificado, biomicroscopia e mapeamento de retina antes da injeção, sete e dez dias depois. Os animais foram sacrificados no 30o dia e as retinas analisadas por microscopia de luz. Resultados: os olhos injetados com PS80 não apresentaram sinais clínicos de inflamação intraocular. O eletrorretinograma não apresentou alteração de amplitude e tempo implícito das ondas a e b nas condições escotópica e fotópica. Não houve alteração morfológica da retina na microscopia de luz. Conclusão: a injeção intravítrea de PS80 na concentração utilizada na preparação de drogas intravítreas não causa alterações funcionais e morfológicas na retina de coelhos. Esses resultados sugerem que o PS80 não é tóxico para a retina de coelhos e pode ser usado com segurança na preparação de novas drogas lipofílicas para injeção intravítrea.


Subject(s)
Animals , Polysorbates/administration & dosage , Retina/anatomy & histology , Retina/physiology , Rabbits , Retina/drug effects , Electroretinography , Intravitreal Injections
17.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(5): 321-323, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888138

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This report presents multimodal imaging of a 27-year-old woman diagnosed with benign familial fleck retina (OMIM 228980), an uncommon disorder. Fundus photographs revealed retinal flecks that affected her post-equatorial retina but spared the macular area. Fundus autofluorescence and infrared imaging demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of yellow-white fleck lesions that affected both eyes. Her full-field electroretinogram and electrooculogram were normal. An optical coherence tomography B-scan was performed for both eyes, revealing increased thickness of the retinal pigmented epithelium leading to multiple small pigmented epithelium detachments. The outer retina remained intact in both eyes. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography with split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm and 3 × 3 mm structural en face optical coherence tomography did not show macular lesions. Benign familial fleck retina belongs to a heterogenous group of so-called flecked retina syndromes, and should be considered in patients with yellowish-white retinal lesions without involvement of the macula.


RESUMO O objetivo do presente relato é demonstrar um estudo multimodal de um paciente com diagnóstico de Benign Familial Fleck Retina (BFFR) (OMIM 228980), uma alteração retinana muito rara. Retinografia colorida demonstrou "flecks" na retina posterior ao equador, poupando mácula. Tanto autofluorescência quando imagem "infrared," nota-se padrão simétrico de lesões amareladas em ambos os olhos. Eletrorretinograma padrão de campo total e EOG não evidenciaram alterações. SD OCT B-scan demostrou pequenos e múltiplos descolamentos do epitélio pigmentado (EPR), com retina externa intacta em ambos os olhos. Angiografia por OCT com "split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation algorithm" e "structural" "en face" OCT 3 x 3 mm não apontaram anormalidades na mácula. BFFR pertence ao heterogêneo grupo chamado "flecked retina syndromes," devendo ser considerada em pacientes com flecks retinianos poupando mácula.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Retina/pathology , Retina/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Eye Diseases, Hereditary/pathology , Eye Diseases, Hereditary/diagnostic imaging , Retinal Diseases/pathology , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Electroretinography/methods
18.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 80(4): 215-219, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888130

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the clinical features, visual acuity, and full-field electroretinogram (ERG) findings of 15 patients with the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) phenotype and to establish the role of ERG testing in NCL diagnosis. Methods: The medical records of five patients with infantile NCL, five with Jansky-Bielschowsky disease, and five with juvenile NCL who underwent full-field ERG testing were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Progressive vision loss was the initial symptom in 66.7% of patients and was isolated or associated with ataxia, epilepsy, and neurodevelopmental involution. Epilepsy was present in 93.3% of patients, of whom 86.6% presented with neurodevelopmental involution. Fundus findings ranged from normal to pigmentary/atrophic abnormalities. Cone-rod, rod-cone, and both types of dysfunction were observed in six, one, and eight patients, respectively. Conclusion: In our study, all patients with the NCL phenotype had abnormal ERG findings, and the majority exhibited both cone-rod and rod-cone dysfunction. We conclude that ERG is a valuable tool for the characterization of visual dysfunction in patients with the NCL phenotype and is useful for diagnosis.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar o quadro clínico, a acuidade visual e o eletrorretinograma de campo total (ERG) de 15 pacientes com o fenótipo da lipofuscinose ceróide neuronal (LCN), estabelecendo o papel do eletrorretinograma no seu diagnóstico. Métodos: Eletrorretinograma foi realizado em 5 pacientes com lipofuscinose ceróide neuronal infantil, 5 com doença de Jansky-Bielschowsky e 5 com lipofuscinose ceróide neuronal juvenil sendo feita uma análise retrospectiva dos registros médicos. Resultados: A perda progressiva da acuidade visual foi o sintoma inicial em 66,7%; isolada ou associada à ataxia, epilepsia e involução do desenvolvimento neuropsico motor. Epilepsia foi o sintoma inicial em 93,3% e 86,6% apresentaram involução do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Achados fundoscópicos variaram de normal a alterações pigmentares/atróficas. Disfunção de cone-bastonete foi constatada em 6 pacientes, bastonete-cone em 1 e em 8 pacientes observou-se disfunção proporcional de ambos os sistemas. Conclusão: O eletrorretinograma foi alterado em todos os pacientes, e o achado mais frequente foi o comprometimento de cones e bastonetes. O eletrorretinograma constitui, portanto, uma ferramenta valiosa para caracterizar a disfunção visual em pacientes com o fenótipo da lipofuscinose ceróide neuronal, contribuindo para seu diagnóstico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Retina/physiopathology , Visual Acuity/physiology , Electroretinography/methods , Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses/physiopathology , Phenotype , Retrospective Studies , Fundus Oculi , Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses/diagnosis , Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses/genetics
19.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(2): 94-97, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899050

ABSTRACT

Resumo A maculopatia viteliforme polimorfa exsudativa aguda é um distúrbio retiniano extremamente raro, que tem sido considerado como uma forma de retinopatia paraneoplásica, encontrada em pacientes com um tumor primário subjacente. Os sintomas de maculopatia viteliforme polimorfa exsudativa aguda incluem dor de cabeça precedente seguida de perda aguda da visão. O fundo de olho de um paciente com essa condição demonstra geralmente depósitos bilaterais, branco-amarelados na região macular. O relato de uma doença rara e que tem uma forte associação com neoplasia oculta é de extrema relevância, pois ajuda a conhecer melhor a sua historia natural, possíveis complicações e prognóstico.


Abstract Acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy is an extremely rare retinal disorder, that has been considered as a form of paraneoplasic retinopathy, found in patients with a underlying primary tumor. Symptoms of acute exudative polymorphous vitelliform maculopathy include preceding headache followed by acute onset of vision loss. The fundus of a patient with this condition typically demonstrates bilateral, subretinal white-yellow deposits in the macular region. The report of a rare disease which has a strong association with underlying neoplasia is extremely relevant whereas it helps better comprehend its genuine history, possible complicacy and prognosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Retinal Detachment/diagnosis , Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy/diagnosis , Macula Lutea/pathology , Vitrectomy/methods , Retinal Detachment/surgery , Fluorescein Angiography , Visual Acuity , Acute Disease , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Electroretinography , Exudates and Transudates , Optical Imaging , Fundus Oculi
20.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 76(2): 98-100, Mar.-Apr. 2017. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-899048

ABSTRACT

Resumo O Lúpus Eritematoso sistêmico (LES) é uma doença autoimune que pode afetar o olho de diversas formas. A coroidopatia lúpica é rara e apresenta-se com descolamento seroso de retina, descolamento do epitélio pigmentar da retina (EPR) e epiteliopatia pigmentar. A maioria dos casos está associada à atividade sistêmica da doença, podendo ser considerada um fator de gravidade e necessidade de imunossupressão intensa. Geralmente apresenta bom prognóstico visual com o tratamento adequado do LES, apesar de alguns casos evoluírem com danos irreversíveis na retina externa e EPR. Descrevemos um caso de coroidopatia secundaria ao LES com atividade multisistêmica com boa evolução após tratamento clínico com imunossupressão sistêmica.


Abstract Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease in which can affect the eye in different ways. Lupus choroidopathy is rare and include retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) detachment and/or serous retinal detachment and pigment epitheliopathy. Most cases are associated with systemic disease activity and can be considered a factor of gravity and need for intense immunosuppression. Usually has good visual prognosis with proper treatment of SLE, although some cases may have irreversible damage to the outer retina and RPE. We describe a case of choroidopathy secondary to SLE during its multisystem activity with good clinical outcome after treatment with systemic immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Retinal Detachment/etiology , Retinal Detachment/therapy , Retinal Detachment/diagnostic imaging , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Azathioprine/therapeutic use , Fluorescein Angiography , Visual Acuity , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Electroretinography
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL